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Old June 23rd, 2014, 02:00 PM   #1
dimlys1994
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UGANDA | Railways

This thread is about railways in Uganda
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Old June 23rd, 2014, 02:02 PM   #2
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From Rail Journal:

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http://www.railjournal.com/index.php...ml?channel=542

Uganda lines up Chinese firms for new lines
Friday, June 20, 2014


The new standard-gauge network will improve railfreight services compared with the existing metre-gauge network which has suffered from years of neglect

THE government of Uganda is planning to invite six Chinese companies to compete for contracts worth up to $US 8.3bn to expand the country's railway network.

Ugandan works minister Mr John Byabagambi told Bloomberg that Uganda has signed an exclusivity agreement with China but he declined to name the companies in question. He said that bidding documents will be ready by July 10 and that the intention is to sign engineering, procurement and construction contracts.

Byabagambi says the new standard-gauge network will speed up freight shipments and carry heavier loads than the country's existing metre-gauge network. The first phase of the project encompasses around 1000km of lines from the border with Kenya to Rwanda, and to a town close to the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. Work on a new line to Gulu and on to South Sudan will take place later, Byabagambi says.

The proposed developments in Uganda follow the start of construction in Kenya on a new line from Mombasa to Nairobi which will be extended through Uganda to the Rwandan capital, Kigali. The Kenyan project is expected to be completed in 2018 and cost $US 13bn, with Byabagambi stating that funding is being sourced from China and Russia.

In addition, Tanzanian president Mr Jakaya Kikwete said in April that his government, along with Rwanda and Burundi, are seeking transaction advisors to secure financing for a $US 4.2bn cross-border railway.
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Old March 24th, 2017, 05:57 PM   #3
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Map of Uganda SGR Alignment - Eastern Route

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Originally Posted by Aaraldi View Post
pulled from the new SGR Newsletter
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Old March 24th, 2017, 05:59 PM   #4
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Standard Guage Railway Uganda Promo

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Old March 24th, 2017, 06:00 PM   #5
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SPECIAL REPORT: What Makes Uganda Standard Gauge Railway Costly?

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Originally Posted by Maendeleo Enthusiast View Post
http://www.chimpreports.com/special-...ailway-costly/

External borrowing is largely dependent on the country’s GDP, Debt to GDP ratio, Revenue to GDP Ratio, and the country’s risk as assessed by international credit rating agencies.

The table below provides some information on the key macro parameters for the respective countries.


The Ethiopian-Djibouti line, which opened in October, cost $3.4 Billion for 656km while the Ugandan leg of 273km will cost $2.3bn. Kenya’s 472km stretch will cost $3.4billion.

Why should Uganda’s railways line be more expensive?

During the interview, Kyamugambi said the construction cost of railways “majorly depends on the unique characteristics of the specific project as determined by the design standard, the geology, terrain and hydrology of the project site.”

Kyamugambi further said the Ministry of Works and Transport carried out a study conducted by an international German consultant Gauff Ingenieure who provided the preliminary Engineering and feasibility study for the Malaba-Kampala SGR based on AREMA[1] standards.

“The consultant estimate without locomotives and rolling stock was USD2.4 billion for an electrified railway system and USD2.0 billion for diesel system,” said Kyamugambi.

“The contract price for the Eastern route, exclusive of locomotives and rolling stock and provisional sums is USD2 billion, but based on superior Chinese standards. Uganda’s contract cost for the Eastern Route of USD2.3 billion therefore includes locomotives, rolling stock and provisional sums,” he elaborated

He emphasised that the contract price and negotiations for the EPC turnkey contract for Malaba-Kampala SGR was based on the Employers requirements derived from the Gauff design, and NCIP agreements which were then provided to CHEC – the contractor.

“It is important to note that the railway systems can all be Standard Gauge but designed to different standards e.g. AREMA or Chinese or British or any other standards.”

Kyamugambi said the Northern Corridor countries agreed on China Class 1 Railway standard to ensure a seamless transport network while Tanzania is basing on AREMA standard while Ethiopia is China Class 2 Standard.

The AREMA standard is not a national standard but a standard of an association of some railways in North America while the Chinese Standard is a national standard.

The railways in the four countries are dominantly freight but will have passenger services.

The passenger trains can move at a faster speed compared to freight trains because they are shorter and lighter while the freight trains are longer and heavier.

Kyamugambi said it is important to differentiate the attainable speeds of passenger and freight trains when analyzing the capabilities of the railway systems.

He further pointed out that Chinese Standards, although engineered from AREMA and British standards are much safer, robust, and durable, for example, the “embankments are higher and compacted to a specified densities, the drainage of the embankment is well done in very strong herringbone structures to protect the embankment leading to lower maintenance cost.”

He said it also has lower operation and maintenance requirements.

Over the last 30 years, it is only China that has invested heavily in railways and used them to catapult their economy, justifying the use of their standard.

Kyamugambi said in railway development, the highest cost is in bridges, followed by the earthworks (embankment), truck, stations, electrification, signaling etc.

