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Old May 31st, 2016, 05:09 AM   #1
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TURKEY : The Ancient Wealth of Anatolia


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Old May 31st, 2016, 05:46 AM   #2
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Pergamon Turkey




Pergamon was a small settlement during the Archaic Period. Lysimachos, one of the generals of Alexander the Great and who had become the sovereign of Anatolia after 301 B.C., delivered the war expenditures, at the amount of 9000 talents (1 talent is believed to be US$ 7,500 approx.), to Philetarios who was the commander of Pergamon, and the kingdom founded by Philetarios by using this sum of money following Lysimachos's death, flourished and became the most eminent center of culture of the Hellenistic period for 150 years. Eumenes I, Attalos I and Eumenes II were enthroned successively after Philetarios. Eumenes II took acropolis of Athens as an example and had the acropolis of Pergamon adorned with works of art which reflected fine taste, and Pergamon became one of the most graceful cities of the world. Attalos III who succeeded Attalos II, handed over his land to the Romans when he died in 133 B.C.


Pergamon - Temple of Trajan by nisudapi, on Flickr


ancient arches by Werner Böhm, on Flickr


Temple of Trajan, Permagon by Andrew Macpherson, on Flickr


Pergamon (Plus Poppy) by LASZLO ILYES, on Flickr


Corbis-IH202686 by richardfoxphotoeditor, on Flickr


New since June 2014 on the Unesco world heritage list: Ancient Pergamon ( Bergama, Turkey) by Frans Sellies, on Flickr


treasures of Turkey by Werner Böhm, on Flickr


Temple of Trajan by Jeff Hart, on Flickr


Time Takes It's Toll by lets.book, on Flickr


Galleries in Pergamon Acropol by Levent, on Flickr


IZMAR_2015Oct07_0225.jpg by Sark Derderian, on Flickr


Bergama. by Wilson Lee, on Flickr

The Theater of Pergamon, one of the steepest theaters in the world, has a capacity of 10,000 people and was constructed in the 3rd century B.C. The theater underwent changes during the Roman period under the reign of Caracalla. There is a 246.5 meters long and approximately 16 m wide stoa (portico) in front of the theater. The road in front of the theater leads to the Temple of Dionysos (known in Rome as Baccus, god of wine). The temple was constructed in the 2nd century B.C. and reconstructed in marble during Caracalla's period (211-217 AD). Its dimensions are 11.80 x 20.22 meters. The temple, which arouses interest because of the staircase in front with a height of 4.5 meters and 25 steps, has an exquisite appearance.





The famous Altar of Zeus in Pergamon is on the south of the theater. Eumenes II (197-159 BC) constructed it as a memorial of the victory against the Galatians. This Altar has the shape of a horseshoe and its dimensions are 36.44 x 34.20 m. It is composed of four parts and the high relieves on it describe the war between the giants and the gods. The Altar which was stolen away from the Ottoman Empire(Turkey) in 1871 and carried to Germany by the Germans, is exhibited at the Museum of Pergamum in Berlin, in a manner conforming to its original.

Today the Turkish government is trying to get it back from Germany bringing the issue to the international court. On the south of the Altar, the Agora (market place) belonging to the 2nd century BC, is situated. In the middle of the Agora there is a small altar. Downwards in the Acropolis, the central city is placed. Inside Pergamon, there is the Temple of Serapis, built for the Egyptian Gods in the 2nd c. AD. and called as the Red Courtyard by the locals. This is a basilica shaped building constructed under the reign of Hadrian, then, in the 4th century, it was converted into a church dedicated to St. John and became one of the Seven Churches of Christianity.

In 2014 Pergamon site and its multi-layered cultural landscape entered into the World Heritage List of UNESCO.
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Old May 31st, 2016, 06:31 AM   #3
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Göbekli Tepe Turkey







Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site at the top of a mountain ridge in the southeastern region of Turkey, approximately 12 km northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. The tell has a height of 15 m and is about 300 m in diameter. It is approximately 760 m above sea level. Göbekli Tepe is a stone-age mountain sanctuary. Radiocarbon dating as well as comparative, statistical analysis indicate that it is the oldest religious site yet discovered anywhere in the world.

The tell includes two phases of ritual use dating back to the 10th – 8th millennium BCE. During the first phase, pre-pottery Neolithic A, circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected. More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are currently known through geophysical surveys. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m and a weight of up to 20 tons. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the bedrock. In the second phase, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, the erected pillars are smaller and stood in rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime. The site was abandoned after the PPNB-period. Younger structures date to classical times. The purpose of the structures is not yet clear but believed to be early neolithic sanctuaries.




