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Old June 9th, 2009, 09:35 AM   #141
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Muslims unite in social networking site

Although Friendster, Facebook, and Multiply have virtually everything people need for an active cyber-social life, some Muslim users still don't find what they need for a truly "halal" social networking experience.

This was an issue 42-year-old Salim Yusop tried to address when he launched Tausug Network (TN), a social networking site catering mainly to Tausugs in Sulu province.

Born in Jolo, and later resided in Metro Manila in the 1980s, Yusop said he had always dreamed of creating a website custom-fit for Muslim users—one that would reflect Islamic culture and beliefs, especially those of his ethnic group.

"I have an account on Friendster, but I wasn't that active. Personally, maybe it's because it didn't have what I was looking for. I wanted a site that would be used correctly, not [one that is] just full of pictures and posts. I wanted a link, a communication, among Tausug tribes. It was hard because there was no site for Tausugs," he said in Filipino.

Yusop launched TN 6 months ago, striving to create a virtual space where Tausugs—and all Muslims of various ages, locations, and genders—can feel at home.

"I think what makes the site different is that first, users can use their native dialect so they know they are understood and they can express themselves best. Also, most of the members already have a bond. Their relationships were just recharged virtually on TN. There is already a sense of identity, of a common place where you came from," he said.

Islamic content

The website's home page carries Islamic music and albums containing pictures of Muslim food and Mindanao scenery, a favorite among Filipinos overseas who miss home. Discussion forums and chats are rich sources of religious information, straight from members who are "imams" or Islamic religious leaders and Muslim scholars.

There is always healthy political and religious debate on the site's forums, blogs, chatrooms, and profile pages. Muslim youth can share jokes or ask for advice on love and family problems, trusting that they have a sympathetic audience. More than once, users have found distant relatives they did not know existed.

Romance blooms here and there, too. But unlike other relationships borne or nurtured in cyberspace, TN was simply a tool that started a relationship, which progressed in an old-fashioned Muslim way.

"I heard one of the users are getting married in September. I think they met on Tausug Network, but the set-up and their arrangement was done in the proper manner. Their parents coordinated in the province. Because you know how some Muslims are conservative about things like that," Yusop said.

The site even has a "Countdown to Ramadan" digital clock widget that reminds users how much time they have left before the month-long religious observance. Yusop is also thinking of adding other functions on the website, including live streaming of radio broadcasts from Sulu and live video feeds of mosques and municipal halls.

"On the upside, social networking has had a huge impact on our lives because now we have [alternative] means of saying what we feel about issues or events. We used to do this on the ground, among ourselves. Although there will always be differences in opinion, we stick to our goal of unity."

But there is a downside, too. "It's very addicting," Yusop said sheepishly.

Invite a friend

A freelance web designer, Yusop said he toyed with TN's basic concepts. But these stayed as mere ideas for several years. The push finally came when his elder brother, who was then about to request for their alumni homecoming website, nudged him to make good of his dream: a fully-functional and relevant Tausug website.

Yusop searched the Net, then signed up for a premium account on Ning, a California-based online platform that allows users to create social networks.

In his little Internet shop in Dasmarinas, Cavite, he started building the site from scratch. The premium service was expensive, but it allowed Yusop full control of what features to put on the site, blocked out unwanted advertisements, and ensured him large bandwidth and file storage space for pictures, videos, and more.

In time for a Muslim celebration after the "Haj" or religious pilgrimage to Mecca in modern day Saudi Arabia, Yusop formally launched TN. The social networking site was born on December 9, 2008.

Yusop and his brother then sent out text messages and made good use of the site's "Invite a Friend" feature to build the site's network of users.

"I was surprised by the response. I though that my target audience would be teenagers, because I think they are more active in social networking. I didn't count on those in their 40s or 50s and above would join. In fact, older users had the most inflow in the beginning. Those with Friendster accounts advertise TN on the site, so people learned about TN very fast. In a few days, I would see entire families signing up on the website. It was really unexpected," he gushed.

Lively members

Now, TN has 2,000 active members from all over the world (especially Saudi Arabia), and consistently garners an average of 71,000 hits and 100,000 individual page views monthly. Although this is much less than Facebook or Friendster's site traffic statistics, Yusop said that, considering the population of Tausugs, the numbers are pretty good.

About 100 errant users have been kicked out of the site for profanity, harrassing other members, or putting in bogus information on their profiles.

Yusop keeps a strict eye on the website's goings-on, along with a deputy and 4 self-appointed moderators, all of whom are in charge of approving uploaded content. As if guided by an unspoken rule, however, members police their own ranks in perenially active chatrooms and dutifully report users who post vulgar content.

Much as they try to keep things according to Islamic teachings, some issues have proved to be thorny. "There is a debate now on whether we should allow Muslim females to post pictures of themselves without their 'hijab' (or veil). We also don't allow pictures of users wearing sleeveless shirts. But there is really a question of how to implement that," he said.

Apart from their face, hands, and feet, Muslim women consider all other body parts sacred. Though some women choose not to wear their hijab, since Muslim scholars and feminists have pointed out that the Koran does not explicitly state that Muslim women should wear a veil, some Muslims encourage veil-wearing as an act of modesty.


Although it was originally meant for Tausugs, few non-Muslims who were invited by their Muslim friends or who were simply curious about the website are in the loop, too.

The non-Muslim's "presence" in the network initially raised objections, with some insisting that the site should be exclusive to Tausugs. But Yusop said he hopes there will be more non-Muslim users joining TN so it could evolve as a venue for understanding among cultures and religions.

Yusop said the site has so far been very productive, owing to the exuberance and helpfulness of its members. "Parang gumawa lang ako ng maliit na bubong para sa [kanila], tapos pag wala na [silang] magawa, may tambayan dito. Pero ang nagpapatibay niyan, maski gaano ko gusto pagandahin ang site, kung hindi nila ingatan, mawawala sa objectives ng site," he said.

Some users had organized themselves into geographic clusters, with each group coming up with its own projects. TN Jolo, for example, has an ongoing fund-raising drive to help an Islamic school in the area that was damaged by a typhoon. Users from Saudi Arabia provide constant updates on employment opportunities for unemployed Muslims. Users in need of blood donations can expect immediate answers from other members.

Grand assembly

Tausug Network even held a Grand Assembly last May 9 in Zamboanga, where about 60 website members met each other for the first time. The event was broadcast live on the website via webcam.

Yusop said the gathering was such as smashing success, that other users who failed to attend the assembly are clamoring for a repeat of the event, hopefully on the site's anniversary in December. He hopes that other ethnic communities follow suit and take advantage of existing technology and make meaningful relationships.

