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Old February 8th, 2005, 09:25 PM   #1
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Troy-Troia-Truva

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Troy is a city which existed over 4.000 years and known as the center of ancient civilizations. For many years people believed that it was the city mentioned only in the tales and never existed until it was first found. At this time it was known as Ilium or New Ilium. Today Troy or New Ilium are places in Hisarlik at Canakkale where the remains of the city can be visited. What was left are the remains of the destruction of Schliemann, the famous German archaeologist (or treasure hunter as some people call him). Today an international team of German and American archaeologists bring the Troy of the Bronze Age back to life under a sponsored project by Daimler - Benz, and another Turkish team is at law wars with Russia and Germany to get back the stolen Trojan treasures. Unfortunately Trojan Gold is at Pushkin Museum today in Moscow.

At first, Troy appeared in Greek and Latin literature. Homer first mentioned story of Troy in Iliad and Odyssey. Later it became the most popular subject in Greek drama and told its story elaborately to next generations. The book of Virgil's Aeneid contains the best known account of the sack of Troy. In addition, there are untrue stories under the names of Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius.

In the Bronze age, Troy had a great power because of its strategic position between Europe and Asia. In the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC Troy was a cultural centre. After the Trojan War, the site was apparently abandoned from 1100 to 700 BC. About 700 BC Greek settlers began to occupy the Troas region. Troy was resettled and named as Ilion. Alexander the Great ruled over the area successively around the 4th century BC. After Romans captured Troy in 85 BC., it was restored partially by Roman general Sulla. After the occupation of Constantinople (Istanbul), Troy lost its importance.

Troy (Truva) located on Hisarlik at Canakkale, one of the Turkish cities in the west of Turkey, the city of Dardanelles, the heart of history at the World War I - Gallipoli (Gelibolu) where Turks wrote the history with the Gallipoli Campaign, loosing 250.000 men. Canakkale has been a crossing point for many armies, traders and migrating people since before history.

Charles McLaren in 1822 found the ruins of Troy left from Hellenistic and Roman Ilion at Hisarlik, Canakkale in Turkey. The German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated Troy from 1870 to 1890. His theft of treasure from Troy and his damage (destruction) to Troy will be always remembered in Turkish archaeological history. A new German excavator team is still working to rebuild Troy ruins by using new advanced technologies since 1988. Wilhelm Dorpfeld followed to excavate Troy after Schliemann. He found nine levels at Troy; Troy I to V relates roughly with early Bronze Age (3000 to 1900 BC). Its inhabitants were known as Trojans in this period. Troy VI and VII were built in the Middle and Late Bronze Age. Troy VIII to IX belongs to Hellenistic and Roman Ilion (Latin Ilium).

In the history, Troy was destroyed many times and rebuilt. Until now archaeologists have found nine levels of Troy labeled from I to IX. Troy is one of the most famous cities in the history, remembering us Hector, Achilles and Achaean Greeks, the sake of Helen, Paris, Agamemnon and Priam. Its story is written in every language, Trojan heroes, Achilles' heel and Odyssey became figures in poems. From Alexander the Great to Lord Byron, many important figures of the history stood on the site of the great heroes. In the history people always wondered whether the Trojan War happened or not.
Was there a real wooden horse?

Troy, situated at a distance of 30 km from the Dardanelles. Troy, which had been founded in the year 3000 B.C., and was demolished and reconstructed nine times until the year 500 A.D. was inhabited incessantly for 3500 years.Troy I. which had been founded in the year 3000 B.C. was demolished in the year 2500 B.C and Troy II. that was founded in its place, was brought to its end by a fire in the 2300's B.C. Troy III, IV.and V. were founded successively. After these strata which were not indicative of a great deal of activity, Troy VI. was founded between the years 1800-1275 B.C. This Troy which is worthy of attention today with its city walls in good condition, was succeeded by Troy VII which is the stratum where the famous war was made. This stratum is divided into strata VIIa and VIIb respectively, and the Trojan war, which was the first war in the world between the east and the west, took place in Troy VIIa in the years of 1200 B.C.


Trojan War and city of Troy:

The tale of Troy is told by Homer with the Iliad and the Odyssey. Homer was drawing on a vast cycle of stories about Trojan War. The Iliad includes a few weeks in the tenth year of the war.

According to Greek sources, Troy stood near the Dardanelles. There was no dispute about its location in the story that we are all familiar: the Dardanelles, the islands of Imbros, Samothrace and little Tenedos, Mount Ida to the south east, the plain and the river Scamander. It was an ancient city an its inhabitants were known as Teucrians or Dardanians but also as Trojans or Ilians which got this name from eponymous heroes, Tros and his uncle Ilus, the inventors of the city. In other source mentioned that Troy and Ilius were two separate places but Homer insists on using these two names for Troy.