Gobekli Tepe - the ancient temple in the world by Veronika, on Flickr


Boaring by Arjayempee, on Flickr


The surviving structures, then, not only predate pottery, metallurgy, and the invention of writing or the wheel, they were built before the so-called Neolithic Revolution, i.e., the beginning of agriculture and animal husbandry around 9000 BCE. But the construction of Göbekli Tepe implies organization of an advanced order not hitherto associated with Paleolithic, PPNA, or PPNB societies.


IMG_6256 by Eda Erdoğan, on Flickr


Gobekli Tepe, Urfa, Turkey by Karen Smith, on Flickr


Gobekli Tepe Museum Mock-Up by Marco Polo, on Flickr


gobeklitepe 3 by hüseyin atilla, on Flickr



Göbekli Tepe is a central location for a cult of the dead and that the carved animals are there to protect the dead. Though no tombs or graves have been found so far, Schmidt believed that they remain to be discovered in niches located behind the sacred circles' walls




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Old May 31st, 2016, 09:16 AM   #4
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The two pictures is really too big It's ruining the thread , can you please edit it to 1024-676 pixels , nonetheless beautiful thread .

I'm Looking forward to ancient wealth of Mongolia .

Last edited by Slinderman; May 31st, 2016 at 09:57 AM.
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Old May 31st, 2016, 09:29 AM   #5
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Please leave my thread.
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Old June 5th, 2016, 06:12 AM   #6
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Hattusa Turkey




Hattusa is the site of a Neolithic and Hittite settlement and is an important archaeological site. It is situated in Çorum Province, Turkey, where the ancient capital city Hattusa of the Hittite Empire was situated. Its Hittite name is unknown: connections with Arinna, Tawiniya, and Zippalanda have all been suggested.


Alacahoyuk 04 by Serhat Baştan, on Flickr



Tombs of Kings and Queens by Barbaros Gokdemir, on Flickr


DSC_0844 by gookank, on Flickr

Before 2000 BC, a settlement of the apparently indigenous Hatti people was established on sites that had been occupied even earlier and referred to the site as Hattush. The Hattians built their initial settlement on the high ridge of Büyükkale. The earliest traces of settlement on the site are from the sixth millennium BC. In the 19th and 18th centuries BC, merchants from Assur in Assyria established a trading post there, setting up in their own separate quarter of the city. The center of their trade network was located in the village of Kültepe. Business dealings required record-keeping: the trade network from Assur introduced writing to Hattusa, in the form of cuneiform.



Detail by rmc43, on Flickr



IMG_4740 by Richard Ross, on Flickr




A carbonized layer apparent in excavations attests to the burning and ruin of the city of Hattusa around 1700 BC.










A dam, dating from 1240 BC, was announced to be reopened for use on September 23, 2006. The dam was ordered by King Tudhaliya IV in the name of the goddess Hebat. According to ancient Hittite tablets, a drought struck Anatolia in 1200 BC, prompting the King to import wheat from Egypt so that his land would avoid famine. Following this, the king ordered numerous dams to be built in central Anatolia, all but one of them becoming non-functional over time. The one in Alacahöyük has survived because the water source is located inside the dam's reservoir.


In 1907, the Ottoman archaeologist Theodor Makridi Bey carried out brief explorations here for two weeks. In the 1910s, German teams discovered royal tombs dating to the third millennium BC, as well as a Hittite town of the second millennium BC. The impressive sphinx gate surrounded by stone reliefs marked its entrance. The town was heavily fortified with walls and towers due to the frequent raids of the Kaska people living in the mountainous region to the north. Excavations by the Turkish archaeologists Remzi Oğuz Arık and Hamit Koşay resumed in 1935 under the personal instructions of Atatürk who contributed from his own budget. The work, which continued until 1970, revealed considerable local wealth and achievement even before the time of the Hittites, with the earliest occupation dating from the 4th millennium BC. Tombs of the 3rd millennium BC feature metal vessels, jewelry, weapons, and pole finials of bulls, stags, as well as abstract forms often interpreted as solar symbols. Excavation at the site resumed in 1994, and is now directed by the Turkish archeologist Dr. Aykut Çınaroğlu.

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Old June 5th, 2016, 02:12 PM   #7
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Old June 5th, 2016, 02:48 PM   #8
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Turkey is one of those countries where no matter where you start digging you will find something interesting. Great thread so keep up the good work, mate.
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Old June 10th, 2016, 06:02 AM   #9
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The Lycian Necropolis Turkey



The Lycian Tombs - The City of the Dead is located in Dalyan, southwestern Turkey. There are many Lycian necropolises in the region however the most notable of these are the six Lycian rock-cut tombs that lie across the river from Dalyan. These breathtaking graves are the burial sites of the Kings of Caunos, and they date back to 400 B.C. Above the Dalyan River, these six temples seem to project out from the steep cliff walls that rise from the riverbank.