"Maybe it's a good idea if, someday, there's a larger social networking site where all the ethnic tribes can unite," he said.

There have been many websites prior to TN that sought to cater to Tausugs, but most folded for lack of funds or site maintenance capabilities. Although TN has the same problems, Yusop said he will try to keep it going for as long as he can, even if it means paying for the site's monthly hosting charges on his own.

"Someone asked me, why doesn't TN make a business to sustain the site for a long time? I answered, TN was not made for business and it will stay that way. As long as TN has use for the Tausug community, it will always be there," he said.

Other websites aimed to create a virtual space for Muslims around the world are, a highly acclaimed social media and lifestyle website;, which allows users to keep updated with friends; and Muslim Social Network, which provides Islamic videos and other content.
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Old June 11th, 2009, 08:56 PM   #142
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One of my favorites OPM (Original Philippine Musics) is a Tausug Song: "Biraddali" by Den Bisa. (paano mag imbeded?)

Last edited by kiretoce; June 12th, 2009 at 02:17 AM.
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Old June 12th, 2009, 02:21 AM   #143
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There, I fixed it for you.

Here's how you post YouTube vidclips:

1. Edit the vidclip's URL from the website by using only the alphanumeric series after v=.

2. Place that series in between the YouTube tags, like this: [youtube]ABC123xyz[/youtube].

3. Click on "Post Quick Reply" button when done.

4. There, you've just posted a YouTube vidclip on SSC!
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Old June 13th, 2009, 02:40 PM   #144
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thanks a lot, mate.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:15 PM   #145
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Our Islamic Heritage

Interesting videos in order to understand all the sides in the conflict.


Moro's Grievances Under Philippine Government (Chapter 1)

Moro's Grievances Under Philippine Government (Chapter 2)

Moro's Grievances Under Philippine Government (Chapter 3)

Ancestral Domain for Muslims in Mindanao

Mindanao Conflict
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:16 PM   #146
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Islam is one of the oldest organized religions to be established in the Philippines. Islam reached the islands
in the 14th century with the arrival of Indian, Malay and Javanese merchants, and Arab missionaries from
various sultanates in the Malay Archipelago, although the spread of Islam in the Philippines is due to the
strength of Muslim India. India brought Islam to Southeast Asia, specifically Malaysia and Indonesia, and in
turn the latter two brought Islam to the Philippines. Muslims form 5% of the Philippine population, while
the rest of the general population are mostly Roman Catholic (84%) and Protestant (8%).

In 1380, Karim ul' Makhdum, the first Islamic missionary to reach the Sulu Archipelago and Jolo, brought
Islam to what is now the Philippines. The Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque was the first mosque established
in the Philippines on Simunul. Subsequent visits by Arab Muslim missionaries from the now Islamicized
Malaysia and Indonesia, helped strengthen the Islamic faith in the Philippines, mostly in the south but as
far north as Manila. Vast sultanates were established, comprised of the Sultanate of Maguindanao and the
Sultanate of Sulu. Since the first people who established themselves as sultans in various parts of the
Malay Archipelago—Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines—were usually of Arab descent, most people of
royal lineage claim Arab descent, some going as far as claiming descent from the Prophet Muhammad himself.


The mosque of Makhdum, Tubig Indangan, Simunul Island, Tawi-Tawi province, Autonomous Region
of Muslim Mindanao

History of Islam in the Philippines

Ang Islam ay nakilala sa Pilipinas noong 13 siglo sa pamamagitan ng isang Arabong Misyonaryo na si
Sharif Makhdum na lumapag sa Sulu. Ipinagawa niya ang unang Masjid sa Pilipinas sa Tubig-Indangan, Pulo
ng Simunol, Lalawigan ng Tawi-Tawi. Ang natitirang bahagi ng Masjid ay makikita pa rin sa dati niyang
kinalalagyan. Si Makhdum ay namatay sa Pulo ng Sibuto, Lalawigan ng Tawi-Tawi at ang kanyang puntod
ay dinadayo ng mga turista hanggang sa ngayon.

Ng taong 1390, si Rajah Baginda ay dumating sa Bansa at pinagpatuloy ang pagpapalaganap ng Islam
na sinimulan ni Sharif Makhdum. Si Abu Bakr ay dumating sa Jolo noong 1450 at pagkatapos ay
pinakasalan niya ang dalagang anak ni Rajah Baginda na si Putri (Princess) Paramisuli. Si Abu Bakr ang
nagtatag sa tinatawag na Sultanate of Sulu na kung saan silang mag-asawa ang naging unang Sultan
at Sultana.

Pagkatapos maitatag ang Islam sa Sulu, ang mga Muslim ay naglakbay patungong Mindanao sa pamumuno
ni Sharif Kabungsuwan. Siya ay lumapag sa Maguindanao (Cotabato) sa taong 1475 at pagkatapos ay
pinakasalan niya si Putri Tunina. Sila rin ang kauna-unahang Sultan at Sultana sa Maguindanao.

Full view of the mosque in of Makhdum, Tubig Indangan, Simunul Island, Tawi-Tawi

Sa paglipas ng maraming taon, maraming Datu na Muslim ang pumunta sa Pilipinas pagkatapos marinig ang
magandang balita sa magandang pagtanggap sa mga naunang Muslim. Magmula sa Borneo ay dumating
ang sampung Datu na lumapag sa Panay. Ang mga Datung ito ay sina : Datu Puti, Datu Sumakwel,
Datu Bangkaya, Datu Dumalogdog, Datu Paiburong, Datu Paduhinog, Datu Lubay, Datu Dumangsil,
Datu Kalantiaw at si Datu Balensula.

Si Datu Puti ang siyang pinuno ng grupo ng mga Datu. Si Datu Puti ay dalubhasa sa paglalakbay at sila'y
lumapag sa San Joaquin, Iloilo (ang pangalan nito noong una ay Siwaragan). Si Datu Puti at ang mga
kasama niya ay binili ang mababang lupa sa Iloilo na nagmula kay Marikudo, ang pinuno ng mga Ita.
Nagtatag sila ng sarili nilang pamayanan. Nang ang pamilya ng mga taga Borneo ay natatag sa Panay,
si Datu Puti, si Datu Balensula at si Datu Dumangsil ay naglakbay muli at kanilang narating ang Batangas
na sakop ng Luzon.

Si Datu Balensula at si Datu Dumangsil ay nagtatag ng sarili nilang pamayanan at si Datu Puti ay nagbalik
sa Borneo sa daang Mindoro at Palawan. Isinalaysay niya ang kanyang karanasan sa mga Borneans at
dumami ang nabighani para makapunta sa Pilipinas.

