daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Subways and Urban Transport

Subways and Urban Transport Metros, subways, light rail, trams, buses and other local transport systems



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old August 12th, 2005, 12:43 AM   #1
De Snor
Forever Travelling
 
Join Date: Jul 2002
Posts: 6,385
Likes (Received): 39

MISC | History of transportation

Through this thread I would like to see how metro networks grew during time.

No text only maps this time , what do you guys think ??

Last edited by dimlys1994; March 5th, 2016 at 11:07 PM.
De Snor no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old August 12th, 2005, 02:19 AM   #2
AmiDelf
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2004
Posts: 187
Likes (Received): 3

I dont have any maps from early days. But I have different wagons and stuff for Oslo:

1987 blue metro train at Majorstuen station:


Line 15 towars Frognerseteren. Before the T2000 wagons came and east and west have different power systems. East hat thridrail, while west had power lines.


Here is an old information about the lines in 1987. 3 to 6 was the eastern lines, while 13, 14, 15 and 16 was the western lines:


These are wagons, that were been produced in 1960. Still running today:


From 1998:


Here is a picture of the 1300 series, built in 1980s. Here from a important day, which results in lots of people, and extra wagons to get lots of people up and down from the Holmenkollen festival. Its been like this since the Holmekollen days started, and thats long time ago:


Line 1 is Oslos oldest line. It was built arround 1900, and is still powered by power lines and platforms taking only 2 wagons still. Oslo Sporveier, which is the company, have problems linking it to the rest of the system, so in the past it went for some time only to Majorstuen, but now again. It goes thru the tunnel to Helsfyr and even out to Bergkrystallen at peak hours:


Yet another shot, of the two wagons Line 1, comming to Holmenkollen:


Before the lines was connected. The western lines could run with one wagon which wasnt a big problem, as on the west less people lives than on the east side. Here is a picture from 1987: (Also notice that the color of the wagons was a bit different. They had white stripes back then)


Here at the end of the change to the new red and blue colors in 1988:




Sorry if its only text and pics, rather than lots of maps. But I couldnt find any other maps than todays. So well its atleast a bit of the past up to now thing.

Regard,
Michal
AmiDelf no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 12th, 2005, 06:04 AM   #3
Bitxofo
¡Viva el metro!
 
Bitxofo's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2005
Location: Alderaan BCN BKK ATH PAR LON SYD SFO CPT TYO SCL CHC BUE SCG SVQ AGP BDN
Posts: 37,520
Likes (Received): 3667

Barcelona 100 series, the widest and biggest metro cars in the world from 1926 to 1991:

[IMG]http://************/aczgg8.jpg[/IMG]
Original colours of 1926

[IMG]http://************/aczec2.jpg[/IMG]
Last colours before ending service in 1990

[IMG]http://************/aczer9.jpg[/IMG]

[IMG]http://************/aczg8x.jpg[/IMG]

Thanks to my friend "wefer" for all the photos. www.wefer.com
__________________
www.urbanrail.net
Εγώ είμαι ο Νταβόρ!!
David (DavoR for my friends)
川添 Kawazoe (riverside) 海斗 Kaito (big dipper of the ocean), in Japanese.
Yo si la ciudad no tiene metro, como que no es gran ciudad y entonces ya paso de vivir allí. Norreport+12000
Bitxofo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 13th, 2005, 01:56 PM   #4
AmiDelf
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2004
Posts: 187
Likes (Received): 3

They look at a size of the Oslo subway.. dosent seem like the widest to me ;p if so, how wide?
AmiDelf no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 13th, 2005, 02:34 PM   #5
Nunovski2001
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2005
Location: Lisboa
Posts: 42
Likes (Received): 0

http://www.metrolisboa.pt/cronolg_00_uk.htm

The links show the different maps of the Lisbon metro through time.
Nunovski2001 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 17th, 2005, 12:00 AM   #6
Bitxofo
¡Viva el metro!
 
