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Old February 8th, 2005, 05:50 PM   #1
DocentX
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First capitals of Poland and their cathedrals

GNIEZNO



History

There are archeological traces of human settlement since the late Paleolith. Early Slavonic settlements are on the Lech Hill and the Maiden Hill are dated to 8th century and the ducal stronghold was founded just before AD 800 on the Lech Hill, and sorrounded with some fortified suburbs and open settlements.


Legend of Lech, Czech and Rus

According the legends: three brothers Lech, Czech and Rus were penetrating the wilderness to find a place to settle. Sudenly they saw a hill with an old oak and an eagle on top.

Lech said: this white eagle I will adopt as am emblem of my people, and around this oak I will build my stronghold, and because of the eagle nest [Polish: gniazdo] I will call it Gniezdno [modern: Gniezno].

The other brothers went further on to find a place for their people. Czech went to the South and Rus went to the East


Cradle of the Polish State

In 10th century Gniezno became the main city and capital of the early Piast dynasty rulers: Mieszko I and Boleslaw Chrobry, the founders of the Polish State.

Gniezno meeting 1000

It is here that the Gniezno Congress (Meeting at the tomb of Saint Adalbert) took place in the year 1000 AD, during which Boleslaus I the Brave (Boleslaw Chrobry), the first king of Poland, received Otto III, the Emperor of Germany. The two monarchs celebrated the foundation of the Polish ecclesiastical province (archbishopric) in Gniezno, with newly established bishoprics in Kolobrzeg for Pomerania; Wroclaw for Silesia; Krakow for Little Poland and already existing since 968 bishopric in Poznan for western Greater Poland.


Archbishops of Gniezno

Gniezno's Roman Catholic archbishop is traditionally the Primate of Poland (Prymas Polski).
After the partitions of Poland the see was often combined with others, first with Poznan and then with Warsaw. In 1992 Pope John Paul II reorganized the Polish hierarchy and the city once again had a separate bishop. Cardinal Jozef Glemp, who had been archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw and retained Warsaw, was designated to remain Primate until his retirement, but afterward the Archbishop of Gniezno, at present Henryk Muszynski, would again be Primate of Poland.

Royal coronations in Gniezno cathedral

25 December 1024 - Boleslaus I the Brave
25 December 1025 - Mieszko II Lambert
25 December 1076 - Boleslaus the Generous
26 June 1295 - Przemysl II and his wife Margaret
August 1300 - Wenceslaus II of Bohemia

"View of Gniezno Cathedral", miniature in Klemens' of Piotrkow antiphonary, 1509, Chapter Library in Gniezno



Gniezno Cathedral Front



Gniezno Cathedral Side



Gniezno Cathedral inside



Gniezno's cathedral bronze door is referred to as the Golden Gate or the Royal Gate. On both of its wings, epizodes from the life of St. Adalbert are shown. St. Adalbert was the Praque bishop who was killed during his missionary expedition to Prussia in 10th century. The door was made in around 1170-1180, but it is not known who executed it.




other photos of Gniezno cathedral












POZNAN



The first settlements in what is now Poznań can be traced to the late period of the Stone Age. Later various cultures developed here in the Bronze Age and Iron Age.

The first stronghold was built in the 8th-9th century AD on the Ostrów Tumski - an island in the forks of Warta and Cybina rivers.
Subsequently it was surrounded by various settlements on the islands and on both banks of Warta river.

In 10th century Poznan and Gniezno were the main sites of Polish dukes, and centres of the developing Polish state. In 968 the first Polish bishoprics and the first Polish cathedral were founded here. First Polish monarchs of the Piast dynasty Mieszko I, Boleslaus I the Brave and Mieszko II Lambert are buried in the Poznan cathedral.

Poznan became first seat of bishop Jordan, who after the conversion of Mieszko I to Christianity, was the missionary bishop of Poland (968 - 982). The Diocese of Poznan was created in 999, formally in 1000 at the meeting in Gniezno, under jurisdiction of archibishopric of Gniezno, with emperor Otto and Boleslaw I agreeing to create the diocese as a suffragan of Magdeburg. Possibly bishop Unger of Poznańwas imprisoned in Magdeburg and released when he recognized the jurisdiction of Magdeburg, perhaps Unger was disappointed with not being chosen for new archbishop of Poland (since he was missionary bishop to the Poland before 1000, after Jordan's death). After Unger's death and the religious upheavals the diocese of Poznańwas disputed between the Gniezno diocese and the Archbishops of Magdeburg, with Poznan being part of Gniezno church province. In 1133 Poznan was attached by the pope to the archbishop of Magdeburg. However in 1136 a pope again confirmed that Poznan was suffragan of Gniezno.

During the internal fightings and the Bohemian Czech invasion of Brzetyslaw I in 1038, Poznan and Gniezno were destroyed and lost their capital cities status to Cracow under Casimir I the Restorer (1039–1058).

The two cities and bishoprics were rebuilt by the king Boleslaus II the Generous (1058–1079).

Coronations in Poznan cathedral

29 September 1341 - Adelaide of Hessen, wife of Casimir the Great


Poznan cathedral photos:















golden chapel

The Golden Chapel, one of the cathedral's 12 chapels, houses the remains of Poland's first rulers:

Mieszko I ( 940 ? - 992)

Boleslaus I the Brave (966 ? - 1025)



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Old February 8th, 2005, 06:21 PM   #2
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Very nice photos and track of history, and what mostly impresses me is this artwork done on this door, simply awesome



Was the backside of the door also decorated like its front? You got a photo of it as well ?
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Old February 8th, 2005, 11:36 PM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bubach_hlubach
Very nice photos and track of history, and what mostly impresses me is this artwork done on this door, simply awesome



Was the backside of the door also decorated like its front? You got a photo of it as well ?
I really don't know if it's decorated backside , anyway front side is more important.
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Old February 9th, 2005, 10:25 PM   #4
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Poznan cathedral inside - more photos

(sorry for bad quality of some of the photos)







"St. Martin of Tours", 1628, oil on canvas and wood, the Gorka family chapel, Poznan cathedral

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Old August 9th, 2005, 11:37 PM   #5
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I enjoy looking at this
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Old August 11th, 2005, 04:11 AM   #6
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Very nice cathedrals and background to them.
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Old August 16th, 2005, 05:46 PM   #7
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Very nice. Poland has such a magnificent architecture!!! I love it.
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