On the mainland of Greece at that time, the most powerful king was Agamemnon. His residence was at Mycenae. At that time, the inhabitants of Greece called themselves as Arhaians, Danaans, or Argiues not Greeks or Hellenes. Agamemnon married Clytemnestra, daughter of Tyndareus of Sparta and sister to Helen. Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world. she had married with Agamemnon's brother Menelaos who became king in Lakonia. Two brothers had a great power in southern Greece.

On the other hand, in Troy Laemedon was the king of Ilios, the son of Ilus who had given his name to Troy. Laemedon tried to cheat the gods of their rewards. He would not give up the immortal snow - white horses sent by Herakles (Hercules). But Herakles sailed to the Troad (Troy), attacked, and captured the city. Laemedon and his sons were killed except the youngest, Podarces, who was released and took a new name, Priam, as a young king of Troy and the city was restored again.

Priam ruled over Troy successfully for three generations. He had fifty sons and twelve daughters. His eldest son was the great warrior Hector. And one of his sons, Paris, was the important instrument in Troy's History.

The famous myth tells, Eris -strife- had thrown down a golden apple 'for the fairest' at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, and Zeus, king of gods, couldn't decide between his wife Hera, Athena (goddess of wisdom), and Aphrodite (goddess of love). The goddesses were led to the Trojan Mount Ida where Priam's most handsome son Paris was living. Hera offered him the lordship of all Asia; Athena, victory in war and wisdom beyond any other man; Aphrodite, the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta and as usual men being men, stories being stories, Paris gave the apple to Helen.

The tale is simple and quite realistic. Paris goes to Sparta to give the apple to Helen. Menelaus, husband of Helen gives a feast for him. When Menelaus left there to visit the king of Knossos, Helen and Paris run away and sailed to Troy. But there is some contradiction in this part, some source says that Paris carried of Helen by force and plundered elsewhere in the Aegean sea before returning to Troy.

When Menelaus heard what happened, he begged his brother Agamemnon to take revenge. The king sent envoys to Troy to demand Helen's restitution but envoys came back with empty hands. Then Menelaus collects an army. In the story, great heroes were Achilles, Odysseus (Ulysses) and Ajax. At Aulis, the army seers read the signs that Troy would fall in the tenth year of the war. Then Menelaus army sailed to Asia Minor and attacked Teuthrania in Mysia opposite of Lesbos, but they had mistaken according to Trojan territory and the army were beaten at the mouth of the Caicus river and driven back to their ship by Telephus, king of Mysia and ally of Troy.

The Greeks assembled again at Aulis but they were wind bound and unable to sail. Wings, hunger, evil harborage, crazing men, routing ships and cables stopped the Greek army, because Agamemnon had offended Artemis and his most beautiful daughter had to be sacrificed to change the fortune.

After the sacrification of Iphigenia, the army reached first Lesbos, then Tenedos which is an island visible from Troy. The islands were plundered. At the end, Greek army was at the bay of Troy. The Trojans also had allies from several places in Asia Minor and Thrace. The war took 10 years. In the tenth year of the war, the Greeks stopped raiding Asia Minor and attacked Troy. In a part of Homer's Iliad, Hector falls in a single combat with Achilles, the best Greek warrior, the fight was finished with the death of Hector and Achilles' friend Patroclus. Achilles sacrificed twelve noble Trojan captives over Hector's funeral. After the death of Trojan ally Memnon in a battle at the Scaeon gate, Paris strikes Achilles in his heel (the famous 'Achilles heel' comes from here), the only place where Achilles was vulnerable. And the greatest of all Greek heroes was burned and his ashes buried on a hill overlooking the Hellespont. Ajax committed suicide with the silver sword which had been given to him by Hector as a mark of respect. Somehow Priam's son Paris killed by Philoktetes, but the Trojans still refused to give Helen up.

A wooden horse was built to gain access to the city as a plan. Well armed men, among them Odysseus of Ithaca and Menelaus, were hidden in it. The horse was left as a thank to Athena and the Greeks burned their camps and sailed as if they had given up. Trojans found the horse and the ashes of the camp and pulled the horse into the city. 'It was midnight', says a fragment from the epic known as the little Iliad, 'and full moon was raising'. The soldiers jumped down from horse and opened the gates by killing the guards. The Greeks entered into the city and killed all Trojans. After the Greek massacre, none of the males were left alive in the city. Neoptolemus killed old Priam on the threshold of his royal house. The male children of Trojan heroes were slaughtered. Hectors little boy was thrown from the walls. Menelaus decided to kill Helen but in front of her beauty he gave up. After plundering and burning the city, the Greeks left Troy.

