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Old June 5th, 2014, 09:26 AM   #81
MattiG
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Where Roads and the Lat/Lon Grid Meet

Another interesting exercise is to locate the positions where meridians or parallels meet a road with a same number.

There are four such places in Finland. The meridians 18-30 East and parallels 60-70 North run across the country. The roads 21, 23, 25 and 27 meet the respective meridians. Interesting enough, no current road crosses the parallel of a same number. The closest one is the road 63 which begins about six kilometers to the north of latitude 63.

Taking the European roads into the scope brings us the fifth hit: The E63 meets the latitude 63.


Last edited by MattiG; June 5th, 2014 at 01:16 PM.
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Old June 5th, 2014, 05:55 PM   #82
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Penn's Woods View Post
Right, except in American English a watershed is any boundary between the drainage areas of two different rivers (or you can call the drainage area itself a watershed - example, "the Chesapeake Bay watershed.") While the Continental Divide is the major one - between Atlantic and Pacific drainage. The Continental Divide is marked on many of the roads that cross it, and closer to me there are signs on I-95 and the Pennsylvania Turnpike showing where you enter and leave the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Chesapeake signs are put up by the Chesapeake Bay Commission, which is some sort of effort of the states involved to clean up the bay and the streams that feed it.

Search "Chesapeake Bay Watershed sign" in Google Images and you get a few examples right at the top.
Having talked about watersheds a while ago, yesterday I came across a sign on the A8 between Ulm and Stuttgart, just before the Swabische Alb. It said "Wasserscheide" with some additional information, but I was going to fast and saw it too late to read it properly.

Perhaps someone can shed some lights on this?
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Old June 5th, 2014, 06:09 PM   #83
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It's the Hauptwasserscheide between Rhine (North Sea) and Danube (Black Sea) drainage basins, at 785 m
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Old June 5th, 2014, 06:27 PM   #84
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Thank you
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Old June 5th, 2014, 06:56 PM   #85
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That's right.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Watershed
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Old June 5th, 2014, 07:57 PM   #86
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Old June 7th, 2014, 11:37 PM   #87
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I just noticed that the airport of Rovaniemi, Finland, is crossed exactly by the Arctic Circle.
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Old June 7th, 2014, 11:49 PM   #88
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And DeGaulle is on 49 north - the same parallel as the long straight stretch of the U.S./Canadian border between the Great Lakes and the Pacific.
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Old June 8th, 2014, 12:20 AM   #89
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Actually the USA-Canada border zig-zags around 49ºN. And it isn't that straight either, since due to the shape of Earth a straight line between Lake of the Woods and the Strait of Juan de Fuca goes well into Canada.
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Old June 8th, 2014, 01:13 AM   #90
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Pedant.

Well, it's supposed to be at 49 North. 19th-century surveying being what it was....
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Old June 8th, 2014, 12:46 PM   #91
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Quote:
Originally Posted by italystf View Post
I just noticed that the airport of Rovaniemi, Finland, is crossed exactly by the Arctic Circle.
True.

The Arctic Circle is today at 66°33'54.09"N and moving to the north. In 2015, it reaches the local maximum and starts moving to the south until 2024. In 2034, it will again reach the local maximum.

The terminal building is located to the south of the Arctic Circle.

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Old June 8th, 2014, 03:20 PM   #92
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I didn't know it. How wide (in meters) is the variation range?
Does it happens to tropics too?
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In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.
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Old June 8th, 2014, 09:37 PM   #93
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Quote:
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I didn't know it. How wide (in meters) is the variation range?
Does it happens to tropics too?
Yes, in happens to tropics, too. The Arctic and Antarctic circles are defined to be located at the latitudes of 90-A, where A is the tilt angle of the Earth. The tropics lie at the latitude of A.

As the tilt angle changes constantly, the circles and tropics move accordingly.

First, there is an almost constant change of -46.815" per 100 years. This equals to about 14.45 meters annually at the Earth surface.