Makhdum memorial, Sibutu, Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines

Nang lumapag si Magellan sa Pulo ng Limasawa noong ika-16 ng Marso 1521, ang Pilipinas ay isa ng Bansa
ng mga Muslim sa kadahilanang ang karamihan ng populasyon ay mga Muslim na. Pinatutunayan din sa
kasaysayan na noong dumating si Legaspi (ang pumalit kay Magellan na napatay ni Lapu-Lapu), ang
kaharian ng mga Muslim ay naitatag na sa Batangas, Pampanga, Mindoro, Panay, Catanduanes, Cebu,
Bohol, Samar, Manila, Palawan, na hindi pa kasali ang solidong mga Pulo ng Mindanao.

Noong ika-13 ng Hunyo 1571, ang mga Kastila ang nagpasimula ng mainit na digmaan laban sa mga Muslim
ng Maynila na pinamumunuan ng huling haring Muslim na si Rajah Soliman (ang pinuno ng mga Sultan sa

Ipinagtangol ni Rajah Soliman ang kanyang kaharian ng buong tatag hanggang sa kahulihulihang hibla ng
kanyang buhay na nangyari sa Bangkusay, (sa dalampasigan ng Tondo). Sa pagkatalo ni Soliman, ang mga
Kastila ay nagdulot ng lagim sa Pulo ng Luzon. Pinatay nila ang mga lalaki at babae, matanda at bata.

Ang mga Muslim sa karatig bayan ay nagtangol sa kanilang mga sarili hanggang sa kanilang huling hininga.
Itak at palaso laban sa baril at kanyon.

The Masjid of Tandubanak in Sibutu island, Tawi-Tawi

Itinatag ng mga Kastila na pangunahing lugar ang Manila at nagplano sila na lusubin ang Visayas. Sa maikling sandali, nalupig nila ang Visayas. Ang mga Muslim na hindi namatay sa digmaan ay napilitang talikdan ang kanilang relihiyon at tanggapin ang Kristiyanismo. Pero ang mga matatapang at bayani ay mas nilubos pa nilang mamatay kaysa sumira sa ALLAH (Subhanahu Wa Taala). Ang mga katutubo na mahihina ang pananampalataya sa kanilang dating relihiyon ay tinangap ang relihiyon ng mga Kastila.

Hindi huminto ang mga Kastila sa pagsakop sa Luzon at Visayas. Di pa sila nakontento, pinangarap pa nilang masakop ang mayamang lupain ng Mindanao. Pero ang mga tribu ng Kalagan, Maguindanao, Iranon, Maranaw, Tausog, Yakan at Sama, nilabanan nila at pinahinto ang pangarap ng mga Kastila.

At doon nagsimula ang tumanyag na digmaan ng mga Muslim at Kastila.

Dalawang bagay ang dahilan kung bakit nagkaroon ng digmaan :

1) Gusto ng mga Kastila na siyang maghari at sakupin ang mga Muslim pero mahal ng mga Muslim ang kanilang kalayaan at mas gugustuhin pa nilang mamatay kaysa maging alipin ng mga Kastila.

1) Nagpahayag ang mga Kastila ng mensahe ng Kristiyanismo sa pamamagitan ng espada kaya't nag-alsa ang mga Muslim at ginamit ang kanilang kris at bolo para ipagtanggol ang Islam hangang sa huling sandali.

Masjid Haji Imam, Sitangkai, Tawi-Tawi

Ang mga Datus na nagtangol sa lupain ng Mindanao laban sa kasakiman ng mga manlulupig na Kastila ay ang mga sumusunod :

1) Si Sultan Pangiran na isang Tausog, ipinagtanggol niya ang lugar ng Zamboanga at Sulu.

1) Pinatay nila Datu Sirugan at ang kanyang kapatid na si Datu Ubal ng Maguindanao si Kapitan Figueroa na isang Kastilang mananakop.

1) Sa ginawang paglusob ng mga Kastila sa Mindanao, naghiganti sina Datu Sirugan ng Maguindanao at si Datu Buisan ng Lanao ng isa ring maingat na paglusob. Nilusob nila ang Cebu, Negros at Panay at nabihag nila ang maraming Kristiyano at sila ay kanilang ginawang alipin.

1) Si Datu Tagal ng Cotabato ay nakapatay ng maraming mandirigmang Kastila.

1) Si Sultan Kudarat ng Cotabato, ipinagtanggol niya ang Lamitan hanggang siya'y napilitang lumipat sa Iligan dahil sa napakalakas na puwersa ng mga Kastila.

1) Si Sultan Bungsu ng Zamboanga ay nakipaglaban sa mga mananakop ng buong giting. Nang ang kanyang asawa na si Pangian Tuan Baloca ay nahuli ng mga Kastila, sinikap niyang maging maganda ang kanyang pakikidigma hanggang sa makuha niya ang Jolo noong taong 1645 sa mga kamay ng mga Kastila at iniutos niyang sirain ang kanilang garison na itinayo sa Zamboanga.

1) Si Sultan Jamaluddin Al Alam at si Sultan Badruddin II ang siyang nagpatuloy ng pakikidigma para protektahan ang Mindanao hanggang sa dumating ang mga taga-Britanya. Sa dahilang hindi malupig ng mga Kastila ang mga Muslim, sila ay napilitang lumagda ng kapayapaan at nagbayad ng buwis kay Jamaluddin at Badruddin.

1) Si Datu Udtog ng Cotabato ang siyang pumatay kay Gobernador Emilio Terrero na isang Kastila.

1) Si Datu Ali ng Baloi, Lanao, napatay niya ang Gobernador ng Misamis na si Valeriano Weyler.

1) Pinatay ng mga magigiting na Maranaw si Heneral Ramon Blanco sa huling pagsubok ng mga Kastila na sakupin ang Mindanao.

The golden dome of Masjid Haji Imam, Sitangkai, Tawi-Tawi

Ang pagsakop ng mga Kastila sa Pilipinas ay nagwakas noong taong 1898 at ang mga Amerikano ang siyang pumalit sa mga Kastila.

Sa mahigit na tatlong daang taon na sinubukan ng mga Kastila na sakupin ang mga Muslim, ang Espanya ay bumagsak at napahiya dahil ang mga Muslim sa Mindanao ay nagtagumpay na maipagtangol ang Islam sa Mindanao. Ganoon din ang nangyari sa mga Amerikano at Hapon na walang nagawa para sakupin ang mga Muslim. Dito natin makikita ang kapangyarihan at kadakilaan ng ALLAH (Subhanahu Wa Taala) na kapag ginusto Niya, walang makapipigil lalo na't ipinaglalaban ng mga Muslim ang relihiyon ng ALLAH, ang Islam.