But this victory brought only more suffering to the Greeks. They were split up by storms and lost their way to return. Agamemnon, the king of Greeks was killed by his wife. Philoktetos was expelled from Thessaly by rebels


Maps












Plans









Plain of Troy




Temple of Athena








Early Ramp



Projectiles




Sanctuary(Baths,Wells)





Sarcophagi(Stone Coffin)



Odeon








South Gate





Eastern Walls



Fortification Wall



West Bastion




Panoramic View from East







Altars and Columns





Palace House






[B]Burnt City[/B]






Dolia





Drain Pipes



Trojan Horse(Model)



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Old February 9th, 2005, 02:59 AM   #2
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These Belong to Troy(from museums in Germany)

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The Treasure of Troy

Heinrich Schliemann was not the most famous archaeologist of his day, though he was famous. Neither was he the most skilled. He rarely followed good archaeological procedures at his excavations and was roundly criticized by later archaeologists. He wasn't even the most scrupulous of those in his profession, something confirmed by his illegal smuggling of a priceless historic treasure out of the country of Turkey.



The Mask of Agamemnon














Weapons






















Pushkin Museum Russia-Trojan Gold is currently there







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Old February 9th, 2005, 03:12 AM   #3
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Trojan Horse(In Troy Movie)(Brought to Turkey)





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Old February 9th, 2005, 08:57 AM   #4
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CHARACTERS OF THE WAR

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HELEN OF TROY

There are a couple of different stories about Helen's parents. Her father is Zeus. In one story, he couple with Nemesis in the form of swans. The egg which resulted was entrusted to Leda, who hatched it. In another story, Zeus seduced Leda in the form of a swan and produced the egg from which Helen hatched. In either case, it is apparant that she is of divine birth. Her siblings were Clytemnestra (Agamemnon's wife) and the Dioscouri (Gemini).

Helen was proclaimed to be the most beautiful of all mortal women and was abducted at a young age by Theseus and Peirithous, who drew straws to see who would marry her when she reached the proper age. Theseus won the draw and agreed that he would help Peirithous find an equal mate. He chose Persephone. While they were away, Helen was rescued by her brothers and taken back home. As she got older a great contest was held for her hand in marriage. Odysseus advised her step-father, Tyndareus, to make the suitors promise to defend his choice, and so he chose Menelaus. He was the brother of Helen's sister's husband, Agamemnon. They were very happy together until Paris came into Helen's life.

Aphrodite made Helen fall in love with Paris, as she promised him for choosing her the most beautiful of the goddesses. paris had to choose between Aphrodite, Hera and Athene. This caused Helen to run away to Troy with Paris...with part of her husband's riches. Because the Trojans would not return the loot or his wife, Menelaus assembled a great army and headed to Troy to take back what belonged to him.

After Paris was killed during the ten year seige, his brothers started arguing over who would get their brother's wife. Helen was forced to marry Deiphobus. She even tried to escape, but was brought back. When the wooden horse was brought into the city, Helen knew what was up and mocked the wives of the men inside the horse causing a few of them to almost break their silence.

Once the fight inside the city walls began, Menelaus headed straight to Helen's quarters intending to kill her. He was side-tracked by a fight with Helen's new husband, Deiphobus, whom she stabbed. This factor and the sight of Helen's bare breasts made Menelaus rethink his plan, and he took Helen safely to the ship. They lived out the rest of their days happily. To protect Helen, Zeus had Apollo wrap her in a cloud and bring her to Olympus to reunite with her brothers.

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ACHILLES

Achilles was the son of the mortal Peleus and the Nereid Thetis. He was the mightiest of the Greeks who fought in the Trojan War, and was the hero of Homer's Iliad.

Thetis attempted unsuccessfully to make her son immortal. There are two versions of the story. In the earlier version, Thetis anointed the infant with ambrosia and then placed him upon a fire to burn away his mortal portions; she was interrupted by Peleus, whereupon she abandoned both father and son in a rage. Peleus placed the child in the care of the Centaur Chiron, who raised and educated the boy. In the later version, she held the young Achilles by the heel and dipped him in the river Styx; everything the sacred waters touched became invulnerable, but the heel remained dry and therefore unprotected.