Bitxofo's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2005
Location: Alderaan BCN BKK ATH PAR LON SYD SFO CPT TYO SCL CHC BUE SCG SVQ AGP BDN
Posts: 37,520
Likes (Received): 3667

Quote:
Originally Posted by AmiDelf
They look at a size of the Oslo subway.. dosent seem like the widest to me ;p if so, how wide?
They were 3.20-3.30 metres wide, if I remember properly...

Nowadays new trainsets in line 1 are 3.10 metres wide.
__________________
www.urbanrail.net
Εγώ είμαι ο Νταβόρ!!
David (DavoR for my friends)
川添 Kawazoe (riverside) 海斗 Kaito (big dipper of the ocean), in Japanese.
Yo si la ciudad no tiene metro, como que no es gran ciudad y entonces ya paso de vivir allí. Norreport+12000
Bitxofo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 17th, 2005, 02:05 AM   #7
AmiDelf
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2004
Posts: 187
Likes (Received): 3

Well the Oslo ones is 3.20 metres wide and thats also the same for T2000.
AmiDelf no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 17th, 2005, 01:46 PM   #8
mad_nick
Registered User
 
Join Date: May 2004
Posts: 195
Likes (Received): 14

1906 IRT Manhattan South


1906 IRT Manhattan North & The Bronx


1912 BMT
http://www.nycsubway.org/img/maps/bmt_1912.pdf

1924 BMT


1939 IRT


1939 IND


1939 BMT


1948 System map (post unification)


1959


1972


2005

mad_nick no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 17th, 2005, 02:13 PM   #9
SE9
South East Nine
 
SE9's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2005
Location: London
Posts: 34,125
Likes (Received): 61452

London
**Underground Maps Only**

1907-



1921-



1933-



1937-



1938-



1945-



1958-



1977-



1994-



1999-

__________________
-
SE9 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 17th, 2005, 04:52 PM   #10
Capzilla
robkaper.nl
 
Capzilla's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2002
Posts: 5,892

There are only subway systems in Holland, in Amsterdam (north) and Rotterdam (south), with too few lines to make any historical notes, but I have geographically mapped expected expansions/mainline conversions.

Present situation with primary mainline branches (black), Rotterdam metro (south, blue/red) and Amsterdam metro (north, red/yellow/orange/green).



Expected to be full integrated in 2010:
RandstadRail (hybrid of Rotterdam metro with The Hague trams, green)
RandStadRail 3/6 (upgraded tram lines linking The Hague with Zoetermeer, orange/cyan)
HSL (high-speed rail connection between Amsterdam, Schiphol airport, Rotterdam towards Brussels/Paris, white)
Rijn-Gouwelijn (lightrail trial on converted mainline track, from coast to Leiden, Alphen en Gouda, pink)



Expected in 2015:
Amsterdam's North-South line (blue, u/c but progressing slowly)
Hoekselijn (mainline conversion from Hook of Holland, integrating with Rotterdam metro at Schiedam, yellow)

__________________
Rob Kaper
Capzilla no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 30th, 2005, 05:12 PM   #11
AmiDelf
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2004
Posts: 187
Likes (Received): 3

Historical milestones?

1875
Horse tram with three lines meeting at the Stortorvet square.

1878
Fourth horse tram line opened.

1894
Scandinavia's first electric tram introduced in Kristiania (Oslo).

1898
First electric suburban railway to Holmenkollen.

For Oslo


1899
Horse tram electrifies.

1910
Route numbers are introduced for the first time .

1912
A/S Holmenkolbanen åpner sidelinje Majorstuen - Smestad. Arbeidene med Undergrunnsbanen begynner.

1914
Trikken comes to Kirkeveien (Frogner - Majorstuen) because of the a sermony at Frogner.

1916
Sagene Ring opens (gone in 1954). Holmenkolbanen goes to Frognerseteren (Tryvannsbanen).


1917
A/S Ekebergbanen opens lightrail to Gamlebyen - Sæter and starts with the very first boggiwagons in the citystreets (tracks onto Ljabru get build in 1941 and a sideline to Simensbråten 1931-1967).