Kaya't masugid naming mambabasa, buksan ang kaisipan at damdamin para ang ganap na gabay at liwanag tungo sa Kanya at makamtan.

Manumbalik loob tayo sa dati nating relihiyon, ang Islam, at ang kapayapaan at kapanatagan ay mapapasaatin.

Nawa'y gabayan tayo ng ALLAH (Subhanahu Wa Taala) para makamtan natin ang kaligtasan at kaligayahan tungo sa buhay na walang hanggan - ang PARAISO.

References :

1) Muslim In The Philippines by Prof. Muhammad Kurais

2) Philippine Islamic History by Ustadz Ismael Iljas

3) The Land Of Promise " MINDANAO " by Senator Santanina Tillah Rasul (Al Hadja)

4) Salsila by Ustadz Habib Zain
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:17 PM   #147
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Muslim Mindanao during the American colonial era.

Photos from University of Wisconsin Digital Collection.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:18 PM   #148
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At the end of 2nd World War in Mindanao.

Photos from University of Wisconsin Digital Collection.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:20 PM   #149
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Bud Bagsak Massacre

"They are absolutely fearless, and once committed to combat they count death as a mere incident."

From January-June, the whole Moro ward of Lati with a population of between 6,000 to 10,000, fortified themselves in a cotta in Mt. Bagsak. On June 11, 1913 Gen. John Pershing ordered the attack with the assistance of Charlie Schuck who reported that it was easy to attack The Moro Fort. General Pershing and his American military attacked the Fort at Bud Bagsak. The Muslim led by their Nakil Amil bravely defended their Fort, first with guns and bullets and knives and bolos.

The four-day battle was personally led by U.S. Brigadier General John "Black Jack" J. Pershing of the 8th Infantry and Philippine Scouts against Moro resistance fighters armed mostly with kris, barongs, spears and few guns. In many other battles in the Morolands, the U.S. Army Colt 0.45 caliber pistol was tested and perfected as an effective "man stopper" against the brave Moro fighters.

During the battle Pershing came up to the front line and: "Stood so close to the trench, directing operations, that his life was endangered by flying barongs and spears which were being continually hurled from the Moro stronghold." At this point in the battle, Pershing sent American officers into the front lines to lead the attack. But, after four days, the Fort at Bud Bagsak, along with every warrior fell. General Pershing in a letter to his wife, he wrote: "THE FIGHTING WAS THE FIERCEST I HAVE EVER SEEN." The Moros fought like Devils. They justified the observation Pershing had made of them: "They are absolutely fearless, and once committed to combat they count death as a mere incident."

Sources :

The battle of Bagsak had its beginnings several months before the actual assault of the crater. The mountain peak had been for some time the rendezvous of the outlaw element of all of the southern islands, and the big problem the Americans faced was that of getting the women and children off the hill before the final clean-up was made.

So long as the Moros saw that the American troops were inactive and in barracks many of the women and children would be sent down to work in the fields, but at the first suggestion of an American expedition all of the non-combatants would be recalled to the mountain. As General Pershing had stated, when the Moro makes his last stand, he wishes his women and children with him. The Moros kept a very close check on General Pershing, for every visit of the General to Jolo was the signal for a stampede to Bagsak. Pershing soon discovered that the taking of Bagsak without the slaughter of women and children would have to be an undertaking planned with the greatest secrecy. In planning the campaign, Pershing exercised rare judgment.

To begin with, he kept his plans absolutely to himself, not even confiding in his closest officers. On June 5 he sent a telegram to the commanding officer at Jolo calling off all field operations and ordering the troops into barracks. Four days later he announced publicly that he would visit his family at Camp Kiethley in Mindanao and with that apparent plan in mind he sailed from Zamboanga on the evening of June 9. When the transport Wright was well out of sight of Zamboanga the course was changed and the ship picked up the 51st Company of Scouts at Basilan, proceeding on to Siasi to load the 52nd Scout Company.

With lights out and the smokestack muffled, the Wright then crept into Jolo harbor late on the night of June 10. The maneuver was wholly unexpected and the General found the American soldiers at a moving picture show. The call to arms was sounded and in an incredibly short time the troops were en route to Bagsak.

All of the forces were concentrated at Bun Bun on the beach and by five o'clock in the morning the advance on Bagsak had begun.

The mountain crest was defended by formidable cottas crowned by the stone fortress of Bagsak at the summit. Supporting the main cotta were five subsidiary forts admirably located for defensive purposes. These five cottas, namely, Pujacabao, Bunga, Matunkup, Languasan and Pujagan, were grouped about the huge stone fort of Bagsak in such a manner that a simultaneous assault of all of the cottas was necessary in order to prevent a great loss of life on the part of the attackers.

The American force was divided into two wings and very explicit attacking directions were issued. The right wing, consisting of the 8th Infantry and the 40th Company of mountain guns, was under the command of Major Shaw, and its objective was the cottas of Languasan and Matunkup. The left wing, composed of the 51ist and 52nd Companies of Scouts and a mountain gun detachment, was under command of Van Natta, and were ordered to attack the cottas of Pujacabao and Bunga. Pujagan and Bagsak were to be taken after these assaults had been successfully executed.

After a heavy preliminary shelling by the mountain guns, the columns moved to attack. While the attack was in progress, Captain Moylan was ordered with the 24th and 31st Companies of Scouts, to take a position on the south slope of Bagsak to cut off the retreat of the Moros, Captain Nicholls led his company against Matunkup, which fell at noon of the first day's fighting. In taking Matunkup, the attacking force was compelled to climb a sheer cliff one hundred feet high, pulling themselves up the precipice by clinging to vines, while in the face of a heavy fire. There were eight casualties in the American force before the summit was finally gained. Captain Nicholls then led his company on to the cotta of Pujacabao, the men opening up on the Moros at close range and then dropping within the cotta walls to battle hand to hand.

The terrific shelling Pujacabao had received from the mountain battery had eliminated many of the Moro defenders. Amil, the Moro leader, was severely wounded by a shell fragment, whereupon he retreated to Pujagan, where he was killed the following day.

The cotta of Languasan was captured without difficulty with a loss of one man, but the American forces had eight casualties during the period of Moro counter-attacks made in an effort to recover the fortress.

With three of the cottas in American hands, the surviving Moros retreated to Bagsak, Pujagan and Bunga and the first day's operations came to an end.