Lycian tombs of Dalyan, Turkey by Gareth Ayre, on Flickr

The most striking rock-cut tombs are those that include the façade of a temple. This is the type of crypt used as the final resting place of the kings and queens. The façade usually consists of a pediment and columns between projecting sidewalls. The burial chamber is behind the façade and is accessed through a door. Inside the chamber, there are carved stone benches for the deceased as well as tables for offerings. Ornamental relief carvings and sculptures decorate some of the tombs. These usually illustrate the main events of the period as well as items specific to the deceased. When a burial was complete, builders sealed the opening with a sliding stone door.





The architecture and the artistry of the burial chambers are among the best in Europe.



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Old June 11th, 2016, 03:15 AM   #10
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Kaunos Turkey






Kaunos was a city of ancient Caria and in Anatolia, a few km west of the modern town of Dalyan in Turkey.

The Calbys river (now known as the Dalyan river) was the border between Caria and Lycia. Initially Kaunos was a separate state; then it became a part of Caria and later still of Lycia.
Kaunos was an important sea port, the history of which is supposed to date back till the 10th century BC.





The amphitheater of the city was enlarged and Roman baths and a palaestra were built. The agora fountain was renovated and new temples arose.




The oldest find at the Kaunos archeological site is the neck of a Protogeometric amphora dating back to the 9th century BC, or even earlier. A statue found at the western gate of the city walls, pieces of imported Attic ceramics and the S-SE oriented city walls show habitation in the 6th century BC. However, none of the architectural finds at Kaunos itself dates back to earlier than the 4th century BC.







The region is a tourist hub in Turkey and it is known for the indigenous Caretta Caretta turtles laying their eggs on the Iztuzu Beach before their annual migration starts.







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Old June 11th, 2016, 03:47 AM   #11
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The Fortified City of Haykaberd Turkey





Haykaberd is an Urartian ancient fortified site in the Gürpınar district of Van Province in Turkey's Eastern Anatolia region. It is located approximately 25 kilometers southeast of Van along the road leading to the city of Hakkâri. It was used by the Urartian kings as a fortress during the 8th century BC.







Sarduri-Hinilli has a linear plan, perched upon a ridge overlooking the Gürpınar Plain. It is composed of fortification walls as well as the remains of an Urartian royal palace, built between 764 and 735 BC during the reign of King Sarduri II (764-735 BC) at the climax of power of the Urartian Empire.










There are upper and lower sections of the fortress in which the Temple of Khaldi, citadel walls, king's tower, workshops (7th century BC), storehouses, cisterns, kitchen, palace with a throne room, "royal" toilet, harem and colonnaded halls were located. A moat surrounded sections of the fortress.
Sarduri-Hinilli was destroyed in the 7th century BC, presumably by the Scythians. Traces of a later medieval occupation exists. The site was excavated between 1961 and 1986 by the Turkish archelogist Afif Erzen and his team.





Most of the site has been destroyed by the Kurdish settlers after 1920's and the site has been closed due to security reasons that Kurdish terrorist organization PKK has caused in the region.




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Old June 14th, 2016, 06:35 AM   #12
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Sagalassos Turkey



Sagalassos is an archaeological site in southwestern Turkey, about 100 km north of Antalya (ancient Attaleia), and 30 km from Burdur and Isparta. In Roman Imperial times, the town was known as the "first city of Pisidia", a region in the western Taurus mountains, currently known as the Turkish Lakes Region. Already during the Hellenistic period, it had been one of the major Pisidian towns.





The urban site was laid out on various terraces at an altitude between 1400 and 1600 m. After having suffered from a major earthquake in the early 6th century CE, the town still managed to recover, but a cocktail of epidemics, water shortages, a general lack of security and stability, a failing economy and finally another devastating earthquake around the middle of the seventh century forced the inhabitants to abandon their town and resettle in the valley.







Human settlement in the area goes back to 8000 BCE, before the actual site was occupied. Hittite documents refer to a mountain site of Salawassa in the fourteenth century BCE and the town spread during the Phrygian and Lydian cultures. Sagalassos was part of the region of Pisidia in the western part of the Taurus Mountains. During the Persian period, Pisidia became known for its warlike factions.







The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism exposed four major restoration projects and are nearly completed. The project also undertakes an intensive urban and geophysical survey, excavations in the domestic and industrial areas, and an intensive survey of the territory. The first survey documents a thousand years of occupation—from Alexander the Great to the seventh century—while the latter has established the changing settlement patterns, the vegetation history and farming practices, the landscape formation and climatic changes during the last 10,000 years.












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