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Old March 29th, 2016, 02:52 PM   #1
subbotazh
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MISC | Electric buses

BYD Pure Electric Articulated Bus Covers over 400km from Bogota to Medellin with One Single Battery Charge

On March 16, 2016, an 18-meter articulated pure electric BYD bus covered the over 400 km distance between Bogota and Medellin with one single battery charge, in a non-stop test preparation journey of the BYD zero emission bus to initiate Medellin. The topography of Medellin is characterized by frequent and often exceedingly steep slopes, and this successful journey was the first step to prove BYD’s mature technology to provide reliable electrified public transportation.


The 18-meter BYD articulated bus on its way to Medellin from Bogota

http://www.byd.com/news/news-328.html
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Old March 29th, 2016, 09:10 PM   #2
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This means a probably end of trolleybuses.
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Old March 29th, 2016, 10:07 PM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Falubaz View Post
This means a probably end of trolleybuses.
Probably not, because the biggest problem with autonomous electric vehicles (buses or trams) is downtime for recharging. Buses and trams running on overhead wire have basically 100% availability.

Even the miracle above must need a recharge and I wonder how it would perform on heavy duty stop-start city service as opposed to a long country run like this.

Recharging takes a vehicle out of service overnight (not such a problem I guess), at terminuses (typical 10 minutes out of an hour at present, bad luck if it's running late and needs to leave the terminus early to recover time) and at stops using flash recharge where dwell time is extended. The last is a significant issue as typical transit operations using all-door loading have dwells of 10-20 seconds and I haven't seen a flash recharge working less than about 45 seconds yet (including time for raising and lowering collector). This can wreck the timetable, especially if working among vehicles that don't have to wait.

I see the most viable eventual outcome as being the hybrid electric trolleybus or tram that can run autonomously through complex areas such as city centres, junctions etc but can recharge on the move on wires as they go through the suburbs. The ability to keep the vehicle moving and fully deployed is paramount in a public transport operation and only recharge on the move can achieve this.
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Old March 30th, 2016, 03:59 AM   #4
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That depends entirely on how much juice you can store on board, and that figure is increasing.

We already have CNG powered buses here in Brisbane that can't match an electric bus' endurance limit before needing to be relieved - they only get fuelled sufficiently to cover about 200km due to safety concerns with the tanks, and even before that they wouldn't get to 400km.
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Old March 30th, 2016, 09:25 PM   #5
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That depends entirely on how much juice you can store on board, and that figure is increasing.
It would have to increase to first eliminate the need for flash recharges at stops and then to eliminate the need for recharge at termini, leaving overnight being the only recharge needed. That's a big call.
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Old March 31st, 2016, 01:08 AM   #6
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Currently the onboard battery capacity is plenty for a typical day of service in a busy city, and then it can be recharged overnight. You can see BYD battery electric buses in almost all Chinese cities, for example Nanjing has over 600 of them. You have to understand that BEV's range isn't that great during medium to high speed long range travel such as in the above article, but they perform the best in a jammed city with stop and go traffic, thus maximizing the range. It's estimated that the cost of running a BE bus is less than 1/3 of that of a conventional vehicle, and they are not constrained by the overhead wires like electrical trollybuses. So I'm pretty confident that battery electric buses will be the future for public ground transportation in city centers.
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Old March 31st, 2016, 01:25 AM   #7
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The trend with bus systems in many cities is to actually free them from stop and go traffic (with bus lanes and traffic light priority) so that they can run along smoothly at higher speeds. And of course in most cities they then also run some distance into suburbs at higher speeds. The technology will need to prove itself in such conditions as well.
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Old March 31st, 2016, 04:12 AM   #8
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http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/l...122-story.html
Article from January 22, 2016.

CTA to buy more electric buses



The Chicago Transit Authority announced plans Friday to spend between $30 million and $40 million to buy 20 to 30 new all-electric buses over the next several years.

The CTA has operated two 40-foot buses, powered by lithium-ion batteries, on routes across the city since October 2014. The buses have carried about 100,000 passengers on 13 routes.

According to CTA officials, the buses so far have reduced emissions by an amount equal to removing 14 cars from the road. They say the buses also provide a smoother, quieter ride.

Officials project each all-electric bus will create about $25,000 in fuel savings a year, or $300,000 over the 12-year life span of a single bus. In addition, they estimate that each bus will create $55,000 a year in "health benefit savings" by reducing the occurrence of respiratory diseases, according to a CTA release.