On Thursday, June 12, the American forces poured a continuous fire from rifles and mountain artillery upon the cottas of Bunga and Pujagan, and there was a great deal of skirmishing. The Moros began a series of rushes upon the American troops holding Languasan. The Mohammedans would rush out in groups of ten to twenty, charging madly across 300 yards of open country in an effort to come hand to hand with the Americans. Amil, his son, and the Data Jami led three of the attacks; in each instance, the charging Moros were accounted for long before they reached the American trenches. It was during one of these charges that Captain Nicholls was killed by a bullet through the heart from a high-powered rifle.

The American forces holding Languasan were subjected all day long to a merciless fire from the cotta of Bunga. Notwithstanding the aid of the mountain artillery, the American forces were unable to capture any of the Moro positions during the fighting of the second day.

On the morning of the third day Captain Moylan was ordered to take the cotta of Bunga. The capture of this fortress was absolutely necessary in order to secure a position from which the tremendous stone cotta of Bagsak could be shelled. Captain Moylan took Bunga after a five-hour attack, which was supported by sharpshooters and artillery. Among his casualties was one man who was cut in two by a barong. The balance of the third day was devoted to hauling the heavy guns up the steep slope of Bunga.

On Saturday morning, the fourth day of the battle, Captain Charleton and Lieutenant Collins were sent with 51st and 52nd Companies and a detachment of cavalry to reconnoiter the rim of the crater and to find a position from which the infantry could launch a final assault on Bagsak cotta. The rest of the day was devoted to digging the troops in, in a position about 600 yards from the Moro fort, while the mountain guns fired constantly into the cotta.

Sunday morning brought preparations for the final assault. The mountain guns opened up for a two-hour barrage into the Moro fort, and at nine o'clock in the morning the troops moved up the ridge for the attack. The heavy American artillery shelled the Moros out of the outer trenches supporting the cotta of Bagsak and the sharpshooters picked them off as they retreated to the fortress. After an hour's hard fighting, the advance reached the top of the hill protected by the fire of the mountain guns, to a point within seventy-five yards of the cotta. To cover that last seventy-five yards required seven hours of terrific fighting. The Moros assaulted the American trenches time after time only to be mowed down by the entrenched attackers.

General Pershing came in person to the firing line early in the attack, exposing himself to the full fire of the cotta. At 4:45 in the afternoon, the American forces were within twenty-five feet of the cotta. The Moros realized that their time on earth was short. They stood upright on the walls and hurled their barongs and krises at the troops beneath them, wounding four of the attacking force.

At five o'clock General Pershing gave the order for the final assault, and standing within twenty-five feet of the walls he watched Captain Charleton take his men over the walls and the battle of Bud Bagsak was won. Thirteen men were lost in the final assault.

About 500 Moros occupied the cottas at the beginning of the battle of Bagsak and with few exceptions they fought to the death.

With this battle, the organized resistance of the Moros was broken and the episode of "Kris versus Krag" came virtually to an end. There were a few more minor battles, but never again did the Moros place a formidable force in the field against the Americans. The Mohammedans fought a grand fight at Bagsak against superior weapons. They showed the Arnercans, as they had showed the Spaniards, that they were not afraid to die.

Other photos :

A moro warriors

Moro Datu and American military officers

A Muslim Princess

Gen. Bates with Moro leaders.

Gen. Sumners conference with Moro leaders.

Note :

It is sad to say that the ruthless War of Pacification of the Southern Philippines by the Americans have directly led to the present enmity between the Moro populations and
our Philippine Republic.

That war resulted also to the prejudice and mistrust between the Christians and Muslims in Mindanao taking into note that during the American war of pacification they have recruited Christian from the Visayas and Luzon to fight our Muslim brothers.

After the War of Pacification by the Americans in Mindanao and Sulu they have started the transmigration of Christians from Luzon and the Visayas which resulted to our government's presnt problems with issue of Ancestral domains, the main setback in the present Peace talk between our government and the Moro rebels.

Related links :

Facts and Historicall Documents
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:22 PM   #150
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Killing Women and Children in Jolo - Bud Dajo Massacres

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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:23 PM   #151
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During the governorship of General Wood, American sovereignty was extended into isolated districts of Mindanao and Sulu that had never before felt the hand of the white man. Some of the problems encountered by the American administrators were extremely difficult in settlement, as they involved Moro tribal rights which had been in existence for centuries.

Although the Americans were ill-prepared by experience to govern these wild people, the pursuance of a middle course helped to enforce the law without treading too heavily upon traditional Moro rights. As mentioned previously, some facts rebounded not to the credit of America; there was too much bloodshed at times when a more careful diplomacy might have avoided the necessity of military operations.

The Moros, a proud, fierce people, had been almost wholly without law under the Spaniards. The abrupt transition from lawlessness to a condition of law an order was more than could be expected of these savage Mohammedans. The institutions of piracy and slave-trading were ingrained as a part of the Moro character. These institutions were a logical and, to them, perfectly reasonable part of their society.

So also, was the seeming disregard for human life held by the Moros. in the past, the red swish of the kris had sufficed to settle all arguments. For generations the Datus had preserved the privilege of putting inconvenient people out of the way with little formality and no accounting for their acts. The thought of subjecting themselves to an American criminal law which they did not understand was intolerable, as was the payment of the head tax as required by the cedula law.

The hot-heads broke away, in defiance of the law, and Mindanao and Sulu became the hunting ground of small intertribal units who operated in open rebellion against America.

In the latter part of 1905, Pala, one of the Moro malcontents, decreed a Holy War against the authority of America and called upon the Sulu Moros to aid him in rebellion.

While the American campaign against Pala was in the field, two Moro leaders named Sariol and Abdulla conceived a plot to murder the commanding officer of the American post at Siasi and seize the rifles for use in the defense of Pala.

A small force of Moros closed in upon the isolated station. In the jungle edge near the fort, the Moros drew lots with pieces of bejuco vine to determine who should have the honor of killing the American officer.

The privilege fell to Sariol.

Stripping himself to a breech-cloth, the Moro stealthily passed through the sentries and entered the quarters of Captain Hayson in the darkness of the night.

Noiselessly the Moro crossed the room to the mosquito-netted cot of the sleeping victim. One bloody flick of the kris without warning and another American officer had died in the conquest of Sulu.

The next morning, the unsuspecting sentry found his commanding officer tangled in his reddened mosquito netting and the company swiftly took the trail after the murderer.

The plot to seize the rifles went astray, for the Moro members of the dead captain's company remained loyal to the service. Sariol and Abdulla were run to earth at the edge of a swamp and captured and brought to justice by their own countrymen.