1918
Korntransport goes with tram from Vippetangen to Sandaker (stopped in 1967).

1919
Lilleakerbanen opens with extension of Blåtrikkens Skøyenline.

1924
Trondheimsveien og Korsvoll (Bjølsen) gets tramroutes. Blue- and Greentrams periods stops, and the locale A/S Kristiania Sporveier starts up. Lilleakerbanen becomes own companye (A/S Bærumsbanen) and opens towards Haslum.

1925
Ullevål hageby-line opens. Kristiania changes name to Oslo (which is the capital of Norway), and Sporveien becomes to A/S Oslo Sporveier.

1926
Østensjøbanen opens Vålerengen - Oppsal, after a part time with tram driving with citytram to Bryn from 1923.

1927
Sporveien starts its first bussroute - line 18 - between Kværner and Alexander Kiellands plass.

1928
Kong Haakon VII opens the very first Subway line in Scandinavia between Majorstuen and Nationaltheatret.

1930
Bærumsbanen goes now to Kolsås.

1931
Bussline (linje 20) opens (stopped in 1940).

1934
Kjelsåsbanen Storo - Kjelsås opens. A new Subway line named as Sognsvannsbanen opens between Majorstuen and Sognsvann, thru A/S Holmenkolbanen.

1935
Røabanen starts and goes from Smestad to Røa (to Lijordet in 1951 and Østerås in 1972).

1937
Now the very same wagons goes between Kolsås and Oppsal. The first "Gullfiskene (Goldfishes)" starts going at Kjelsåsbanen.

1939
Sinsentrikken (Sinsentram) is now ready. The tram network has now become big.

1940
Sporveien starts with the first trolleylines. Afterwards busslines 18, 20, 21 and 24 goes over to powerbuses.

1942
Kolsåsbanen becomes a part of Holmenkolbanens linenett to Sørbyhaugen, and drives with wide wagons. Lilleaker-Østensjøbanen gets circleend at Jar.

1957
Lambertseterbanen opens from Brynseng and goes with the very new Høka-trams over Vognmannsgata onto Bergkrystallen.

1960
Bystyret (townadministration) starts to degrade tramdrift. Lots of tramlines stops and becomes buslines until til 1968.

1965
Sporveien takes over A/S Ekebergbanen.

1966
Oslo gets T-bane (subway) and becomes worlds smalles city with "full metro". Lambertseterbanen changes to subway line and Grorudbanen extends to Grorud (Stovner 1974, Vestli 1975). Jernbanetorget is now the endestation in centrum.

1967
Østensjøbanen becomes another subway line and extends to Skullerud (Bøler in 1958). Trolleybussene goes their last routes on line 20.

1970
Furusetbanen opens to Haugerud (to Trosterud in 1974, Furuset in 1978 and Ellingsrudåsen in 1981).

1971
A/S Bærumsbanen becomes A/S Oslo Sporveier.

1973
Månedskortet (monthcard for Oslo comes for the first time)

1975
Sporveien takes over A/S Holmenkolbanen.

1977
Bystyret (cityadministration) turns. Trams shall not be vanished. Sentrum T-banestation opens (closed 1983). Sporveien takes over De Blå Omnibussers lines.

1980
NSB tar i bruk Oslo-tunnelen og kjører gjennomgående lokaltog Lillestrøm - Drammen/Spikkestad.

1981
The first leddbuses goes on line 20.

1982
The first leddtrams goes on line 9 Jar - Ljabru.

1984
All trams is now guided by only one person. Conductors is no longer
seen anymore from this date.

1986
Nightbusses starts to go, with competition with the taxies.

1987
Stortinget stasjon (tidligere Sentrum) opens again. East and west lines now connects on the new Stortinget station. The difference was, was had overhead power, while east had third rail.

