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Old August 8th, 2016, 12:14 PM   #1
Ryme Intrinseca
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EU interchanges

I've compiled figures for the number of four-way full access freeflow interchanges in every EU and EFTA country. Here is a summary of results:



Some comments:

- Of 681 qualifying interchanges, 386 (57%) are cloverleafs. The next most common grouping is offside (13%), followed by 3 loop (10%), 2 loop (6%) and cloverstack (5%). Compared to the US, there are far fewer stacks but more cyclic.
- Unsurprisingly Germany 'wins' with 245 qualifying interchanges, followed by Spain (100), Italy (64) and, impressively for its size, Portugal (42). The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia has 68, which would rank it third in the EU were it a country.
- The UK has a pathetic 13. France also has relatively few (29) for its size, while Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Malta, and Slovenia have none.
- In terms of national distribution of types, the UK has most stacks (3), Belgium and Italy tie for most cyclic (5 each), while Spain has most cloverstacks (9) and 2 loop (9). Germany has most 3 loop (23), offside (23), and, of course, cloverleafs (181). Several countries tie for most 1 loop (3 each)

This is how I classified qualifying interchanges:

- Stack includes classic four-level stacks, stackturbines, and stackmills.
- Cyclic includes turbines as well as windmill/octopus-type designs.
- 1 loop refers to single loop designs, including those in a stack-like arrangement, those in a turbine-like arrangement, and those in a windmill-type arrangement.
- Cloverstack refers to design with two loops in opposite corners, including 'cloverstack classic', 'clovercorner', partially-unrolled cloverleafs, cloverturbines, and clovermills.
- 2 loop refers to designs with two adjacent loops in either a stack, corner, turbine or windmill-like arrangement.
- 3 loop refers to triple loop designs in either a stack, corner, turbine, or windmill-type arrangement.
- Cloverleaf includes modified cloverleafs as well as classic cloverleafs.
- Other nearside refers to any design lacking offside entries or exits that does not fall into any of the above categories.
- Offside refers to any design with one or more offside entries and/or exits, which I define broadly to include junctions where one of the mainlines merges or diverges (e.g. this). The Offside category includes Offside stack, Offside 1 loop, Offside cloverstack, Offside 2 loop, Offside 3 loop, Divided (i.e., both mainlines split), Gothic (i.e. mainline(s) swap over), and Other offside.

Quality refers to the total number of interchanges in the Stack, Cyclic, 1 Loop, and Cloverstack categories. This is a good measure of the number of high quality interchanges, i.e. those lacking weaving areas and offside entries/exits. Quality % is the country's percentage of the total number of quality interchanges. Qualscore is the percentage of the country's interchanges that meet the quality criteria. Spain has most Quality interchanges (17), followed by Italy (12) and Germany (12), while the UK has the highest Qualscore (85%).

The table above sums the data for several subtypes. The second table provides the more detailed information by subtype (EFTA in yellow):



I take the condition of 'freeflow' seriously, and disqualify interchanges with pedestrian crossings, level crossings, traffic lights, at-grade long turns (e.g. left in a right hand traffic country), and four-way merges or diverges. The most notable 'disqualified' interchange is E75/E94 in Athens, which has tolling booths on its ramps.
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Old August 8th, 2016, 01:28 PM   #2
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There is one in Slovenia, here: https://www.google.si/maps/@46.48139...6581467,15.95z
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Old August 8th, 2016, 01:41 PM   #3
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I don't see how the UK can only have 13 interchanges. Just 23 for the Netherlands also seems on the low side.
If your qualifications result in such anomalous scores, it's perhaps better to use slightly different definitions. Or are you perhaps also working on a list of interchanges with other (lower) qualifications?
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Old August 8th, 2016, 01:43 PM   #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by kreden View Post
It is not full access so does not qualify. E59 southbound to 430 northbound cannot be performed at that interchange.
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Old August 8th, 2016, 02:03 PM   #5
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At least we have more stacks and turbines than Germany . But then, I only know of a stack (A-1 and M-40) and a turbine (M-45 and R-3) in all of Spain, where is the other stack and where the other turbine?
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Old August 8th, 2016, 02:04 PM   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by julesstoop View Post
I don't see how the UK can only have 13 interchanges. Just 23 for the Netherlands also seems on the low side.
If your qualifications result in such anomalous scores, it's perhaps better to use slightly different definitions. Or are you perhaps also working on a list of interchanges with other (lower) qualifications?
It's not all interchanges, it's only four-way full access freeflow interchanges. Perhaps I should change the title to reflect that, but I thought it might be too much of a mouthful The numbers are not anomalous for such large and complex interchanges. I'm afraid a list for all interchanges in the EU would be far too much work - that would be tens of thousands of interchanges!

