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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:01 PM   #1
fabrik
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TORINO development thread

OVAL , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

FUNCTION : speed skating stadium , exhibition hall
PROJECT : HOK sports (United Kingdom) , studio Zoppini (Italy)
STATUS : Under costruction


The new indoor sports stadium for speed skating on an ice skating track 400 m long, the so-called "Oval" course, stands in the Lingotto area of Torino. A large new building, architecturally and technologically innovative, covers an area of over 200x100m and can accommodate around 8,000 spectators during the Olympic event. The metallic structure has the advantage of having a single span roof that, after the Olympic event, will easily become the natural finishing touch for the largest exhibition structure in Torino located in the old Fiat factory of Lingotto.

The building is composed of the main hall with an area of about 20,000 m2 where the 400m oval ice skating track is located, entrances with related services on the east side, service areas on the west side, and two large façades next to the south and north sides. The north façade towards Lingotto is completely in glass and partly curved creating a visual link between the building and the Lingotto factory. This is one of the most significant architectural elements of the intervention. The south and east sides will be opaque, with a lower transparent strip next to the exits. There are three buildings containing various functions rising on the east side oriented towards via Nizza where entrances are planned. Their purpose is to reinterpret the style of the nearby Lingotto building renovated by Renzo Piano. The side with the entrances was designed to be easily dividable in various sectors, both during the Olympic Games and for post-Olympic use as an exhibition hall. From the entrance hall, similar to a real foyer, you can go up to a long terrace from where there is a view of the entire main hall.

The main hall appears as a large easily adaptable area, which can be used both as an exhibition area and an ice sports venue. The roof is constructed with a crisscross metallic structure entirely visible from the inside, while from the outside it appears to have an extremely simple shape. The two wings emerging from the roof are due to the planned functional separation of the exhibition building









New Torino ice Palace, C.so Tazzoli , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

PROJECT : De Ferrari , Lee (Italy)
STATUS : completed

The new Ice Palace is being built on Corso Tazzoli, characterised by the large FIAT Mirafiori complex, on a site where there was once an open-air ice skating rink. Capable of containing 3,000 spectators, after the Olympic event the indoor stadium will become the city's main ice skating rink. It will host both amateur activities and professional championships. Sports activities are located inside a large space that, on Corso Tazzoli, is characterised by the curved shape of the large rough brick wall that then goes beyond the building to mark the two areas/entrance squares: one provides access for the public, the other for the athletes, journalists, special guests... Following the historical examples of Torino in shape and material such as the Teatro Regio or Palazzo Carignano, the massive appearance of the curved wall suggests an architectural image in contrast with the industrial architecture opposite. Beyond the wall, towards the road, is a large glass wall foyer: the place where users cross one another, visible from the outside, in a dynamic continuum, the area of "lost steps", waiting periods, meetings, exhibitions, trophies. The sheet is located at a level of -4.50m, surrounded by straight seating tiers. This distribution favours the immediate comprehension of the space and passageways to follow inside the building. Other places reserved for VIPs, journalist or disabled persons are planned on two levels of balconies above the longitudinal seating tiers, accessible from the large glass wall foyer. Areas set aside for offices and sports associations, as well as a large bar/restaurant with a breathtaking view over the playing field are located on the same level. The roof structure is in painted laminated wooden beams and, on the two shorter sides, is supported by two large portals in reinforced concrete that, like theatrical prosceniums, frame the playing field, seating tiers and balconies, reinforcing in this way the idea of a group performance.











Palavela , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

PROJECT : Gae Aulenti (Italy)
FUNCTION : figure skating and short track events
STATUS : completed

The renovation of Palazzo a Vela, indispensable to equip the structure with the functional and safety requirements necessary for hosting the figure skating and short track events, in view of the Winter Olympics being held in Torino in 2006, is bound to change and upgrade the building and its functions, as well as the character of the area. Due to the Olympics, parts of the city are undergoing modernization and renewal correlated with the transformation and development of infrastructures that will remain as a public investment, beyond the Olympic event itself.
The Palavela attracts special attention and surprise for its structural characteristics and for its size. The building, with a hexagonal base inscribed in a circle with a diameter of 130m, is composed of a reinforced sail-like structure constructed on three arches close to one another, turned 120 degrees to each other and fastened to the ground on three of the six vertices of the hexagon.
It is difficult to detect the "limit" between architecture and engineering in this building. What strikes us is the huge space in the interior surrounded by the glass walls on the sides and the intersection of the three vaults of the roof. Here we have an unusual architecture, difficult to divide and break up, a closed space that draws its force from its coherency bordering abstraction. It is without any doubt a landmark for the city, characterising one of its districts, and a true monument.
The notice of competition has two main objectives: restoration of the Palavela and localization in its interior of the Olympic events of figure skating and short track, with stands for 8,000/10,000 people, lift and service bays, and later post-Olympic use of the venue as a multi-purpose facility, run by the Municipality of Torino, with the construction of a floor at level 8.00m to increase functionality, versatility and enable an eventual separation in two separate structures.
On the whole, the intervention must also ensure that all the requirements of functionality, quality and safety are met, both for the Olympic and post-Olympic periods.
The functional and distributive requirements of the notice of competition, the need to have separate entrances for the Authorities and the general public, the varied distribution of seating, and the requirements concerning post-Olympic use, building management costs (reduction of internal volume) and fire prevention measures seem to us in agreement with the decision to work within the Palavela for a new building that is complete, autonomous and independent.
The building is made up of two structures next to each other, with roofing at different heights, connected by a netlike spatial roof: The southeast/southwest structure is intended for spectators of sectors 1 and 2 (8,306 spectators) and the northeast/northwet structure for the Olympic Family, athletes and the Media (1,062 spectators), for a total of 9,368 spectators.
The choice to construct a building with two main structures next to each other with roofing at different levels is closely linked to the geometry of the existing sail-like structure, which makes it possible to increase the height only near the central parts of the arches on which the sail itself is built.
On the other hand, height can be limited as the distance from its supports decreases, and the floor plan must necessarily be kept at a distance from them.
The result is an asymmetrical construction inside a building that has its own axial configuration, which relates with it and reveals different perspectives from different angles.
In fact, the building shows those walking along Via Ventimigla two different fronts, characterised by angular and not frontal views. A first more compact view, with a constant height, stressed by the succession of external stairways appears to us going along the road from south to north, while, from north to south, the building reveals its complexity of different volumes that make up the north block and its relation with the wider structure of the stands for the public


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HOCKEY 1 , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

PROJECT : Arata Isozaki (Japan)
FUNCTION : hockey (and basket , volley , concert) stadium
STATUS : under costruction

Planning intentions and context
The main objective of the hockey rink plan was to redefine the urban landscape by changing the layout of this area of the city from the configuration done for the 1934 World Football Championship Games to one for the 2006 Winter Olympics. The area of the project competition held in 2001 included the existing municipal stadium and the "Maratona" tower, the overlooking Piazza d'Armi Park and the "ex-Combi" area behind. The plan was to divert present-day Corso Sebastopol underground to link the park and the sports facilities in a new sports complex, similar to what was done in Montjuic for the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona. If the main features of the landscape designed for the Football Championships in 1934 were the volumes of the tower standing along Corso Sebastopoli and the stadium - clearly outlined and isolated in their solemnity from the ticket booths that dotted the boundary walls - the large new urban area will be the main event in 2006. The areas included in the project competition merge together in a single large area and the landscape design creates a relation among existing buildings, the park and the new hockey rink by integrating them with each other in a new single urban area. The "Maratona" tower has a centralising function, placed in front of the park and at the end of a strip of water in which it is reflected; the old stadium is an important testimony of the past, restored and refunctionalized in accordance with current requirements; the new hockey rink refers back to the old stadium and reinterprets its proportions with the use of the latest materials. The Piazza d'Armi Park was redesigned to interpret and emphasize the relationship between the various facilities. A vast empty field brings the dimensions of the new hockey rink into the design of the park and a series of large two-dimensional areas retrace the lines and effect of the sports facilities opposite. The existing Corso Sebastopoli is closed to traffic and transformed into a large pedestrian square between the park and the facilities, enabling large crowds of people to be directed and creating an official area symbolizing the Olympic event. The extent of the new works always depends on the pre-existing situation. The most powerful feature remains the existing tower and its role. As a vertical centre of attraction, the old stadium sets the horizontal boundary of the built-up area (15 metres) containing the volume of the new hockey rink, which establishes a dialogue between the old and the new. The materials and the proportions are the instruments of this dialogue: The round and echoless cement shape of the stadium acquires a new vitality together with the ringing stainless steel of the stern Cartesian parallelepiped of the new venue. Much attention was given to its post-Olympic use when designing the new hockey rink. A sort of "factory of events" is being created in the industrial city of Torino, truly designed with an almost endless potentiality for use in the future due to its mobile floors and stands, which allow the distribution of internal space to be modified in order to adapt them for multiple uses. Ice sports, indoor sports, concerts, shows, conventions, congresses, ceremonies, important events, parades, religious meetings, etc. can all be hosted in the same building with reduced operating costs due to the simplicity of the technical methods used to adapt the facility, like a fuel-efficient engine. Just as the engine hidden in the bodywork gives the automobile its raison d'etre by moving it, so the coexistence of functional flexibility and technological equipment make the new hockey rink a continuing factory of events, a facility always ready to host shows that are welcomed by the community.
The plan
The hockey rink is made up of a large mass of 183x100 metres of stainless steel suspended over a 5-metre high glass wall base facing the park. To reduce the height of the building as much as possible, the hockey track was placed at a height of -7.50m, and the stands are located partly below and partly above ground level. This solution made it possible to avoid the presence of large emergency stairways, transforming them into short passageways for immediate exit from the stands towards the exterior. On entering the facility, spectators are at the midpoint of the stands and can either go up or down to find their assigned seat. In this way, two 3.75m high underground floors were created to be used by the athletes, Olympic staff, the press and for various waiting lounges. All technical equipment rooms for air conditioning and building control are also located on these floors. The areas above ground at level 0.00 and 6.00 are reserved entirely for the public, thus avoiding interferences of any kind. A third section of the facility is made up of the external technical services complex where noisy and potentially dangerous equipment requiring open-air space is located. These are located in an additional 5-metre high rectangular structure, covered with rough cement, on the south side of the hockey rink accessible from Via Filadelfia. The new hockey rink was located next to the old stadium, parallel to Corso Galileo Ferraris. At the project competition stage, an underground pedestrian passage was planned between the old stadium and the new hockey rink to connect the new facility with the media, VIP and Olympic Family area, planned in the old stadium. Following the client's request, the media, VIP and Olympic Family area was moved to the underground rooms of the hockey rink, which were enlarged, and the passage to the old stadium was dropped. The plan of the hockey rink provides seating for 12,227 spectators in addition to 105 places for the disabled for a total of 12,332 seats and 13 stands. The various categories of users - athletes, spectators, Olympic Family, media and venue management - may move around and use the areas without hindrance according to an accurate study of the internal flow of people. Ordinary spectators were divided into four sectors with a maximum seating capacity of 4,000 each, in accordance with sports regulations with separate entrances and exits. Passageways both for the public and athletes were studied respecting the removal of architectural barriers, so as to be easily used by the disabled during normal use and in the case of important special events. This was achieved without the use of special equipment. In fact, in the case of sports use of the ice rink (at level -7.50), the athletes enter on the same level and have vehicle access to the underground areas, whereas the public enters at level 0.00. In the case of other uses, with the temporary flooring at level 0.00, all activities take place at entrance level. The building is constructed on four floors: underground level (-7.50) containing the competition field, the areas set aside for the athletes/judges and technical services rooms. intermediate level (-3.75) reserved for the Olympic Family, the media, venue management and the sports federations. ground level (0.00) set aside for entrances, distribution areas, stands and areas for moving the mobile stands. upper level (6.00) intended as a perimetric gallery with standing room to view special events in post-Olympic use and a refreshment area






Olympic Stadium , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

FUNCTION : ceremony , Torino footbal club stadium
STATUS : under costruction






Last edited by fabrik; November 5th, 2005 at 10:28 PM.
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:04 PM   #2
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MOI , Olympic Village , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

PROJECT : Benedetto Camerana (Italy)
STATUS : under costruction

The Olympic Village plans include the building of 3 lots of residences for around 52,000 sqm. (Lots III, IV and V), services areas for around 40,000 sqm. (Lot II) in addition to a connecting pedestrian bridge with the centre of Lingotto (Lot VI). Before construction begins, preparatory work is planned to clear the area of asbestos, move the existing service ducts, demolition work, earth moving and structural consolidation of the original building.
Lot II
As part of the construction work of the Olympic Village, the preservation and renovation of the buildings located in the original central area subject to special control by the Office of Monuments and Fine Arts is planned. The purpose of the restoration and reuse of the buildings of the fruit and vegetable market is to create a service zone for the Olympic Village (logistics centre). The General Market complex in via Giordano Bruno n. 181 was built during different periods from the post-war period to the present and was enlarged according to necessity and needs. It is made up of reinforced concrete buildings divided into stalls once used for the wholesale sale of fruits and vegetables, covered with roofs in metal and reinforced concrete. These one-story structures will be used for offices, services and storerooms for foodstuffs. The arcades, also in reinforced concrete, will serve as loading and unloading bays. The buildings in the central area have an historical and architectural importance as they make up the centre of the former business and commercial complex. This complex was completed in 1934 according to a plan of the architect, Cuzzi, and comprises: a central tower, two buildings opposite with an arcade that serves as an exedra near the main entrance in via Giordano Bruno 181, and 14 reinforced concrete curved structures for communication passageways and store rooms. The renovation plan includes the enclosure of the arcades with glass walls and the realisation of multi-functional areas set aside as an international and service area for the OLYMPIC VILLAGE during the Olympics and for services for residents later on in the post-Olympic period.
Lot VI
The gangway is not only necessary to connect the area of the former General Market and the Lingotto commercial centre, but is also a symbol for Torino, host city of the 2006 Olympic Winter Games. The plans include an urban area that is an integral part of the city and open to the potentiality of the Lingotto complex and railway yard. The gangway will create a pedestrian connection between the area of the former General Market and the adjoining multi-functional Lingotto centre. The above area is characterised by the presence of the General Market building: the roofing of the exhibition area (the two side sections and the main body), the storage tank tower and the "loading ramp" parallel to the railway tracks. The railway cuts the area into two sections, on one side lies the Market area and on the other the Lingotto complex. The pedestrian walkway begins next to the main body of the General Market and terminates beyond the railway near the existing gangway. Several limitations, such as the presence of the railway; influence planning of the gangway and give it its particularity: the impossibility to create any supports along the entire area occupied by the railway tracks gives the impression that the gangway is suspended like an arch and that it is only supported in the section where supports can be laid. The arch, created for structural requirements and functionality, immediately recalls the arcades of the General Market.
Lot VII
The overall plan for lot VII arises from the need to renew and make the maximum use of a large area indicated as a site that will host the Olympic Village. The main objective is to create a useful area for the Olympic and post-Olympic periods that will absolve its function in the community as a place for the inhabitants of Torino to meet and relax, and also as an outdoor area for recreation. Lot VII is the centre of the public area outside the Olympic Village. In particular, it is made up of the entire eastern part bordering the railway, and a vast central area between Lots III and IV above the existing road underpass.
Residential lots
The choice of the promoter to locate the Olympic Village in undeveloped urban areas gives the event the role of a driving force for the renewal of the entire district. Consequently, the plan was designed to give special character to the buildings so that the district would be recognizable in the future as the Olympic district, as had already happened in Torino during the 1960s with the complex for Italia '61. The Village will also function as a link between the functional district and the Lingotto complex beyond the railway, re-establishing the visual and structural continuity of this part of the city.
Lot III
The configuration of the plan for the building complex designed for Lot III of the Olympic Village is dependent on the layout of the general city plan of Torino. The structure of the houses in the lot is designed so as to create a space open in the diagonal directions and closed longitudinally. In fact, the buildings in front located on via Giordano Bruno serve as a boundary and visual barrier for the lot, creating a uniform skyline effect with the nearby structures. The lot was designed so as to create distinct private and public areas, which includes the presence of squares, roads and courtyards, and it is in these areas separating the private from the public that the various services such as transportation, leisure-time facilities and refreshment areas can be found. There are areas set asides on via Giordano Bruno for commercial activity, shops, bars and offices. In particular, the square formed by the intersection of the internal roads, in addition to being a crossroad, serves as a meeting place for the inhabitants of the district. The buildings have an area of 20.37x13.77 m with an intermediate landing of 3.10m so as to have free internal space for each unit of 2.71m. The quality of the housing units is designed in particular for the post-Olympic period, and housing regulations were strictly followed and an attempt was made to construct buildings with a well-designed heating system and soundproofing and with a modern design. Each unit has at least two areas, but what characterises them the most is that they conform to standards for the disabled. The standard unit on the ground floor is designed as a duplex, meaning on two levels, so that it can be divided into separate living and sleeping areas. The duplex on the ground floor is the best solution to optimise living space, since it enables the living area to be next to the garden, while the sleeping area above is free of noise and people passing by. The flats on the upper floors are arranged on a single floor and each is located on at least one corner of the building. From the fourth floor above, they are set back flush with the façade allowing space for marvellous terraces for the various units. Each flat has at least one balcony. The internal stairway has a noteworthy architectural design, starting from the entrance hall twice as high through the building up to the external glass walls that provide it with natural light. It takes advantage of lighting from the top of the building. The stairway also makes it possible to reach the terrace accessible to everyone from the top floor, from where there is a marvellous view.
Lot IV
Lot IV has a unified front on via Pio VII that connects the architectures of lots III and V, while the towers inside follow the square grid defined by the road that join the city district's road network. The different heights of the buildings and the variety of the façades reveal work done by international teams that, by reducing the visual impact of the complex, create unexpected spectacular settings and perspectives. The front of the buildings features bow windows, continuous projections and sunshade structures that liven up the façade with chiaro-scuro effects and are also the leitmotiv of the other lots. The windows are all full-length to ensure maximum lighting inside and the Persian blinds are designed as sliding elements that create new geometrical patterns depending on the time of day and presence or not of people in the flats. The objective of the plan for Lot IV is to meet the requirements of the twin objective of the works: on one hand the Olympic Village and on the other its transformation into residential housing. After the first phase in which the architectural complex will accommodate the athletes and will therefore be a functional structure for use during the sports events, a second phase will follow in which the Olympic building will be adapted without costly refurbishment into residential housing and the architecture will become an integral part of the city. The requirements of the Olympic Village are those of accommodation facilities that guarantee the comfort and safety of the athletes, but at the same time make maximum use of the available housing areas. Consequently, each building is designed as a hotel and organised into residential units varying in size from one to 4 rooms with at least one toilet facility suitable for a disabled person. To ensure minimum transformation costs into housing, flat types were chosen that are adaptable to future residential use without any structural modification, also as far as installations are concerned.
Lot V
Lot V borders on the northwest with via Giordano Bruno and on the southwest with via Bossoli, on the southeast with via Zino Zini and with an area set aside for the public with a bicycle lane, and on the northeast with a dividing garden in common with Lot IV. The almost square lot has a total area of about 10,234 sqm. The northeast to southwest side rises slightly with a difference in level of about 1.5m. 13 buildings are planned on the lot, eight of them along via Bossoli and Giordano Bruno, and five located inside the lot. The arrangement and configuration of the buildings is aimed at creating a variety of spaces and images. Each building, although an integral part of the total complex, stands out for its special features in size, shape, materials and decor. The internal distribution of the flats will be varied so as to obtain, according to their location, the best living and environmental conditions. The average height of the buildings is seven floors with some sections that rise to eight floors. Only a limited section of the central building will rise to nine floors with the construction of a tower that will serve as a visual landmark. All the buildings located along via Bossoli and via Giordano Bruno have commercial areas on the ground floor and are connected by a lightweight continuous arcade structure












PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (connecting Lingotto and OVAL to olympic village)

Arch 69 metres high
PROJECT : Hugh Dutton (United Kingdom)
STATUS : under costruction






Spina 3 - Vitali area Media Village , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

PROJECT : Jean Pierre Buffi (France)
STATUS : COMPLETED

TOWER : 19 storeys , about 70 metres

INTRODUCTION
The intervention is the first phase of the recovery of the Vitali district, a rundown industrial area near the centre where the plants of the Teksid foundry were once located, and includes its reconversion for other uses and construction of a total of 190,000 sqm. of new buildings.
This phase, begun in the autumn of 2003, will lead to the construction of around 50,000 sqm. by autumn of 2005.
The purpose of the plan is to renew the territory by creating a new town centre that will offer multi-functional areas and a park and will involve all local infrastructures, modifying the road network, thanks in particular to the construction of the underpass in Corso Mortara in the area between Via Livorno and Via Borgaro, and to the realignment of the road axis of Via Verolengo and Via Orvieto.
In this way, pedestrians will be favoured inside the complex and use of the park guaranteed by concentrating building in the area north of Corso Mortara in a zone with an average width of about 130 metres that runs along via Verolengo and via Orvieto.
To recover and renew an area of this kind, marked by an industrial past and therefore by a sort of isolation with respect to the surrounding town structure, means, on the one hand, to create a new district in it, with forms and functions that satisfy the needs of those that will live there and that will attract and involve the inhabitants of nearby districts and the rest of the city, and, on the other, to seize the opportunity to provide a regenerating impulse to the entire city.
The architectural plan intends to valorise the positive aspects with a unifying vision of the district, in which allocated usage will maintain features and identities that are purposely left different from each other.
Therefore, it was essential to decide which functions to concentrate in this area in addition to residential housing, accommodation facilities, commercial activity and, services and manufacturing businesses.
Their number, together with the presence of a large park, will assure the vitality of the area and the mutual exchange that will occur with the bordering districts.
The Vitali area is part of the town renewal programme (PRIU) of the Spina 3 area of transformation and is subdivided into 5 sub-districts and into a minimum of 6 planning coordination units in order to render the interventions independent as far as possible within these subdivisions, guaranteeing in any event a unified design on the basis of the restrictions given in the prescribed tables and technical construction standards.
In order to maintain the continuity of the planned construction with the Dora Park that envisages the renewal of the banks of the river unbroken, it was planned to fill in the area of Corso Mortara entirely covering it with greenery and artificial hills to minimize the environmental and visual impact.
The first phase of the plan provides for around 30,000 sqm. of private and public housing, 13,000 sqm. of buildings for commercial use, 5,300 sqm. for hotels and 1,500 sqm. for the service industry.
The area's location offers the possibility of creating a unique integration of the city structure and public green areas, enabling a direct view of the river without visual obstruction and enjoyment of the park, by following the gradual sloping of the territory all the way to the Dora Riparia River.
The square is the centre for various city functions.
Its distinctive telescopic shape pointed towards the river is proof of the desire for mediation between city and park, the presence of glass covered areas stimulates aggregation and social gatherings, and the exclusively pedestrian traffic favours the continuity of the transition between nature and the city centre.
The garden roofs of the commercial buildings, which can easily be seen from various directions, are used as green areas, guaranteeing comfortable temperatures to the areas and satisfying modern requirements of synergy and harmony between the metropolitan area and the park.
Environment awareness, energy savings and the need to control costs have influenced the choice for technologically advanced planning and construction solutions by means of a single installation and adoption of ventilated walls to improve the thermal performance of the buildings.
The building along Via Verolengo is presented as a compact town front, interrupted by side roads and terraces in the upper part of the buildings, which ensure an unobstructed view between the opposite side and the park.
The front along Via Orvieto is double: a first front is made up of the long brick building that houses handicrafts and that constitutes in effect a foundation for the four L-shaped residential buildings of Lot 4; and a second front, located at park level, above the level of the road.
This front is also subdivided so that greenery always remains visible. Lot 3, at the corner of Via Verolengo and Via Orvieto, constitutes the key element between the two fronts and in a certain sense the main access junction for the entire system. It is made up of a linear building for residential use that faces one of the side roads of Via Verolengo, a hotel, whose curved shape unites the two fronts, and especially by two opposing elements, the tower and the commercial area, a sort of visual signal for the town the first, an invitation to enter the park the second.
THE OLYMPIC PROGRAMME
The plan provides for the use of the entire area concerned by the first phase of the intervention as part of the Media Village for the duration of the Olympic events and its successive transformation for use as provided for the original plan.
The Village makes accommodation available for around 1,400 people with private bath and public areas for all needs connected to the activities hosted, small areas for gatherings on each floor, large meeting rooms in each building, a central reception area, catering and a press room in the future commercial centre.
The rehabilitation, included as early as the planning stage, will provide residential, commercial and service area perfectly integrated into the new district after having satisfied the various needs of the Village during the period of the Olympic Games.
Different uses are planned for the northwest section of Lot 3 - residential, commercial, hotels - that will occupy the entire plan for the area and that depend directly on bordering lots.
The functions are organised for similar buildings: the commercial link building, together with the ground floor of the area, the residence in the building in line with the new road to the park, the hotel on the front of via Verolengo.
Business activities occupy almost the entire area of the ground floor of the area; which is designed as a single link building, a solid foundation with openings and dentils.
The emerging volumes of the line of residences and the hotel rise without any continuity above organised along the two front roads of the lot.
The entire roofing of the commercial foundation is provided with hanging gardens serving the sections above, which are located so as to overlook an elevated garden, internal courtyard that everyone can enjoy.
The organisation of the space and functions had to take into account the planning restrictions of the surrounding areas, setting, visibility and accessibility to the area.
Different treatment of the exterior surfaces, even if a uniform appearance to the intervention was maintained, was applied for different uses: maximum transparency and openness towards the interior for the commercial areas, terraces, loggias and balconies, external offshoots of the residential space for the residences and transitional filter screen for the hotel.
THE HOTEL
It is located in Via Verolengo in the eight-storey building on the curve. The main entrance and lobby, Reception, floor services and management are situated on the ground floor near the pedestrian square The lifts and main stairway are located in the lobby.
The central section of the ground floor is reserved for shops and the cafeteria is located on the first floor near the lobby.
Large plate-glass windows open out onto the entrance below the square and onto the hanging garden on the first floor, which can be used during the summer as a terrace for breakfast and refreshments.
The remaining part of the building has a total of 141 rooms. The façade of the hotel is fitted with decorative elements that shield the basic structure of pillars and beams, creating a new overlaying grid that forms a transition area both from the interior towards the exterior and vice versa. The rooms are arranged so as to have the wall facing the exterior free.
The roof is flat and has a hanging garden.
A panoramic bar with a view of the Dora Park and the Alps is located near the main lifts and stairway.
THE RESIDENCE
The residence extends from the first to the eighth floor of the building located along the new road to the park. The ground floor area is occupied by a continuous arcade and shops that from the interior of the link building overlook the arcade facing the road.
The rooms on the first floor are organised so that the living area faces east onto the hanging gardens for private use, while the sleeping area and bathrooms are located on the west side.
The living rooms and kitchens that overlook the gardens have large sliding plate-glass windows, which can be left open in order to take full advantage of the enjoyable external space.
The rooms on the second floor are small and have one or two rooms.
The living area overlooks large terraces that occupy the entire width of the buildings. On the west side, small loggias serving the sleeping area have been created.
The floors from the third to the sixth are organised with the living areas facing east, overlooking terraces and loggias all-round.
On the west side there are small balconies serving the sleeping area.
The top two floors are organised in duplex attics with large exterior gardens on several levels.
While medium-sized rooms are located in the main structure of the building, at the two ends and in the section connecting the building with the hotel, the type changes slightly and the units are organised differently, also to better meet the need for a view with smaller types of units.
Corner terraces, loggias, balconies and bow windows characterise these units, which are all different. The façades, which from the first to the sixth floor are organised on two split level floors, one opposite in line with the loggias and the balconies and one behind in line with the actual outer wall, are made with traditional materials.
Plastered bricks create a solid foundation for support even though it is broken by a long arcade on the ground floor that reduces its presence.
The upper volume has a lighter structure, with broken volumes, made with panelling in transparent glass structures, which float without weight on the base below. So the façades feature three superimposed layers.
The first starting from below composed of the negative of the continuous arcade, the second, intermediate, with all the plastered layers, continuous loggias and balconies, the third, above, with broken elements and free light volumes.
The tower building is a distinctive landmark in the district, partly set aside for the service industry (ground floor, first, second and third) and partly as a residence (from the 5th to the 17th floor), closely depending on the adjacent lots and in particular with the complex described above.
The structure is built with parting walls and pillars in reinforced concrete and the building has an overall maximum height at the floor roof of the 17th floor of 57.7m.
The tower is divided for different uses horizontally and vertically proposing solutions for the service industry on the first four floors and as a residence from the fifth to the seventeenth floors, with sizes of flats designed to attract a variety of users representing a cross section of the city to give life to the district.
Being a tower building, the residential units were located in corner positions, so as to be able to take advantage of at least two external views.
There is an independent entry to the floors set aside for the service industry with respect to the residential portion of the building, located in the centre of the south wall, in a location in full view, near the large pedestrian square.
A stairway and lift located in the centre of the area assure connection to the floors above.
The building appears as a parallelepiped block with plate-glass with a very simple composition from which the residential floors above break away.
The latter are different due to the marked horizontal lines of the continuous balconies that become gradually less frequent on the upper floors, giving more force to the vertical lines thanks to the projecting bodies of the bow windows of the bathrooms and kitchens.
The last four floors are further characterised by the presence of avant-corps.
A well-constructed system of movable shades (shutters, curtains, Venetian blinds, roll-up shutters) stands out on the four façades.
Two buildings for commercial use lie on the other side of the pedestrian square.
Businesses are organised in lots of various sizes: from local shops to medium-sized areas. All the commercial areas overlook the public area: via Orvieto, the public square, the access road between via Orvieto and the pedestrian square.
Some of the commercial premises on two levels overlook the roof that can be used for hanging gardens.
The structure is entirely prefabricated; the façades are covered in stone.
Garages for sufficient public and private parking to favour the flow of traffic and improve accessibility to the district are located in the two underground floors, both for the businesses established and park. users.
Lot 4 is mainly for public residences and includes 4 buildings each with an L-shaped configuration, arranged differently in order to form two open courtyards opening towards the park to the west.
In the internal distribution of the housing units, more favourable orientations were given priority and therefore the living rooms and kitchens were arranged in the sunny side (to the east, but mostly south and west towards the park) while the view to the north was kept for the bedrooms and bathrooms.
Besides, as far as possible, an attempt was made to have the living area (living rooms and kitchens) overlook the terraces so that the interior area could enjoy and make use of a practical area outside.
For the sleeping area, small balconies were planned, except for several floors towards the road where views over large balconies were given priority.
From a strictly architectural point of view the buildings appear fairly animated with broken lines – the height is not constant, but varies for each building – creating a pleasant effect of lightness and freedom with the contrast of full and empty spaces.
This effect is enhanced by the use of flat roofs.
To emphasize this sense of lightness, the façades are marked horizontally by three areas treated differently: a bossy foundation up to the second floor, an intermediate with outer wall in rough brick and continuous balconies, a last one at the top with well-constructed volumes treated with white plaster and balconies


http://www.giardinivitali.it/sito/index.htm




Spina 3 – Michelin North Area Media Village , Torino 2006 winter olympic games

PROJECT : Picco , Rosental (Italy)
STATUS : completed

3 TOWERS : 19-21 storeys , about 70-75 metres


THE PLAN
The Media Village area, included in the Spina 3 Urban Transformation Plan, is located on the corner of Corso Mortara and Via Orvieto and extends to via Tesso in the north and to a new road in the east (perpendicular to it and Corso Mortara), which serves as a separation from the curtain wall of the ex Savigliano plant.
The area is earmarked by the Urban Renewal Programme as a residential area and for service activities for the general public and business community.
Once the internal furnishings to accommodate journalists during the 2006 Olympic Winter Games are removed, it will be permanently used as a residential area (with several extensions to special categories of users, such as housing for elderly people) with small businesses and commercial activities located on the ground floor.
The height of the four-sided building is practically constant along Corso Mortara and there are more prominent differences in height on Via Tesso and the side roads.
The configuration of the buildings within the urban layout emphasizes its central role and residential services for a part of the town where the transformation is completely changing the traditional landmarks, perspectives and environment.
A new town section of the Dora River Park is being set up.
When the overpass is demolished (at the same time the underground railway line will be built), the area will overlook the river park and will able to take advantage, with the Corso Mortara centre and separation from the river, of a large completely free area to the south.
From this point of view, the concentration and relation of the buildings planned under the Urban Renewal Plan with the surrounding areas, due to the building rights created in the Michelin area, acquire significance and importance.
What is the significance? The rehabilitation of an industrial district with residential housing and services for its inhabitants, applying traditional building standards.
The high buildings, called towers, only to stress their difference with respect to those lower than 6 storeys high, are in reality standard and open types communicating with each other and the urban landscape.
Care was taken to avoid macro-types or mega-structures that, during the 60s and 70s, attempted to modify the town’s skyline, later demonstrating that they had no relation not only to the town and environmental layout, but especially to the community’s demand for comfortable housing and socio-cultural activity.
What is the importance? A town configuration that is an alternative to the closed spaces of the apartment blocks in Torino. Wide prospecting of external roads towards the interior of the quadrilateral are planned and likewise towards the exterior.
Consequently, the area of the Media Village will have a dynamic relationship with the rest of the town.
It will not be an exclusive enclave with divisions and barriers, but a new district of the town and will strive to revive traditional concepts of urban living quality.
The same architectural variety in the assembling of materials and designs hopes to create an identity, different from the closed spaces and standardization of architectural language that may sometimes be necessary to reorder landmarks and orientation, or for characteristic styles as Torino developed architectural themes during its development from the middle of the 17th to the 19th century.
It is in relation to this architectural variety that the unifying image of a support or foundation was born, which continues on Corso Mortara the recurring form of the ex Savigliano area transforming it into micro centres of attraction for services and businesses.
The central opening south of the foundation leads, along the flight of steps in the green area, towards the internal green areas, where the relation between the towers assumes a basic importance in the relation with the surrounding space and traffic and external dynamic relations.
The Media Village includes three tall buildings arranged in a line almost parallel to Corso Mortara (TOWER 1 – TOWER 2 – TOWER 3) with different entry and planning solutions; surrounded by six lower buildings, two parallel to Corso Mortara (UMI A and B), two to Orvieto (UMI C and D) and two to via Tesso (UMI E and F).
Apart from the more or less marked architectural characteristics, the common foundation will contain, above and below ground, the connections and functional infrastructures of the complex.
The foundation extended to the entire area of the quadrilateral and therefore to the internal connections between the open areas of the different buildings, will be provided with a green area equipped with garden furniture and water expanses for common private use.
The continuity of the equipped green area will blend with the pedestrian entries to the different buildings and a ring-shaped internal route for the Fire Department that may enter from via Tesso.
The two lower levels are mostly earmarked for parking lots, with two entries from the new road to the east and to from via Tesso.
The clear area above ground between buildings A, B and C, lower than the other due to the above mentioned differences in the height of the ground, is earmarked for commercial businesses, as is the ground floor of Building D.
TOWER 1 (Via Orvieto)
BUILDINGS B, C, D and F (Corso Mortara, Via Orvieto, Via Tesso)
The space of the tower is divided into three structures with different heights and a vivid geometric design. The lower block, facing via Orvieto, has a height of around half of that of the rear building structures and is angled 45° with respect to them.
This difference is emphasized by the material used with the choice of adopting the same greenstone covering of the foundation. So the tower is visually connected to the entire media village and constitutes the vertical contrasting element with the horizontal commercial structure.
If the stone connects the tower to the ground, the brick raises the construction up towards the sky. A brick façade was adopted for the volumes that reach the maximum height.
However, the masses of the towers are softened by the pleasant disorder determined by the invention of an innovative façade system, composed of a square grid of dark green coloured metal section. The areas determined in this way are partly covered with various kinds of panelling in many different materials. they go from Corten steel to glass, from perforated sheeting to metallic grids.
The same planning philosophy was also extended to several of the surrounding buildings; lower but made with similar brick façades alternated with grid and panel façades. In fact, the internal fronts were designed to be closed, full and massive as far as possible –and so in brick – while the front on the road is permeable and “open” thanks to the presence of a metal structure.
On the other hand, the buildings rise in an area that for over a century was occupied by heavy industry. A fitting tribute to steel appeared to be due, and is provided by the red line that connects the past of the factories to the future of the media.
BUILDING A (Corso Mortara, east side)
It is the same and a satellite of Tower 3, even if, within the Media Village quadrilateral, it has a connecting role to the existing town structure nearby.
Its characteristic architecture, which assumes a design similar to Tower 3 and communicates with Building B, makes the above-mentioned effect possible by giving prominence to the foundation module.
Built 7-storeys high with a flat roof, it alternates the texture of rough brick with a sleek metallic grid in the loggias, with a composition similar to the other unilateral buildings of the complex.
The structures in metal section of the grid will match the panelling in perforated sheeting.
The upper coping is made with a lightweight metal structure that characterised the four faces of the volume.
TOWER 2 (central tower)
The Tower 2 building has a volumetric configuration 21-storey high but is subdivided into lower structures, created by a U-shaped plan.
The three structures have variable heights with differences in number and size of housing units, on the east (18-21 floors), south (20 floors) and west (13-15) floors; created by a structural matrix and unique vertical distribution.
This matrix creates, in the central part of the floors, a maximum number of five residential units per floor, served by a stairwell, two lifts and a goods lift.
Other floors have alternatively either structures that do not rise as high or empty spaces set for different relations with the adjoining housing units, housing units that may always be reciprocally integrated. These empty spaces assume a strategic relevance in attenuating the volumetric impact.
The central position of the quadrilateral of Tower 2 is perceptively exalted by two passageways near Corso Mortara and Via Tesso, where the latter corresponds to the axis of the perpendicular Via Ciamarella; a strategic position that allows the architectural character to be appreciated in relation to the spaces and volumes of the buildings nearby.
Seen from the south, the architecture of Tower 2 is composed of three principal elements:
- The continuous corner window from the ninth to the eighteenth floor
- The corner duplex loggia from the foundation to the eighth floor
- The continuous window – loggia up to the eleventh
In a different colour and material compared to the main structure that determines the layout and height of the flats.
This volume is reduced as it rises with ample removals or empty spaces covered by airy overhangs.
The eye is directed to rotate clockwise taking us to the smaller volume with fifteen floors with which it communicates, by contraction, with Tower 1 along Via Orvieto.
The different colour accentuates its role and adds vigour to the visual communication that results from the axis with Via Ciamarella, from where the plan of the housing units can clearly be seen, served by the central structure of stairs/lifts.
On the east side, the relationship of the fronts with Tower 3 has similarities with that of the lower structure on the west side. This relationship is developed by the set-back loggias that, however, here assume the vigour of volumetric transparency that, created by setting back the last three levels, extends all the way to the ground.
The dark blue, blue, grey and white are the colours of the architecture.
On the ground level the height is doubled with large glass windows towards the south and north.
The walls are covered with dark plaster in the lower part of the volumes; above the 7°-8° floor it is in fibrocement sheeting, with horizontal joints opened by sheets assembled on a metal structure that give it a "ventilated rough façade" appearance.
The see-through areas give a feeling of introspection to levels 8° and 9° where common exterior areas continuing the passageways leading to the four flats enhance security of internal mobility and relations between residents.
The flat roof has an upper crowning made in metal section and horizontal blades to protect the loggias and technical volumes.
BUILDING E (Via Tesso)
The characteristics of Building E show its use for small housing units mostly facing south with a view of the internal garden of the quadrilateral.
Six storeys high (with an extra floor for the stairway to the east) with three groups of stairs in only 48 m, the architecture, with its horizontally framed loggias and windows has a surprising unity that also links and brings together the variety of nearby colour styles and volumes.
A distensive break is created by the long loggias protected by shades that users (most likely elderly people) will embellish with plants.
The distensive appearance will be enhanced by exterior colours and public areas, purposely left neutral, white and light grey, blended with wood and garden furniture.
The increased protection of the exterior loggias is a pretext to extend the long white front wings with oblique cuts that project the building into the void of the descending via Tesso.
The loggias to the south have a shade system with external wooden sliding panels.
The module of the windows alternates with load bearing parting walls in a regular way. The facing in grey stone (flamed and polished Diorite) accentuates the structure, both uniformly and indifferently with respect to the volumes above.
The horizontal joints of the plates are larger than the vertical. The grey of the stone contrasts with the white of the doors and windows.
Flooring and central area systems: Porphyry, green trees iron pots and stone.
TOWER 3
Its volumetric configuration, in different heights, is created by the dynamics of virtual rotation given by its layout.
One structure on the east, side with more floors (20-21), and one on the west side with 16/17 rise from the foundation around the central stairway–lifts.
The switch, expressed by the non-uniform conclusion of the two structures and by the depth of the shade of the large platform roofs contributes with its own original components to attenuate the volumetric impact, already described for the other two Towers.
The architecture here has more traditional references for skills and materials, the light-coloured covering if the foundation with plaster, which supports the succession of stringcourses, communicates with the brick facing of the ex-Savigliano and adopts its style.
In their turn; the stringcourses, achieved by alternating loggias and windows, stimulate the interpretation as for the other low buildings.
The town layout, which the vertical development appears to alter substantially, reverts here back to normal modules.
The see-through effect of the loggias, projected and deep-set, contributes to re-establish a variety of references to the landscape and town relations.
The configuration and location of Tower 3 in the quadrilateral of the Media Village hopes to contribute, with the opposite Building A on Corso Mortara, to a continuity of cultural cross-sections and link with pre-existing buildings.









ITALGAS AREA MEDIA VILLAGE
, Torino 2006 winter olympic village

PROJECT : studio Rosental (Italy)
STATUS : completed



Last edited by fabrik; December 17th, 2005 at 09:57 AM.
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:05 PM   #3
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REGIONE PIEMONTE HEADQUARTERS

PROJECT : Massimiliano Fuksas (Italy)
STATUS : proposed

30 storeys tower , 110 metres





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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:06 PM   #4
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RADDOPPIO POLITECNICO

Torino’s Polytechnic extenction

PROJECT : Franco Ossola (Italy)
STATUS : under costruction
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:07 PM   #5
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2 TOWERS (about 150 metres)

FUNCTION : offices , hotels
PROJECT : ?
STATUS : approved , (2009 completed)

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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:08 PM   #6
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CULTURAL CENTER

FUNCTION : theatre , offices , library
PROJECT : Mario Bellini (Italy)
STATUS : approved , (2008 completed)


“Belvedere” Tower , 45 metres


















Last edited by fabrik; November 5th, 2005 at 10:33 PM.
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:09 PM   #7
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PORTA SUSA

FUNCTION : railway station
PROJECT : ARUP (United Kingdom)
STATUS : approved , (2008 completed)




















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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:09 PM   #8
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SACRO VOLTO

FUNCTION : church
PROJECT : Mario Botta (Svizzera)
STATUS : under costruction

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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:10 PM   #9
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PARCO DORA commercial center
PROJECT : Eric Zublena (Spain ) and Jean Pierre Buffi (France)
STATUS : completed











Last edited by fabrik; November 5th, 2005 at 10:36 PM.
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:11 PM   #10
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LA TORRE

FUNCTION : residential
PROJECT : Picco (Italy)
STATUS : under costruction

19 storeys , about 70 metres





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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:12 PM   #11
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SNOS

Factory reconversion

FUNCTION : shops , lofts , business center and labs
STATUS : under costruction / reconversion



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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:13 PM   #12
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SPACE MUSEUM AND PLANETARIUM

STATUS : under costruction












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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:14 PM   #13
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CAR MUSEUM EXTENCTION
PROJECT : Cino Zucchi (Italy)
STATUS : approved




Last edited by fabrik; November 5th, 2005 at 10:38 PM.
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:15 PM   #14
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CAMPUS ITALGAS

FUNCTION : university (law faculty and politics science faculty)
PROJECT : Norman Foster (United Kingdom)
STATUS : approved


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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:17 PM   #15
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LINGOTTO

1920 factory reconversion

FUNCTION : congress center , fair , mall , business center , 2 hotels (4 and 5 stars) , art gallery
PROJECT : Renzo Piano (Italy)
STATUS : completed










rampa



multiplex



polytechnic labs




art gallery








Last edited by fabrik; November 5th, 2005 at 10:40 PM.
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:17 PM   #16
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SWIMMING STADIUM

PROJECT : Arata Isozaki (Japan)
STATUS : under costruction
pics coming soon..
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:18 PM   #17
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PALAFUKSAS

FUNCTION : cultural and commercial center
PROJECT : Massimilano Fuksas (Italy)
STATUS : under costruction
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:19 PM   #18
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DELLE ALPI STADIUM

FUNCTION : Juventus F.C. stadium and commercial center
PROJECT : ?
STATUS : approved
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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:20 PM   #19
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MEDIAPOLIS (metropolitan area)

FUNCTION : italian biggest theme park rides and attractions (with also 2 hotels , music museum and commercial center)
PROJECT :
STATUS : approved




















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Old November 5th, 2005, 10:21 PM   #20
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REGGIA DI VENARIA REALE (metropolitan area) RESTORATION

FUNCTION : italian biggest royal palace , museum , cultural center , park
STATUS : under restoration


































HISTORY AND BUILDING STAGES

The "Royal Venaria" of Amedeo di Castellamonte. In 1659 the grandiose project of the Duke Carlo Emanuele II came true by building a fixed abode for hunting (lett. Venatorial) in order to celebrate through the rituals of hunting the magnificence of the Duke. So he built this Palace as a design of the "delitie" of the 17th century and as a crown of Turin the capital. The work of Castellamonte, which began in 1659 and was ended in 1675, was an "unicum" and consisted of a Village, Royal Palace and Gardens and extended for an axis of 2 Km. The Village had in the center a quadrioval square which reproduced the "Collar of the order of Annunziata". The Royal Palace included two courts and had in the center the "Diana Room". Towards south west we can find the stables, kennels, orangerie, the "upper park of the deers" and, in front of the Village the Chapel of S.Rocco.


The new project for the Royal Palace of Michelangelo Garove. The distruction of the palace in some parts caused by the French troops of Catinat in 1693 was the reason to begin a new project of restoration (1699-1713). Michelangelo Garove expressed in his project the new reference of the Court of Vittorio Amedeo II: Versailles. But only the south-west part of the Garove's project was realized while the north part wasn't built because of the untimely death of Garove in 1713.

The "big dimension" of Filippo Juvarra. In 1716 the building site was assigned to Filippo Juvarra. He worked on some principal elements of the building: the arrangement of the hunting services at south east, the building of the Royal Chapel, and the formal recomposing of a single court in front of the Village. In order to define this huge space, Juvarra raised the gallery by opening towards the outside with scansion of large windows. Juvarra's works continued between 1717 and 1722, with the accomplishment of the Chapel dedicated to S.Uberto, a building of smoothed greek cross and diagonally circular chapels (a similar building to Superga but richer and more well-constructed than it). The building called "Big Stable" o "Orangerie", but really including both functions was built by Filippo Juvarra between 1721 and 1727 and it is situated at the extreme south east of the complex.


The stables and the completing work of Benedetto Alfieri. Benedetto Alfieri was charged, after the death of Juvarra, to continue the work at the Royal Palace. In 1751 the construction of the "L" building, the church and the Garove's pavillon towards the Village, the new "Belvedere", and the large stairs to the church tribuns was started.Between 1754 and 1755 the little Alfieri's gallery was built which connected the church to the Orangerie. In 1757 the buildings behind S.Uberto were built and they had the function of a coach house

THE RESTORATION

After ages in state of neglect, and of Vandalism (1945-1960), the complex of Royal Venaria was given in 1960 into the care of the Head of the Environemental and Architectural Service in Piedmont which begun in 1961 the first work of restoration. The Royal Venaria is one of the hugest "containers" in Europe having a surface area of about 80.000 square m. and a volume of about 480.000 cubik m.
In order to avoid the risk of collapse, restoration has been compleeted for 24.000 square m. of roofing and statical restoration for about 120.000 cubik m., the rebuilding of lofts, the walls, plaster, fixtures, tecnical installations, have been done with ordinary funds and with FIO Funds. More precisely lofts and roofs have been restored of:

Royal Palace of Diana, Gallery of Diana, Pavillion of Garove, in the head of the same Gallery
The Alfieri Tower and its connections and the Church of S.Uberto and Gallery of Diana
The Church of S.Uberto, Citroniera and Stables of Juvarra
The Gallery of Alfieri and a part of the Alfieri Stables


In the meantime the floor heating has been installed in the Diana Gallery and the heating convectors in the west Garove's Pavillon, as well as the sewer system in the complex.
From 1995, with the new management of Eng. Francesco Pernice, the work has been oriented towards restoration and to the possibility of reusing the complex for exibitions and shows in the view of public function even on an international level.
In order to permit this about 5.000 square m. has been restored:

The Diana Gallery and the west garove's Pavillion
Part of the Church of S.Uberto, ticket office and other rooms in the complex


http://www.reggiavenariareale.it/index_eng.htm

Last edited by fabrik; November 6th, 2005 at 04:50 PM.
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