1988
AS Oslo Sporveier splitts in divisions for tram, subway and busses

1995
Vikatram opens. All subway lines, goes now thru center. From east to west, from west to east. Røabanen is now also converted to full subway standard. All ticketsales stops inside the subways on the western lines, new automates replaces it.

17 new lowflor trams is ordered. T2000 goes into ordinary traffic. Systemchanging starts on Kolsåsbanen and Holmenkolbanen.

1997
Subway line, which is now Line 3 extends from Skullerud to Mortensrud opens for traffic.

1998
New bussterminal opens 5. januar.

1999
Tramline to Rikshospitalet on Gaustad opens 1st Of June.

2000
Lowfloortrams - SL95 starts going. 125-years cellebration. From now on, only leddtrams goes in Oslo after 106 years.

2001
Innføring av abonnementsordning for månedskort.

2002
Studentrabatt prices comes.

2003.
AS Oslo Sporveier omorganiseres fra 1. juli. Trikkedrift og T-banedrift skilles ut som egne aksjeselskaper, heleid av AS Oslo Sporveier. Verksted og infrastruktur blir egne enheter direkte under morselskapet.
Første etappe av T-baneringen åpnes til Nydalen og Storo 20. august.
Det inngås kontrakt med Siemens om leveranse av 99 T-banevogner.

2004
First part of circle line opens.

T2000:


My favourite of all wagons Now the new Siemens wagons will come. Sorry for bad English, but I hope you did understand something of it.

Here you can see the development:
http://www.sporveien.no/templates/Pa...er____737.aspx

Regards,
Michal
AmiDelf no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 30th, 2005, 06:49 PM   #12
ignoramus
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2004
Posts: 3,020
Likes (Received): 4

Singapore


SMRT Corporation (1 Of 2 Rail Operators) Milestones


1987
August 6 > SMRT incorporated
First Licence and Operating Agreement (LOA) signed between SMRT and MRTC, valid for 10 years
November 7 > Commencement of revenue service for the first MRT section,
five stations on the Toa Payoh - Yio Chu Kang run
December 12 > Opening of the second MRT section, Novena - Outram Park


1988
March 12 > Opening of the third MRT section, Tiong Bahru - Clementi, marking the completion of the first phase of
the system, covering 20 stations
November 5 > Opening of the fourth MRT section, Jurong East - Lakeside
December 20 > Opening of the fifth MRT section, Khatib - Yishun


1989
November 4 > Opening of the sixth MRT section, Bugis - Tanah Merah
December 16 > Opening of the seventh MRT section, Simei - Pasir Ris


1990
March 10 > Opening of the eighth MRT section, Bukit Batok -
Choa Chu Kang
July 6 > Opening of the ninth MRT section, Boon Lay (the last section).
Official ceremony commemorating the completion of the 67
kilometre, 42-station MRT system


1996
February 10 > Opening of the Woodlands Extension to the MRT system - 16 Kilometres of track and six stations (linking Yishun to Chao Chu Kang)


1997
July 12 > SMRT's wholly-owned subsidiary, Singapore LRT Pte Ltd, is incorporated
November 7 > SMRT marks its first ten years of operating of the MRT system


1998
March 31 > New LOA signed between SMRT and Land Transport Authority (LTA), valid for another 30 years


1999
November 6 > Opening of the Bukit Panjang LRT system


2000
March 6 > Incorporation of SMRT Corporation Ltd
June 5 > Signing of the Memorandum of Understanding for a joint venture
to publish and distribute a newspaper for public transport commuters
July 1 > Commencement of SMRT's night bus services


2001
January 10 > Opening of Expo Station and Launch of Shuttle train service between Tanah Merah and Expo stations
October 23 > Opening of Dover Station
December 11 > Merger of SMRT Corporation Ltd and TIBS Holdings Ltd Pursuant to a Scheme of Arrangement under Section 210 of the Companies Act, Chapter 50


