daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Subways and Urban Transport

Subways and Urban Transport Metros, subways, light rail, trams, buses and other local transport systems



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old December 31st, 2017, 02:32 PM   #821
CNGL
Leudimin
 
CNGL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: Huesca
Posts: 7,459
Likes (Received): 1936

Okay, a quick recap of what has opened this year. I include openings in both Gregorian and Chinese calendars, so any openings up to February 16 (Chinese new year) will be also included here as well as in the 2018 compilation.

January 6/ Undecimber 6, 2016: Fuzhou line 1, Sancha Jie to Xianfeng
January 12/Undecimber 12, 2016: Zhengzhou line 1, Xiliu Hu to Henan Gongye Daxue and Shi Tiyu Zhongxin to Henan Daxue Xinqu.
January 12/Undecimber 12, 2016: Zhengzhou suburban line (a.k.a. line 9), Nansihuan to Xinzheng Guoji Jichang (i.e. airport)
January 18/Undecimber 18, 2016: Nanjing line 4, Longjiang to Xianlin Hu (New line)
January 26/Undecimber 26, 2016: Harbin line 3, Ha[erbin] Xi Zhan (i.e. West station) to Yida Eryuan (New line)
April 15: Suzhou line 4, Longdaobang to Hongli and branch from Hongzhuang to Muli (New line)
June 2: Chengdu line 4, Wansheng to Feiyi Bolanyuan and Wannianchang to Xihe
June 7: Dalian line 1, Huizhan Zhongxin to Hekou
June 7: Dalian line 2, Huiyi Zhongxin to Haizhiyun
June 7: Dalian line 12 (formerly 8, Route 202 and R2), Caidaling to Hekou
June 26: Shijiazhuang line 1, Xiwang to Xiaohe Dadao (New metro)
June 26: Shijiazhuang line 3, Shi'erzhong to Shijiazhuang Zhan (railway station) (New line)
June 30: Changchun line 1, Beihuancheng Lu to Hongzuizi (originally Beihuan to Hongjuzi) (New line)
July 3: Hangzhou line 2, Qianjiang Lu to Gucui Lu
August 18: Nanchang line 2, Ditie Dasha to Nanlu (New line)
August 29: Kunming line 3, Xishan Gongyuan to Dongbu Qiche Zhan (New line)
August 29: Kunming line 6 reopens, Dongbu Qiche Zhan to Jichang Zhongxin (i.e. airport)
September 6: Chengdu line 10, Taipingyuan to Shuangliu Jichang 2 Hangzhanlou (i.e. airport terminal 2) (new line)
December 6: Chengdu line 7, loop line (new line)
December 6: Nanjing line S3, Nanjing Nanzhan (i.e. South station) to Gaojiachong (new line)
December 10: Qingdao line 2, Zhiquan Lu to Licun Gongyuan (new line)
December 26: Hefei line 2, Nangang to Sanshibu (new line)
December 26: Wuhan line 1, Dongwu Dadao to Jinghe
December 26: Wuhan line 8, Jintan Lu to Liyuan (new line)
December 27: Hangzhou line 2 (again), Gucui Lu to Liangzhu
December 27: Wuhan Yangluo line (a.k.a. line 21), Houhu Dadao to Jingtai (new line)
December 28: Chongqing line 5, Yuanbo Zhongxin to Dalongshan (new line)
December 28: Chongqing line 10, Wangjiazhuang to Liyuchi (new line)
December 28: Guangzhou line 4, Jinzhou to Nansha Keyun Gang
December 28: Guangzhou line 9, Gaozeng to Fei'eling (new line)
December 28: Guangzhou line 13, Yuzhu to Xinsha (new line)
December 28: Guangzhou line 14 branch, Xinhe to Zhenlong (new branch without a mainline )
December 28: Guiyang line 1, Xiamaixi to Guiyang Beizhan (i.e. North station) (new metro)
December 28: Nanning line 2, Xijin to Yudong (new line)
December 30: Beijing Fangshan line (a.k.a. line 25), Suzhuang to Yancun Dong
December 30: Beijing Yanshan-Fangshan (Yanfang) line (a.k.a. line 25 West), Yancun Dong to Yanshan (new line)
December 30: Beijing line S1 (a.k.a. line 26), Jin'anqiao to Shichang (new line)
December 30: Nanjing line S9, Xiangyu Lu Nan to Gaochun (new line)
December 30: Shanghai line 9, Yanggao Zhonglu to Caolu
December 30: Shanghai line 17, Hongqiao Huoche Zhan (i.e. the HSR station) to Dongfang Lvzhou (new line)
December 31: Xiamen line 1, Zhenhai Lu to Yannei (new metro)
Undecimber 9/January 9, 2018: Hangzhou line 4, Jinjiang to Puyan