As it happens, I'm from the UK, and I did earlier compile (with the help of the UK SABRE forum) the following list of interchanges with (i) full access (so no M1/M25), and (ii) no break in the central reservation of two mainlines that are at least dual carriageway (so no A303/A36 or A889/A705). 49 junctions have been identified - around three quarters of them some kind of stacked roundabout! - that meet these criteria, all in England, Scotland and, Wales:

A. STACK (FOUR LEVEL INTERCHANGE)
1. M25/M4
2. M25/M23
3. M4/M5

B. WHIRLPOOL (TURBINE)
1. M25/M3

C. OCTOPUS
1. M25/M11
2. M74/A723
3. M60/M62/M602

D. STACK/PARTIALLY UNROLLED CLOVERLEAF HYBRID (STACKLEAF)
1. A19/A66

E. PARTIALLY UNROLLED CLOVERLEAF (CLOVERSTACK)
1. M6/M62
2. M4/A329(M)
3. M25/M40

F. CLOVERLEAF
1. A441/A448/A4189

G. STACKED ROUNDABOUT (STACKABOUT)
1. M1/A52
2. M60/M62/M66
3. A1(M)/M18
4. M25/A3
5. M6/M65
6. M61/M65
7. M5/A40
8. A38/A386
9. A50/A38
10. M25/A12
11. M25/A127
12. M25/A13
13. M25/A1(M)
14. A406/A41
15. A12/A11
16. M62/A162
17. A45/A46/A444
18. M42/A45
19. A470/M4
20. A470/A48
21. A38/B4114
(22. M74/A725 - under construction)
(23. A19/A1058 - under construction)

H. STACKED ROUNDABOUT WITH FREEFLOW RIGHT TURN (IMPROVED STACKABOUT)
1. M1/M62
2. M25/A2
3. M8/M73
4. M25/M20
5. M57/M62

I. INVERTED STACKED ROUNDABOUT (INVERTED STACKABOUT)
1. M6/A34

J. ROUNDABOUT INTERCHANGE WITH BYPASS
1. A406/A5
2. M4/A34
3. M6/M69

K. STACKED DUMBELL (STACKBELL)
1. M20/A229
2. A34/A303

L. OCTOPUS/DUMBELL HYBRID (OCTOBELL)
1. M6/M56

M. SPAGHETTI
1. M5/A38(M)

N. DOUBLE ROUNDABOUT INTERCHANGE
1. M1/A41/A4008

This list is not directly comparable with EU list above as it is in some ways less demanding (doesn't require freeflow) and in some ways more demanding (requires two dual carriageway mainlines). But it does show that one reason for the UK having few freeflow junctions is the widespread use of stacked roundabouts.

Last edited by Ryme Intrinseca; August 8th, 2016 at 02:24 PM.
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Old August 8th, 2016, 02:20 PM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by CNGL View Post
At least we have more stacks and turbines than Germany . But then, I only know of a stack (A-1 and M-40) and a turbine (M-45 and R-3) in all of Spain, where is the other stack and where the other turbine?
As I note in the OP, 'stack' includes stack turbines, so the 'other' stack is this.

The other turbine is also on the R-3 here.

Because there are lots of interchanges in Germany and Spain I collated the data by state/autonomous community for these countries. If there's interest I could provide this data.
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Old August 8th, 2016, 02:22 PM   #8
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ryme Intrinseca View Post
It is not full access so does not qualify. E59 southbound to 430 northbound cannot be performed at that interchange.
Interesting, I hadn't noticed that.
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Old August 8th, 2016, 02:55 PM   #9
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What about the massive M6/M6Toll/M42 thing? Or is that considered more than one interchange?
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Old August 8th, 2016, 03:12 PM   #10
Ryme Intrinseca
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ElviS77 View Post
What about the massive M6/M6Toll/M42 thing? Or is that considered more than one interchange?
I counted things like that as more than one interchange.
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Old August 8th, 2016, 05:09 PM   #11
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There's a cloverleaf in Slovenia (a bit strange-looking though): https://www.google.si/maps/@45.5369878,13.7357876,17z
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Old August 8th, 2016, 06:46 PM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Verso View Post
There's a cloverleaf in Slovenia (a bit strange-looking though): https://www.google.si/maps/@45.5369878,13.7357876,17z
That is not a full cloverleaf as some movements are not freeflow, i.e. they have to be performed via a roundabout.
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Old September 9th, 2016, 04:37 PM   #13
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If not for the toll barrier, how would you classify this interchange in Italy (A50 x A4)
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Old September 9th, 2016, 04:56 PM   #14
Ryme Intrinseca
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Suburbanist View Post
If not for the toll barrier, how would you classify this interchange in Italy (A50 x A4)
Good question! In terms of the simple classification above, it would be 'Offside' as that just means any interchange where one or more turning movements merge or diverge from the offside (the left in Italy).

In my full spreadsheet I have a more complex classification, so offside is divided into several sub-categories such as 'Full diamond', 'Gothic cross', 'Divided volleyball', 'Offside turbine', 'Offside 1 loop', 'Offside cloverstack', 'Offside 2 loop', 'Offside 3 loop', and 'Other offside' (which is for anything that doesn't fall into the other categories). With this one it would either have to be 'Other offside' or a new category of 'Offside cloverleaf'. I'm glad the toll booths meant I didn't have to decide...
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Old September 9th, 2016, 05:52 PM   #15
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i'd say just (little bit improved) cloverleaf.
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Old September 9th, 2016, 07:44 PM   #16
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Do you also know something about at-grade intersections? How would you call this one?
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Old September 9th, 2016, 09:43 PM   #17
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it's a weird kind of Diverging diamond interchange .

Edit.
It's a Continuous-flow intersection
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Old September 9th, 2016, 09:57 PM   #18
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A CFI would have the left-turn lanes all the way on the left side of the road. This is an intermediate solution, there are some of those in Copenhagen as well.
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Old September 9th, 2016, 10:13 PM   #19
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DDI and CFI are traffic light solutions not handling two motorways.
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Old September 9th, 2016, 10:19 PM   #20
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What in the list is called "3-loops", in NL is called a "cloverleaf with 1 semi-direct ramp".

Also there is a difference between a "real" cloverleaf with separated collector lanes for all ramps, and simplified cloverleafs where the ramps directly connect to the main carriageways.
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