Sariol was hanged at Siasi and dawn on November, 20, 1905, and Abdulla died in prison while waiting execution. On the scaffold, Sariol warned others of the Moros not to follow in his footsteps.

"The punishment is just," he said as the noose was adjusted about his neck. "I have violated the Koran by killing without warning in the middle of the night and I am ready to die."

Early in the year 1906, Moro outlaws in the inaccessible mountains of Butig fortified themselves in hill-top strongholds under the leadership of Sultan Mamantun of Maciu. Under Mamantun, a great force of outlaws became established at rancherias and were responsible for terrible depredations throughout the district.

Government launches operating at the mouth of the Malaig river were frequently fired upon, with the result that a camp of men from the 15th Infantry was established at the river.

The Moros were invited in for parleys and many of them came in and abandoned the outlaw life to return peacefully to their homes.

A number of the Moros, however, chose to ignore the American request for conciliation, and after a perty commanded by Lieutenant Furlong was fired upon, an American offensive was undertaken. Sultan Mamantun was killed and his men turned to Uti, a fanatical Mohammedan priest, for guidance.

Uti forwarded a note to the American authorities:

"Do not come in the night, pigs. If you do, I will crush you. Come in the daytime so that the Moros can see the dead Americans. All of you that come I will give as Sungud (marriage portion) to the virgin. the kris that cuts fast is ready."

The priest was mightier with the pen than with the kris, for when the expedition swooped down to be "crushed" he speedily took to the hills. Lieutenant Furlong led several attacks on cottas in the district, killing a great many Moros and losing a few men in the process.

Colonel J. F. Hutton took the field at the head of three columns of troops in the Butig Mountains. The soldiers were fired upon from the cottas but after eight serious engagements all of the outlaws in the district were annihilated.

Upon completion of these operations in Mindanao, a short period of peace ensued, to be broken by rumblings in Jolo.

A large band of Moros fortified Bud Dajo and defied the authorities to subject them to any law. The American garrison at Jolo was reinforced by the addition of two battalions of infantry and preparations were made for a decisive assault on the Moros.

In Zamboanga it was realized that the capture of Bud Dajo would entail serious fighting. At seven o'clock of the evening of March 2, 1906, Colonel J. W. Duncan received a note from General Wood:

"Dear Colonel:
I wish you would get two of your companies together and go to Jolo at once. Nothing but blanket rolls, field mess outfit, 200 rounds per man, seven days field rations, in haste. Regular orders will reach you later.
Yours truly,
Leonard Wood."

American officers attending the weekly dance at the Overseas Club in Zamboanga found their party interrupted as couriers passed through the crowd, ordering them to withdraw to the fort and prepare for field service.

The next morning Colonel Duncan received his orders to command the party and Companies K and M of the 6th Infantry departed for Jolo on the transport Wright.

the causes contributing to the battle of Bud Dajo were resentment over the curtailing of slave-trading, cattle raiding and women-stealing privileges of the Moros of Sulu.

The mountain top fortified by the Moros was a strong position. Bud Dajo, a lava cone of an extinct volcano, has an altitude of 2,100 feet. The crater at the summit is 1,800 yards in circumference and is flanked with rocky promontories which made the approach of troops difficult. One thousand Moros took their stand on the top of this mountain, six miles from Jolo.

Before preparation for the actual battle began, Governor Scott called to him Panglima Bandahala and the Datus Kalbi and Jolkanin and asked them to ascend the mountain and induce the Moros to disband and turn in their weapons.

The three loyal Moros undertook the mission and spent two days on the mountain top orating to their countrymen. On the third day they came into Scott's office to make their report.

"They say that they will never submit to America," said Datu Kalbi, spokesman for the trio. "They say that they will fight until they can no longer raise aloft the kris."

Peace overtures having failed, Governor Scott ordered the mountain to be taken by assault.

The American assault preparations were very complete. Colonel Duncan commanded the attack, supported by Majors Bundy, Wilcox and Ewing. Detachments were commanded by Captains Atkinson, Rivers, Koehler, Chitty, Farmer, Bolles and Ryther. Thirty-one under-officers from all branches of the service led the enlisted men.

The assault units at Bud Dajo were composed of 272 men of the 6th Infantry, 211 men of the 4th Calvary, 68 men of the 28th Artillery Battery, 51 Sulu Constabulary, 110 men of the 19th Infantry and 6 sailors from the gunboat Pampanga. A total number of 790 men and officers was engaged.

The battle began on March 5. Mountain guns were hauled into position and forty rounds of shrapnel were fired into the crater to warn the Moros to remove their women and children.

At daylight on the morning of March 6, American troops formed into three columns and began the march up the mountainside. The crest was approachable by three narrow trails and the advance began from three sides with detachments under the command of Major bundy, Captain Rivers and Captain Lawton.

The movement up the mountainside was very slow and it was not until seven o'clock in the morning that the forces of Major Bundy encountered the first important Moro barricade. Bundy found the trail blocked at a point 500 feet beneath the summit by a strong wall of bamboo supported belatics.

The sharpshooters took positions behind rocks and picked off the Moros showing their heads above the barricade. The position was shelled thoroughly with rifle grenades and then taken by assault with bayonets. The Moros staged a terrific resistance.

Finding themselves in danger of being captured, they left the shelter of the barricade and sallied into the open with kris and spear. The fighting did not cease until the last Moro fell. Two hundred Mohammedans died here before the quick-firing guns and rifles of the attackers. The 6th Infantry suffered heavily, all of the casualties occurring in the last terrible rush of the krismen. Captain White was severely wounded in the knee and in the right shoulder while leading the charge that cleared the walls of the last of the Moros.

On the other side of the mountain, Captain Rivers encountered a similar obstruction, and after several hours of hard fighting he crumbled the walls by storm. Rivers was also seriously wounded by the last rush of a desperate amuk Moro.

The third column of attackers, under Captain Lawton, had meanwhile advanced along a bad trail, continually harassed by the Moros, who hurled huge stones down upon the troops. The hill was so steep that in many places the attackers were forced to crawl on their hands and knees. At regular intervals, they were rushed by krismen.

Lawton's column eventually succeeded in reaching the summit, where they took the trenches on the edge of the crater by assault. The Moros retreated into the crater and continued the resistance until night brought the fighting to a close.

During the night, the artillery was shifted to command the crater. The soldiers worked most of the night hauling the heavy guns up the mountainside. A few hours before dawn, the weary soldiers dropped into their blankets under a triple guard, and went to sleep to the accompaniment of the shouts of the maddened Moros in the crater.

