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Old September 24th, 2013, 03:35 PM   #1
Spahbod_e_Iran
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History of Iran

درود بر همه،
برخی از این عکس ها رو از بازی خودم گرفتم
Sassanid Cataphract:


Persian Kardakes:


heavy kardakes:


Persian Immortal:


Elite Persian Immortal:


Parthian horse archer:


Armoured horse archer


noble horse archer:


Parthian Royal Cataphract:


Parthian spearman:


Median javelinman:


Persian cavalry:


Parthian cavalry


Persian sparabara:


hilman


ادامه دارد...
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Old September 25th, 2013, 07:23 AM   #2
Apadana1
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History of Iran

Overview:



Peoples:


Mede:

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Persian man:

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Persian woman:





Cappadocian – Persian word for the former kindom of Hatti



Sagartians - There are no people called Sagartians in Darius's list. Herodotus is not much help, he says - The Sagartians, Sarangians, Thamanaeans, Utians, and Mycians, together with the inhabitants of the islands in the Erythraean sea (the Red Sea), where the king sends those whom he banishes, furnished altogether a tribute of six hundred talents. This was the fourteenth satrapy. Herodotus goes on to say - the wandering tribe known by the name of Sagartians - a people Persian in language, and in dress half Persian, half Pactyan, who furnished to the army as many as eight thousand horse.



Egypt – Those who are beside the Sea (normally titled Ethiopians). It is commonly assumed that this is the depiction of those people - perhaps correctly. Since no Sea is specified, it could be North Africa (the Mediterranean Sea), Eastern Africa (the Red Sea), Canaan (the eastern end of the Mediterranean), or even the Colchis who inhabited the eastern end of the (Black Sea), south of the Caucasus Mountains. Of course this all assumes that the translation is correct, and that the word "Egypt" is part of the “Those who are beside the Sea” sentence.



Aria – An area of west central Afghanistan



Drangiana – A persian people – Area comprised part of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Eastern Iran.



Bactria - A country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya; its capital Bactra was located in what is now Afghanistan.



Sogdia - Is north of Bactria



Gandhara - Northern Pakistan, parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir and Eastern Afghanistan.



Scythia - An area in Eurasia whose location and extent varied over time. Scythians at various times inhabited: the Caucasus area, including Azerbaijan, Georgia - The central Asian steppes: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan.



Arachosia - Southern part of Afghanistan and parts of Pakistan and India.



Maka or Saka - People of Arian stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. Saka is the usual Persian term, while Scythian is a Greek term.



There are no people called Cilicians in Darius's list. Cilicia was an area of south-central Anatolia (Turkey), and was part of the Persian Empire.





SKudrians - There are no people called SKudrians in Darius's list. however there are Chorasmians – An area in modern Uzbekistan. The headgear suggests it might be a match.

There are no people called Libyans in Darius's list and this man does not look like a Berber. However Sattagydia (north-west Pakistan, the eastern side of Arachosia), is listed. By appearance this man matches the Arabs and the ancients of Pakistan and India. This is what Herodotus has to say about them..

The Eastern Ethiopians (Dravidians) - for two nations of this name served in the army - were marshaled with the Indians. They differed in nothing from the other Ethiopians, save in their language, and the character of their hair. For the Eastern Ethiopians have straight hair, while they of Libya are more woolly-haired than any other people in the world.

Ethiopians – Greek word meaning: “burnt face” their term for all Blacks, usually denoting blacks not of Egypt. The Greeks were too awed by Egyptians to use that term for them.

Libyans – Greek term usually denoting all of Africa except Egypt.



.







Syrians:



Armenians:



Greeks:



Lydians (Western Anatolia):

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Old October 1st, 2013, 08:04 AM   #3
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Their hair is weird, too curly, they look like aliens.
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Old October 31st, 2013, 07:45 PM   #4
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History of Iran

In the name of god


Persia was a power house of academic knowledge in ancient times. They were leaders in astronomy, medicine, mathematics, literature and philosophy. Throughout the millenniums of invasions and conquests, Persians have been tough enough to live through it and repel the invaders. Even during Middle Ages Persia produced the best scholars in the world in all fields of science. One of them was Avicenna and his “Canon of Medicine” was the leading textbook in medical science in the world and is very much respected even until modern times, he is still considered by many to be the “Father of Modern Medicine”.

This sections contains a summarized historical timeline: A journey through time: 7000 B.C.E. to Present day.


7000 B.C.E. - The Agricultural Revolution made permanent settlements possible and the creation of complex civilizations started. Monumental architecture and more elaborate forms of artistic representation reflect an increasingly differentiated social hierarchy. Forms of administration and recording are developed as cities emerge across the region. The Persian plateau became the cradle of one of the oldest civilizations and Kingdoms in history. In Iran today, there are 1.2 million historical sites, discovered so far, with some 70,000 historical moulds. Our undocumented history goes way back to 9000 B.C.E, buried deep in what is now southwestern Iran.



6000 B.C.E. - The ancient “Shoosh Civilization” or in English Susiana Civilization were among the first civilizations to emerge over 8000 years ago in today’s Khoozestan (southwestern Iran).


So far this has been reported as the oldest civilization which have ever existed on Earth. By civilization, we mean civilized city government, city state or Kingdom and an advanced state of development in human society. Susians were one of the local Iranian races, before the coming of Aryans into Persia. They were an a non-Semitic Hemitic people (one of the main divisions of the Caucasic family) who had migrated to the Persian plateau in prehistoric times. The location of Susa and its closeness to Mesopotamia was the main reason why these civilizations influenced each other in terms of art and monuments despite their racial differences.



5500 B.C.E. - History of Wine: Wine-making began 2,000 years earlier than previously thought thanks to recent archeological discoveries and evidence. Wine has a complex and detailed history from its development to the spread of wine production methods throughout the world. The earliest and oldest archaeological finding of wine-making & production comes from an area in Persia called Hajji Firuz Tepe (A Neolithic village site in northern Iran). Here, archeologists discovered the first wine press along with an amphora (a large vase with a narrow neck used primarily to store wine and olive oil) that was layered with the residue of tannin and tartrate crystals, both of which are found in wine. Carbon dating estimates that these artifacts are over 7000 years old.. The Iranians exported/traded wine as far as southern Europe, Egypt, India and China.



4200 B.C.E. - The magnificent historical city of Susa, (near Kashan) was built in south-western Persia and marked the progress in complex political and social institutions.



The ancient capital city of Susa is mentioned in the Old Testament as the place where prophet Daniel lived.

Tomb of Daniel in Susa

The Iranian governor before this period was a subject ruler under Babylon, then he became an independent King (Shah of Susa). Before this period (5000 B.C.E. to 4200 B.C.E.), there were Governors ruling Susiana, not Kings. Some Governors were subject rulers, some autonomous, and some independent. After this date, Susa became an independent kingdom and a major power in the region. During this era the number of settled communities increased, particularly in the eastern Zagros mountains.


3200 B.C.E. - The first United Kingdom: Several different fragmented small kingdoms were united and created the Elamite Nation (A first dynasty) in the Persian Plateau and began to receive influence from the cultures of the region
This impressive dynasty lasted for over two millenniums.



Susa played a vital role in the development and expansion of the Elamite cultural sphere, and the threat of Assyrian attacks prompted the construction of a large 6 meter thick rammed earth wall about the city.


The increasing frequencies in foreign invasions led to a need for centralization and organized defenses. Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. The Elamites were non-Semitic Alpine people who had migrated to the Persian plateau in prehistoric times and Susa became their primary capital of the kingdom. The Elamite language is regarded by the vast majority of linguists as a language isolate and has no close relation to the neighbouring Semitic languages or to Sumerian.


2500 B.C.E. - The first small wave of Arian migration (Indo-Aryan) to Persia and the beginning of the distinction between Indo-European tribes. The time period for the second Mass Aryan migration wave is assigned to roughly 2000-1000 B.C.E. The Aryans gave Persia its historical name: Airyana, “The land of the Aryans” from which the name “Iran/Aryan” comes. Arian Tribes who emigrated to the west became the ancestors of Greeks and people who chose east as their destination came to be known as Indo-Iranians. Aryan (Arian) means “noble” or “honorable”. It is widely held to have been used as an ethnic self-designation of the Iranians. When the Arians finally took over most of the Persian plateau they started organizing their domains. Small cities, headed by local mayors, and each independent of each other with almost no unity. This method soon proved useless, especially under the constant attack of new masters of Mesopotamia, Assyrians. Slowly, the Iranian tribes re-organized themselves into united kingdoms.

Indo-Europeans went west, Indo-Iranians went East where they split into Iranian tribes: (Persians, Medes, Parthians, Scythians etc.)


2300 B.C.E. - Susa city-state falls under the rule of the Mesopotamian kings of Akkad and, later, the Third Dynasty of “Ur”. At the end of this period, the Elamites invaded southern Mesopotamia, destroying the city of “Ur” as a revenge for the previous Babylonian invasions and marked the beginning of a new era of rising Elamite power within the region. Elamites interfered in Mesopotamian affairs, usually in alliance with Babylon, against the constant pressure of Neo-Assyrian expansion.




The Religion of Zoroastrianism


Zoroastrianism (Good Conscience) was the first Equal, Universal and Monotheist Religion in History and the root of much of Jewish, Christian and Islamic doctrine and belief. Zoroastrianism is the oldest of the revealed world-religions, and it has probably had more influence on mankind, directly and indirectly, than any other single faith. Over the millennia, the words and compositions of its founder “Asho Zarathushtra” were almost lost due to passage of time and accidents of history, as libraries and books were burned again and again by invaders (Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, Ottomans etc.) and its wise men were either killed, enslaved, deported or went into hiding and the Persians were brutally forced to change their religion and customs by the edge of the enemy sword. However, thanks to the remaining Zoroastrian communities in Iran & India and the long, arduous and painstaking work of literally thousands of international scholars in the last decades, the original message of Zoroastrianism has surfaced once again, revealing it as ever-relevant, unique and inspiring. While Zoroastrianism once was the most powerful religion in the world for over a millenia and the official religion of the Persian Empire, the number of adherents has today dwindled to not more than a few million Zoroastrians worldwide.

It is important to note that Zoroastrianism is not an oriental mystic sect or cult, but a Universal World Religion for all Mankind and the greatest outpouring of love the human race has ever seen.

“Zarathushtra gave to the world pure Monotheism & Equalism 3751 years ago...”