And in the rest of Greater China (so don't bitch about the inclusion of Taiwan):
March 2: Taoyuan Airport line, Taibei Huo[che] Zhan (i.e. Taipei railway station) to Huanbei (new metro, although one can argue it's part of Taibei metro, so we have the same situation as Guangzhou and Foshan).
__________________
Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non nunquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem - Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, from which placeholder text is derived.

tjrgx, Zaz965, gao7, metro-world, DanielFA liked this post

Last edited by CNGL; January 9th, 2018 at 04:22 PM. Reason: 'Undecimber' opening, not yet in dog year...
CNGL no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old December 31st, 2017, 03:36 PM   #822
dimlys1994
Moderator
 
dimlys1994's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2010
Location: Dniepropetrovsk
Posts: 16,342
Likes (Received): 26132

Need to add to the list:

01 June - Huananbei station, Dalian Metro Line 1
16 June - Harbindajie station, Harbin Metro Line 3
28 June - Botanical Garden and Kemulang stations, Guangzhou Metro Line 6
28 December - Gaozeng station, Guangzhou Metro Line 3
30 December - Pingleyuan station, Beijing Subway Line 14
30 December - Nongdananlu station, Beijing Subway Line 16
__________________
Для Вас:
Страница в ВК:

For you:
Facebook & Flickr pages

tjrgx, Zaz965, gao7 liked this post
dimlys1994 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 31st, 2017, 03:52 PM   #823
CNGL
Leudimin
 
CNGL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: Huesca
Posts: 7,459
Likes (Received): 1936

But those don't imply new sections, just infill stations, so I've omitted them. I did add Huizhan Zhongxin of Dalian's line 1 last year because it was an extension (even if it was just one station), and I will include Jichang Bei (Airport North) on Guangzhou's line 3 when it opens.

I've done some calculations, and 516 km of new lines have opened in December alone, including 421 km in the last six days . Now that is something. And this will only be larger every year, as more and more lines are built.
__________________
Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non nunquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem - Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, from which placeholder text is derived.

dimlys1994, Zaz965, DanielFA liked this post
CNGL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 31st, 2017, 04:29 PM   #824
Woonsocket54
PC LOAD LETTER
 
Woonsocket54's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2005
Location: East Millinocket, Maine
Posts: 5,644
Likes (Received): 5759

Quote:
Originally Posted by CNGL View Post
I did add Huizhan Zhongxin of Dalian's line 1 last year because it was an extension (even if it was just one station)
Huizhan Zhongxin-Hekou was a lot more than 1 station.
Woonsocket54 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 31st, 2017, 08:59 PM   #825
CNGL
Leudimin
 
CNGL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: Huesca
Posts: 7,459
Likes (Received): 1936

I was referring to the Fuguo Jie-Huizhan Zhongxin section. The latter station opened a few months after line 1 did.

Here is the ranking of Chinese metros as of January 1:
1. Shanghai, 637 km (1st in the World)
2. Beijing, 594 km (2nd in the World)
3. Guangzhou, 364 km (excluding Guangzhou-Foshan line, 5th in the World)
4. Nanjing, 347 km (6th in the World)
5. Shenzhen, 285 km
6. Chongqing, 264 km
7. Wuhan, 237 km
8. Chengdu, 179 km
(Hong Kong, 174 km)
9. Tianjin, 166 km
10. Dalian, 154 km
(Taibei, 131 km excluding Airport line)
11. Suzhou, 121 km
12. Hangzhou, 108 km
13. Zhengzhou, 95 km
14. Xi'an, 91 km
15. Kunming, 89 km
16. Ningbo, 75 km
17. Hefei, 59 km
18. Wuxi, 56 km
19. Shenyang, 54 km
20. Nanning, 53 km
(Taoyuan, 53 km, Airport line)
21. Nanchang, 52 km
22. Changsha, 50 km
23. Qingdao, 45 km
(Gaoxiong, 42 km)
24. Dongguan, 38 km
25. Changchun, 35 km (excluding line 3)
26. Foshan, 34 km (Guangzhou-Foshan line)
27. Shijiazhuang, 30 km
27. Xiamen, 30 km
29. Fuzhou, 25 km
30. Harbin, 23 km
31. Guiyang, 13 km
__________________
Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non nunquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem - Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, from which placeholder text is derived.