At daylight the assault was resumed. The American troops held their position while the artillery poured a murderous barrage into the crater. The Mohammedans, armed principally with spear and kris, had no answer to this long range bombardment, but they held their position stubbornly and refused to surrender.

In the face of that terrific fire, the Moros had not a chance for life. A few of the more desperate scrambled over the crater edge, kris in hand, to charge the American trenches. They fell, riddled with bullets, before they covered half of the distance.

After the heavy bombardment had accomplished its purpose, the American troops charged the crater with fixed bayonets. The few Moros left alive made hand grenades from sea shells filled with black powder and fought desperately to stem the charge. But the straggling krismen were no match for the tide of bayonets that overwhelmed them and hardly a man survived that last bloody assault.

After the engagement the crater was a shambles. Moros were piled five deep in the trenches where they had been mowed down by the artillery and rifle fire. The American attack had been supported by two quick-firing guns from the gunboat Pampanga and examination of the dead showed that many of the Moros had as many as fifty wounds. Of the 1,000 Moros who opened the battle two days previously, only six men escaped the carnage.

Looking back twenty-eight years to the battle Bud Dajo, an impartial historical observer is struck by the fact that America did not cover herself with glory in this encounter. Perhaps it would be sufficient to remark that severe criticism was directed from the United States upon the military authorities ordering this slaughter.

By no stretch of the imagination could Bud Dajo be termed a "battle." Certainly the engaging of 1,000 Moros armed with krises, spears and a few rifles by a force of 800 Americans armed with every modern weapon was not a matter for publicity. The American troops stromed a high mountatin peak crowned by fortifications to kill 1,000 Moros with a loss to themselves of twenty-one killed and seventy-five wounded! the casualty lists reflect the unequeal nature of the battle.

The Moros had broken the law ans some punishment was necessary if America was to maintain her prestige in the East, but opinion is overwhelming in the belief that there was unnecessary bloodshed at Bud Dajo.

There appears to be no justification for the intensity of the bombardment at Bud Dajo, and many Americans who witnessed the battle concur in this belief.

In fairness to the American forces it must be said, however, that the situation was such that no compromise short of battle was possible. Had the Americans not forced this engagement, the Moro resistance would have been intolerably prolonged and probably a greater loss of life would have been the result in the end.

Certain it is that the Moros were not to be bluffed. War at its best is a grim business, and the strong opposition the United States encountered possibly justifies the horrible loss in human life that was concurrent with the taking of Bud Dajo.

Last edited by TheAvenger; July 15th, 2009 at 11:23 PM.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:24 PM   #152
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The below article, I copied from the Friendster Blog of my lady friend from Cotobato, a Maranao Princess and a direct descendant of Sultan Kudarat.


February 4, 2009, 1:31 am
Filed under: Bangsamoro Cause | Tags: Filipino Muslims

Muslims in Mindanao have always resisted any form of domination whether it sprungs from foreign imperialism or local manipulation of the ruling elite.

This image has not changed in time and it continues to be the basis of non-Muslims stereotyped opinion of the Moros in Mindanao. Owing to the achievements of Moro leaders in the past like Sultan Kudarat and other Muslim Datus who fought against the Spaniards, common opinion revolves around the belief that Muslims will always be unyielding in fighting for their principles.

This image brings a two-prong effect: first, Muslims always adhere to belligerency and second, that Muslims, no matter how noble they pursue a cause will always be typified with all sorts of terroristic acts.

Do I need to mention how the Muslims fought some sectors of the insensitive media for always associating the word “Muslim” with all forms of criminality. Is it because the Moro people are always perceived as “uncompromising”?

This cannot be so for during the Marcos regime, the late President allied with some powerful clans in Lanao. Since then, other Muslim leaders fought hard for the support of Malacanang in their political bid. The struggle for supremacy in their individual turfs needed the blessings of whoever sits in Malacanang

I guess, it was only during the past that “independence” from all forms was alive for there was no power struggle then that was motivated by vested interest.

Before an accusing finger points to the peace hungry people of Mindanao, we need you to understand our predicaments as Muslims before you judge the every individual fiber that runs in our veins.

DO WE NEED TO BE COLONIZED? Was it of the view of the Spanish colonizers then that the reason behind the Mindanao Problem was owing to conquest and colonization? Was it the reason then that the Spanish invaders launched a conquest in Mindanao against the Moros without let-up but failed to subjugate them?

Did the Americans believe that what ails Mindanao was a problem of special administration for the Moros through the concept of “wardship policy for self-rule”?

Was it the motivation of the Americans then to grant the “indirect rule” to the Moros under the so-called Moro Province from 1903 to 1913?

A palliative solution to quench the “perceived” hunger of the Muslims for power? An autonomy granted that is “pseudo-autonomy” in practice for it was still within the supervision of the American colonizers.

Was it really power struggle then and now that moved the Muslims to resist any form of dictation from the government and all its allies?

However, this and subsequent special administrations for the Moros had, one after the other, failed to solve the Moro problem.

The Philippine Commonwealth Government of 1935 initiated series of organized settlement programs in Mindanao since 1936 with the hope that complete amalmagation of Filipinos and Moros in commom communities including their school children , to learn to live as one people, would materialized.

All these anchored on the belief that the Mindanao problem was a problem of backwardness, illiteracy and assimilation. But it failed to address the interfaith problem correctly by not considering that biases against the Muslims was not created by the Moro community but by those outside the Moro populace.

Assimilation of people and culture can not be done overnight or in a short period of time. Years of subliminally recorded biases against the Muslims could not just be deleted by government programs that had been established with the wrong mission.

Extra-constitutional limits adopted by the Philippine government to grant self-rule to Mindanao’s native inhabitants through the establishment of regional autonomy in Muslim Mindanao did not work for it was viewed by the many Muslims as a puppet government and a mere extension of the central government in the south.

As in the past it had failed to solve the problem in Mindanao. But the question is—why did all these solutions fail to solve the Mindanao problem? The answer to this is through study and information by reviewing the struggles of the Muslims, how it originated and how it was sustained.

The Bangsamoro ideology has to be dissected to determine the right solution that should not just be effected through the usual one-sided approach to solving the Mindanao conflict.

The Moro will always be unyielding in his ideology. This is not merely about religion but about principles.

If you are a non-Muslim, please separate your bias from objectivity, for if you do not understand the entire history of the Moro people, then you will not understand the reason why they stood resiliently for their cause.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:27 PM   #153
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Lapu-Lapu was the king of Mactan, an island in the Visayas, Philippines, who is known as the first native of the archipelago to have resisted Spanish colonization. He is now regarded as the first Filipino hero.