Introduction: This section is dedicated to the divine message revealed by “Asho Zarathushtra” who was known to the ancient World as “Zoroaster”. On vernal equinox of the 1737 B.C.E. (3751 years ago) Zarathushtra gave to the world pure Monotheism and preached that there is only One God whom he referred to as the “Lord of Wisdom” and the guardian of the cosmic order. Zoroastrianism introduced the concepts of: monotheism, duality of Good and Evil, mankind’s free choice between the two alternatives, messianic redemption, resurrection, final judgement, heaven (the word “Paradise” comes from Old Persian), hell and the notion of an almighty, kind, loving and forgiving God. He believed man’s salvation in life and in the afterlife could only be ensured through: “Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds”. Many of these concepts had a profound influence on Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Zarathushtra; the founder of this religion was just a simple poet way ahead of his time. He wanted to bring wisdom and justice to the barbaric world. He grew up with a love of wisdom and righteousness and as a young boy he was interested in nature and wanted to know as to how the world was created. His search for creation and the creator lead him to God with whom he communed after several years of meditation. According to the legend when he was thirty he immersed himself in water and when he emerged in a state of purity he had a vision of a shining being (Angel) who introduced herself as “Good Purpose”. Good Purpose took Zarathustra up a mountain to the light of the creator “Lord of Wisdom” (Ahura Mazda). And Zarathustra came down off the mountain with a message that he wished to preach to all humanity.


The World Today: We have forgotten Zarathushtra’s prime objectives, and we judge ourselves and others by the prestige of our jobs, the size of our bank accounts, the make of our cars, the size of our houses. In the light of all the above, we may say humanity today needs the true spirit of Zoroastrianism for revitalizing itself. There has been restlessness and violence due to loss of spiritual and ethical values. It might be said that the spiritual, philosophical ethical, rational psychological, universal and practical teachings of Zarathushtra might satisfy the spiritual yearnings of modern man and inspire us towards establishing a better world of brother/sisterhood, humanity and love. We can sum up the message of Zarathushtra: Think creatively, constructively, rationally, originally and independently with your head; love fully, universally and joyously with your heart; and live dynamically in total goodness by using your hand to serve mankind in the cause of unity and peace. Wordsworth put it well when he said:

“The world is too much with us, Late and soon, getting and spending, We lay waste our powers. Little we see in nature that is ours, We have given our hearts away...”


Zarathushtra built an observatory in Zabol, Sistan (eastern Persia) and it was inaugurated on 21st March 1725 B.C.E, the day Prince Vishtasp and his court converted and joined the Zoroastrianism Fellowship. It also provides us with the clue that the Zoroastrianism was founded by “Asho Zarathushtra” exactly twelve years earlier on vernal equinox of the 1737 B.C.E. Most scholars and historians today agree on a time-frame for Zarathushtra as early as 1700 B.C.E. judging from the Old Avestan language. Zoroaster’s birthday falls on March 26th 1767 B.C.E.. (6th of Farvardin in Persian Calendar) This date is more significant and special for the Zoroastrians. The Zoroastrian Calendar is based on his 40th Birthday, so right now, the year is 3751 Zoroastrian Holy Year.

* These dates are based on linguistic evidence and archeology and not the usual Greek anachronism which often corrupts historical fact. (Many wrongly confuse King Vishtasp who reigned during Zarathustra’s life with the father of Darius the Great, with the same name). That mistake alone is the main reason why many ancient Greek historians wrongly believed that Zarathustra lived around 258 years before the reign of the Macedonian king Alexander, when in fact Zarathustra lived over 14 centuries before him.


Persians adopted Zoroastrianism at a time when every race considered itself to be the chosen people of Gods/God, Zarathushtra did not discriminate between race, cast and creed. The Good Religion of Zoroastrianism is universal and for all the peoples of the world and it advocates preaching and propagation on sound basis of education. It was the first equal and universal missionary religion.


Equality and the Gender Balance of God: Zarathushtra seems to be the first to make one deity the only deity. By using the gender-neutral term God (Ahura+Mazda), a compound of a male and female name, Zarathushtra wished to convey both the equality of the males and females before the Creator and, also, the fact that the deity was beyond one particular sexual designation (God is, after all, beyond gender). Many scholars have translated “Ahura Mazda” as Lord of Wisdom. Ahura has been associated with existence (meaning being and life). Mazda means super-intellect and supreme wisdom. Mazda can also mean Great or Maximum Knowledge, as well as Maximum Giver.

Later self-claimed prophets and Abrahamic religions after Zoroastrianism described God in rather gender based masculine (male/father) terms: “The Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man”. The commonplace manner in which Christians address the Almighty as Father comes from Christ Himself. In fact, Jesus actually used a more intimate word, “Abba” or “Daddy”, Lord Zoroaster never did. He realized a Supreme Being, who is independent of being worshipped and obeyed and thus... “God is not about fear, guilt, torment and condemnation.” Men and women enjoy freedom as equals. People can choose Zarathushtra as their spiritual and physical leader only after understanding his divine and pure message.


Most scholars today agree that women internationally step by step became second rate citizens and lost all their power, autonomy, independence, rights and consistently assigned a passive role in the society as soon as Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and especially Islam) became widespread. The gendering of those religions is oppressively male . The creator in Genesis is presented as an Old Male Sovereign Outsider who relate to the world by way of command. It is a male story of power, a story of hierarchical command and control. Religious discrimination against women is still alive and thriving! The texts of the Torah, Bible and Quran preach discrimination against women, degradation and subjugation of women, and even violence against women! They teach that women are not only inferior, but also must obey men, because “God” tells us that men are their masters (justifying all manner of religion-justified nastiness directed against them). In other words, the texts of these so-called “holy books” systematically ensure a second-class status for women . (Mothers of Creation, who make up a little over half of the world’s population).

The Foremost: Zarathushtra is constantly referred to as “the foremost” because he is the first and foremost in giving an entirely fresh outlook to every walk of life: spiritual, mental, ethical, social, material and physical. He is foremost in every phase of life. He revolutionizes the social structure and bases it on thoughtful thoughts, words and deeds. Leaders, both spiritual and physical, are to be elected and their election is to be based on their competency and sincerity. Modern democracy has yet to catch up with what Zarathushtra advises, advocates, recommends and presents in his ever-fresh teachings. Zoroastrianism is all-embracing.

According to Zarathushtra, God conceived the idea of creating the universe and not only let it evolve into the inanimate objects such as the Sun, the Moon, the stars and the Earth but also the living species such as the plants, animals and human beings i.e. she infused life into her creations. God is not a static God who has finished her creations for she is a dynamic and progressive and a continuous creator. God is the creator of life in this universe, she is omniscient, she is super intelligent, she is the wisest and she knows everything. She has supreme wisdom and she is kind, friendly and loving. God is omnipresent for she is everywhere at the same time.

The Zoroastrian Religion pictures humanity as the growing and evolving creation of a God that respects it, and wants it to collaborate in the task of preserving, nourishing, fostering and refreshing this Living World of ours. A Zoroastrian is supposed to progress towards God by his own choices. Choosing to do good, and to avoid choosing to do wrong or evil. Zoroastrianism is thus the first truly ethical religion of mankind and teaches that mortals achieve their goal of god-likeness and spiritual completeness by fighting evil through good thoughts, words and deeds.


Zarathushtra taught that God has given every human being a Good Mind in order to help us follow this path of righteousness. The Human Mind is the best gift that God (Ahura Mazda) has bestowed upon us. With our Good Mind we can not only think but we can reason and articulate and this is what makes us so unique from all other living species on this planet. We have a mind that can help us differentiate and distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil. Good Deeds produce good rewards and Evil Deeds have bad consequences. Human beings are co-workers of God, but we are not Gods slaves. We are not forced into doing something or being someone that we don’t want to be. Zoroastrians do not believe that good things in life are detrimental to the spiritual life or that we should denigrate the material world.

Zarathushtra also taught that God regulates the universe through “Asha”, the law of precision. At the physical level Asha represents the laws in the universe. Scientists try to understand these laws, such as the laws of gravity and electric and magnetic fields. On the psychological level “Asha” is the powerful force of truth while at the spiritual level Asha is the fusion of order and truth leading us to the path of righteousness. Truth or righteousness is doing the right thing, at the right time, in the right place with the right means to achieve the right purpose. Righteousness is the universal law that stands for order, evolution, progress and projection.


God of Zarathustra: Zarathushtra’s is a message about a spirituality that progresses towards self-realization, fulfillment and completeness, as a good creation of a totally good God. It is a message of freedom - freedom to choose, freedom from fear, freedom from guilt, freedom from sin, freedom from stultifying rituals, superstitious practices, fake spirituality and ceremonials.

The Universal God of Zarathustra, is not a God of “Thou shalt” and “Thou shall not”. Zoroastrianism believes those who fear God, do not know God. God only cares how righteous, progressive and good you are.


God is not about fear, guilt and condemnation:
God is wisdom, love and logic.

God does not have favorites, nor discriminates:
God treats humans with dignity and respect

God is not a slave master or despot among serfs:
God is mans soul mate and partner.

God is not jealous, wrathful or vengeful:
Man is not sinful, fallen or depraved.

God has no opponent and heaven and hell are states of mind and being: Man was created to progress to likeness and eliminate wrong from the Cosmos in partnership with God.

There will be no Last Day of Judgment:
In Gods eyes there are no sins or sinners, so in Gods heart there is no condemnation or damnation, the Zoroastrians believe.

God has no Form: We, Zoroastrians, usually start our prayers with the words “Glory be to God”. We praise God for creating this world, for creating the Sun that gives us light and heat, for creating the air that we need to breathe, for creating the water that we need to survive and for creating the animals, birds, plants, fruits and flowers that bring us joy and happiness. We believe that God has no form, shape of color attributed to her. This is why Zoroastrians never worship idols. We do not build some shape from clay or wood or metal and call it God “Ahura Mazda” because, to us, God is ever glowing eternal light from which emanates bounty and goodness.

The energy of the creator is represented in Zoroastrianism by fire and the Sun, which are both enduring, radiant, pure and life sustaining. Zoroastrians usually pray in front of some form of fire (or any source of light). *It is important to note that fire is not worshiped by Zoroastrians, but is used simply as a point of focus (much like the “Crucifix” in Catholicism) and as a symbol of knowledge, health, light and warmth.


Zoroastrian Beliefs: A single God who is supreme. Zoroastrianism is “monotheistic”, but with a “dualistic” System: God and Satan. Only one loving God, the creator. Satan/Evil (Ahriman) is represented by the destructive principle of greed, anger, and darkness... there is a constant fight between Good and Evil. Zoroastrians did not see evil as inherent in nature or inherent in the human body. Zoroastrians were optimistic, believing that Gods triumph was assured. They believed that the birth of Zarathustra had been the beginning of a final epoch and that Gods message would be carried throughout the world, that those who followed the Devil’s lies would dwell in darkness and misery, that the final epoch would end with the pronouncement of a “Last Judgment” and the utter destruction of the Devil and all the forces of Evil.