The average market price for a standard-size electric bus is about $800,000, CTA spokesman Jeff Tolman said. That's hundreds of thousands of dollars more than a traditional diesel bus. Tolman said the timeline of the purchases will depend on a bid process among manufacturers.

The CTA expects to request proposals from manufacturers later this year. New Flyer Industries Inc., based in Canada with facilities in the United States, made the first two buses used by the CTA. But New Flyer may not make the new batch of CTA buses.

"The contract will be decided through a competitive bid process," Tolman said.

The first two buses each cost about $1 million, or about twice as much as a diesel bus, and started on six downtown routes. A grant from the Federal Transit Administration helped fund the $2.5 million project. The CTA plans to use a "combination of federal funding sources" to underwrite the new purchases, according to the release.

The CTA hopes to install "en-route charging systems," according to the release, so buses can charge at stops along their routes instead of at a garage. The current buses take three to five hours to charge.

On a single charge, the buses have been able to run 80 miles. An average CTA bus travels 100 miles a day.

Tolman said 86 percent of CTA buses are diesel and 13 percent are hybrid diesel-electric, which have a 20 percent greater fuel efficiency.

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Old April 1st, 2016, 11:14 PM   #9
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Quote:
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The CTA hopes to install "en-route charging systems," according to the release, so buses can charge at stops along their routes instead of at a garage.
Fail.
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Old April 5th, 2016, 12:31 AM   #10
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Quote:
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Fail.
Why is that a fail? If the engineering allows for fast charging without eating into the battery's life then it's a perfectly okay system. Having said that, I would much prefer this type of system to be used with super capacitor buses. They work surprisingly well during their trials in Shanghai in 2010.
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Old April 5th, 2016, 12:42 AM   #11
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Quote:
Originally Posted by historyworks View Post
The trend with bus systems in many cities is to actually free them from stop and go traffic (with bus lanes and traffic light priority) so that they can run along smoothly at higher speeds. And of course in most cities they then also run some distance into suburbs at higher speeds. The technology will need to prove itself in such conditions as well.
Sure BRTs are nice, but it's simply not possible to make all bus routes travel on dedicated lanes, especially in crowded cities in Asia or South America. While I agree that many bus systems will diversify itself by introducing BRTs, the majority of buses routes involve stop and go traffic and stations 500m apart in the city core. Battery electric bus is absolutely the best choice of vehicle for those bus systems.
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Old April 6th, 2016, 12:03 AM   #12
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Why is that a fail?
Because modern bus operation with all-door loading achieves quite short dwell times (matching trams), often in the order of 15-20 seconds. I haven't seen a quick charge installation (bus or tram) that's been able to release the vehicle in less than about 45 seconds. It would really slow down some operations and have a flow-on effect on following vehicles, particularly if they didn't rely on recharge.

The best methods are:

1. charge on OHW on the move (hybrid trolleybus)
2. charge overnight
3. Charge at the terminus at the end of each run - a poor third as it takes the bus out of service for several minutes.
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Old July 13th, 2016, 03:32 PM   #13
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Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Buses 2016-2026 : Technologies (LFP, NMC, LMO, LFMP, NCA, Supercapacitors, Lithium Capacitors, Post Lithium and Flywheels), Market Trends, Forecasts and Key Players

NEW YORK, July 12, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- This report gives full details on the dynamics of lithium-ion batteries which are currently used in electric buses providing useful insights to better understand latest advancements in the technology, potential future development and market activities. The report concludes that the demand for large electric bus batteries has the potential to be the largest market for lithium-ion batteries reaching a market value of $30 billion by 2026 when compared to other addressable market segments.The battery market has come alive again as manufacturers are all rushing to address the emerging market for large-sized batteries driven largely by the rapid growth in sales of electric buses. IDTechEx Research thinks that the rush is fully justified as it sees the market growing to $30 billion in 2026, potentially making it the largest segment of overall battery market. Just to set this in context, we expect the market for electric bus batteries to overtake the consumer electronic battery sector by 2019-2020.

These are interesting times for the battery market again. These new applications are set to alter the business landscape, at the technology, supplier and territory level. This will have major implications not only for large battery corporations but also for all those involved in the battery production value chain.

China currently dominates this market. 97% of electric buses and 75% of their batteries currently produced in China. Despite its slow charge rates, LFP is the technology of choice thanks to its higher safety levels which matters more at large battery sizes. The IP landscape for LFP is also more open and accommodating, removing one of the key non-capital barriers into this market.