For example, on Malaba- Kampala, 35 percent of the route is in bridges, 25 percent is in earth works and 10 percent in track, 10 percent stations, 5 percent electrification, 5 percent in signaling and 10 percent others.

Kyamugambi also pointed to terms of obtaining funds from China.

He said to borrow funds from the China EXIM bank, projects must be designed to Chinese Standards, EPC/Turnkey contracting mode, certain environmental standards must be addressed, and the contractor must be Chinese.



Kyamugambi said given that the Ugandan System is electric (at additional cost of 0.54m/km), with a major super bridge over the River Nile, and with 53KM in a swamp, Ugandan Malaba-Kampala SGR cost is comparatively lower than the Mombasa-Nairobi SGR section in Kenya.

Furthermore, the cost per route-KM for the Naivasha- Kisumu section is USD13.7M per route- KM due to its unique characteristics including difficult terrain especially in the rift valley region where major bridges will be required.

He said Uganda deliberately took a decision to invest in an electric system due to the lower operation and maintenance requirements (at least 40 percent) compared to the diesel system.

“This will significantly reduce the project life time cost,” he noted.

Another important question on everyone’s mind is why invest all this money, of all places, in the Northern Corridor?

Kyamugambi explained that the Northern Corridor is the “busiest and most important transport route in East and Central Africa, providing a gateway through Kenya to the landlocked economies of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Eastern DR Congo. It also serves Southern Sudan.”

The less busy alternative transport network serving the landlocked Great Lakes Region, said Kyamugambi, is through Tanzania, called the Central Corridor linked to Dar Es Salaam. This uses Tanzania’s Central Line.



He further pointed out that the Northern route is important because the exports of Kenya to Uganda are estimated at about USD 1bn and Uganda imports about 10m tonnes through the northern Corridor.

Kyamugambi said the issue of cargo capacity will be severely limited by the fact that each wagon vessel carries 44 containers whereas a train can carry up to 216 containers. Therefore, each train can only be offloaded on into five vessels requiring about 15 hours to load and offload the vessels.

For the Malaba-Kampala SGR, up to 40 trains can be operated in a day transporting 8,460 containers.

“If such amount of Cargo was going to be transported on the lake, assuming that a massive of five wagon ferries are purchased, we would require 40 days to evacuate cargo of one train,” said Kyamugambi.

“This means that the route not be viable. This coupled with the fact that oil products cannot be transported on fresh water make the Dar Es Salaam Mwanza Kampala Route can only be a minor alternative to the Mombasa-Kampala Route which should be looked at as the bark born of the railway network to the sea.”



Kyamugambi said the Ethiopian system was first designed for Class IV and later upgraded to Class II and this resulted in addenda thus increasing the costs.

There are major differences as illustrated above in the terrain, topography and hydrology of the two project sites thus resulting in higher amounts of rock fill, soil cut, embankments, bridges, geo-synthetics that are major cost centres of railway development.

The Class II system looks cheaper at investment stage but will be more expensive in operation and maintenance. Because of the construction standard requirement.

It is important for railways designed for 100 years to look at life cycle costs rather than investment costs.

For the Uganda project one of the major cost centres is the bridge over the River Nile which is 1KM long whereas in Ethiopia the bridge over Awash is significantly narrow.

Kyamugambi said the design of the Ethiopian route was limited by the capacity of Djibouti Port, adding, “if adjustment factors are made for variances in material costs, quantities, risks, cost escalations and transport, the cost in Uganda should be 2.1 higher than the cost in Ethiopia.”



The major differences between the Chinese standard and the AREMA standard are: The formation width (top width of embankment) is 7.7 meters for Chinese standards while AREMA is 6.6 meters.



SGR records indicate the height, design and construction of the embankment which is limited to a minimum of 2.5 meters high for Chinese standard and 0.64 meters for AREMA.

These high embankments in the Chinese standards require slope protection.

The Chinese classification requires the herringbone concrete structure for protection of embankments and concrete masonry for higher embankments of 6 meters while this is not a requirement for the AREMA standards require only benching and grassing.



Kyamugambi said the safety factor in the concrete structures is higher in Chinese standards than the AREMA standards.

“The utilisation of engineering materials especially the geo-synthetics (geogrid and geotextile) for tightening the soft ground, the backfilling material and soft ground treatments are different in both Chinese and AREMA standards,” he observed.

The general design and construction differences in the two standards would therefore make a railway designed and constructed to Chinese standards (which is superior) more expensive than the one designed and constructed to AREMA standards.

Kyamugambi said both the Northern and the central corridor are important for the land locked east African countries but the northern corridor is a more viable route for Uganda as it has a higher potential to spur growth in the country and should be developed fast.
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Old March 24th, 2017, 06:00 PM   #6
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Impression of the proposed Nile Super Bridge



1km long, axle loading 27.5 tones per axle, it will have no pillars in water

From SG Raiway Uganda
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