Norge78, Zaz965, metro-world, DanielFA liked this post

Last edited by CNGL; January 1st, 2018 at 11:33 AM.
CNGL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old December 31st, 2017, 09:51 PM   #826
Falubaz
Registered User
 
Falubaz's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2004
Location: Zielona Gora, Polska
Posts: 14,799
Likes (Received): 2940

With Taibei you mean Taipei in Taiwan?
Why you add it here and other taiwanese cities, since this is a different country?
__________________
Zielona Góra - Ziemia Lubuska

₪₪₪Zielona Góra moim okiem₪₪₪ Zielonogórskie autobusy₪₪₪Port Lotniczy ZIElona Góra₪₪₪ BRT₪₪₪ścieżki rowerowe w ZG
₪₪₪[Świat] „Przebłyski pamięci”₪₪₪Moja Ameryka - nie tylko Stany
Falubaz no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 1st, 2018, 10:51 AM   #827
CNGL
Leudimin
 
CNGL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: Huesca
Posts: 7,459
Likes (Received): 1936

Because...
Quote:
Originally Posted by CNGL View Post
Greater China (so don't bitch about the inclusion of Taiwan)
However since Taiwan is not controlled by the People's Republic of China I don't rank cities there. I spell Taipei and Kaohsiung as Taibei and Gaoxiong respectively just for consistency sake (one language, one transliteration). Hong Kong is a special case, using Cantonese instead of Mandarin (in the latter is Xianggang).
__________________
Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non nunquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem - Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, from which placeholder text is derived.

Zaz965, DanielFA liked this post
CNGL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 1st, 2018, 03:21 PM   #828
lawdefender
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2013
Posts: 783
Likes (Received): 1387

Quote:
Originally Posted by CNGL View Post
I was referring to the Fuguo Jie-Huizhan Zhongxin section. The latter station opened a few months after line 1 did.

Here is the ranking of Chinese metros as of January 1:
1. Shanghai, 637 km (1st in the World)
2. Beijing, 594 km (2nd in the World)
3. Guangzhou, 364 km (excluding Guangzhou-Foshan line, 5th in the World)
4. Nanjing, 347 km (6th in the World)
5. Shenzhen, 285 km
6. Chongqing, 264 km
7. Wuhan, 237 km
8. Chengdu, 179 km
(Hong Kong, 174 km)
9. Tianjin, 166 km
10. Dalian, 154 km
(Taibei, 131 km excluding Airport line)
11. Suzhou, 121 km
12. Hangzhou, 108 km
13. Zhengzhou, 95 km
14. Xi'an, 91 km
15. Kunming, 89 km
16. Ningbo, 75 km
17. Hefei, 59 km
18. Wuxi, 56 km
19. Shenyang, 54 km
20. Nanning, 53 km
(Taoyuan, 53 km, Airport line)
21. Nanchang, 52 km
22. Changsha, 50 km
23. Qingdao, 45 km
(Gaoxiong, 42 km)
24. Dongguan, 38 km
25. Changchun, 35 km (excluding line 3)
26. Foshan, 34 km (Guangzhou-Foshan line)
27. Shijiazhuang, 30 km
27. Xiamen, 30 km
29. Fuzhou, 25 km
30. Harbin, 23 km
31. Guiyang, 13 km
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guangfo_Metro

The Guangfo line (32.79 km) has been included in the official statistics of Guangzhou Metro, and this line also has been included in the official statistics of Foshan Metro.