Secondly, there is a phenomena called nutation. Because of the nutation, then tilt angle oscillates around the mean motion. The formula of the nutation consists of 70+ periodical terms. The most visible term has the amplitude of about 9" and the period of 18.6 years. Thus, the variation range caused by the strongest term is about 555 meters.

Combining these we end up the following: For 9.3 years, the Arctic Circle moves about 420 meters away from the North Pole. For the next 9.3 years, it moves 690 meters towards the pole.

The less significant terms of the nutation cause complex oscillations around the principal path, as shown by the chart:



The latitude of the Arctic Circle in the years 2010-2060. The y axis shows the minutes of the latitude in excess of 66 degrees. The distance between the horizontal lines is about 185 meters.

Thus the Arctic Circle really moves forth and back rather quickly. Today, it moves about 1.14 meters to the north. Next Saturday, in will turn back, and it will move to the south for a few days.

All the above applies to tropics too, but mirrored: When the Arctic Circle moves to the north, the Tropic of Cancer moves to the south, and vice versa.

Wikipedia:

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Old June 8th, 2014, 10:06 PM   #94
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Old June 9th, 2014, 02:38 AM   #95
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MattiG View Post
Yes, in happens to tropics, too. The Arctic and Antarctic circles are defined to be located at the latitudes of 90-A, where A is the tilt angle of the Earth. The tropics lie at the latitude of A.

As the tilt angle changes constantly, the circles and tropics move accordingly.

First, there is an almost constant change of -46.815" per 100 years. This equals to about 14.45 meters annually at the Earth surface.

Secondly, there is a phenomena called nutation. Because of the nutation, then tilt angle oscillates around the mean motion. The formula of the nutation consists of 70+ periodical terms. The most visible term has the amplitude of about 9" and the period of 18.6 years. Thus, the variation range caused by the strongest term is about 555 meters.

Combining these we end up the following: For 9.3 years, the Arctic Circle moves about 420 meters away from the North Pole. For the next 9.3 years, it moves 690 meters towards the pole.

The less significant terms of the nutation cause complex oscillations around the principal path, as shown by the chart:



The latitude of the Arctic Circle in the years 2010-2060. The y axis shows the minutes of the latitude in excess of 66 degrees. The distance between the horizontal lines is about 185 meters.

Thus the Arctic Circle really moves forth and back rather quickly. Today, it moves about 1.14 meters to the north. Next Saturday, in will turn back, and it will move to the south for a few days.

All the above applies to tropics too, but mirrored: When the Arctic Circle moves to the north, the Tropic of Cancer moves to the south, and vice versa.

Wikipedia:

Well, wouldn't it follow that every single latitude measurement on the planet is changeable? There must be something they use on maps...is it a mean?
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Old June 9th, 2014, 08:19 AM   #96
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Quote:
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Well, wouldn't it follow that every single latitude measurement on the planet is changeable? There must be something they use on maps...is it a mean?
No, latitudes are relative to the equatorial plane while the tropics and circles are relative to the orbital plane. Therefore, the latitudes remain in place as the axial tilt changes.

To be precise, the latitudes are relative to the so called reference ellipsoid selected as the base of the coordinate system. Different coordinate system may use different reference ellipsoids. Earlier, most governmental land surveying organizations selected the ellipsoid best matching with the shape of the Earth in that country. That implied non-contiguous coordinates at the borders, nowadays considered harmful. The current trend is towards global or near-global coordinate systems.

The differences may be identified by comparing old and new maps.

An example: Let us take an arbitrary point at the Golden Gate. The coordinates of the point in the old NAD27 coordinate system are

37°49.3224'N 122°28.6891'W

In the NAD83 coordinate system currently in use, the same point has the following coordinates:

37°49.3164'N 122°28.7522'W

Thus, in vicinity of the Golden Gate, the latitudes of the NAD27 and NAD83 systems lie about 11 meters apart, and the longitudes about 92 meters apart. The offset varies across the US, and it is close to zero in the area of the Big Lakes.

The differences in the reference ellipsoids explain why GPS devices display a non-zero longitude at the Greenwich Prime Meridian in London.
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