China also appears determined to bring the entire electric bus value chain inside the country. This goes some way towards explaining the recent news about the Chinese government intervention with regards to the nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) lithium-ion variant, which is produced exclusively outside the country. It is uncertain whether this intervention will ultimately be upheld but what is certain is that it at least acts as a short-term break on the market of non-LFP batteries.

In the long term however, we expect the battery market composition to change. Electric bus production outside China will slowly rise and the safety of NMC batteries will be improved thanks to better management systems. This will enable them to compete thanks to their intrinsically higher charging rates.

Note that electric buses make and break the fortunes of other energy storage technologies. They became the largest market for supercapacitors until they were designed out causing a market decline. We expect to see substantial innovation in this sector going forwards. The race is on to develop higher energy, faster and safer large-sized energy storage technologies.

IDTechEx Research predicts that for the business-as-usual scenario the non-LFP battery technology will grow to 48% of the market in 2025, making the e-battery bus business a truly global market. However, if the Chinese government rigorously applies its policy on non-LFP batteries there would be a change in the dynamics of the global battery market for electric buses. More information on the forecast considering the Chinese intervention can be found in this report.

More http://finance.yahoo.com/news/lithiu...163800975.html
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Old July 13th, 2016, 04:35 PM   #14
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There’s a new patent-free fast charging system for electric buses

As Tesla and its Supercharger network have demonstrated, it's a lot easier for people to make the switch to electric vehicles if there's a robust and rapid charging infrastructure in place. But we have to electrify more than just passenger vehicles if we want to get serious about reducing emissions. EV manufacturer Proterra certainly thinks so, which is why it just opened up the patents for a new fast-charging system it has developed for electric buses.

Not all heavy-duty vehicle applications lend themselves to electric powertrains—think long distance freight trucking, for example. However, buses, garbage trucks, and other vehicles that make frequent stops on urban routes are ripe for battery power, provided they can recharge and get back to work with minimal downtime. Which is where Proterra's charging system comes in.

Proterra's high-voltage overhead charging system uses robotic control (and some autonomous software on the bus) to replenish bus batteries in as little as 10 minutes, depending on the size of the battery pack. Charging at 250-1000V (DC) and up to 1400A, the system is eight times faster than the CHAdeMO fast-charging standard and between three and four times faster than Tesla's Superchargers. And unlike the old-fashioned pantograph, which needs to cover the vehicle's entire route, Proterra's system is static. This means bus operators can install them in terminals or at the same locations they use to refill their diesel tanks.

"The interesting thing is these diesel buses have such massive fuel tanks—given how inefficient they are—that it takes longer to completely refill an 80- or 120-gallon diesel bus system than it does to recharge our electric vehicles," explains Proterra CEO Ryan Popple. "So we're actually getting to the point where the vehicles that are configured for fast charge can be replenished faster than you can stick a hose in the side of a diesel bus and fill it with fuel."

According to Popple, Proterra's fast-charger can recharge a 100kWh electric bus in just ten minutes, sufficient for a circulator bus route of 30 (48km) miles or less. That's better than diesel or even natural gas, he told us: "We've gone from something that would have been considered a negative for EVs—slow overnight charging—and now we've gone to the point where EVs are advantaged relative to combustion in terms of speed and ease of refueling." (Recharging the 400kWh batteries of a longer-range electric bus would obviously take longer.)

As neat as the charging system is, the fact that it won't be a proprietary walled garden is even neater. Says Popple:

We're growing very quickly—we have a backlog that extends to the end of next year, we're tripling shipments in 2017, and yet we still need to work out how to make this industry grow even faster. We discovered that competing electric bus offerings out there lack this kind of fast charging equipment, which for larger fleets is a core tool you need in the kit to do a large-scale EV deployment. So by offering these patents to any other industry participants we think we can get this market to go even faster.

The decision to open up the core patents began with one of Proterra's early customers asking if it could buy electric buses from another company and still use Proterra's infrastructure (bus companies don't like being tied into a single vendor, apparently). "At a Board of Directors level there's going to be concern if we're locked into your product the way an iPhone user is locked into the Apple charging cord," said Popple. "You can do that kind of thing with smartphones, but you really shouldn't do it with an industrial market because it tends to slow down the adoption of new technology."

That first customer was given a transferable license for the charging IP, but rather than repeat that process (which took several months and involved plenty of lawyers) again and again, Proterra decided to bundle the relevant patents together and offer them to anyone under an open license. "It helps heavy-duty urban electrification to move faster, but allows us to stick to our core business," Popple told us. "For a young technology company, it's really important we just do one thing well."

http://arstechnica.com/cars/2016/07/...p-the-patents/
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