When Achilles was a boy, the seer Calchas prophesied that the city of Troy could not be taken without his help. Thetis knew that, if her son went to Troy, he would die an early death, so she sent him to the court of Lycomedes, in Scyros; there he was hidden, disguised as a young girl. During his stay he had an affair with Lycomedes' daughter, Deidameia, and she had a son, Pyrrhus (or Neoptolemus), by him. Achilles' disguise was finally penetrated by Odysseus, who placed arms and armor amidst a display of women's finery and seized upon Achilles when he was the only "maiden" to be fascinated by the swords and shields. Achilles then went willingly with Odysseus to Troy, leading a host of his father's Myrmidons and accompanied by his tutor Phoenix and his close friend Patroclus. At Troy, Achilles distinguished himself as an undefeatable warrior. Among his other exploits, he captured twenty-three towns in Trojan territory, including the town of Lyrnessos, where he took the woman Briseis as a war-prize. Later on Agamemnon, the leader of the Greeks, was forced by an oracle of Apollo to give up his own war-prize, the woman Chryseis, and took Briseis away from Achilles as compensation for his loss. This action sparked the central plot of the Iliad, for Achilles became enraged and refused to fight for the Greeks any further. The war went badly, and the Greeks offered handsome reparations to their greatest warrior; Achilles still refused to fight in person, but he agreed to allow his friend Patroclus to fight in his place, wearing his armor. The next day Patroclus was killed and stripped of the armor by the Trojan hero Hector, who mistook him for Achilles.

Achilles was overwhelmed with grief for his friend and rage at Hector. His mother obtained magnificent new armor for him from Hephaestus, and he returned to the fighting and killed Hector. He desecrated the body, dragging it behind his chariot before the walls of Troy, and refused to allow it to receive funeral rites. When Priam, the king of Troy and Hector's father, came secretly into the Greek camp to plead for the body, Achilles finally relented; in one of the most moving scenes of the Iliad, he received Priam graciously and allowed him to take the body away.

After the death of Hector, Achilles' days were numbered. He continued fighting heroically, killing many of the Trojans and their allies, including Memnon and the Amazon warrior Penthesilia. Finally Priam's son Paris (or Alexander), aided by Apollo, wounded Achilles in the heel with an arrow; Achilles died of the wound. After his death, it was decided to award Achilles' divinely-wrought armor to the bravest of the Greeks. Odysseus and Ajax competed for the prize, with each man making a speech explaining why he deserved the honor; Odysseus won, and Ajax then went mad and committed suicide.

During his lifetime, Achilles is also said to have had a number of romantic episodes. He reportedly fell in love with Penthesilia, the Amazon maiden whom he killed in battle, and it is claimed that he married Medea
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Briseis

Briseis was the daughter of Briseus and lived in Lyrnessus. Her husband was Mynes, son of Euenus.Achilles defeated Lyrnessus (and killed Mynes) during the Trojan War and took Briseis as a prisoner.Achilles reluctantly gave up Briseis (some say at the bidding of Athena). However, Achilles was angry at Agamemnon and refused to fight in the war. This tipped the war in the Trojans' favor.Because the Greeks suffered heavy defeats as a result of Achilles not fighting, Agamemnon promised to give Briseis back to Achilles. Achilles was also promised a large sum of money.Achilles refused Agamemnon's entreaty and only after the death of his friend, Patroclus, did Achilles return to the war.Briseis was then returned to Achilles.In the Trojan War, captive women like Briseis were little more than objects to be traded amongst the warriors. They had no real standing, and were, in fact, spoils of war. Interestingly, in the funeral games Achilles organizes for Patroclus, one of the prizes is a woman who is said in the Iliad to be "skilled in much work of her hands, and they rated her at four oxen". Ovid's Briseis recognizes her position, and proclaims that she will go as a captive with Achilles, for she loves him as if her were her "master, husband, and brother."Briseis' proclamation that Achilles is like a "master, husband, and brother" serves to show how alone she is. She has seen her world destroyed, she is in a new land, with new people, and with a new status. The only thing she has to hold on to is her reliance on Achilles (a man who killed her husband). Achilles then takes on three roles (master, husband, brother) in the eyes of Briseis. Perhaps, then, it is not love that inspires Briseis' impassioned speeches. Instead, maybe it is desperation

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HECTOR

Hector was the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba; he was the husband of Andromache and the father of Astyanax.

Hector was the mightiest warrior on the side of Troy during the Trojan War, and he led many of the attacks against the Greek troops. He and Ajax fought to a draw in single combat, and he killed Patroclus, the close friend and companion of Achilles. He was eventually killed by Achilles, who was eager to avenge Patroclus' death. Achilles then desecrated Hector's corpse by dragging it behind his chariot before the walls of Troy, and refused to give up the body for burial. Achilles only allowed the body to receive funeral rites after King Priam came to his tent to plead for its return in person. Priam convinces Achilles to permit him to bury Hector. The final passage in the Iliad is his funeral, after which the doom of Troy is just a matter of time. In the final sack of Troy, as described in Book II of the Aeneid, his father and many of his brothers are killed, his son is hurled from the walls in fear that he would avenge Hector, and his wife is carried off by Neoptolemus.

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PARIS

Paris was the youngest son of Priam and Hecuba. When he was born, it was foretold that he would be the cause of the downfall of Troy, as told in a dream of Hecuba. He was sent out of Troy in hopes that the message would be false. He went to Mount Ida in order to be a shepherd.

Eris, the goddess of strife, was not invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis. She came anyway, and she threw a golden apple into the middle of the wedding. Inscribed on the apple was a message. It read "To the fairest." Immediately, the apple was claimed by Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. They all asked Zeus to decide on who should receive the apple. Zeus knew how much trouble he would be in if he decided on one, because the other two would have grave revenge. So Zeus descended to Mount Ida where Paris was farming and asked him to be the Judge.

Paris, being a mortal, could not decide. However, each of the three goddesses decided to make it easier for him. They would each offer him gifts, and he would get the gifts form the goddess he chose.

Hera offered Paris power. She offered to give him all of Asia, and great power. He thought this offer was great, but he decided to hear the other offers first before deciding.

Athena offered him great wisdom, and great luck in battle. He would be the best strategist in the world. He loved this idea, but he waited to hear Aphrodite's offer.

Aphrodite offered him two things. The first was his body, and the second was the love of the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen. Since Paris's first love was women, he decided to pick Aphrodite's offer. Hera and Athena vowed vengeance.

Paris soon went home to Troy after that, and with Aphrodite's help, he managed to send a fleet of ships, break into Menelaus's palace in Greece and kidnap Helen. He also took a lot of treasure with him.

As Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world, all of her suitors were the most powerful people in Greece. In order for peace to be kept when Helen chose a suitor, all other suitors must vow to keep Helen as the wife of whom she chose. So when Helen chose Menelaus, all of the other suitors had to agree that if anyone tried to kidnap her, they would try to get her back. So, when Paris kidnapped her, all of Greece declared war on the city of Troy.

These actions of Paris and Aphrodite started the Trojan war. Paris fights, but he is mostly out of legend until Hector is killed by Achilles. While Achilles and his allies bring Hector's body back into Troy for a funeral, Paris take a bow and arrows and shoots it at Achilles. Apollo guides his arrow so that it hits Achilles's foot, in the famous Achilles tendon. Achilles dies. Paris is soon killed afterwards in the war.

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PRIAM

Priam was the son of Laomedon and was the king of Troy. He became king after Laomedon and all of Priam's brothers were killed by Heracles in the first sack of Troy. Priam himself was the father, by his wife Hecuba and other women, of fifty sons and many daughters, including Hector, Paris, and Cassandra. He unsuccessfully defended his city during the Trojan War, at the end of which Troy was sacked a second time and was finally destroyed.

During the Trojan War, Priam's son Hector was killed by the Greek hero Achilles. In one of the most moving scenes of the Iliad, Priam courageously entered the Greek camp by night and pleaded with Achilles to return Hector's body for burial. Priam himself was finally killed by Achilles' son, Neoptolemus, upon an altar of Zeus in the center of Troy


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AGAMEMNON

Agamemnon was the son of Atreus and the brother of Menelaus. He was the king of either Mycenae (in Homer) or of Argos (in some later accounts), and was the leader of the Greek forces during the Trojan War. He married Clytemnestra and had several children by her, including Orestes, Electra, and Iphigenia.

When the Greeks sailed for Troy, their fleet was trapped by unfavorable winds at Aulis. The seer Calchas revealed that their misfortune was due to Agamemnon, who had boasted that he equalled Artemis in hunting; the winds would only change if Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia was sacrificed. Agamemnon reluctantly agreed to the sacrifice, but Artemis herself whisked Iphigenia away from the altar and substituted a deer in her place.

During the seige of Troy, Agamemnon offended the greatest of the Greek warriors, Achilles, when he took the girl Briseis from him. Achilles' anger with Agamemnon furnished the mainspring of the plot in the Iliad. After the sack of Troy, Agamemnon acquired Cassandra, the daughter of King Priam, as his concubine, and took her home with him to Greece.

Agamemnon had an unhappy homecoming. He was either blown off course and landed in the country of Aegisthos, or he came home to his own land to find Aegisthus waiting for him. In either case, Aegisthus had become the lover of Clytemnestra, and the two together murdered Agamemnon and Cassandra shortly after their arrival. Aegisthus and Clytemnestra then ruled Agamemnon's kingdom, but were eventually killed by Agamemnon's son, Orestes (or by Orestes and Electra in some accounts). The homecoming of Agamemnon and its aftermath were favorite subjects for Greek tragedy.