They believed that with this ending would come a great resurrection of all good souls and that all good people (the followers of Truth) would cross the bridge into another world, free of decay, old age and death. The resulting cosmic conflict involves the entire universe, including humanity who is required to choose which to follow. Evil, and the Spirit of Evil, will be completely destroyed at the end of time. Dualism will come to an end and Goodness will be all in all. Eventually, everything will be purified. Even the occupants of hell will be released.


The struggle between right and wrong: According to Zarathustra, humans are responsible for their thoughts, and, in choosing between right and wrong, humans will become their own saviors. Zarathustra called people to a rigid discipline to support Gods goodness. And he claimed that in this struggle between right and wrong, every man, woman, child and living beings has a Guardian Angel that is under Gods leadership: an angel that helps them achieve virtue. (God created Life and the Devil created its opposite: Death).


The Holy Book: The Zorastrian Holy Book is called the Avesta and it is a compilation of all Zoroastrian prayers, which were composed over several centuries, some dating back to more than 3500 years. Avesta is a repository of oral texts, transmitted orally in fixed linguistic form until it was written down. The older part (Old Avesta) was composed between 1500-1000 B.C.E. and the later parts (Young Avesta) between 1000-500 B.C.E.

The Avesta includes the original words of their founder Zarathushtra, preserved in a series of five hymns, called the Gathas (Gatha means “Song”). The latter represent the core text of the religion. The Gathas are abstract sacred poetry, directed towards the worship of the One God, understanding of righteousness and cosmic order, promotion of social justice and individual choice between good and evil.

The Gathas have a general and even universal vision. In its most sacred prayer the Ahunavar (Choice of the Lord), Zoroastrians are taught that their Lord and leader are to be chosen, through a Good Mind - a mind that is a well-informed and benevolent - and only on account of their individual righteousness. This sets the basis for a spiritual and political democracy as far back as nearly four millennia ago.

Only an informed and unbiased mind is capable of making a truly righteous choice and this is precisely, the invitation of Zarathustra, the great Aryan teacher of righteousness, when he tells us:



“Listen to the best things with your ears, reflect upon them with an unbiased mind. Then let each man and woman for him or her self choose between the two ways thinking. Awaken to my doctrine, before this great event of choice comes upon you”

Choice:

As human beings we are given the right to choose. However, because of the law of cause and effect, we are also responsible for our choices, and must face their consequences.

Purpose in Life:

To be among those who renew the world… to make the world progress towards perfection.

Happiness:

Happiness is a byproduct of a way of living. And happiness is for those who work for the happiness of others.

Dualism:

having given us the ability to choose, God leaves us alone and allows us to make our choices. And if we choose good, we will bring about good, and if we choose evil, we will cause evil. This is how the moral universe operates.

Heaven and Hell:

According to Zarathushtra after we leave this life, our essence leaves the body, and depending on the choices that it has made, either it will go to the House of Songs or Realm of light (if she has made good choices) or to the Realm of Darkness and Separation (if evil choices). Heaven and Hell are not physical places, but are described as timeless states of consciousness: either state of oneness with or separation from God. Post-Zarathushtra Zoroastrianism mythologized these timeless states of consciousness into everlasting physical locations and descriptive places. This later concept permeated into Judeo-Christian religions.


Some Corollaries:

Since we are all endowed with the divine essence, we are all good and divine. Therefore it is not the human beings who are evil, but their choices, actions and deeds that could be good or evil. There is only one way to fight evil, and that is by spreading goodness, just as there is only one way to fight the darkness, and that is by spreading light. Similarly, only by spreading love can we eliminate hatred and enmity, and not by fighting and opposing each other.

Some Basic Maxims of Zoroastrianism:

Good Thoughts (Pendare Nik), Good Words (Goftare Nik), Good Deeds (Kerdare Nik). Do the right thing because it is the right thing to do, and then all beneficial rewards will come to you also.

Death and burial:

Religious rituals related to death are all concerned with the person’s soul and not the body. Zoroastrians believe that on the fourth day after death the human soul leaves the body and the body remains as an empty shell. On the morning of the fourth day after death, the Soul (urvan) returns to its Fravashi (The Guardian Spirit of an individual) who sends out the departed soul to the next world and appears before the deities who are to pass judgment over it.

The circle of life: Zoroastrians disposed of their dead (Empty Shells without a Soul) by leaving them atop open-topped enclosures, called “Towers of Silence” away from populated centers and usually on the top of the hills. Vultures and weather would clean the flesh off the bones, which were then placed into an ossuary at the center of the Tower.


Towers of Silence still stand in many parts of Iran. Some of these towers date back to more than 3000 years.

The day of Equality & Yalda celebration:


The Christmas celebrations actually derive from the Persian celebration of Yalda: The longest night of the year on the eve of the Winter Solstice. On the Yalda night, Persians used to stay awake all night till the dawn and normally the following days were a holiday (December 22-25). It was also the day of Equality because on this day king/queen and nobles were to dress just like ordinary people so as not to be recognized in the crowd and nobody was supposed to give order.

On December 25th Persians celebrated “Mithrakana”: The Birth of Mithra (Angelic divinity of covenant and oath) and hanged a wreathe of green cypress on their doors, gave gifts to their loved ones and feasted the night together. Many Christian, Jewish and Muslim customs have root in Mithraism and Zoroastrianism: the first Equal, Universal and Monotheist Religion. The birtyday of Mithra (Mehr) was celebrated in Persia, Rome and other parts of Europe as Mithraism rapidly spread throughout the ancient world, Coincidence with Jewish Hanukkah (Festival of Lights) is not just an accident. An old tradition that would serve as a green movement today was that everyone pledged to plant a cedar tree during the festival of Yalda. (Christmas tree, holy bread and more other things entered, in this way)

The oldest record of the Yalda night celebrated throughout the Indo-European world dates back to 1600 B.C.E. “Merry Mithrakana” eventually became “Merry Christmas” with the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire. The priests, since could not stop the practice of celebrating Mithra’s birthday on December the 25th. declared this day as the birthday of Jesus, which is still so (Because the date of Jesus’ birth is unknown).

It must be added that the only birthday celebrated by Zoroastrians is the Birthday of “Asho Zarathushtra”, a unique human personality of Good Guidance for all times and climes. But the Persians have, like many other nations, finding reasons and excuses to celebrate as many joyful occasions as they can make it! Yalda is one of them.

Norouz or new day, is wonderful and ancient Persian national celebration that reflects the rich cultural heritage of the nation. Norouz is the most cherished of all the Persian festivals and has been celebrated for more than 3500 years according to the latest archeological and historical discoveries. The Persian New Year always begins on the first day of spring (March 20th each year, at the exact time the sun enters Aries) Its exact time is calculated according to ancient astronomical methods established by a solar calendar in Persia. Norouz ceremonies are symbolic representations of two ancient concepts: the End and the Rebirth. It is a celebration of spring equinox and represents ancient Persians’ impressive understanding of science and astronomy. A few weeks before the New Year, Persians clean and rearrange their homes. They make new clothes, bake pastries and germinate seeds as sign of renewal and decorate their family Norouz table. The ceremonial cloth is set up in each household. Troubadours, referred to as Haji Firuz, disguise themselves with makeup and wear brightly colored outfits of satin. These Haji Firuz, singing and dancing, parade as a carnival through the streets with tambourines, kettle drums, and trumpets to spread good cheer and the news of the coming new year.

Some of the activities during Norooz are Spring cleaning, painting eggs, family reunions, Persian dancing, exchanging presents, visiting neighbors and friends etc. just to name a few. The Norouz holiday and celebrations ends by having a massive family picnic on the 13th day of Spring.


The optimism of the Zoroastrianism:
Mother Earth: “Unto you, O Creator, the Soul of Mother Earth complained thus: Wherefore did you create me? Who gave life to me? Anger, rapine, outrage, plunder, aggression and violence are present everywhere. There is no protector for me, except Thee. Therefore, reveal to me a saviour who could show me a way out of this difficulty.” Today while we have come to various crossroads in our history the Soul of Mother Earth still utter the same cry. It seems that now is the time for us to re-assess and capture the essence of Zoroastrianism once again!

Zoroastrianism is also regarded as the world’s first eco-religion since it strictly forbids polluting the earth. Non-harm is essential to Zarathushtra’s teaching, so vegetarianism is preferred as a free choice.



Spirituality: Man is essentially a spiritual and moral being. Modern man is not satisfied with the present dogmatic conditions of religions, she is in search of some spiritual and ethical philosophy of life which will satisfy her inner self needs in search of Truth and Reality and realization of her spiritual potentialities. Man cannot live by bread and material things alone, she is a thinking; feeling and willing being who needs spiritual nourishment. In the name of religion man is kept in separation. Religion was intended to be a binding adhesive force, but unfortunately it has become disruptive. The basic urge of man is to know herself by spiritual science of the soul to bring forth the Divine impulse operating in a new higher consciousness. Modern man needs a new perspective, a restatement a regeneration of an enlightened Faith in which she can experience the Divine Truth and attain happiness, success and joy in life. The Advent of Zarathushtra was Cosmic Manifestation of the Divine Plan for the new cycle of evolution of mankind and to give spiritual illumination to all mankind. The spiritual and ethical philosophy of “Asho Zarathushtra” yearned to inspire abiding faith in God, in the hearts of all living beings.

Zarathushtra’s message is full of hope, optimism and cheer. The ultimate triumph of good and transmutation of evil into good by living dynamic good life are assured. Man being the thinker and the mind being her unique. Potentiality, Zarathushtra emphatically propounded the philosophy of controlling and disciplining the mind and making it: Good Mind, Pure Reason, reaching the deepest level of the source of Superior Mind.


The winged symbol in the background is the Fravashi (The Guardian Spirit of an individual) who during a mans birth sends out the Soul (urvan) into the material world to fight the battle of Good versus Evil. On the morning of the fourth day after death, the Soul returns to its Fravashi, who sends out the departed soul to the next world and appears before the deities who are to pass judgment over it. All the experiences in the material world are collected. Heaven and Hell are states of mind and being.


Conversion to Zoroastrianism: Zoroastrianism is open to all good and noble people that accept Ashoo Zarathustra’s revelation. Lord Zarathustra taught us that every human has a mind and a conscience for making the best choice and for taking responsibility for one’s actions. A Zoroastrian chooses the way of worshiping Wisdom.

The liberal Zoroastrian communities in Iran and around the world warmly welcome conversion from other religions into Zoroastrianism. (*it happens quietly when it comes to conversion from Islam to Zoroastrianism since conversions is considered a crime in many Islamic countries). The 1991 decision of “Anjoman Moghan Iran”, states: “We must propagate our faith instead of refusing people that want to adhere to it.” The number of secretly rejoined Zoroastrians in modern day Iran is beyond imagination.

The liberal Zoroastrians are inspired by the text of the “Gathas” (the only surviving words of Lord Zarathustra, and the primary text of the faith). In the Gathas there is no mention of elaborate mythology, sacred time-schedules, coming Messiahs, Indo-Iranian exclusivity, priestly laws, or strict religious and ritual practices. Therefore, there should be no objection to converting to Zoroastrianism, because the exclusive religious privileges of the Aryan Indo-Iranian people were never intended by its founder “Asho Zarathushtra”. Zoroastrianism is and has always been an open World Religion for all Mankind and it must be added that most of the anti-conversion sentiment in the Zoroastrian world comes from the Parsis, the small Zoroastrian communities in India that are on the path to extinction due to their strict anti-conversion policies and low birth rate.

The tone of the Gathas in the Holy Book “Avesta” is philosophical, abstract, and ethical. The rituals, myths, and practices that the traditionalists are so intent on keeping, were discontinued by Zarathushtra, who never wanted them! It was only later that these religious and social elements were re-introduced into the religion during the Sassanid era.

Since the late 1980s, many new Liberal Zoroastrian congregations have been founded throughout the world, these congregations are in line with Zoroaster’s original teachings and warmly accept converts but do not seek them, (as opposed to other missionary religions). * People can choose Zarathushtra as their spiritual and physical leader only after understanding his divine and pure message.

“May God (Ahura Mazda) always light your path and bless you with lessons to grow by!”


The United Median Kingdom:

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Old October 31st, 2013, 08:48 PM   #5
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Age of Empiers:
728 B.C.E. - Prince Deioces became the first Median King (728 B.C.E. - 675 B.C.E.) and started to organize the first nationwide large frame Iranian Kingdom. The Median Kingdom was the first of its kind in Iran, a great hierarchy with huge organization of administrations. The capital of this dynasty was Ecbatana (Ekbatana) which is today’s Hamedan in Iran. Huvakh-Shatra; The grand son of King Deioces later became the greatest Median King and marked the height of the dynasty.


693 B.C.E. - Assyrians Destroyed Susa. This glorious, ancient and historical city in Persia was captured and razed to ground by the notorious army of Ashur Banipal, they later reached Ecbatana (Capital City) and destroyed much of the infrastructure of the young Median kingdom. The Assyrians had built a very strong army that ruled over a vast area without any tolerance for other civilizations. Their source of wealth was plundering the weak and not let them regain power. They enslaved many nations including the Jews and the entire Iranian plateau. After they destroyed the Elam kingdom leaving behind an ancient ruin called the Burnt City. This marked the end of 2000 years of Elamite kingdom.


شاهنشاهی مادها
Median Empire
The first Iranian Empire

Three groups of Aryan nomads: The Medians (Central and North-Western parts) and the Parsis (In South and South-Western parts) and the Parthians (North-Eastern and Eastern parts) united their Kingdoms and established the United Median Kingdom (678 B.C.E. – 559 B.C.E.) in order to to withstand the brutal Assyrians. An alliance between the “Medians” and “Persians” put an end to the Assyrian terror forever. After their defeat, many Medians were settled in Assyrian-territory in the region in order to prevent Assyrians from emerging again. Iran was a local Dynasty and a Kingdom from 728 B.C.E. until 559 B.C.E. Accession of Cyrus of Persia, who seized the Median Throne and enlarged Iran into an massive World Empire. The Persians in the South-Western parts eventually supplanted and absorbed the United-Median Kingdom in the Achaemenid Persian Empire.


The Medes were Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. This region was known in Greek as “Media”.

Deioces:
Deioces,(Persian:دیاکو) was the first king of the Medes.


Phraortes,(Persian:فرَوَرتیش)son of Deioces, was the second king of the Median Empire.
Like his father Deioces, Phraortes started wars against Assyria, but was defeated and killed by Ashurbanipal, the king of Neo-Assyria.

Cyaxares the Great (Persian:هووخشتره) the son of King Phraortes, was the third and most capable king of Media. According to Herodotus, Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, had a far greater military reputation than his father or grandfather.


Because of his military genius, he made current political geography of Iran a major power by uniting all Kurdish tribes of Ancient Iran[4] and conquering many territories. He repelled the Scythians from Median territory and also played a major role in the destruction of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.



The rise of Cyaxares:
He was born in the Median capital of Ecbatana, his father Phraortes was killed in a battle against the Assyrians, led by Ashurbanipal, the king of Neo-Assyria. After his fall the Scythians took over. In his early age Cyaxares was seeking for revenge. He killed the Scythian leaders and proclaimed himself as King of Medes. After throwing off the Scythians, he prepared for war against Assyria.[5] Cyaxares reorganized and modernized the Median Army, then joined with King Nabopolassar of Babylonia. This alliance was formalized through the marriage of Cyaxares daughter, Amytis with Nabopolassar's son, Nebuchadnezzar II, the king who constructed the Hanging Gardens of Babylon as a present for his Median wife to help with her homesickness for the mountainous country of her birth. These allies overthrew the Assyrian Empire and destroyed Nineveh in 612 BC.


War against Lydia:
After the victory in Assyria, the Medes conquered Northern Mesopotamia, Armenia and the parts of Asia Minor east of the Halys River, which was the border established with Lydia after a decisive battle between Lydia and Media, the Battle of Halys ended with an eclipse on May 28, 585 BC.
The conflict between Lydia and the Medes was reported by Herodotus as follows:
"A horde of the nomad Scythians at feud with the rest withdrew and sought refuge in the land of the Medes: and at this time the ruler of the Medes was Cyaxares the son of Phraortes, the son of Deïokes, who at first dealt well with these Scythians, being suppliants for his protection; and esteeming them very highly he delivered boys to them to learn their speech and the art of shooting with the bow. Then time went by, and the Scythians used to go out continually to the chase and always brought back something; till once it happened that they took nothing, and when they returned with empty hands Cyaxares (being, as he showed on this occasion, not of an eminently good disposition) dealt with them very harshly and used insult towards them.

And they, when they had received this treatment from Cyaxares, considering that they had suffered indignity, planned to kill and to cut up one of the boys who were being instructed among them, and having dressed his flesh as they had been wont to dress the wild animals, to bear it to Cyaxares and give it to him, pretending that it was game taken in hunting; and when they had given it, their design was to make their way as quickly as possible to Alyattes the son of Sadyattes at Sardis. This then was done; and Cyaxares with the guests who ate at his table tasted of that meat, and the Scythians having so done became suppliants for the protection of Alyattes.
After this, since Alyattes would not give up the Scythians when Cyaxares demanded them, there had arisen war between the Lydians and the Medes lasting five years; in which years the Medes often discomfited the Lydians and the Lydians often discomfited the Medes (and among others they fought also a battle by night): and as they still carried on the war with equally balanced fortune, in the sixth year a battle took
place in which it happened, when the fight had begun, that suddenly the day became night. And this change of the day Thales the Milesian had foretold to the Ionians laying down as a limit this very year in which the change took place. The Lydians however and the Medes, when they saw that it had become night instead of day, ceased from their fighting and were much more eager both of them that peace should be made between them. And they who brought about the peace between them were Syennesis the Kilikian and Labynetos the Babylonian: these were they who urged also the taking of the oath by them, and they brought about an interchange of marriages; for they decided that Alyattes should give his daughter Aryenis to Astyages the son of Cyaxares, since without the compulsion of a strong tie agreements are apt not to hold strongly together." (Histories, 1.73-74, trans. Macaulay)
Cyaxares died shortly after the battle and was succeeded by his son, Astyages, who was the maternal grandfather of Cyrus the Great through his daughter Mandane of Media.

Cyaxares Empire at the time of its maximum expansion.

Qyzqapan:
Qyzqapan is a tomb located in the Kurdish mountains in Sulaymaniyah, and is the last resting place of Cyaxares, according to the Russian historian Igor Diakonov.[1]
The construction of the tomb, begun after the death of Cyaxares in 585 BC. The tomb contains Zoroastrian symbols, since the Medes had an ancient religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of last Median kings the reforms of Zarathustra spread in northwestern Iran.


Astyages:
was the last king of the Median Empire, r. 585 BCE-550 BCE, the son of Cyaxares; he was dethroned in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great. His name derives from the Old Iranian Rishti Vaiga, which means "swinging the spear, lance-hurler.

Reign:
Astyages succeeded his father in 585 BCE, following the Battle of Halys,[2] which ended a five-year war between the Lydians and the Medes. He inherited a large empire, ruled in alliance with his two brothers-in-law, Croesus of Lydia and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, whose wife, Amytis, Astyages' sister, was the queen for whom Nebuchadnezzar was said to have built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.[3] but due to the recent evidence, the garden was likely built by the Assyrian King Sennacherib. Married to Aryenis, the sister of King Croesus of Lydia, to seal the treaty between the two empires, Astyages ascended to the Median throne upon his father's death later that year.[4]
The ancient sources report almost nothing about Astyages’ reign, and a final judgment on his character is not possible, since Herodotus’ negative account (Astyages is represented as a cruel and despotic ruler) and Ctesias’ favorable one, are both biased (cf. also the words of Aeschylus, Persae 766f. about the last king before Cyrus, who is not mentioned by name).[5] After thirty-two years of relative stability, Astyages lost the support of his nobles during the war to his grandson Cyrus, as attested to at length in the Cyropaedia of Xenophon, resulting in the formation of the Persian empire.[6]

Cyrus and Astyages in Herodotus:
The account given by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus relates that Astyages had a dream in which his daughter, Mandane, gave birth to a son who would destroy his empire. Fearful of the dream's prophecy, Astyages married her off to Cambyses I of Anšan, who had a reputation for being a "quiet and thoughtful prince" and whom Astyages believed to be no threat. Herodotus correctly names Cyrus' parents, though he does not know that Cambyses was a king.[7] A commentary on Herodotus with introduction and appendixes.[8] When a second dream warned Astyages of the dangers of Mandane's offspring, Astyages sent his general Harpagus to kill the child, who was none other than Cyrus himself. Modern scholarship generally rejects his claim that Cyrus was the grandson of Astyages.[9] Harpagus, unwilling to spill royal blood, gave the infant to a shepherd, Mitridates, whose wife had just given birth to a stillborn child. Mitridates, or Mithridates, is connected to Mithra, cf. Faustulus, who discovered Romulus and Remus, and his connection with Faunus. Cyrus was raised as Mitridates' own son, and Harpagus presented the stillborn child to Astyages as the dead Cyrus. When Cyrus was found alive at age ten, Astyages spared the boy on the advice of his Magi, returning him to his parents in Anshan. Harpagus, however, did not escape punishment, as Astyages is said to have fed him his own son at a banquet. Cyrus succeeded his father in 559, and in 553, on the advice of Harpagus, who was eager for revenge for being given the "abominable supper," Cyrus rebelled against Astyages. After three years of fighting, Astyages' troops mutinied during the battle of Pasargadae, and Cyrus conquered the Median's empire. Astyages was spared by Cyrus, and despite being taunted by Harpagus, Herodotus says he was treated well and remained in Cyrus' court until his death. Rather than giving the popular mythology that Cyrus was suckled by a dog,The dog was sacred to Persians. cf. also the legend of Sargon, or the similar legend of Romulus and Remus, suckled by a she-wolf. (Latin: Lupa) Herodotus explains that the herdsman Mitridates lived with another of Astyages' slaves, namely a woman named 'Spaco,' which he explains is Median for "dog."[10][11] gives both the legend and Herodotus' rationalized version.

Astyages's dream (France, 15th century).

Defeat:
The contemporary Chronicle of Nabonidus refers to the mutiny on the battlefield as the cause for Astyages' overthrow, but does not mention Harpagus by name. However, since Harpagus was Astyages' general at the battle of Pasargadae and his family were granted high positions in Cyrus' empire after the war, and since Harpagus went on to become Cyrus' most successful general, it is possible he had something to do with the mutiny against Astyages.[13] Cyrus then went on to pillage[citation needed] Astyages' capital of Ecbatana. Ancient sources agree that after Astyages was taken by Cyrus he was treated with clemency, though the accounts differ. Herodotus says that Cyrus kept Astyages at his court during the remainder of his life, while according to Ctesias, he was made a governor of a region of Parthia and was later murdered by a political opponent, Oebaras. The circumstances of Astyages' death are not known. After Astyages' overthrow, Croesus marched on Cyrus to avenge Astyages. Cyrus, with Harpagus at his side, defeated Croesus and conquered Lydia in 547 BCE.


Mandana :
was a Median princess, daughter of the mighty King Astyages and later, the Queen consort of Cambyses of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great, (ruler of Persia’s Achaemenid Dynasty and the writer of the first declaration of human rights in the globe, named: Cyrus Cylinder).

Queen Mandana is a central character in legends describing the birth of Cyrus the great. According to ancient greek historian Herodotus, after the birth of Cyrus the Great, King Astyages had a strange dream that his “Magi” (Court Magician) interpreted as a sign that his grandson would eventually overthrow him. He then ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant. Harpagus, morally unable to kill a newborn hid the child, who was none other than Cyrus himself (Cyrus the Great) with a shepherd named Mitridates. Cyrus grew up without knowing that he came from a Royal Bloodline. According to this legend, Cyrus would eventually defy his grandfather, King Astyages, leading to a great war between them; as the dream had forecast. There are references to Mandana’s death as 559 B.C.E. in the history books. King Darius the Great named his daughter “Mandana“ after her.



Rise of Immortals:
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Old November 1st, 2013, 08:57 AM   #6
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شاهنشاهی هخامنشیان
Achaemenid Empire
The Greatest Iranian Empire


The Achaemenid Empire (Persian: امپراتوری هخامنشی) (c. 550–330 BCE), also known as the Persian Empire, was the successor state of the Median Empire, ruling over significant portions of what would become Greater Iran. The Persian and the Median Empire taken together are also known as the Medo-Persian Empire, which encompassed the combined territories of several earlier empires.

The Persian Empire was the largest empire by geographical extent in ancient times; at the height of its power, the empire encompassed approximately 8 million km.

the empire included the modern territories of Iran, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya, Turkey, Thrace and Macedonia, much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, much of Central Asia, Afghanistan, northern Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and parts of Oman and the UAE.

In 480 BCE, it is estimated that 50 million people lived in the Achaemenid Empire or about 44% of the world's population at the time, making it the largest empire in history.

The mighty Achaemenid Dynasty


The Achaemenid Persian Empire was the first humane, equal and religiously tolerant empire and consisted of a multitude of different languages, races, religions and cultures. It was the largest empire the ancient world had known, stretched in three continents and twenty-five nations. It made possible the first significant and continuous contact between East and West. The Persian Empire was also the first system of Federal Governments in the world! There were many states that were run by smaller kings who were under the great king or Shahan-Shah (King of Kings) and ultimately a courthouse (Kings & Queens could be sued by their own citizens for any wrongdoing). In detail, Each State had absolute internal autonomy to do as they pleased in their own internal affairs. It was a primitive form of Federalism in comparison to today’s Federal systems, but imagine back then when everyone including China, Egypt, Greece and later Rome practiced slavery and colonialism, Persians put an end to slavery and dictatorial oppression and granted internal autonomy to all states. All states had control over their affairs, their Educational system, local languages and even their own military forces! The only things that Persepolis required was absolute obedience to central government on international political and military affairs. Persian respect for local traditions, laws, languages, and religions set the foundation of a relatively benevolent empire.

Federalism is what made Persia strong! Even in times of war, each nation had to provide their own military force and combine they had to defend Mother Persia! They had to defend the Empire because the Empire guaranteed their internal autonomy, rights, freedom, independence, equality and humanity! This was the system, which Cyrus the Great built and the first humane Federal Empire of its kind in the world.


Prior to the rise of the Roman Empire, it set a precedent for the importance of the rule of law, a powerful centralized army and an efficient and systematic state administration. However, the greatest legacy of the Persian Empire was that it demonstrated for the first time how diverse peoples can culturally flourish and economically prosper under one central government.

As an administrator Emperor Cyrus’ insight was great, and he showed himself both intelligent and reasonable. His humanity was equaled by his freedom from pride, which induced him to meet people on the same level, instead of affecting the remoteness and aloofness, which characterized the great monarchs who preceded and followed him. History has further labeled him as a genius, diplomat, manager, and leader of men, the first great propagandist and able strategist. Cyrus was indeed worthy of the title “Great”.


Persian Empire founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great.
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Old November 1st, 2013, 10:32 AM   #7
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King of the kings:
Cyrus The Great
کوروش بزرگ


Cyrus the Great defeats the Median king Astyages at the battle of Pasargadae and becomes the king of both kingdoms. He established the Persian Empire in 550 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great had a concept of “One World” and the “Unification of All People around the known World”. By accepting the practices and religions of the subject people he created the world’s first humane and religiously tolerant empire and evolved an administrative system that was sufficiently flexible to cater for the multitude of different languages, races, religions and cultures while maintaining the fundamental unity of government necessary to maintain the huge empire.

'Cyrus' Empire Building
As the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, one of Cyrus' objectives was to gain power over the Mediterranean coast and secure Asia Minor. Croesus of Lydia, Nabonidus of Babylonia and Amasis II of Egypt joined in alliance with Sparta to try and thwart Cyrus - but this was to no avail. Hyrcania, Parthia and Armenia were already part of the Median Kingdom. Cyrus moved further east to annex Drangiana, Arachosia, Margiana and Bactria to his territories. After crossing the Oxus, he reached the Jaxartes. There, he built fortified towns with the object of defending the farthest frontier of his kingdom against the Iranian nomadic tribes of Central Asia such as the Scythians. The exact limits of Cyrus' eastern conquests are not known, but it is possible that they extended as far as the Peshawar region in modern Pakistan. After his eastern victories, he repaired to the west and invaded Babylon. On 12 October 539BCE Cyrus, "without spilling a drop of blood", annexed the Chaldaean empire of Babylonia - and on October 29 he entered Babylon, arrested Nabonidus and assumed the title of "King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the world". Almost immediately he then extended his control over the Arabian peninsula and the Levant also quickly submitted to Persian rule. Although Cyrus did not conquer Egypt, by 535BCE all the lands up to the Egyptian borders had acceded to Persian dominance. Newly conquered territories had a measure of political independence, being ruled by satraps. These (usually local) governors took full responsibility for the administration, legislation and cultural activities of each province. According to Xenophon, Cyrus created the first postal system in the world, and this must have helped with intra-Empire communications. Babylon, Ecbatana, Pasargadae and Susa were used as Cyrus' command centres. Cyrus' spectacular conquests triggered the age of Empire Building, as carried out by his successors as well as by the later Greeks and Romans.


Cyrus the Great entered the city of Babylon in 539 B.C.E, and liberated and protected the 50,000 Jews from captivity who were imprisoned by Babylonians and assisted them to migrate to their homeland and helped them to reconstruct their temple in Jerusalem. Cyrus was later considered as a messiah sent by Yahweh in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as the patron and deliverer of the Jews. From these statements it appears that Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, was the monarch under whom the captivity and slavery ended.
Cyrus read the Charter of Freedom out after he put on the crown:
“Now that I put the crown of kingdom of Persia I announce that I will respect the traditions, customs and religions of the nations of my empire and never let any of my governors and subordinates look down on or insult them. I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it, and if any one of them rejects it, I never resolve on war to reign. I will never let anyone oppress any others, and if it occurs, I will take his or her right back and penalize the oppressor. I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation. Until I am alive, I prevent unpaid, forced labor. Today, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other’s rights. No one can be penalized for his or her relatives’ faults. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. Such a tradition should be exterminated the world over



Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus's rule.

Cassandane Shahbanu was an Achaemenid Persian noblewoman and the wife of Emperor Cyrus the Great.
[IMG][/IMG]
Cassandane was the sister of Otanes and daughter of Pharnaspes. She bore four children: Cambyses II (who succeeded his father and conquered Egypt), Smerdis (Bardiya) who also reigned as the king of Persia for a short time, a daughter named Atusa. Princess Atusa later played an important role in Achaemenid royal family, as she married Darius the Great and bore him the next Achaemenian Emperor Xerxes I. According to Herodotus, Cyrus loved his Queen Cassandane dearly and, when she died, ordered all the subjects of his empire to observe “a great mourning.” Cyrus never recovered from the grief of losing her and stayed inactive for the next decade until his death. Behind every great man there's a great woman and vice versa! There is a report in the chronicle of Nabonidus that, when “the king’s wife died,” there was public mourning in Persia along with all the twenty-five countries that were part of the empire lasting for several weeks. Queen Cassandane was buried in the tower called Zendaan-e Solaymaan at Pasargadae Persia.