The corrective way is that the Guangfo line in Guangzhou territory section should be included into Guangzhou Metro and the Guangfo line in Foshan territory section should be included into Foshan Metro. Then, there is no more confusion.
__________________
cities visited by me: New York, London, Paris, Venice, Amsterdam, Munich, Zurich, Genève, Hong Kong, Singapore, Bangkok, Manila, Taipei, Sydney, Brisbane, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Durban,

Last edited by lawdefender; January 1st, 2018 at 03:28 PM.
lawdefender no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 1st, 2018, 04:04 PM   #829
CNGL
Leudimin
 
CNGL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: Huesca
Posts: 7,459
Likes (Received): 1936

Fun fact: Of the 31 (mainland) Chinese cities that have metro, 9 didn't open any new section in 2017. They are Shenzhen, Tianjin, Xi'an, Ningbo, Wuxi, Shenyang, Changsha, Dongguan and (if counted apart from Guangzhou, if not the figures are 30 and 8 respectively) Foshan. That according to the Gregorian calendar, if according to the Chinese calendar then add Fuzhou, Zhengzhou and Harbin and possibly remove Tianjin and Shenyang, they had several sections aligned but they fell at the last minute.
Quote:
Originally Posted by lawdefender View Post
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guangfo_Metro

The Guangfo line (32.79 km) has been included in the official statistics of Guangzhou Metro, and this line also has been included in the official statistics of Foshan Metro.

The corrective way is that the Guangfo line in Guangzhou territory section should be included into Guangzhou Metro and the Guangfo line in Foshan territory section should be included into Foshan Metro. Then, there is no more confusion.
Again, should I count the 7 km of Shanghai line 11 beyond Anting in the Suzhou tally instead of Shanghai's? I only count entire lines to one city, and since Guangzhou-Foshan line is also known as Foshan line 1 I count all of it as Foshan. I'll do the other way round when Guangzhou line 7 gets extended into Foshan.
__________________
Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non nunquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem - Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, from which placeholder text is derived.

Zaz965 liked this post
CNGL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 2nd, 2018, 05:45 AM   #830
saiho
Registered User
 
saiho's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: 多伦多/多倫多
Posts: 1,360
Likes (Received): 1292

Quote:
Originally Posted by CNGL View Post
Again, should I count the 7 km of Shanghai line 11 beyond Anting in the Suzhou tally instead of Shanghai's?
No you count it by the network it is in like a regular person. Suzhou paid for the Line 11 extension into Kunshan but it does not connect to the Suzhou Metro (yet). So it is part of the Shanghai system.

Quote:
Originally Posted by CNGL View Post
I only count entire lines to one city, and since Guangzhou-Foshan line is also known as Foshan line 1 I count all of it as Foshan. I'll do the other way round when Guangzhou line 7 gets extended into Foshan.


Which network a line belongs in should not be based off of China's extremely convoluted internal governmental divisions. As planners of subways in China have shown, political boundaries don't mean anything in transport planning unless there is some barrier when transiting across the border.
__________________

DanielFA liked this post
saiho está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old January 2nd, 2018, 05:09 PM   #831
tjrgx
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2013
Location: Boston
Posts: 1,044
Likes (Received): 2815

Some update-to-date statistics of China urban transport

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/L3JX--Y1UNhXcLa8MTRgTQ

(in Chinese)

total mileage reaches 5021.7km in 34 cities before Dec.31.2017

4 more cities (Shijiazhuang, Zhuhai, Guiyang, Xiamen)

Subway: 3881.8 km (77.3%)
Light rail: 233.4 km (4.6%)
Monorail: 98.5 km (2.0%)
Inner-city rapid rail transit: 501.8 km (10.0%)
Metrotram: 243.4 km (4.8%)
Meglev: 58.8km (1.2%)
APM: 4.0 km (0.1%)





__________________

dbhaskar, metro-world, gao7 liked this post
tjrgx no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 2nd, 2018, 07:11 PM   #832
z0rg
fok julle naaiers
 
z0rg's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2003
Location: Madrid
Posts: 24,767
Likes (Received): 16064

Please do you have a list of the cities that will open a subway system within the next 3 years?
__________________
What is dead may never die, but rises again, harder and stronger.

More than 300 supertall projects on going in China.
z0rg no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 2nd, 2018, 10:46 PM   #833
tjrgx
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2013
Location: Boston
Posts: 1,044
Likes (Received): 2815

new cities where metro under construction

Quote:
Originally Posted by z0rg View Post
Please do you have a list of the cities that will open a subway system within the next 3 years?
2018 - Lanzhou, Urumqi
2019 - Macao, Xuzhou, Changzhou, Wuhu
2020 - Taiyuan, Hohhot, Jinan
2021 - Luoyang, Shaoxing
2022 - Nantong
__________________

metro-world, dimlys1994, gao7, z0rg, dbhaskar and 1 others liked this post
tjrgx no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 3rd, 2018, 10:31 PM   #834
prangar
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2015
Location: Budapest, Hungary
Posts: 18
Likes (Received): 9

What about the following cities?