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PATROCLUS

The son of Menoetius (2), king of Opus in Locris. After the accident with his friend Clysonymus, the young Patroclus was taken to Peleus. Here he grew up with Achilles and became his closest friend. He followed Achilles to Troy as his brother-in-arms, and when Achilles refused to fight in order to annoy Agamemnon, Patroclus appeared in Achilles' armor at the head of the myrmidons and was slain by Hector. This made Achilles so angry, that he refused to rest until he had killed Hector, and honored his friend's death by solemn burial rites.

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CASSANDRA

Cassandra was the most beautiful of the daughters of Priam and Hecuba, the king and queen of Troy. She was given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, who wished to seduce her; when she accepted his gift but refused his sexual advances, he deprived her prophecies of the power to persuade.

At the end of the Trojan War, Cassandra foresaw the danger posed by the Trojan horse; the people of Troy ignored her warnings and the Greek soldiers hiding inside the horse were able to capture the city. During the sack of Troy, Cassandra was raped by the Locrian (or "lesser") Ajax, and was then given as a war prize to Agamemnon. She returned to Greece with Agamemnon, and tried to warn him of the danger which awaited him there; once again her prophecy was ignored, and both she and Agamemnon were murdered by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus
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POLYXENA

Polyxena was the youngest daughter of Priam and Hecuba. During the time when the Greeks and Trojans gathered together in peace for the burial rites of Hector, Achilles spotted Polyxena and immediately fell in love with her. Priam promised the hero her hand if he would use his influence towards his army to grant them peace. Achilles agreed, and made an appointment for an interview with the Trojans in the temple of Apollo, where he came unarmed. But Priam's sons had set a trap for Achilles, and inside the temple Paris (with the help of Apollo) shot Achilles' vulnerable heel with an arrow. Achilles died from the wound.

After the fall of Troy and before the Greek survivors can return home, the ghost of Achilles demands the sacrifice of Polyxena on his grave, mirroring the sacrifice of Iphigenia which enabled them to get a breeze for Troy ten tears before. The princess was dragged to the altar, where the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus, ruthlessly slayed her

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AJAX

Ajax was the son of Telamon, king of Salamis. After Achilles, he was the mightiest of the Greek heroes in the Trojan War.

Ajax was a huge man, head and shoulders larger than the other Greeks, enormously strong but somewhat slow of speech. In the Iliad, he is often called the "wall" or "bulwark" (herkos) of the Greeks. When Achilles had withdrawn from the fighting at Troy, it was Ajax who went forth to meet Hector in single combat; by the time darkness fell the fight was still a stalemate, but Ajax had wounded Hector without sustaining injury himself

After Achilles' death, Ajax competed with Odysseus for the ownership of Achilles' armor. Both men delivered speeches explaining their own merits, but Odysseus was by far the more eloquent and won the prize. Ajax was driven mad by his disappointment. According to one account, he vowed vengeance on the Greeks and began slaughtering cattle, mistaking them for his former comrades-in-arms. He finally committed suicide.

Ajax is often called "Telemonian Ajax" or "the greater Ajax," to distinguish him from Ajax the Lesser the son of Oileus, who also fought for the Greeks at Troy.


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MENELAUS

Menelaus was the son of Atreus and the brother of Agamemnon. He was married to Helen, and became the ruler of Helen's homeland, Lacedaemon; the couple had a daughter, Hermione. Helen's abduction by Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy, was the cause of the Trojan War.

Menelaus fought bravely at Troy, although he did not occupy as important a position as his brother Agamemnon, who was the commander-in-chief of the Greek forces. At one point he agreed to settle the conflict by single combat with Paris, but Aphrodite interfered to prevent the duel from being decisive, and Athene prompted a resumption of hostilities.

During his return from Troy, Menelaus' ships were becalmed on the island of Pharos, near Egypt. In order to discover what he should do to obtain fair winds for the journey, Menelaus had to consult Proteus, the old man of the sea. He waited until Proteus had gone to sleep among his herd of seals and then seized him tightly. Proteus changed into many shapes in an attempt to escape, but Menelaus perservered, refusing to let go. Finally Proteus, unable to get free, agreed to answer Menelaus' questions truthfully. He described the sacrifices necessary to appease the gods and gain safe passage across the sea, as well as revealing that the gods would transport Menelaus to Elysium at the end of his mortal life.


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ANDROMACHE

Andromache was the daughter of Eetion, ruler of the Cilician city of Thebe; she was the wife of the Trojan hero Hector and the mother of Astyanax.

Andromache's father and brothers were killed by Achilles when he captured Thebe during the Trojan War; her mother was spared and ransomed, but died in Troy before its fall. During the seige of Troy, Achilles also killed her husband, Hector, and then desecrated his body. Andromache herself became the slave and concubine of Neoptolemus, Achilles' son, when Troy was captured; her son Astyanax was flung by the Greeks from the walls of Troy.

After the end of the Trojan War, Andromache was taken to Greece by Neoptolemus and bore him a son, Molossus, who gave his name to the Molossian people. Following Neoptolemus' death, Andromache married Helenus, one of the few surviving children of King Priam of Troy; Helenus became the ruler of the Greek region of Epirus

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ASTYANAX

Astyanax was the son of Hector and Andromache, and therefore the eldest grandson of Priam. He died only a baby during the fall of Troy, when the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus, threw him over the wall of Troy. Neoptolemus said to Andromache, "Since my father killed his father he might try to avenge the death. He also could become King of Troy, and we want no more kings of Troy!"


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NEOPTOLEMUS

Neoptolemus, also called Pyrrhus, was the only son of Achilles and grandson of Peleus. When Achilles disguised himself as a girl in the court of the king of Scyros to avoid taking part in the Trojan War, he had an affair with Deidamea, the king's daughter, who bore him the child. Twenty years later in the war, after the death of Achilles and Ajax and no signs of victory for the Greeks, the Greeks desperately captured the Trojan seer, Helenus, and forced him to tell them under what conditions could they take Troy. Helenus revealed to them that they could defeat Troy if they could achieve the poisonous arrows of Heracles (then at Philocthetes); steal the Palladium (which lead to the building of the famous wooden horse of Troy); and persuade Achilles' son to join the war. The Greeks made haste to fetch Neoptolemus at Scyros, and brought him to Troy.

Being the youngest of the Greek warriors at that time, Neoptolemus' behavior was also the most savage and cruelest among them, often being contrasted to Achilles. Among those he killed in the war were the courageous King Priam, his youngest daughter Polyxena, and Hector's son Astyanax. After the fall of Troy, he took Hector's widow, Andromache, as a concubine and sailed to the Epirot Islands with Phoenix and Helenus. He became the king of Epirus who condemned Odysseus to exile after the latter slayed the large number of suitors at his house. Neoptolemus had a son named Molossus from Andromache, and he is also said to have a daughter, Olympias, who later became the mother of Alexander the Great.

Eventually, Neoptolemus met his death either after he later robbed Hermione from her husband Orestes, or after he tried to claim satisfaction from the death of Achilles to the god who killed the hero, Apollo. In either case, Orestes murdered him in Apollo's temple at Delphi, but some say it was a Delphian cult of Apollo who killed him
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HECUBA

The daughter of Dymas, wife of Priam, king of Troy, and mother of Paris and Hector. After the fall of Troy, she was taken captive by the Achaeans and enslaved.

In various scenes depicting the Trojan war, she is portrayed on Greek vases as a beautiful young woman. A fresco in the Casa di Cecilio Iucundo at Pompeii shows a sad Hecuba looking down from a window on the procession that returns Hector's body to Troy.

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IPHIGENIA

Iphigenia is best known as the daughter Agamemnon, leader of the Greek forces at Troy, had to sacrifice in order to appease Artemis. Agamemnon, or perhaps one of the troops in the Greek force of Menelaus (the brother of Agamemnon) offended Artemis, the virgin goddess of the hunt either by killing one of her sacred animals and/or by boasting immoderately that his hunting skill exceeded even that of Artemis. Artemis sent a contrary wind, which held the Greek fleet in the bay of Aulis, where it had assembled before sailing to Troy. The prophet Calchas divined that the daughter of Agamemnon would have to be sacrificed to atone for the offence. Agamemnon then summoned Iphigenia from home under the ruse that she was to be married to Achilles. When the sacrifice was about to be made, however, Iphigenia is miraculously transported to Taurus, a city on the Black Sea, and an animal sent in her place. It is interesting, and perhaps significant, that the story of Iphigenia's sacrifice is not mentioned in the Iliad or the Odyssey, despite there being ample opportunity and reason to do so. The earliest source for the story is in the report we have of the lost Homeric Cypria (which is usually thought to date one to two centuries after the Homeric epics). In the next source, Aeschylus' play The Libation Bearers (c. 460 BCE), Clytemnestra, the wife of Agamemnon, mentioned the killing of Iphigenia as part of her justification for killing Agamemnon upon his return to Mycene after the Trojan War. The two plays of Euripides, Iphigenia at Aulis, and Iphigenia at Tauris, are centered on the story of Iphigenia. The story also gets minor mention in Hesiod's Catalogue of Women and Eoiae 71, which reports that she was changed into the goddess Hecate instead of being sacrificed.