2002
February 8 > Commencement of passenger service at Changi Airport Station


2004
May 10 > Six subsidiaries under SMRT Corporation Ltd have adopted the SMRT brand
ignoramus no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 30th, 2005, 07:32 PM   #13
hkskyline
Hong Kong
 
hkskyline's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2002
Posts: 86,891
Likes (Received): 18165

Hong Kong's MTR Subway



September 1967
British transport consultants Freeman, Fox, Wilbur Smith & Associates completed the "Hong Kong Mass Transport Study" which proposed the construction of an underground mass transit system.

1970
The British consultants suggested a 52.7 km mass transit system consisting of the Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Island Line, and the East Kowloon line.

1973
The MTRC was established.

November 1975
Constuction of a 15.6 km system from Chater (Central) to Kwun Tong begins.

July 1977
10.5 km - Tsuen Wan Line authorized for construction.

November 1978
Construction begins for Tsuen Wan Line from Prince Edward to Tsuen Wan.

1979
October 1 - Shek Kip Mei - Kwun Tong commenced service.
December 31 - Extension to Tsim Sha Tsui completed.

1980
February 12 - Extension to Chater across the harbour completed.
December - Construction of the 12.5 km Island line authorized from Sheung Wan to Chai Wan.

October 1981
Construction for Island Line began.

1982
May 6 - Kowloon Tong became the KCR interchange.
May 10 - Tsuen Wan Line from Lai King to Tsuen Wan commenced service.
May 17 - Tsuen Wan Line from Prince Edward to Lai King commenced service.

1984
The government planned to construct a second harbour crossing.

May 31, 1985
Several stations were renamed : Chater to Central; Waterloo to Yau Ma Tei; Argyle to Mongkok; Lai Wan to Mei Foo
Island Line commenced service.

May 23, 1986
Island Line extended to SHeung Wan.

1989
August 5 - Kwun Tong Line extended from Kwun Tong to Quarry Bay station across the second harbour crossing.

1994
Government forumulated a development strategy for the 12.5 km Tseung Kwan O line.

1997
Construction began at North Point for a new interchange station to relieve Quarry Bay congestion and prepare for the opening of the Tseung Kwan O line.

June 22, 1998
Tung Chung line commenced service.

July 6, 1998
Airport Express commenced service.

April 24, 1999
Construction of the Tseung Kwan O line began.

2001
August 26 - Kwun Tong Line extended to North Point station.

2002
August 4 - Yau Tong station commenced service
August 18 - Tseung Kwan O Line commenced service.
Late 2002 - Construction of the 3.5 km Disneyland Resort Line began.

December 16, 2003
Mei Foo stations became the KCR West Rail interchange.

October 24, 2004
KCR East Rail extended to Tsim Sha Tsui, becoming the second MTR / KCR East Rail interchange.

June 1, 2005
Sunny Bay station on the Disneyland Resort Line opened.

August 1, 2005
Disneyland Resort Line commenced service.

Late 2005
Airport Express extension to AsiaWorld-Expo expected to open.

2006
The Tung Chung Cable Car is expected to open.


Disneyland Resort Line
__________________
Hong Kong Photo Gallery - Click Here for the Hong Kong Galleries

World Photo Gallery - | St. Petersburg, Russia | Pyongyang | Tokyo | Istanbul | Dubai | Shanghai | Mumbai | Bangkok | Sydney

New York, London, Prague, Iceland, Rocky Mountains, Angkor Wat, Sri Lanka, Poland, Myanmar, and much more!
hkskyline no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 30th, 2005, 08:27 PM   #14
AmiDelf
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2004
Posts: 187
Likes (Received): 3

Very nice We can learn something of this.. hehe
AmiDelf no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 30th, 2005, 10:33 PM   #15
JDRS
Against ID Cards
 
JDRS's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Manchester
Posts: 9,765
Likes (Received): 4

London Underground:

-1859 The first tunnels under the Thames.