Cyrus' religion:
Almost nothing is known about Cyrus' personal beliefs, but Xenophon reports to us that in religious matters he followed the guidance of the Magians at his court. Although this is not universally agreed, Mary Boyce has argued that Cyrus was indeed a Zoroastrian and that he thus followed in the footsteps of his ancestors, from when they were Median vassals in Anshan. She has pointed out that the fire altars and the mausoleum at Pasargadae demonstrate Zoroastrian practices, and has cited Greek texts as evidence that Zoroastrian priests held positions of authority at Cyrus' court.


The cylinder of Cyrus the Great


The Cyrus cylinder was discovered in 1878CE at the site of Babylon. It is inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform. Now housed in the British Museum, it includes a detailed account by Cyrus of his conquest of Babylon in 539BCE and his subsequent humane treatment of his conquered subjects. It has been hailed as the world's first declaration of human rights. The (incomplete) inscription on the cylinder starts by describing the criminal deeds of the Babylonian king Nabonidus; as well as how Marduk, the Babylonian god, had looked for a new king and chosen Cyrus.


It continues with the famous: "I am Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world" After a description of Cyrus' ancestry and of royal protocol, it goes on to explain how Cyrus established peace and abolished forced labour: "The people of Babylon . . . the shameful yoke was removed from them" The inscription continues by detailing reparative building activities in Babylon as well as asking for prayers for Cyrus. It makes specific reference to the Jews, who have been brought to Babylon - and who Cyrus supported in leaving for their homeland. Further demonstrating his religious tolerance, Cyrus restored the local cults by allowing the gods to return to their shrines. The cylinder describes the Great King not as a conqueror, but as a liberator and the legitimate successor to the crown of Mesopotamia. The same text has also been found, in a more complete version, in an inscription discovered in the ancient city of Ur, in Mesopotamia. Both documents corroborate many of the details in Ezra 1:1-5 describing Cyrus supporting the Jews in returning to Judea from captivity to rebuild the Temple in 537BCE. Isaiah 45:1-13 also backs up the idea of Cyrus as a benign and chosen ruler. Before the discovery of the cylinder, many sceptical historians believed that the idea of a Zoroastrian emperor like Cyrus the Great allowing a conquered people like the Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild their Temple was simply not credible and could only be Persian propaganda. Nevertheless, the Cyrus Cylinder, alongside the Biblical and other historical statements, seems to substantiate the idea that Cyrus not only allowed many of the nations he conquered to practice their various religious beliefs - an unprecedented tolerance - but that he even actively assisted captive peoples, including the Jews, to return to their lands of origin. This support was not only political but even financial - as he gave grants both from the Imperial treasury and also from his own personal fortune. The Cylinder has especial resonance for the Iranian peoples and is an integral part of Iran's cultural heritage and national identity. Antedating the 1789 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen by more than two millennia, it can also be considered as a world treasure - and the first international declaration of human rights. The text was translated into all the United Nations' official languages in 1971.

Charter of Freedom: by Cyrus The Great who ruled Persia from 559 B.C.E. to 529 B.C.E:

“My numerous troops moved about undisturbed in the midst of Babylon. I did not allow anyone to terrorise the land of Sumer and Akkad. I kept in view the needs of Babylon and all its sanctuaries to promote their well being. I lifted their unbecoming yoke. Their dilapidated dwellings I restored. I put an end to their misfortunes.”


“I am Cyrus, King of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the land of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters, son of Camboujiyah (Cambyases), great king, king of Anshân, grandson of Kourosh (Cyrus), great king, king of Anshân, descendant of Chaish-Pesh (Teispes), great king, king of Anshân, progeny of an unending royal line, whose rule Bel and Nabu cherish, whose kingship they desire for their hearts, pleasure. When I well -disposed, entered Babylon, I set up a seat of domination in the royal palace amidst jubilation and rejoicing. Marduk the great god, caused the big-hearted inhabitations of Babylon to ... ... ... ... ... me, I sought daily to worship him.”

“At my deeds Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced and to me, Kourosh (Cyrus), the king who worshipped him, and to Camboujiyah (Cambyases), my son, the offspring of (my) loins, and to all my troops he graciously gave his blessing, and in good sprit before him we glorified exceedingly his high divinity. All the kings who sat in throne rooms, throughout the four quarters, from the Upper to the Lower Sea, those who dwelt in ... ... ... ... ..., all the kings of the West Country, who dwelt in tents, brought me their heavy tribute and kissed my feet in Babylon. From ... ... ... ... ... to the cities of Ashur, Susa, Agade and Eshnuna, the cities of Zamban, Meurnu, Der as far as the region of the land of Gutium, the holy cities beyond the Tigris whose sanctuaries had been in ruins over a long period, the gods whose abode is in the midst of them, I returned to their places and housed them in lasting abodes.”

“I gathered together all their inhabitations and restored (to them) their dwellings. The gods of Sumer and Akkad whom Nabounids had, to the anger of the lord of the gods, brought into Babylon. I, at the bidding of Marduk, the great lord, made to dwell in peace in their habitations, delightful abodes.”

“May all the gods whom I have placed within their sanctuaries address a daily prayer in my favour before Bel and Nabu, that my days may be long, and may they say to Marduk my lord. May Cyrus the King, who reveres thee, and Camboujiyah (Cambyases) my son...”

“Now that I put the crown of kingdom of Persia, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions on the head with the help of God (Ahura Mazda), I announce that I will respect the traditions, customs and religions of the nations of my empire and never let any of my governors and subordinates look down on or insult them until I am alive. From now on, till God grants me the kingdom favor, I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it , and if any one of them rejects it , I never resolve on war to reign. Until I am the king of Persia, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions, I never let anyone oppress any others, and if it occurs , I will take his or her right back and penalize the oppressor.”

“And until I am the monarch, I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation. Until I am alive, I prevent unpaid, forced labor. To day, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other’s rights.”

“No one could be penalized for his or her relatives’ faults. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. Such a traditions should be exterminated the world over.”

“I implore to God to make me succeed in fulfilling my obligations to the nations of Persia, Babylon, and the ones of the four directions.”


Death:
Cyrus the Great was killed in battlefield from a wound inflicted from a poisonous arrow during a campaign against the Massagetes of central Asia. He is considered as the most respected world leaders to date. He always fought side by side with his soldiers and never left them alone in the battlefield.


His last wish was to be buried in Pasargadae in order to turn into Persian soil once again. He apologizes to people for not being able to use the soil of his tomb for some time. Cyrus the great, the founder of the greatest form of united nations to date rests in peace in Pasargadae shedding light on the future of the world civilization.



On 12th October 1971 Iran marked the 2500th anniversary of Cyrus’ founding of the Persian Empire. The then Shah of Iran, in his speech opening the celebrations, said:

“O Cyrus, great King, King of Kings, Achaemenian King, King of the land of Iran. I, the Shahanshah of Iran, offer thee salutations from myself and from my nation. Rest in peace, for we are awake, and we will always stay awake...”

International Cyrus Day

October 29 is The World Cyrus Human Rights Day celebrated worldwide. Supporters of human rights cherish this day to mark the famous Cylinder of Cyrus which is known to be the first chapter of human rights in the world

it was the day Cyrus put an end to slavery and dictatorial oppression, his goal was to exterminate such inhuman traditions around the world. By doing so, the Persians pioneered the freedom of religion and culture of the minorities in the world. On this day Cyrus was officially crowned and on the day of coronation

Cyrus read the Charter of Freedom out after he put on the crown with his hand in Marduk Temple. Cyrus observed a policy of tolerance and equality during his time that was the key to creation of the greatest form of united nations and empire in the world.





Dhul-Qarnayn

Alexander the Great Or Cyrus the Great?


The suggestion that Dhul-Qarnayn is Cyrus the Great is supported by some of the Quranic commentaries (Tafsir) and Islamic scholars Allameh Tehrani, Syed Ahmed Khan (known interpreter of the Quran), Abul Kalam Azad (Minister of Culture, India, in Majma' al-Bayan), and Dr. Baha-ed-Din Khorramshahi. Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi the historian, denies the fact that Dhul-Qarnayn was Alexander the Great. They believe that Dhul-Qarnayn was Cyrus the Great, the King and founder of Achaemenid empire. Their evidence includes artifacts, stone carving palaces and graves. Some of their reasons are:
1-In the carved stone that can still be seen up to now show Cyrus with his crown with two horns


2-According to the Quran, Cyrus was the first king (several hundred years before Alexander the Great) who conquered most of Europe and Asia.


3-Cyrus (as Dhul-Qarnayn) was a monotheist and worshipped one God, but Alexander the Great had many gods

4-In the Quran, Dhul-Qarnayn noted that the journey begins to the west and then to the east before the road to the other (the North), which coincided with the start the expedition of Cyrus the Persian conquest in the West to Lydia in Asia Minor and then turned to the east until the Makran and Sistan (Scythian) prior to capturing the Northeast Europe near the Balkan.
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Old November 1st, 2013, 02:50 PM   #8
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Persian Immortals

Elite Persian Immortal

The elite force were known as “The Immortals” because they were kept constantly at a strength of exactly 10,000 men, every killed or seriously wounded member was immediately replaced. To insure loyalty, the original members of this “immortal” fighting machine were Persians by bloodline and trained from early childhood (age 7+). Not everyone could become one of the 10,000 since the training was very rigorous and hard both physically and psychologically. They also followed a strict adherence to the religion of the prophet Zarathustra and his teachings in order to respect life. “The Immortals” were mainly used during the last stages of each battle as reinforcement by the order of the King of Kings to shock the enemies strategically.

The Persian Immortals were the special forces of the ancient world. They were trained from the age of five to do nothing but kill and destroy other soldiers."


The Persian Immortals: the precision killer in a massive war machine who forged the largest empire the middle east has ever seen.

Persian Immortal weapons:
Sagaris :

The Sagaris was a weapon similar to a War Hammer or a small battle-axe. It was the Close-Range weapon of the Persian Immortal.

Spear :

The spear was a thrusting weapon used by Persian infantry. It was the Mid-range weapon of the Persian Immortal.

Archer and bow:

The Persian Bow and Arrow was a composite bow used extensively by the Persian army. It was the Long-Range weapon of the Persian Immortal.

sword:


Kopis:


Shield:


Chariot Scythe:

The Chariot Scythe was a slashing weapon. It was the Special Weapon of the Persian Immortal.