The complexity of Iphigenia's story is present in many of the heroines of Greek mythology. Many of them appear either to have been goddesses in earlier times--which powers they have lost in the historical period--or are so similar to known goddesses that they appear to be hardly more than a different name for the same divinity. Iphigenia is so closely associated with Artemis, that her name is frequently seen as a mere epithet for Artemis, which justifies the suspicion that Iphigenia might have originally been another competing virgin goddess of the hunt, whose character and functions were subsumed by Artemis.

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LEDA&CLYTEMNESTRA

Leda was the daughter of Thestius and the wife of Tyndareus. She has been known as the Queen of Sparta. Leda was seduced by Zeus when he came to her in the form of a swan. Leda gave birth to an egg. From it hatched the Dioscuri, the twins Castor and Pollux. With Zeus she also had Helen and with Tyndareus she had Clytemnestra. Clytemnestra was the wife of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae. She was one of the tragic women in the Trojan War. While Agamemnon was away in the war, Clytemnestra took Aegisthus as her lover, and together they plotted to kill Agamemnon when he returned. One of her reasons was her husband's sacrifice of their daughter. When Agamemnon returned Clytemnestra pretended to greet him. Later, while Agamemnon bathed, Clytemnestra murdered him. She, herself was killed by her son Orestes.

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LAOCOON

A Trojan priest. He threw a lance at the wooden horse of the Greeks and warned the Trojans about it. The gods had two huge serpents emerge from the ocean, and they tore Laocoon and his two sons apart.








Some icons showing characters


Leda and the Swan





From left to right: Helen, Paris, Andromache, Hector, Kebriones. Horses and bird.




Menelaos and Helen:Helen is pleading for her life to Menelaos



Paris and Helen





Paris abducting Helen

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Paris (far left) and Helen (centre) gaze at each other amorously, while Venus (far right) complacently observes her handiwork and Cupid, his job done, sits at her feet. Campanian red-figure situla (bucket), about 350-340 BC GR 1928.7-19.3




Priam supplicates to Achilles in his tent. The body of Hector under the couch




Judgement of Paris

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Paris sits at the right playing the lyre and minding his sheep while
Juno (identified by her sceptre) hands him the golden apple that he is supposed to give to the fairest of the three goddesses. Minerva stands in the middle (identified by her snake-fringed aegis and spear); Venus comes climactically last, her charms carefully concealed - to be spectacularly revealed at the right moment. Athenian red-figure hydria (water jar), about 470 BC GR 1873.9.20.353 (Vases E 178)



Achilles vs Hector

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In the centre the two greatest heroes of the Trojan war confront each other. Achilles (left) charges forward irrepressibly while Hector, already wounded in two places, falls back. Athenian red-figure krater (mixing bowl), about 500-480 BC GR 1848.8-4.1 Vases E 468




Achilles



Embassy of Achilles



Achilles grieving for Briseis



Hector arming (Hecuba and Priam assisting him)




Sacrifice of Iphigenia

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Iphigeneia approaches the altar behind which stands the priest with his knife ready to sacrifice her. She is shadowed by the deer that at the last moment will be substituted for her. Apulian red-figure krater (mixing bowl), about 360-350 BC GR




Death of Priam

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An image captures the horror of the sack of Troy: the double murder of king Priam and his grandson, the son of Hector. Priam has been pushed down on the altar (that should have provided him with sanctuary) and is about to be battered to death by the baby held in the raised right hand of the warrior to the left, Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles. Athenian black-figure amphora (storage jar), about 540 BC GR 1842.2-3-14.3 (Vases B 205)



Sacrifice of Polyxena

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The ill-fated, innocent Trojan princess Polyxena has her throat cut over an altar, her log-like body firmly held by three Greek warriors, while Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, plunges the sword in. Athenian black-figure amphora (storage jar), about 570-550 BC GR 1897.7-27.2



Peleus and Thetis




Achilles and Ajax




Death of Sarpedon.

Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death) carry away the body of Sarpedon as Hermes (center) looks on.




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Old February 11th, 2005, 11:43 PM   #5
Arpels
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WOWWWWWWWWWW
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Old February 12th, 2005, 01:51 AM   #6
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Ridiculous thread, overloaded with information.

Way, way, way too many pics ... my computer almost crashed trying to load them all, I actually gave up in the end.

I'm very tempted to lock this thread, to serve as a warning to others, but I won't.

In future, please try to LIMIT the number of pics and information you post. Have some consideration for people with slower connections and/or slower computers.
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Old February 14th, 2005, 08:14 AM   #7
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I minimized. Sorry for the big files.These were the best pics that I could find.(But it doesnt deserve the word ridiculous)
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