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Old March 24th, 2006, 02:01 PM   #1
sloyne
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Liverpool history?

I am looking for information on the English Civil War (1642-1645) and the siege of the town of Liverpool by Prince Rupert and in particular any reference to the Campfields on or about Beacon Hill and Heyworth Street. Thanks in advance.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 02:06 PM   #2
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try national museums liverpool, liverpool conservation centre, liverpool central library, bluecoat press, waterstones bookstore on bold street, bbc history dept, and or write to liverpool daily post, they often carry such requests on their letters page. presuming you haven't already.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 02:12 PM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Radley
try national museums liverpool, liverpool conservation centre, liverpool central library, bluecoat press, waterstones bookstore on bold street, bbc history dept, and or write to liverpool daily post, they often carry such requests on their letters page. presuming you haven't already.
Daily Post suggestion is OK but the others are out of the question seeing as I am in Clearwater, FL. USA. at present, but thanks for your help anyway.
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Last edited by sloyne; March 24th, 2006 at 02:19 PM.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 02:17 PM   #4
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Surely there will be net based resources on this?

Type 'Liverpool English Civil War' into Google. I just got loads of stuff.

I'd be grateful if you could post some of your findings up. I am completely ignorrant about this subject matter.

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Old March 24th, 2006, 02:18 PM   #5
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but they have websites and emails and post. whatever.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 02:22 PM   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Blabbernsmoke
Surely there will be net based resources on this?

Type 'Liverpool English Civil War' into Google. I just got loads of stuff.
Went there, done that but no reference to Beacon Hill or Campfield were found, that's why I turned to this forum.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 03:31 PM   #7
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Looks like you'll have to visit Liverpool's central library. You'll be able to take a cruise once the terminal opens.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 04:05 PM   #8
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Blabbernsmoke
Looks like you'll have to visit Liverpool's central library. You'll be able to take a cruise once the terminal opens.
I'll be in Liverpool later next month, however, I needed the information for my granddaughters school project, ASAP.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 04:33 PM   #9
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Lightbulb Liverpool Castle ..... a place in history

Sloyne,

re, Beacon Hill or Campfield is I think were Parlimentarians set camp before attacking `Royalist` Liverpool.....

Some of this may help - some of it I`m sure you know.

Liverpools role or involentary inclusion in the `English Civil War` has never focussed very highly in local or national history - we were I think too much of a back water at that time - so we made up for it in the `American Civil War`.

It was when `Liverpool Castle` was ransacked that the town seal depicting the Plantagent `Eagle of St John the Evangilist` was captured and taken to London - that by historical accident provided us with our `Liverbird` - based on half eagle and half cormorant - when a new town seal was ordered as a replacement.

When the `original seal` was returned to Liverpool some years later it was ordered that the `new seal` be detroyed - which they did, they destroyed the `original (new) seal` because it was new to them - so having destroyed the original seal - Liverpool retained it`s post `Civil War` `Liverbird` Town of Liverpool seal.

(Funny thing history.....)

These sites may however be of interest and further help.

http://www.btinternet.com/~m.royden/...tle/castle.htm
(Well worth a read....and some interesting illustrations.)

On only two known occasions did the Castle come under attack, once when a band of rebellious tenants of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, mounted an unsuccessful assault in 1315, and secondly during the Civil War, when the Royalists and Parliamentarians vied for control. After the surrender of Royalists to Parliamentarian forces in 1653, Parliament instructed the Corporation to remove all Civil war defences throughout the town, which was followed by a further order in 1659 directing that the castle should also be removed. This order was never carried out to completion, only the gatehouse and part of walls being destroyed.

1247 Death of William de Ferrers. Succeeded by his son who inherits the castles of West Derby and Liverpool.

1642 Castle seized and garrisoned by Lord Derby for Charles I
1643 May: routed by John Moore for Parliament who assumed control Royalist casualties: 80 dead and 300 prisoners, 7 Parliamentarians killed
1644 Prince Rupert's forces take castle. Plan of Castle and Civil War fortifications drawn by Gomme, engineer of King Charles I, walls and batteries erected from castle enclosing town, although probably not as elaborate as on plan.
1644 Retaken by Sir John Moore for Parliamentarians and remained at peace until end of war
1653 Royalists surrender to Parliamentarian forces
1654 Parliament order all gates and street ends to be taken away and mud walls pulled down and levelled
1659 Parliament order that castle and related earthworks should be pulled down (only partially carried out - only gatehouse and part of walls destroyed)

(It all sounds a bit familiar doesnt it.....)


http://www.liverbirdology.com/images.htm
(Excellent - worth looking at.)
http://www.liverbirdology.com/history.htm
But the truth is that the City of Liverpool is so unique it decided that it didn't want to share someone else's symbol. It wanted it's own idiosyncratic identity so created it's own distinctive pictogram in the form of the now famous Liver Bird. (Utter twaddle ..... a yarn.)

http://www.rspb.org.uk/birds/guide/c...rant/index.asp

Lord(s) Derby links.....
http://www.mersey-gateway.org/server...chapterId=1264

Lord Derby’s speech to recruits of the Liverpool Pals, 28 August 1914

“I am not going to make you a speech of heroics. You have given me your answer, and I can telegraph to Lord Kitchener tonight to say that our second battalion is formed. We have got to see this through to the bitter end and dictate our terms of peace to Berlin if it takes every man and every penny in the country.

http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/w.../earl/earl.asp

Edward Smith Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby (1775-1851) was one of the most prominent natural historians of his day. The Earl and the Pussycat exhibition marks the 150th anniversary of the death of this remarkable man, whose outstanding zoological collections founded Liverpool Museum (now World Museum Liverpool).

Not `Castle Street` for nothing is it.

http://www.btinternet.com/~m.royden/mrlhp/index.html

I have been researching and writing about various aspects of the local history of the Liverpool, Merseyside, S.W.Lancs, Cheshire area for the past 25 years or so. Several works have been published (see links) but there are several papers which remain unseen. Some of this surfaces from time to time as material in local history evening classes which I run at the University of Liverpool Centre for Continuing Education.

Sloyne maybe this is the man to contact
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http://www.shipais.com/index.php
The Merseyrail network runs 700 services a day, the most intense of any in the UK apart from London Underground.
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Last edited by Pietari; March 24th, 2006 at 05:31 PM.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 09:46 PM   #10
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Sloyne, quite a bit of info here taken from an excellent JMU site, can't find anything about Beacon Hill or Campfields but still looking.


Liverpool during the English Civil War.

During the Civil War Liverpool was a divided town. The burgesses led by John, later colonel, Moore, were overwhelmingly Puritan. However, this was counterbalanced with Royalists having control of the Castle and the Tower; key strategic points in any civil conflict. Moreover, John Walker, the town’s mayor in 1642, was also sympathetic to the Royalist cause and actually received a letter from Charles thanking him for his activity in support of the monarchy during the early days of the Civil War. Walker had problems within the town, however. John Moore, the key figure among the burgesses, threatened Walker with imprisonment and transportation if he did not relent in his support for Charles. Nevertheless, in this early phase of the war the Royalists had the upper hand. This was signified by the appointment of Colonel Norris of Speke as governor of Liverpool. Moore incidentally, was the only landowner within the West Derby hundred to support Parliament.

The key Royalist figure in Lancashire was Lord Strange (Lord Derby from 1643 due to his father’s death). Assisted by Molyneux, in the Liverpool Castle, he was able to acquire a large amount of gunpowder from the castle’s reserves. He used much of this whilst taking large parts of Lancashire, Wigan, Warrington, Preston and Lancaster. However, the turning point for Lancashire came when the bulk of Strange’s troops were required to assist the Royalists in the south. This gave the Parliamentarians their big chance and from the beginning of 1643 they began the process of taking Lancashire out of Royalist hands.

Parliament Captures Liverpool

By May the Parliamentarians had captured Warrington, this gave them the springboard for an attack upon Liverpool. As the Royalist forces were forced back Liverpool became their only remaining stronghold. At this stage their forces were under the command of Colonel Tyldesley, while the Parliamentarians were under the direction of Colonel Ashton. The obvious reason for falling back on Liverpool was that it provided an escape route to Chester over the Mersey, but Tyldesley left his retreat too late as Ashton was hard on his heels. What is more, a Parliamentary naval force had already entered the Mersey thereby cutting off any possible retreat by water to Chester. Tyldesley's other problem was that was that the townsmen were overwhelmingly Parliamentarian exposing the Royalists weak social base even more.

Following two days hard fighting Parliament's forces captured the north side of Dale Street as well as St. Nicholas' Chapel. It was a powerful position which was further reinforced when they erected guns on the church tower. Even though Tyldesley had control of the castle, Parliament's forces in effect commanded the whole of the town. Recognising his weakness Tyldesley offered to surrender on condition he could leave with his arms and artillery intact. Ashton was in no mood to accept these conditions as it would have given the Royalists the opportunity to re-group at a later stage. Ashton pressed forward his advantage routing the King's armies in the process. The attack left 80 Royalist's troops dead while a further 300 escaped over the Pool to Toxteth. In contrast the Parliamentarians lost only seven soldiers.

Capturing Liverpool was of the utmost importance. It gave Parliament the opportunity to watch over Royalist activity in Chester and Ireland and stop the Royalists launching unexpected attacks from these locations. Hitherto Parliament had not held any ports on the west coast.

Initially, Lieutenant-Colonel Venables was appointed military governor of the town, but early in 1644, following a petition by the burgesses, John, now Colonel Moore was appointed the town’s governor. Moore was also made a vice-admiral giving him supreme control over both naval and military affairs. During the course of Parliament’s rule Moore had under his command a small fleet of six ships. The fleet was ably led by Captain Danks who was able to inflict substantial damage upon the Royal fleet in the Irish sea.



Fortifying the Town

Meanwhile practical measures to safeguard the town from attack were undertaken. Streets that backed onto enclosed land were fortified with canon, fortifications consisted of a thirty feet wide by nine feet deep ditch. The ditch ran from Old Hall Street to the top of the Pool, close to where the museum is located today. Earth ramparts further reinforced the ditch, access was provided at three places, Old Hall Street, Tithebarn Street and Dale Street. Around the castle another ditch twelve yards wide and ten feet deep was dug. At high tide this ditch filled with water adding further protection to the town’s key military fortress. Further canons were placed at the corner of the Pool and mounted on the Castle. The town was further protected by a regiment of horse and troop who were probably based at the castle. Militarisation of the town was complete with the burgesses being required to perform military duties. To assist in this the mayor was given 100 muskets and 100 bandoliers to town's people. Military rule enforced rigid discipline upon the town. For example, any burgess who failed to carry out military duties was fined 1s.

Prince Rupert’s Forces Bombard Liverpool

However, the strength of Liverpool was also its weakness. Liverpool was the only weak spot for the Royalist cause on the west coast. For this reason Liverpool became an important target for the Royalists. Indeed, Lord Ormond 'earnestly' recommended the Royalists of Chester to attack Liverpool. It did seem initially that an attack from Chester might emerge. Lord Byron landed there from Ireland in November 1643. For two months Byron's forces ran amok through Cheshire, this caused much alarm in Liverpool but his advances were halted by Parliamentary forces at Nantwich before Byron could reach Lancashire. Byron was forced to retreat to Chester thereby allowing Liverpool to concentrate its forces on Lathom House where there was still a threat from the Derby family. This underlined the importance of Liverpool as a strategic military and naval base. Meanwhile, April 1944, Lord Derby upon returning from the IOM immediately sent a request to Prince Rupert urging him to attack Liverpool. Derby pointed out that the siege on Lathom House was concentrating Liverpool's resources and thereby exposing itself to a concerted attack. Rupert's initial intention was to go north in an attempt to relieve Newcastle which was under siege from the Scots. Given the importance of Liverpool Rupert agreed to use his army of 10,000 to attack Liverpool before going north.

His 10,000 troops made their way into Lancashire in May 1644. Rupert swept through Lancashire with relative ease leaving Liverpool as an outpost of Parliamentary rule. On 7 June he prepared to take Liverpool, but as with other towns in the area, Rupert met with stiff resistance from Liverpool’s Parliamentary forces. His forces encamped at Everton before taking up positions at Townsend Mill (the end of modern day Dale Street) and Copperas Hill (near to modern day Lime Street). Viewing the city whilst riding down the hill Rupert disparagingly described the castle as no more than a crows nest. However, it took a month of bombardment before the forces of Royalism could enter Liverpool. The Parliament side was strengthened by 400 reinforcements from Manchester while they brought in their warships from the Mersey into the Pool to avoid attacks from the Royalists who were then in control of the Irish Sea. Initially, Rupert tried to take the town by a direct attack but he met with stiff resistance and in the process he lost 1,500 troops. This forced him to re-think his strategy and he now began the constant bombardment of the town. But even this tactic did not succeed as the Parliamentarians stood their ground.

Rupert became impatient, he was under pressure to get to Yorkshire where the Royalist armies were under threat from the Parliamentarians. Once again he changed tactics, this time launching a night attack directly upon the town’s fortifications. This was undertaken by Caryll, brother of Lord Molyneux. His knowledge of the local geography proved essential for a night attack. A force under his command reached the Old Hall Street ramparts about three o’clock in the morning. They were surprised to find that the rampart was not guarded which enabled them to pass through into the town unheeded. The reason for this breakdown in security was that Colonel Moore had concluded that the town was no longer defensible. In an attempt to save further bloodshed he and his men had embarked on ships located in the Pool, presumably with the idea of leaving the town to Rupert, who he hoped would not exact revenge among the civilian population. Moore’s action, however, was taken without the knowledge of the town’s burgesses and this left the town in a state of complete defencelessness. Despite Moor’s treachery the town’s population was still prepared to defend itself against Caryll. Such was their desire to repel the Royalists Caryll was forced to take Liverpool street by street. Caryll showed little mercy his troops killed about 360 civilians, including many who were unarmed. Eventually, the town’s population surrendered at the High Cross, today the site of the Town Hall. Rupert and Caryll had many of the town’s survivors imprisoned in the Tower and when this was full prisoners were kept in St. Nicholas’ Church. Meanwhile, his troops were allowed to ransack the town.

Parliament Re-takes Liverpool

The Royalists drew up plans to re-fortify the town, but before they could do this Liverpool found itself once more in Parliamentary hands. The third siege of Liverpool was not as brutal as Prince Rupert’s bombardment. The Parliamentarians knew that the garrison had plenty of provisions as well as a strong force. So they began their siege in September with the tactic of blocking up all the arteries to the town, thereby blocking any replenishment of food supplies to the town. The tactic proved successful. Try as they might the Royalist failed to relieve the town. Lord Derby attempted to break the Parliamentary stranglehold over Liverpool, but his detachment was routed losing 500 men in the process.

Meanwhile, Moore had returned via the Mersey with enough naval power to stop any of the garrison leaving by boat, or with any chance of allowing the Royalists to replenish their food stocks by ship. The siege caused turmoil amongst the Royalist garrison. By the end of October 50 Royalists soldiers absconded, with the remaining cattle, over the waste towards Toxteth Park. Soon after, some officers tried to leave via a ship which was situated in the Pool, but they were caught by their own soldiers who readily made them prisoners. Mutiny and disharmony rendered the Royalist defence impotent and, as a result, the Parliamentarians were able to re-capture Liverpool in early November.

From now on Liverpool remained in Parliament’s hands until the end of the Civil War. A small naval squadron was stationed in the Pool to keep the Royalists from gaining too much strength in Chester and Ireland.

Liverpool Rewarded for its Loyalty to the Commonwealth

For its loyalty to the Parliamentary cause Liverpool was rewarded under the Commonwealth. The Royalist strongholds of Croxteth Park, Knowsley Hall and Lathom House were made to supply the town with timber to enable reconstruction of damaged property. Also, Lord Molyneux’s rights over the town were transferred to the Common Council thereby removing the last vestiges of feudalism from the town, at least until the time of the Restoration in 1660.

However, the town remained under military occupation for the duration of the Commonwealth. This meant that a garrison had to be maintained at the town’s expense. For the duration of the Civil War Liverpool was under the rule of a military governor whose rule was underpinned by a large garrison. Indeed, such was the strategic importance of Liverpool to the wider war it was the only garrison that remained within Lancashire. This, and the fact that the Common Council was subordinate to the town’s military governor, sapped any enthusiasm the burgesses may have had for the Commonwealth. So when Cromwell died in 1659, paving the way for the Restoration in 1660, the people of Liverpool offered no resistance to being ruled by a monarch once more.
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Old March 24th, 2006, 10:01 PM   #11
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A direct reference to Beacon Hill here

taken from: http://bdaugherty.tripod.com/liverpool/history.html


Liverpool is originally held for the King because of the influence of the aristocratic families - the Stanleys and the Molyneuxs. In 1643 parliamentary troops under Colonel Assheton attacked, and after street fighting resulting in 30 dead, the Parliamenty forces took the town. A makeshift wall was build and fortified with cannon. The castle was strengthened.

In May 1644, Prince Rupert arrived and besiegd the town - his troops were stationed on the hills overlooking Liverpool (e.g. Beacon Hill in Everton, Copperas Hill). On 13 June, his troops forced an entry to the north, around present-day Old Hall Street. He was helped by the fact that the parliamentary troops under John Moore, had left Liverpool via the Pool, apparently without telling the people of Liverpool.

Nevertheless, the citizens apparently themselves put up fierce resistance, and there are claims that the Royalists exacted murderous 'revenge' even after they had won.

On 2 July, the Battle of Marston Moor took place, and a couple of months later, Parliamentary troops returned to Liverpool. They laid siege and regained the town in October. (Marston Moor had taken place in the intervening period, since the Royalists took the town).
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Old March 24th, 2006, 10:10 PM   #12
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Civil War reparations.

http://www.mersey-gateway.org/server...ediaFile.18358

Ruperts Cottage.


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Old March 25th, 2006, 01:11 PM   #13
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I`d totally forgotten about `Prince Ruberts` cottage - Everton.

I used to get W G Herdmans books out of the library, amazing times.
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http://www.shipais.com/index.php
The Merseyrail network runs 700 services a day, the most intense of any in the UK apart from London Underground.
http://visitliverpool.com/
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Old March 25th, 2006, 07:22 PM   #14
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Lightbulb “As Liverpool prepares for its ‘Year of Heritage" .....

http://www.liv.ac.uk/newsroom/press_.../800thbdbk.htm

“As Liverpool prepares for its ‘Year of Heritage’, it is a particularly appropriate and important time to re-visit the past and look again at continuities, controversies and changes in Liverpool’s character, culture and history.”

Liverpudlians are being asked to help write a new history of their city to celebrate Liverpool’s 800th birthday.

The book is being produced by historians at the University of Liverpool, who are inviting locals to share their memories of the city, for the publication’s final chapter on post-war Liverpool.

(Sort of old news, but intesting nevertheless......if you get my drift.)

http://www.liv.ac.uk/about/city/

Liverpool - a city where you can belong
Everyone thinks they know Liverpool, even those who've never been here. But Liverpool's not just about the Beatles, football or wisecracks. It's all these things - and none of them. It's about being one of the most vibrant, life-affirming and creative cities in the UK.

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Visit the city's vibrant Chinatown
The Liverpool of today is a changed city. It's emerging as one of the UK's leading centres for learning, culture, entertainment, sport and endeavour. The award of European Capital of Culture 2008 has confirmed this - and the University is at the heart of it all.

Shopping ranges from high street names to independent stalls, boutiques and high fashion. Places to eat and drink are on the increase, and there's something for everyone's taste and budget - Chinese, Indian, Italian, African, French, Japanese, Thai, Spanish, Mexican, Greek and more.

Going out in Liverpool is not expensive, and the Liverpool crowds are lively and friendly, from the chain pubs to the smaller, independent pubs and bars. Down at the Albert Dock are more exclusive bars and restaurants, where local footballers and soap stars hang out.

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Living it up at Society
Clubs around the city offer an ever-changing mix of music and style. Though Cream's Saturday night is no longer, Chibuku, Society and Garlands have clubbers queuing round the block every weekend. Countless other clubs offer sounds from RnB to indie. Liverpool's live music scene is eclectic and exhaustive, too. From big names playing big venues, like the Darkness, Coldplay and Oasis, to alternative bands and up-and-coming acts, Liverpool caters to all genres of music.

If you fancy getting away from the hustle and bustle, the city's parks are ideal places to spend lazy Sundays. There are nature reserves up the coast at Formby and stately homes at Speke and Croxteth. Sandy beaches on the Wirral and the beautiful countryside of North Wales are within easy reach. Travelling to the coast and countryside is cheap and easy.

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Spend a lazy Sunday at Sefton Park
As an attraction for sports fans, Liverpool remains hard to beat. Aside from Liverpool and Everton football clubs there is racing at Aintree as well as golf, cricket, tennis, water sports and rugby league all on Merseyside. And if you want to be more than a spectator, there are hundreds of local teams for every type of sport.

There are more museums, theatres and galleries on Merseyside than in any other region outside London. World-class exhibitions at Tate Liverpool, National Museums Liverpool, the Walker and the Bluecoat are complemented by original plays and major productions hosted at the Everyman and the Playhouse. The Unity Theatre is great for contemporary drama and the Liverpool Empire hosts many musicals after their West End runs.

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The White Stripes - just one of many bands to play Liverpool recently
Film fans can enjoy the recently opened FACT Centre (Film, Art and Creative Technology) as well as a plethora of multiplexes, including the fantastic 1940s Plaza cinema in Waterloo. Liverpool also hosts a major European Arts Biennial and Brouhaha, an annual international street festival.

Liverpool offers endless possibilities for everyone - so whatever you're into, you can be certain that you'll enjoy life to the full at the very heart of our city.
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Business & leisure...
Projected investment of £Bns+
www.liverpoolwaters.co.uk
http://www.wirralwaters.com/
1,000s of maitime companies employ 10s of 1,000s of staff with an annual turnover of £2.5bns+ / 15% of the Merseyside economy. The Super Port of Liverpool is expanding & with 150,000 ship movements a year, the River Mersey is the UK’s 3rd busiest estuary.
http://www.shipais.com/index.php
The Merseyrail network runs 700 services a day, the most intense of any in the UK apart from London Underground.
http://visitliverpool.com/

Last edited by Pietari; March 25th, 2006 at 07:30 PM.
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