Persian Immortal

Activities:Bodyguards for the royal class
Fighting for the Persian Empire

The Immortals played an important role in Cyrus the Great's conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, Cambyses II's conquest of Egypt in 525 BC and Darius I's invasion of India's smaller western frontier kingdoms (western Punjab and Sindh, now in Pakistan) and Scythia in 520 BC and 513 BC. Immortals participated in the Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC[3] and were amongst the Persian occupation troops in Greece in 479 BC under Mardonius.
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Old November 1st, 2013, 02:57 PM   #9
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Pantea Arteshbod


Pantea Arteshbod was one of the all time greatest Persian commanders during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559 - 529 B.C.E.). She was the wife of General Aryasb (Achaemenid Arteshbod). She played an important role in keeping law & order in Babylonia after the conquest of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 547 B.C.E. by Cyrus the Great. Commander Pantea truly was an important and sensitive military commander whose presence on the ancient battlefield made a difference to the outcome of the battle and played a part in building up the tapestry of ancient military Achievement. Pantea and General Aryasb were the commanders of the elite force of Persian soldiers who performed the dual roles of both Imperial Guard and standing army during the Persian Empire’s expansion. They formed the elite core of the Persian army in times of war and the royal guard in times of peace in the Empire. In Persian lore, Pantea was the most beautiful woman in all of Asia and kept her face covered during battle to prevent men from falling in love with her


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Old November 1st, 2013, 03:54 PM   #10
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Excelent thread. With so much territory and people living in such a great empire and for so long, I wonder why arabic became the popular language in the area and not farsi.
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Old November 1st, 2013, 04:29 PM   #11
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Originally Posted by orinoco_man View Post
Excelent thread. With so much territory and people living in such a great empire and for so long, I wonder why arabic became the popular language in the area and not farsi.
Thank you,Because Persians do not forced people to speak Farsi.
Respect for religion language culture and ect

Iran,Afghanistan,Tajikistan part of Pakistan part of Armenia part of Uzbakistan and... speak Farsi

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Old November 1st, 2013, 05:53 PM   #12
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داریوش بزرگ
Darius the Great


The reign of Darius the Great marked the zenith of the Persian Empire. Upholding the tradition established by Cyrus, Darius valued the rights of all people under his rule. He structured the empire under the satrapy system (similar to national and local governments). He built many roads, ports, banking houses, elaborate underground irrigation systems and a canal to link the Nile to the Red Sea (an early precursor of the Suez Canal). Darius established the First Tax System, Customs Duties, Official Records and The Legal Code, in the world level. Reflecting the wealth and the multi-cultural dimension of the Persian Empire, Darius initiated the building of the Persepolis palace. For its construction, artisans and materials were gathered from different corners of the empire.

Darius also revolutionized mankind’s economic activities by introducing one of the earliest (certainly the first on such a massive scale) forms of common coinage in history, “the daric”.


This initiative,along with the standardization of weights and measures and the codification of commercial laws, stimulated world trade and elevated the Persian Empire’s economy to new levels of prosperity. Additionally a 2500 km massive road project connecting 20 satrapies togeather strengthened and enriched the economy for all nations of the empire.


Darius Royal Road:

Another project undertaken by Darius was the royal road, the world’s longest, extending 1,500 miles (see map). Due to an extensive network of relays, postmen could travel the road in six to nine days, whereas normal travel time was three months. The motto of the Persian postal service became memorable: stopped by neither snow, rain, heat or gloom of night. The US postal service also adopted this motto and the famous Pony Express mail delivery resembled the original Persian design.



After securing his authority over the entire empire, Darius embarked on a campaign to Egypt where he defeated the armies of the Pharaoh and secured the lands that Cambyses had conquered while incorporating a large portion of Egypt into the Achaemenid Empire. Darius also led his armies to the Indus River, building fortresses and establishing Persian rule.

Achaemenid Empire under Darius's rule.


Atusa Shahbanu:

Atusa Shahbanu was the Queen of the Persian Empire, wife of the mighty Persian Achaemenid King Darius the Great (522-486 B.C.E.), daughter of Cyrus the Great and Queen Cassandane, a half-sister of Cambyses II and the mother of Xerxes the Great (Kheshayar Shah). Ancient Greek historians of the era remarks that the formidable Atusa “had all the power". Atusa, had a great authority in the Achaemenid royal house and her marriage with Darius I is suggested to be because of her power and influence and also the fact that she was a direct descendent of Cyrus the Great. When her mother Cassandane died all the nations of the Persian empire observed a great mourning that lasted for several weeks. Atusa was the director of palace affairs. She had a saying in deciding who would be send on military missions. She made sure that “Xerxes” became the successor of Emperor “Darius the Great” and not his eldest son “Artobazanes”. The invention of old Persian script is attributed to her. According to the legends Atusa also had a very strong women’s intuition and sixth sense which the King strongly admired and followed. Atusa is well mentioned in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, an administrative archive from Persepolis. She was very wealthy with her own administration and massive personal army.


At the night of the Comet, before his most trusted and elite force The Mighty Immortals, Darius the Great paid homage to his beloved forefather, Cyrus the Great... at his resting place in Pasargadae. He held-up the departed kings sword as a symbol of freedom and retribution, screaming for vengeance to punish Athens for all the Greek terrorist attacks on Persian holdings and civilian population. Darius told his soldiers that he may never rest until the day that his honor is restored, assuring his ancestors that he shall not forget the words carved on Cyrus the Great’s tomb as they reverberate in his ears till eternity.

Under Persian law, the Achaemenid kings were required to write their last will and choose a successor before setting out on such serious expeditions. Upon his great decision to leave (487–486 B.C.E.), Darius prepared his tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam and appointed Xerxes, his eldest son by Atossa, as his successor. Darius’s failing health then prevented him from leading the campaigns, and he died in October 486 B.C.E


The Testament and Last will of Darius The Great (who ruled Persia from 522 to 486 B.C.E.) to his son and successor Emperor Xerxes the Great (Kheshayar Shah):



As I am about to depart this world, twenty-five countries are part of the Persian Empire. In all of these countries, Persian currency is accepted, and Persians enjoy a particular respect in these countries. My successor, Khashyar Shah must, like me, work to retain these countries. And the way to retain them is to not interfere in their internal affairs, and to respect each country’s religion and ritual.”


As I am about to depart this world, you have twelve koroure in gold in the royal treasury; this gold is one of the pillars of your power. A king’s power is not just dependent on the sword, but on wealth as well. Remember that you must add to this treasury and not diminish it. I am not suggesting that under dire circumstances, you should not take gold out of it, as the rule for this treasury gold is that it must be used when necessary, but at first chance, return what you have taken to the treasury. I am indebted to your mother Atousa, so you must, at all times, ensure her happiness and peace of mind.”


“For ten years, I have been busy building grain silos all around the country. I learned the method of building these cone-like stone structures in Egypt, and since the silos are intermittently emptied, insects do not thrive there and grain can be stored in these silos for several years without rotting. And you must continue the work of building these silos until the time when they can hold two to three years’ reserve for the whole country. And each year, after the harvest, use the stored grain to eliminate shortages and replenish the silos after harvesting and this way, you shall never worry about foodstuff in this country, even if you face two or three years of draught.”

Never appoint your friends, or intimate servants to governmental posts, since for them the privilege of your friendship should suffice. If you appoint your friends and servants to governmental posts, and they inflict injustice on the people, and abuse their position, you will be unable to punish them, since they are your friends, and you must bear in mind this friendship.”

“The canal I wanted to build between the Nile and the Red Sea is not yet finished, and finishing this waterway is very important from the perspective of the military and commerce. You must finish this canal, and the fees for passage of ships must not be so steep that captains will prefer avoiding it.”

“The canal I wanted to build between the Nile and the Red Sea is not yet finished, and finishing this waterway is very important from the perspective of the military and commerce. You must finish this canal, and the fees for passage of ships must not be so steep that captains will prefer avoiding it.”


I have sent an army to Egypt with the task of bringing law and order to that land; I still have not had the chance to send a force to Greece. You must finish this work. Attack the Greeks with a powerful army, and make the Greeks understand that the Persian king has the power to punish those who commit atrocities.


My other recommendation to you is that you should never allow sycophants and liars in your entourage, since they are both plagues to monarchies; you should ruthlessly turn away all liars.

“Never allow government bureaucrats to have dominion over the populace; in order to prevent such domination, I have passed tax laws, and limited the contacts between the people and bureaucrats; if you preserve these laws, the contacts between the people and government officials will be minimal.”

“Keep officers and soldiers of your army content, and never mistreat them. If you mistreat them, they cannot respond in kind, but instead, they will take their revenge in the theater of war, even if such revenge costs them their lives; their revenge will take the shape of inaction and surrender, and through this they prepare the ground for your defeat.”


“Continue the education reforms that I began, and allow your subjects to learn how to read and write and increase their intelligence; the more intelligent they are, the more you can rule with an easy mind. Always defend the faith of worshiping Yazdan, but never force any group to follow your faith, and always bear in mind that everyone should be free to pursue whatever faith he or she desire.”


“When I bid farewell to life, wash my body, and enwrap me in the shroud I have prepared, and put me in a coffin made of stone and place me in my grave. But do not cover my grave, thus allowing yourself the chance to occasionally come to the tomb and see my stone coffin, and remind yourself that there lies my father, a man who authoritatively ruled over twenty five countries, and now he is dead, and I too shall one day die like him.”


“It is human fate to die, and it makes no difference whether you are a king of twenty-five countries or a poor wood-gatherer, and no one remains eternally in this world. If you do not visit my tomb every time you have a chance and see my coffin, pride and selfishness will overcome you, but when you are near your death, order them to close my grave, and then in your will, ask your son to keep your grave open so that he can see the coffin holding your body.”

“Never, never be a judge and a prosecutor in the same case, and if you have a claim against someone, ask an impartial judge to adjudicate the case, and issue a judgment. Since if someone who is the claimant is also the judge, he will invariably commit injustice.”

Never cease the work of developing the country. If you cease the work of development, the country will inexorably fall into a state of disarray. It is a rule that a country that is not improving falls into desolation. In the work of developing, the construction of new aqueducts. (ghanats), the building of new roads and the establishment of cities must be giving top priority.

“Never forget forgiveness and generosity and know that after justice, the highest quality for a king is forgiveness and generosity. But mercy must be offered when the injustice has been committed against you; if the offender has committed an injustice against someone else and you pardon the crime, you have committed an injustice yourself, for you have ignored someone else’s rights.”

“I will say no more. I have made these statements in front of those who are now, in your absence, in attendance; I want them to know that I have made these suggestions before my death, and now to leave me alone, as I feel the hour of my death is near... “King Darius”

Last Speech
:
اهورامزدا این کشور را از لشکر دشمن، از خشکسالی و از دروغ پاس دارد
God protect this country from lie,famine and enemy army
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Old November 1st, 2013, 08:52 PM   #13
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پارسه،شهر پارسیان
Persepolis


Persepolis remained lost to the world and buried in sand until the 1930s when excavations started. It is now now an archaeological site located in southern Iran and is one of the most artifact-rich archaeological sites in the world. It was named Parsa and known to the ancient world as “The wealthiest city under the sun” but later under subsequent Greek influence became known as Persepolis, “The city of the Persians”. This expansive land has been the cradle of an ancient civilization, and governmental center of Persian king of kings for millenniums.

[IMG][/IMG]
In the “Persepolis” monuments and structures, one could find the essentials, foundations, and lofty values of the Persian masterful architectures, because it was important for them what they built, why they built it, and for whom they built it. so, they have designed and created such masterpieces which one, by looking at each section of them, would feel pride and exaltation.


While staying and appending time in the environment of “Persepolis”, one would feel good, peace, solace, optimism, and humbleness.


















































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Old November 1st, 2013, 10:03 PM   #14
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Spahbod_e_Iran View Post
Thank you,Because Persians do not forced people to speak Farsi.
Respect for religion language culture and ect
I thought that it was customary during that era, for empires to impose forcefully their customs and culture over the defeated city states, until Cyrus the great came along and changed that habit.

Quote:
Iran,Afghanistan,Tajikistan part of Pakistan part of Armenia part of Uzbakistan and... speak Farsi
I am surprised that present day Iraq, Jordan, Siria Lebanon, Palestine or even Israel did not retained Persian culture and language, since they were also part of the persian empire like those countries you mentioned.

It is also interesting to note, that out of all those ancient civilizations, only Persia survived the passage of time and invaders to hold most of their former territories.

Thank you for posting the history of persia, since here in Latin America everything we learned about ancient history, refers us back to the greek and roman empire.
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Old November 2nd, 2013, 08:38 AM   #15
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Quote:
Originally Posted by orinoco_man View Post
I thought that it was customary during that era, for empires to impose forcefully their customs and culture over the defeated city states, until Cyrus the great came along and changed that habit.
Exactly.


Quote:
Originally Posted by orinoco_man View Post
I am surprised that present day Iraq, Jordan, Siria Lebanon, Palestine or even Israel did not retained Persian culture and language, since they were also part of the persian empire like those countries you mentioned.
In the next posts you will get your answer(after Sassanid era)

Quote:
Originally Posted by orinoco_man View Post
It is also interesting to note, that out of all those ancient civilizations, only Persia survived the passage of time and invaders to hold most of their former territories.

Thank you for posting the history of persia, since here in Latin America everything we learned about ancient history, refers us back to the greek and roman empire.
your welcome,i'm glad you enjoyed
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Old November 2nd, 2013, 10:00 AM   #16
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خشایار شاه بزرگ و یونان
Xerxes the Great and Greco-Persian Wars


Xerxes the Great


Emperor Xerxes (Xšayāršā) was son of Darius the Great and Atossa (daughter of Cyrus the Great). After his accession in October 485 B.C.E, he suppressed the revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before and appointed his brother Achaemenes as governor or satrap over Egypt.

His early wife and queen (prior to Esther) Amestris Shahbanu was the beautiful daughter of Otanes (A Persian nobleman mentioned in the Histories of Herodotus as a defender of the idea of democracy.). She was also an Achaemenid military Commander and her mother was a Arteshbod General of the Imperial Army. Amestris was known to have been poorly regarded by ancient Greek historians. She had the reputation to be more bloodthirsty than any Persian king had ever been against those who broke the law in order to set a precedent for the importance of the rule of law in the empire. Queen Amestris was a great and very strict law-giver. Worth to mention is that after her death King Darius II of Persia named his daughter Amestris after her in the year 413 B.C.E.

Emperor Xerxes the Great (Kheshayar Shah) with his early wife Amestris Shahbanu


Greco-Persian Wars


In their wars with Persia, the Greek city-states were never a threat to the Persian heartland. The Greeks had been carrying out terrorist attacks on Persian holdings for years. They had attacked Persian cities, set fire to Persian temples, disrupted key trade routes, and pirated merchant ships crossing the Bosphorus. They incited rebellions inside Persian provinces, but perhaps most abhorrent to the Persians was the ease by which the Greeks broke their treaties and betrayed Persia’s trust. Rather than resort to violence Persia tried to keep the Greeks in check by financially supporting Greek politicians who were “pro-Persian,” But what finally triggered Persia’s wrath was an act rarely mentioned in the West, though well documented, even by Herodotus (Father of History). In 498 B.C.E, Athens carried out a terrorist attack on Sardis, a major Persian city. The Athenians, set fire to the “outlying parts” of Sardis trapping most of its population “in a ring of fire”, literally killing hundred thousands of innocent civilians.


It is important to note that Persia did not want to conquer Greece, the empire was already over stretched spanning three continents and over twenty-five nations. Many Ionian Greeks were already parts of Persia as protectorates and Persians respected Greek philosophers and had many of them in their employ.


Also the Greek city-states were constantly busy fighting each other all the time.



and the Persian Kings saw that region as very unstable and left them alone.


Persia mainly only attacked Greece as response to terrorist attacks on Persian holdings (Similar to what USA did after 9/11).


After the Persian victory at the Battle of Thermopylae, Athens was abandoned and King Xerxes decided to burn some of the Government Headquarters and Palaces to the ground as revenge and warning for all the previous Greek terrorist attacks on Persian holdings and civilian population.

Xerxes later rebuilt some of the dammaged civilian areas of the city and sent a message to the Athenian citizens and told them that they could return to their homes, which they did. Soonafter Xerxes left Greece for good. That shows how humane the Persian empire was and how much they respected civilians, despite the fact that the Athenians wiped out the entire Persian city of Sardis and all its civilian population.


...History is unfourtunatley always written by the victors and the usual Greek anachronism often corrupts historical facts about Persia.

What Persia did not achieve through war, it obtained through diplomacy.

Grand Admiral Artemisia


became the ruler of Halicarnassius (A Greek City-State and a colony of Persian Empire). She ruled under the overlordship of the Persian Emperor Xerxes I (Kheshayar Shah).


She was the legendary Grand Admiral and leader of the Persian Navy, She was Xerxes’ great love. A great powerful, independent and intelligent woman who won many battles during the Achaemnid Dynasty Era.


When the Persian King Xerxes went to war against Greece in 480 B.C.E, Artemisia led her powerful ships and helped Xerxes defeat the Greeks in the beginning phases of naval battle of Salamis. Ancient Greek historian Herodotus (Father of History) writes, apparently quite embarassed: “It seems to me a marvel that she - a woman - should have taken part in the campaign against Greece.” The Athenians resented women in arms, says Herodotus. The Greeks offered a reward of 10,000 drachmas for capturing Artemisia’s head, but no one succeeded in winning the prize.


Understand that back then Persia was the sole superpower of the globe and Greece consisted of tens of separated and scattered city-states, each played their own tunes and they were busy fighting each other all the time. Some of these city-states were pro Persia, some were anti Persia, some were neutral and some were even parts of Persia as protectorates! Admiral Artemisia became a living legend and a role model for all the women in the Empire and the known civilized World.

Grand Admiral Artemisia and Emperor Xerxes the Great


Esther


Esther (born “Hadassah”) was the wife of King Xerxes the Great and Persia’s first Jewish queen and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her and recounts how a Persian king helped protect the Israelite nation from annihilation. In many ways, Esther’s story reads like a “Cinderella tale”. Many scholars are concerned over Esther’s historical accuracy since it is hard to distinguish authentic history from fiction in biblical texts. According to the Biblical Book of Esther King Xerxes of Persia held a one hundred and eighty-day feast in Susa to display the vast wealth of his empire to the world and the splendour and glory of his majesty.


When the king’s heart was “merry with wine,” the king ordered his seven chamberlains to summon Queen Vashti to come before him and his guests wearing her royal crown, in order to display her beauty. She refused to come since the Susa feast had lasted for nearly six months and she did not want to embarrass herself in front of all the drunken royal guests all over again, thus she left the palace.


Furious at her refusal, the King asked his wise men and the seven princes of Persia for advice, they advised the King to search for a new queen. The King followed this advice and banished the rebellious Queen Vashti from his sight and then began searching for a new queen by means of a beauty contest.


Beautiful young women were gathered to the palace from every province. Esther was advanced for this role by Mordecai, her adoptive father and guardian. For 12 months each woman underwent beauty treatments and Educational Importance of Royal Manners and Etiquettes in the Harem. They were then given anything they wanted or wished for to take with them from the Harem to the King’s palace. Most women chose luxurious colourful dresses, wore heavy makeup and carried as much gold and diamond jewellery as they could carry in order to catch the Kings Eyes and attention. When it was time for Esther to go to the king’s palace, she chose the simplest white dress she could find, wore minimum makeup and jewellery. Xerxes liked Esther more than he did any of the other young and beautiful women. None of them pleased him as much as she did, and right away he fell in love with her natural beauty, simplicity, sincerity and intellect and crowned her to be his wife and queen. In honor of Esther he gave a big dinner for his leaders and officials. Then he declared a holiday everywhere in his vast kingdom along with all the twenty-five countries that wre part of his empire and gave expensive gifts to everyone. Both Esther and her adoptive father Mordecai became favourites in the Persian court.


Death
In 465 BC, Xerxes was murdered by Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard
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Old November 2nd, 2013, 10:59 AM   #17
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Iranian military power
(Susian-Median)


Early Susian Light Infantry Axe-man and Archer from Kingdom of Susa


Susian Foot Archers


Susian Assyrian Cavalry and Infantry Mercenaries 655 BC



Susian Archer Cavalryman
From Susian domination of Elam, Chaldea, Kish, Babylon and Assyria Era when Susa was the dominating power of the region.


Susian War Chariot


Susian 4 Horse Command War Chariot of Kingdom of Susa


Susian War Chariots of Kingdom of Susa in action


Iranian Susian War Elephant Unit


Susian archer, light infantryman and commander


Susian Forces


Susian Soldier of Early 6th Century BC


Median Heavy Armored Infantryman


Median Archers
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Old November 2nd, 2013, 11:43 AM   #18
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Achaemenid army
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Old November 2nd, 2013, 11:50 AM   #19
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Achaemenid army
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Old November 2nd, 2013, 12:01 PM   #20
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Achaemenid army
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