Xining - Haidong
Jinhua
Wenzhou
Baotou
Shantou
prangar no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 4th, 2018, 02:26 AM   #835
tjrgx
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2013
Location: Boston
Posts: 1,044
Likes (Received): 2815

Quote:
Originally Posted by prangar View Post
What about the following cities?

Xining - Haidong
Jinhua
Wenzhou
Baotou
Shantou
Baotou is in trouble....

Wenzhou has Inner-city rapid rail transit S1and S2 under construction
__________________

prangar, DanielFA liked this post
tjrgx no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 10th, 2018, 03:28 PM   #836
ccdk
Registered User
 
ccdk's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2014
Posts: 332
Likes (Received): 969

BYD launches unmanned driving system for monorail
http://www.ecns.cn/business/2018/01-10/287809.shtml

China's biggest electric carmaker BYD launched an unmanned driving system for its monorail train in Yinchuan, capital of the Ningxia Hui autonomous region, on Wednesday. The system will be officially put into use in the second quarter of 2018.

It is the first of such transportation tools in the world to be empowered by self-driving system with 100 percent proprietary intellectual property rights. Meanwhile, China's Huawei Technologies Co Ltd has provided the latest 4.5G eLTE service for the communication system of SkyRail.

BYD's SkyRail, China's first straddle-type monorail system, carried more than 100 passengers along a stretch of track in China Flower Expo Park in Yinchuan, without any human touching the control. In fact, there is no drivers' operation room in the entire train.

The train is steered by a remote system, including initiating, accelerating, and braking to a full stop at station. It can also detect passenger flow, open and close doors.






http://news.mydrivers.com/1/562/562646.htm








http://news.cctv.com/2018/01/10/ARTI...SP180110.shtml






http://www.sohu.com/a/215787090_99960418
__________________

CP11, dimlys1994, Transhumanista, gao7 liked this post
ccdk no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old January 13th, 2018, 04:14 AM   #837
skyridgeline
Registered User
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Posts: 1,524
Likes (Received): 1214

On the morning of January 11, 2018, the first intelligent medium-low-speed maglev test line in China-one of Changsha's low- and medium-speed maglev test line-broke ground in Changsha National Economic Development Zone in Hunan Province, marking the start of construction of China Railway Construction New Rail Transit Equipment Industrial Park. ...

a total length of 5.44 km, the minimum curve radius of 500 meters, the maximum longitudinal slope 70 ‰, the proportion of the bridge 96.3%, designed speed of 160 kilometers per hour, reserve speed of 200 kilometers per hour, ...

The project is expected to be completed within 2018, including the low-speed maglev test line, including the construction of a new comprehensive test track for rail transportation to meet various system requirements, including a 200 km / h magnetostrictive line above 200 km / h Maglev line, 600 km / h high-speed maglev line, maglev freight line and straddle monorail, hanging monorail tram and other test lines ....


- http://rail.ally.net.cn/html/2018/ch...112/43378.html (Google Translate)


The paper [Xiaoxiang Morning News] reported that Hunan is planning eight maglev lines, with a total length of more than 1,000 km. - http://rail.ally.net.cn/html/2017/en_xw_1218/1337.html
__________________

dimlys1994 liked this post
skyridgeline no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old Today, 01:38 AM   #838
saiho
Registered User
 
saiho's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: 多伦多/多倫多
Posts: 1,360
Likes (Received): 1292

China’s Investment in Subways Puts the U.S. to Shame

Quote:
A country largely bereft of metros in the 1990s now has more than 5,000 kilometers of metro lines, more than four times the U.S. figure, which has increased very slowly since the 1960s. 25 Chinese cities now have systems, and the number is rising every year.

Of the 12 largest metro networks in the world by length, seven are now in China. As of December 2017, Guangzhou’s metro passed New York’s Subway in length, and Beijing and Shanghai have by far the longest systems.

Some estimates suggest that Chinese cities will have more than 10,000 kilometers of metro lines by 2020. That’s in addition to the almost 1,000 kilometers of bus rapid transit, hundreds of kilometers of tramways, and massive commuter rail systems that have been built in cities around the country — not to mention the enormous high-speed rail network that has been constructed since 2007.

Source
__________________

dbhaskar liked this post
saiho está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 05:31 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium