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Old November 30th, 2005, 04:27 PM   #21
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Copenhagen has 2 metro systems - one of them, the (officially named) Metro (M-system), is fully automated and runs exclusively as a people mover within the inner city. The system opened in 2001 and has 2 lines so far. A third, ring-line, has been approved.

Platform screen doors at the underground stations:


That's a passenger, not the driver.


The view from inside the trainsets:




Copenhagen's other (older) metro system - S-banen. This system is huge and operates out to the suburbs as well. These are not driverless.




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Old November 30th, 2005, 04:56 PM   #22
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A Fully automatic subway will be soon (January, hopefully) operating in Turin, Italy.




And the following is a rendering of what the stations will look like (obviously there are larger stations, such as Porta Nuova and Porta Susa).



Turin's first metro line is based on the VAL system in Lille and Toulouse. It starts in the centre of Turin at the main railway station Porta Nuova, crosses the city centre via Porta Susa railway station and then runs west to Collegno along Corso Francia. The first section of the underground line will be aproximately 10 km long and will have 15 stations.

A 2nd phase was decided in early 2000 which includes a 4.5 km long extension of the initial route from Porta Nuova south to Lingotto, all underground with 6 stations along Via Nizza running parallel to the river Po.

Later another 3.6 km extension is planned west of Fermi with four stations, Pastrengo, XXIV Maggio, Leumann and Cascine Vica. Later another 5 stations have been added to the project. Another extension is considered from Lingotto to Piazza Bengasi.

Italian State Railways (Ferrovie dello Stato - Trenitalia) is building the Passante, an underground north-south rail link from Stura to Lingotto. From 2006 there will be trains every 5 minutes between Dora and Lingotto, and every 10 minutes from Dora to Stura, operating like a subway.

Turin also has an extensive tramway network (179 km now, 195 km planned for 2002) which includes light rail lines 3 and 9. Tram line 4 is being upgraded, and it is thought to become a partly underground (crossing the city centre) light rail line, linking the northern and southern parts of the city. It will efficiently integrate with metro line 1, which it will cross in the city centre.
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Old November 30th, 2005, 06:15 PM   #23
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Quote:
Originally Posted by micro
lower maintenance costs
not exactly, although not totally wrong either.

text from http://citytransport.info/Automation.htm

Automation offers financial savings in both energy and wear & tear costs because trains are driven to an optimum specification - instead of according to each motorman's 'style'. For the same reasons rush-hour services can be slightly more frequent as the automatic train control system can allow trains to travel at closer intervals. Where trains are completely unstaffed having fewer people on the payroll is financially advantages as staff represent a significant part of the cost of running a transport system.

Some other advantages of not requiring staff to be available to drive the trains include the ability to provide far more frequent services at quiet times (such as evenings and weekends) when passenger levels are lower and the revenue earned would not justify the costs of employing a full complement of train drivers, and the ability of train operators to vary the service frequency to meet a sudden unexpected demand - such as to instantly put extra trains into service when torrential rain interrupts an outdoor event and everyone decides to go home at 5pm instead of 7pm.


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Old November 30th, 2005, 06:21 PM   #24
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Although designed for automation London's Docklands Light Railway trains include the facility for the 'Train Captains' to drive them manually. To prevent passenger abuse the controls are normally kept in a locked compartment.


The view out the back of a DLR train at Canary Wharf Station.

Automated railways often use "moving block" signalling where the slower a train is going the smaller the 'safety zone' becomes and hence the closer it can get to the train in front, this being because at slower speeds they need smaller braking gaps between them and the train in front.

London's DLR also features automation but to reassure passengers nervous for personal safety and to deter vandalism each train also carries a member of staff too. In addition to closing the doors and despatching the train at stations, these 'Train Captains' also check passenger's tickets and offer travel advice for passengers who are not local. They also carry a two-way radio so are in constant contact with the control centre.

In many ways the Docklands Light Railway blends and blurs the different categories of railway public transport. Services are provided by light rail vehicles but the 3rd rail power system they use is more reminiscent of London's mainline railways than what is usual for what essentially are 'trams'. Because the DLR also features fully automated train operation it can also be called an automated guided transit; however it provides a far more extensive service than is usual for AGT's, and in this respect is more on par with some of the new breed of 'mini-métros' such as the French VAL system (see below). But, when it was realised that the original DLR vehicles from when the line first opened back in 1977 could not be used on a tube-style extension to Bank underground station (they did not conform to British safety standards for tunnel operation) these vehicles found a new home in Essen, Germany, where after being fitted with driving cabs and pantographs started operating over that cities' light rail system - which includes both tram-style sections of street running shared with the general road traffic and tunnel services in Essen's underground system.
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Old November 30th, 2005, 06:43 PM   #25
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In 1983 the French city of Lille opened the first métro system with fully unstaffed trains.


These trains use the 'VAL' system which nowadays exists in several cities including Paris, Toulouse, Rennes & Chicago (USA). The name 'VAL' was originally used because it represented the route of the first line - Villeneuve d'Ascq à Lille (ie: Villeneuve d'Ascq to Lille) - but now it officially stands for véhicule automatique léger, or automated light(weight) vehicle. The term 'lightweight' refers to the fact that at just 26 metres in length (two linked cars), 2 metres in width and with a passenger capacity of 152 per twin-unit train the VAL trains are smaller in size, mass etc. than traditional trains. They partially make up for their low passenger capacity however by being able to operate at headways as close as 60 seconds.

The advantages of using 'lightweight' trains such as these is that it reduces the cost of building the system. Shorter trains require shorter (cheaper to construct) stations whilst lighter-weight railcars require physical infrastructure which is of a lower mass and therefore also less expensive to construct.

Note that VAL follows the French passion for rubber-tyred métros.

All the 'VAL' images shown here come from Lille, France.






In Lille the station platforms are 52m long - this being long enough for single or double unit trains. However, as this view out of a train's front window shows, some subterranean station platforms include unused extension sections. The idea is to facilitate easy conversion to longer trains without the massive expense and disruption of extending the stations whilst in passenger service.


A feature of Lille's métro is that the stations have extra doors on the platform edges - these are supposed to increase safety by preventing people from falling (or being pushed / jumping) in front of approaching trains, Platform doors are looked at in greater detail on the
Stops and Stations page.


Most of the line is either elevated or below ground; for safety reasons at grade (ie: surface) sections need to be well fenced.


Internal view of one of the VAL mini-métro trains.
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Old November 30th, 2005, 06:58 PM   #26
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After initial safety trials proved successful London's first automated passenger train ran in 1963 between Stamford Brook and Ravenscourt Park on the District Line. In 1964 full scale trails of automatically operated trains began on the Hainault - Woodford section of the Central Line. Initially a dedicated fleet of four trains was involved, later all the new trains destined for the Victoria Line were tested here too. Also included in these trials was sharing with manually driven peak-hour 'extras' from the main part of the Central Line.


One of the trains used on the Hainault - Woodford route to test the automated passenger train technology.


A Victoria Line train arrives at Kings Cross Station, London.



Close-up view of the front left of a Victoria line train showing the receiver unit which detects the codes (from the running rail) used by automatic train operation system.

The rail nearest the camera is the live power rail and also seen here is a pick-up shoe which collects the power from that rail. The rail is rusty because this train was on a little-used depôt track.

The automated train control system used on the Victoria Line was developed 'in house' by London Transport, and unlike some more modern commercial technologies has given nearly 40 years of trouble-free service.
With safe operation of all the trains having been proven the new Victoria Line was able to open in 1967 as London's first fully automated underground line. Despite plans for further automation nothing more happened (on London's Underground) until the 1990's. However other countries have also been investigating automation and now the list includes cities such as Paris, Berlin, Lille, Lyon, Vancouver, San Francisco plus many more.

Some automated systems still carry staff on their trains, if only to operate the doors and generally reassure nervous passengers that there is someone 'onboard' who can take control in the (unlikely) event of a fault; others are fully driverless. However even these may have staff at busier stations and all have operations centres watching the platforms, etc,. via closed circuit television systems.
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Old November 30th, 2005, 07:02 PM   #27
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The Canadians have also been investing in automated métro technology.

Their system uses what are called Canadian Automated Light Rail vehicles (ALRT) which combine both traditional and several innovative state-of-the-art technologies; for guidance they feature traditional standard gauge steel-wheels-on-steel-rails technology and innovative steerable bogies whilst for propulsion they feature innovative Linear Induction Motors (LIM) which is an electromagnetic propulsion system. The SkyTrain system was the first major application of LIM technology for urban transport.

With steerable bogies the two axles independently follow the track curvature, this significantly reduces flange contact with the rail thereby substantially reducing rail noise as well as bogie & track maintenance requirements plus extends wheel life to almost one million km.

Linear Induction Motors are ‘straight line' versions of the conventional rotary alternating current electric motor. Motive power comes from the motors reacting with the aluminium-capped steel rail located between the running rails There are no moving parts, substantially reducing maintenance and risk of mechanical failure. Braking is effected by using the LIMs to act as electricity generators (effectively this means regenerative braking which returns power back to the power rails for other trains to use) although at lower speeds the LIMs are powered to provide reverse thrust. This electrical braking mode is supplemented by spring-applied hydraulically-released disc brakes for final stopping and parking. As with light rail vehicles the Skytrains feature additional electro-magnetic track brakes which slide along the running rails and assure a rapid stop in an emergency.


A scissors crossover showing the LIM rail between the tracks.


Two Canadian and one American cities use the Skytrain system; in Toronto it acts as an add-on to the pre-existing heavy rail subway and streetcar networks and although the vehicles are automated all trains carry a driver whose duties include initiating door closure & station departure.

In Vancouver the system acts as a fully automated mini-métro. The 2, 4 or even 6-car trains are unstaffed / fully automated and the platforms do not have platform doors. This system opened in 1986 and has been extended several times since, including over a spectacular bridge over the Fraser River (seen below). It is called Skytrain because apart from a short tunnel section in the city centre most of the system is elevated.

A third installation also exists in the US city of Detroit. Here the single or twin-car trains run on an elevated guideway on a 2.9 miles (4.7 km) one-way loop, calling at thirteen stations. A complete circuit takes just under fifteen minutes and trains run every three to five minutes. The DPM (Detroit People Mover) was meant to be a 'downtown distributor' for a planned new rapid transit rail system serving the city, however unfortunately this was not built.
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Old November 30th, 2005, 09:42 PM   #28
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Detroit People Mover



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Old November 30th, 2005, 10:24 PM   #29
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Driverless bicycles are the next wave!
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Old November 30th, 2005, 10:46 PM   #30
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Quote:
This system opened in 1986 and has been extended several times since, including over a spectacular bridge over the Fraser River (seen below).
I think you forgot to add a pic. Its the longest transit only bridge in the world.

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Old November 30th, 2005, 11:01 PM   #31
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Archiconnoisseur
What's next, driverless elevators?

actually.. there are elevators in asia that use smartcard technology.. they read the card when you enter the elevator car and zip you to your floor automatically..
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Old November 30th, 2005, 11:22 PM   #32
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Uh, Kobe's Port Liner opened 2 years before Lille's system, though I suppose it's only a small part of Kobe's metro network.
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Old November 30th, 2005, 11:41 PM   #33
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Quote:
Originally Posted by greg_christine
In the meantime, Bombardier of Canada is providing LIM powered automated trains for Seoul's Yong-In Line:



So, a Canadian company is providing automated trains for a South Korean transit line and a South Korean company is providing automated trains for a Canadian transit line.
Thanks! I was wondering what the status of this contract was - it was announced some time ago.
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Old December 1st, 2005, 09:57 AM   #34
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Quote:
Originally Posted by spsmiler

A scissors crossover showing the LIM rail between the tracks.
They could have at least made an effort to clean up the wires/crap




And the Control Centre:
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