1860-1869 The first two companies opened their lines, Metropolitan and Metropolitan District.

1870-1879 The first (unsuccessful) tube: The Tower Subway.

1880-1889 Metropolitan and Metropolitan District extensions out to the NW and SW suburbs, respectively.

1890-1899 The first (successful and/or electric) tube: City & South London Railway. Waterloo & City opened.

1900-1909 Five lines opened: Central, Northern City, Bakerloo, Piccadilly and Charing Cross Euston & Hampstead, now part of Northern.

1910-1919 Bakerloo reached Watford. East London line as we know it today opened.

1920-1929 Northern line extensions.

1930-1939 Piccadilly line extensions.

1940-1949 Central line extensions.

1950-1959 Not much happened, due to financial restrictions after the war.

1960-1969 Victoria line opened.

1970-1979 Jubilee line opened.

1980-1989 Bakerloo line contracted and extended.

1990- Jubilee line Docklands extension opened.

http://www.berga.nu/Lennart_T/lu/
JDRS no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 31st, 2005, 05:51 AM   #16
mrtfreak
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jul 2005
Posts: 4,266
Likes (Received): 201

Singapore
SBS Transit (Singapore Bus Services Transit) [2nd rail operator]

1999
>SBS wins the tender to operate the North East line over TIBS (Trans Island Bus Services)

2001(?)
>SBS renames itself SBS Transit to reflect its multi-modal transport services

2003
> January 18
Sengkang LRT east loop opens, consists of 5 eastern stations and 1 central station
>June 20
The North East MRT line opens. It is the first fully automated MRT line in Singapore and the longest fully automated heavy rail

2005
>Sengkang LRT west loop opens, consisting of 8 stations (3 remain closed), bringing total number of operational Sengkang LRT stations to 11
>Punggol LRT east loop opens, consisting of 7 stations (2 remain closed) and 1 central station
mrtfreak no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 31st, 2005, 07:50 AM   #17
hkskyline
Hong Kong
 
hkskyline's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2002
Posts: 86,891
Likes (Received): 18165

Hong Kong's KCR Commuter Rail

1910 - The Hong Kong section of the KCR begins service.


1916 - Tsim Sha Tsui terminus opens.


1955 - Diesel locomotives introduced.


1962 - Steam-powered locomotives phased out.

1975 - New terminus at Hung Hom opens.


1982 - KCRC incorporated and electrified trains introduced.

1983 - Full commercial electric train service to Lo Wu border begins.

1984 - Common stored value tickets introduced.

1988 - Light rail system commences operation.


1997 - Beijing-Kowloon through train and Shanghai-Kowloon trough train launched.


1997 - KCRC becomes the first public transport operator in Asia to obtain a corporation-wide ISO 9001 certificate.


1998 - Construction of West Rail begins.

2001 - New train cars for East Rail launched and construction of East Rail extensions begin.


2002 - KCRC invited to build and operate the Kowloon Southern Link and wins the bid to build and operate the Shatin to Central link.

2002 - Government gives go-ahead to build the Lok Ma Chau Spur line, which will provide a second boundary crossing to the Mainland.

2003 - West Rail and Light Rail Tin Shui Wai Extension inaugurated in December and Lok Ma Chau Spur Line officially got underway.


2004 - East Rail extension from Hung Hom to Tsim Sha Tsui completed in October; Ma On Shan Line opened in December; Government invites KCRC to merge with the MTR.


Information sign and platform screen doors.
__________________
Hong Kong Photo Gallery - Click Here for the Hong Kong Galleries

World Photo Gallery - | St. Petersburg, Russia | Pyongyang | Tokyo | Istanbul | Dubai | Shanghai | Mumbai | Bangkok | Sydney

New York, London, Prague, Iceland, Rocky Mountains, Angkor Wat, Sri Lanka, Poland, Myanmar, and much more!
hkskyline no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 08:04 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium