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Old July 30th, 2008, 05:53 PM   #161
diegogalban
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In Spain:

Autopista

National autopista: A-xx, National tolled Autopista: AP-xx
Autonomous autopistas: Galicia: AG-xx, Castilla y León: A-xxx, Cataluña: C-xx, Aragón: ARA-A-x, Canary Islands: TF-xx or GC-xx, Madrid: M-xx

The Autopista, has at least 2x2 lanes, with different grade crossings, or interchanges, and controlled access. The width of the lanes is 3,5 meters, hard shoulders: 1,5 meters (the right ones), 1 meter (the left ones).
Only autonomous or older autopistas are free, all newer ones are tolled.
Max speed: 120km/h

Autovía

National autovía: A-xx, By-Pass autovía: uses one or two letters of the city name, Autonomous autovía: Andalucía, Castilla y León: A-xxx, Aragón: ARA-A-xx, Asturias: AS-x, Balearic Islands: Ma-xx, Basque Country: N-xxx or BI-xxx, or GI-xxx, Canary Islands: TF-xx or GC-xx, Castilla La Mancha: CM-xx, Cataluña: C-xx, Extremadura: EX-Ax, Galicia: AG-xx, Madrid: M-xxx, Region of Murcia: MU-xxx or C-xxxx, Navarra: A-xx, Valencian Community: CV-xx

Autovía is a road with at least 2x2 lanes, it includes all kinds of roads, from an autopista quality road, to a two lane road, filled with roundabouts.
Max speed: 120km/h

Vía Rápida or Vía preferente

National vía rápida: N-x or N-xxx, Autonomous vía rápida: Galicia: CG-xx, Asturias: AS-xx, Cataluña: C-xx

Vía Rápida is a road with 2x1 lanes, with different grade crossings and controlled access, some of them are tolled (C-17 in Catalonia)
Max speed: 100km/h

Nacional Road

N-xxx

First class road, with 2x1 lanes.
Max speed: 100km/h

First class autonomous road

Andalucía, Aragón: A-xxx, Asturias: AS-xxx, Balearic Islands: Ma-xx or C-xxx or Me-xx, Basque Country: BI-xxx or GI-xxx or A-xxx or N-xxx, Cantabria: CA-xxx, Castilla La Mancha: CM-xxx, Castilla y León: CL-xxx, Cataluña: C-xxx, Extremadura: EX-xxx, Galicia: AC-xxx or PO-xxx or OU-xxx or LU-xxx, Madrid: M-xxx, Region of Murcia: C-xxx, Navarra: N-xxx or NA-xxx, La Rioja: LR-xxx, Comunidad Valenciana: CV-xxx

2x1 lanes road.
Max speed: 90 or 100km/h

Local road

Various denominations

2x1 lanes road.
Max speed: 90km/h
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Old August 8th, 2008, 04:14 PM   #162
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Okay... how about the highway standards in Switzerland, Germany, Japan and the USA...? Can anyone of you share with us here...?
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Old August 8th, 2008, 05:25 PM   #163
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Norway

Originally, the Norwegian system from the 1990s was meant to differenciate between "trunk roads" (E roads plus other "green" roads) and the rest. However, the current differences are so small that they're almost not worth mentioning... This is the source:
http://www.vegvesen.no/cs/Satellite?...&ssbinary=true
But since this is a 200-page document in Norwegian, a brief description of the most important points (note: the AADT is predicted AADT 20 (sometimes 25 or 30) years from opening of a new road):

AADT 0-4,000, speed limit 60 kph: 7.5 m - 0.75+3+3+0.75
AADT 4-12,000 speed limit 60 kph: 8.5 m - 1+3.25+3.25+1
AADT 0-4,000 speed limit 80/90 kph: 8.5 m - 1+3.25+3.25+1
AADT 4-8,000 speed limit 80/90 kph: 10 m - 1+3.5+1+3.5+1 (no guard rail, only wide midsection).
AADT 8-12,000 speed limit 90 kph: 12.5 m - 1.5+3.75+2+3.75+1.5 (central guard rail), 14.5 m - 1.5+3.75+2+3.25+3.25+0.75, 16.5 m - 0.75+3.25+3.25+2+3.25+3.25+0.75
AADT 12,000+ speed limit 60 kph: 16 m - 0.75+3.25+3.25+1.5+3.25+3.25+0.75
AADT 12,000+ speed limit 80 kph: 19 m - 1.5+3.5+3.5+2+3.5+3.5+1.5
AADT 12-20,000 speed limit 100 kph: 19 m - 1.5+3.5+3.5+2+3.5+3.5+1.5
AADT 20,000+ speed limit 100 kph: 22 m - 3+3.5+3.5+2+3.5+3.5+3

Particularly for the latter two, it's important to note that these are so-called "minimum standards". The central divider is often wider than 2 m. On the other hand, due to lack of funding, the concept of not building to standard is well-known (2-laner instead of motorway, for instance), as is the fact that the predictions are notoriously unreliable.
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Old October 6th, 2008, 10:30 PM   #164
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I would like to commend the author of the thread for providing useful English terminology concerning the motorways (expressways). I would like to ask the author or other users to possibly provide some other English terms concerning roads: such as the stages of designing, tender procedures and the construction of roads; terms for decisions important in the process of designing and construction of roads; names for various engineering structures related to roads; layers of a road itself. If it is possible, I would be very grateful to learn some more specific English road-related terminology
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Old November 10th, 2008, 05:39 PM   #165
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I thought I might add my two cents, as I don't think any Sydney residents have posted in this thread so far.

All three of the terms "motorway", "freeway" and "expressway" are used in Sydney, but their meanings are not the same, and often not very clear.

Freeways are usually high speed dual carriageways with grade separated interchanges that carry traffic between cities and towns. For instance, Sydney and Newcastle are connected by the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway, Sydney is linked with Wollongong by the Southern Freeway, and one would take the South Western Freeway out of Sydney towards Canberra and Melbourne. They do not have tolls, and are usually owned and maintained by the State government.

Motorways are roads built to freeway standard that carry traffic within Sydney (there aren't any other cities in New South Wales large enough to have significantly long sections of road built to motorway standard). These include the M2 Hills Motorway, the M4 Western Motorway and the M5 South Western Motorway (which becomes the South Western Freeway / Hume Highway duplex past Liverpool), as well as the new Westlink M7, Cross City Tunnel and Eastern Distributor. They are usually toll roads, and often privately owned and maintained.

Expressways are usually short inner city roads, such as the Cahill Expressway, which carries traffic from the Sydney Harbour Bridge around to the east of the CBD - it was originally intended to connect to the Eastern Freeway which was never built, and now forms part of the Sydney Orbital Motorway. As far as I am aware, the Cahill Expressway is the only road to carry this term as part of its name, but it is called that because it does not go more than a kilometre out from the CBD. The Western Distributor could also be considered an expressway.


Exceptions

The Warringah and Gore Hill Freeways' primary function is to carry traffic between Sydney CBD and its northern and north western suburbs, connecting to the Lane Cove Tunnel and, by extension, the M2 Motorway. Their naming as freeways is a relic of the early days of freeway planning in Sydney during the 1950s, when all such planned roads were referred to as "freeways" and given route numbers F1 through F7 (which are no longer in use, although the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway and the Southern Freeway are still sometimes colloquially referred to as the F3 and the F6, respectively). Incidentally, none of the seven planned freeways were ever constructed in full, due to a change in government policy in the 1970s.

When the first sections of the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway (which was then still officially called the F3) were opened, it was named the Sydney-Newcastle Expressway. I believe they changed its name to "freeway" around the time they took the tolls off it.

Finally, the Memorandum of Understanding between the Federal and NSW State governments regarding the Pacific Highway upgrade referred to it as a "North Coast Motorway", though I do not think this term will ever be used on road signs and they will continue to signpost it as "Pacific Highway".


Highways

Highways in Australia are, as has been mentioned, not of the same standard as highways in many other countries. There are some roads gazetted as highways which still do not have a bitumen seal. What is particularly strange, however, is that often the road which is named a highway is not actually the highway. For example, for the first 150 kilometres or so north of Sydney, the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway has long been the primary north-south route, but the old highway still carries the name "Pacific Highway" (although I think I have seen some road signs refer to it as "Old Pacific Highway"), even though parts of it no longer serve any purpose beyond providing a slower, more scenic alternative to the freeway.


To summarise, it seems like they call roads whatever they feel like at the time, with a basic set of guidelines that changes over the years and makes everything seem very confusing.
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Old November 21st, 2008, 06:01 PM   #166
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Economic anylysis of highway traffic

Searching through my university library yesterday, I came across a very interesting book called "Economics of Urban Highway Congestion and Pricing" by J.F. McDonald, Edmond L. d'Ouville and Louie Nan Liu. Amidst several articles and in-depth, scientifical analysis (of which I couldn't understand much ) I found an article on a basic model of a random highway traffic volume.

Most of the points made seem obvious, logical and whatnot, but I learned a couple of new things and I hope you will find it informative and interesting and you will like it.
I'm gonna try to summarize the main assumptions and findings based on a mathematical model, so fasten your seat-belts and pay attention



Model foundations

Research is based on a fictional, circular, 1-mile long stretch of a highway without any exits or junctions that might impede traffic flow

Variables:
Q - quantity of travel (i.e. total miles traveled)
S - speed
D - density (number of vehicles on highway at each point in time)
V - volume (measured in vehicles per hour)
T - a fixed duration


Analysis

Q = DST = V ; T = 1 hour ; D = const. ; S = const.

Total quantity of travel (Q) equals the density (D) times speed (S). The result is volume of traffic on our highway (Q = V). Note that each vehicle passes each point S number of times during 1 hour (if the speed is 30 mph, it passes 30 times).

AVC = 1/S = D/V (if T = 1, V = DS --> S = V/D --> 1/S = V/d)

AVC - time cost per mile

When costs refers only to the amount of time, it equals the inversion of speed. The greater the speed, the fewer the cost (1/S).


The Fundamental Diagram of Traffic





The authors applied different amount of vehicles to the model and came out with the above diagram. Volume of traffic depends on density. However, the dependance is not linear.
The function shows that initially, volume rises along with density until a breaking point which in this case is the density of 150 vehicles. At this point highway reaches its capacity and further growth of density results in decline of highway volume. The optimal density is thus 150 vehicles per mile.


Average and Marginal Products of Traffic Density



(MP being the 1st derivative of V/D function from the 1st diagram)


Marginal Product (MP) shows the effects of increasing the number of cars (density) on our 1-mile highway. Within 0 - 150 range it is gradually falling down but reamins positive. This means that additional car brings economic profits until this number reaches 150. Beyond this point, the MP is negative which means that adding each vehicle results in decreasing the volume of the highway.
Average Product (AP) of the highway is speed (as mentioned before S = V/D). The fucntion is negative which means that increasing the density, the average speed on the highway decreases.


Findings

1. The volume of traffic is, ceteris paribus, a function of density.
2. Average speed decreases as long as density rises.
3. With increase in density, volume rises until reaching a critical point (theoretcal capacity).
4. Marginal product (MP) is negative at speeds less than 22 to 47 mph, depending upon the highway studied.
5. The authors claim that the phenomenon of negative marginal product has been observed by virtually every study of urban highway for at least part of the morning and/or evening rush hour.
6. One of the studies on expressway in D.C. area showed that at density of 219 vehicles per mile, the volume was 4829 cars at average speed of 22 mph.
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Old April 4th, 2009, 09:59 AM   #167
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Difference between H/way, Ex/way, F/way????

OK, this maybe the stupidiest question ever. But, what is the difference between a Highway, Freeway and Expressway???

Thank-you to those that answer my question!!!!
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Old April 4th, 2009, 10:24 AM   #168
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Add motorway, driveway, parkway... Why do people park their cars on a driveway, and drive their cars on a parkway?
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Old April 4th, 2009, 10:25 AM   #169
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Never heard of a parkway!
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Old April 4th, 2009, 10:25 AM   #170
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Highway - used mostly in USA and Australia, refers mostly to interstate roads, aso 1x2 and with no flyovers
image hosted on flickr



Motorway - 2x2 or more road with flyovers



Expressway - very wide term, can mean any road only for cars from a simple 1x2 with fluovers to an almost 2x2 motorway, but with narrower lanes. Everything depends on the country.

Last edited by PLH; April 4th, 2009 at 11:02 AM.
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Old April 4th, 2009, 10:38 AM   #171
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It depends indeed on the country.

A motorway, freeway, or expressway is usually a roadway with separated carriageways, controlled access and no slow traffic. However, in some countries, an Expressway sometimes also has a single carriageway as PLH pointed out above.

A highway is more dubious. Many Europeans refer to them when they mean motorways exclusively, which is not completely correct since highways can be any kind of public road. Americans usually refer to highways when they're talking about either Interstate, US or State Routes, regardless of their design.
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Old April 4th, 2009, 11:12 AM   #172
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Quote:
Originally Posted by matty89 View Post
Never heard of a parkway!
A parkway is basically a highway (can be a freeway, motorway or expressway, depends on the country) with scenic park-like divider, for example the East Coast Parkway in Singapore.

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Old April 4th, 2009, 11:15 AM   #173
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There's no fixed design for a parkway though. Many New York Parkways are substandard freeways, and some Parkways are full-size freeways such as the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey. Other Parkways are just regular roads which are scenic, and do not resemble a freeway at all.
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Old April 4th, 2009, 11:16 AM   #174
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Agreed. In fact, the word "expressway" can also be ambiguous. In the USA, it can be dual-carriageways with at-grade junctions. In the Europe, it can be either non-motorway dual-carriageways or 2-lane motorroad. In many Asian countries, it can be motorways.
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Old April 4th, 2009, 11:18 AM   #175
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ChrisZwolle View Post
There's no fixed design for a parkway though. Many New York Parkways are substandard freeways, and some Parkways are full-size freeways such as the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey. Other Parkways are just regular roads which are scenic, and do not resemble a freeway at all.
That's true. Again, the word "parkway" is also ambiguous as well. It can be a motorway / freeway, a dual-carriageway or just an ordinary 2-lane road.
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Old July 14th, 2010, 07:41 PM   #176
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In Iran Freeways have toll booths. Expressways are free. Highway is a general word.
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Old July 14th, 2010, 07:44 PM   #177
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Just make it simple and call them all roads.
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Old July 14th, 2010, 07:47 PM   #178
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nima-Farid View Post
In Iran Freeways have toll booths. Expressways are free. Highway is a general word.


Why do you think they call them "freeways" in the US? Because they're free! You don't have to pay to drive on them. Tollways are the same way - you have to pay a toll to get on your way. Other kinds of roads are more regional - there are numerous "turnpikes" in Virginia but there are no tolls on them, but in New Jersey a "turnpike" always has tolls (I think)
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Old July 14th, 2010, 07:53 PM   #179
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Quote:
Originally Posted by nerdly_dood View Post
Why do you think they call them "freeways" in the US? Because they're free!
No. The word freeways imply a free flow of traffic, no traffic lights or intersections, though many people associate the word "free" as in "no tolls".
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Old July 14th, 2010, 08:58 PM   #180
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In Chile, we have what we call "urban highways" which would be more like american expressways because they don't have long exit/entrance ramps and shoulders and there are some low capacity interchanges.

Highways would be normal highways with full standards, this means, shoulders and long ramps and higher capacity interchanges, big median and atleast 2x2.

Although our urban freeways have free flow tolls (this means you don't have to stop at all) while our highways have normal tolls. IMO a highway can have tolls and still be considered a highway.
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