On the morning of April 27, 1521, Lapu-Lapu and the men of Mactan, armed with spears, and kampilan, faced Spanish soldiers led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. In what would later be known as the Battle of Mactan, Magellan and several of his men were killed.

According to Sulu oral tradition, Lapu-Lapu was a Muslim chieftain, and was also known as "Kaliph Pulaka".The people of Bangsamoro, the Islamic homeland in the southern Philippine Islands, consider him to be a Muslim and a member of the Tausug ethnic group. A variant of the name, as written by Carlos Calao, a 17th century Chinese-Spanish poet in his poem "Que Dios Le Perdone" (Spanish, "That God May Forgive Him")
is "Cali Pulacu".

The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence refers to Lapu-Lapu as "King Kalipulako de Maktan". In the 19th century, the reformist Mariano Ponce used a variant name, "Kalipulako", as one of his pseudonyms.

Panday Pira

Panday Pira (1488 - 1576) - was the first Filipino cannon maker. He was born in 1488 in one of the islands in the southern part of the Philippines.

First Filipino cannon-maker. He forged the cannons which Rajah Sulayman used in defending the Muslim Kingdom of Manila against the Spanish invaders. Born in one of the islands in Southern Philippines in 1483. He died in 1576.

He was a popular blacksmith and cannon maker. He was tasked by his fellowmen to make cannons for them, which they used against the foreigners. He learned the craft from the Chinese and Arab traders who were then staying at Lamayan, Sta. Ana, Manila.

Panday Pira moved to Pampanga when Martin de Goiti stormed Manila. He returned to the city because the Spaniards sent for him. They ordered him to make cannons.

He died in 1576 at the age of 88In recognition of the conrlbution of Panday Pira to the country, a place in Tondo was named after him.

Sultan Kudarat

Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat (also spelled Qudarat), (1581 - 1671) was a Sultan of Maguindanao. During his reign, he successfully repelled Spanish efforts to conquer his sultanate and hindered the Christianization of Mindanao. He was a direct descendant of Shariff Kabungsuan, a Muslim missionary who propagated the Islamic faith in 14th century Mindanao.

After succeeding his father in 1619, he conquered several datus and made himself the master of the Pulangui area. He also controlled present-day Cagayan de Oro and Caraga territories and made Misamis and Bukidnon his tributaries. He was able to negotiate with the Dutch and the Spaniards so that they recognize his sovereignty over these lands. The Spaniards tried but failed to conquer him in all battles. The Spaniards
were systematically defeated and forced to ransom their soldiers from the sultan.

Governor-General Alonso Fajardo signed a treaty with Kudarat on June 25, 1645 which allowed Spanish missionaries to minister to the needs of the Christians in Mindanao, allowed a church built, and trade was allowed in the sultan’s territories. War once more flared in 1658 when Mindoro, Bohol and Leyte were sacked. Spain was unable to dominate the lands under Sultan Kudarat's rule.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:28 PM   #154
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Municipality of South Ubian, Tawi Tawi Province

Why the municipality is called South Ubian when it is actually located in the easternmost portion of the province of Tawi-Tawi is a mystery to many

The much older Tabawan settlement now belongs to the new municipality of South Ubian. There is no North or Central Ubian. Why the municipality is called South Ubian when it is actually located in the easternmost portion of the province of Tawi-Tawi is a mystery to many. Speaking of mystery, the island of Tabawan holds the key to the understanding of the mysterium and the fascinans of the Sama peoples.

In this island rest their ancestors and the spirits that guide their destiny. The indigenous rituals widely practiced are known as “pagomboh” and “pagdiwata”. The former is a ritual related to their ancestors – a devotion to their origin, and the latter refers to the spirits or jinns – rituals of offering to please the jinns. These two rituals have become keys to the very soul of the Sama peoples who are the inhabitants of all the islands that form the Municipality of South Ubian.

The more famous landmark of Tabawan is the ancient well called Boheh Dea. Boheh is the Sama word for water and Dea is the word for forest. Boheh Dea, then would mean water in the forest. There are legends around the well. The more obvious one is the fact that it is the “source of life for the Sama people. As long as the well does not run dry, the Sama peoples live! And popular belief among the old says that at the other end of the Boheh Dea is the Zamzam Well in Makka. The people remember well that by tradition and by belief, the great Zamzam Well is a gift from Allah, precisely to save the lives of Hagar and her child ‘Ismael. Bohed Dea, definitely, is one of the great wonders in the region. It is considered a real miracle to have continued supply of fresh water in a very deep well in a coral reef island.

Tabawan is also the center of the mystical rituals for the Sama omboh (ancestors). They celebrate the omboh devotion twice a year. The first ritual is to appease the ancestors for the “disturbances” created in the community and family. They call this ritual as omboh jabo. The families prepare a ligu (a tray made of bamboo) containing seven plates filled with yellow rice. The local Imam (religious leader) leads the families in prayers that accompany the offering of the ligu. The other omboh rituals mark the Sama peoples’ departure and arrival – asking for the ancestors’ blessing before departure and thanksgiving on safe arrival.

Courtesy of KSA Blogger
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:30 PM   #155
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The Muslim Rulers of Manila

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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:33 PM   #156
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Rajah Soliman was the ruler of Maynila, a Muslim Kingdom of the Pasig River. He was considered as the "greatest king of Manila".when Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo landed there in 1570. Spanish sources refer to him as Rajamora or Raja Mura. The Spanish transcription of Rajang Mura is Young Raja. He was related by marriage to the Sultan of Brunei. His wife was a daughter of a close relative of the Brunei Sultan. He ruled Manila jointly with his uncle Rajah Matanda.

Soliman and his warriors learned to use gunpowder and manufacture weapons. They learned how to use cannons and lantakas from the Chinese who came to the shores of Maynila centuries ago.

When the first Spanish expedition headed by Martin de Goiti reached Manila in 1570, Rajah Soliman would not allow them inland. He gave instruction that he would meet the Spaniards on shore. He came bearing himself haughtily, and his words sounded as warning to the Spaniards. He was willing to make peace with the Spaniards, but they must remember that his people were not like the pintados - referring to the Visayans who were subservient. He further stated that his people would not tolerate any abuse and they would repay with death the least thing that touched their honor. Then Soliman left without inviting the Spaniards into the town.

Rajah Soliman's behavior showed that he was no friend to the Spaniards. In the afternoon of the first meeting on June 4,1570, Soliman's men, armed and holding ropes, conducted bold inspection of the Spaniards on shore. The Spaniards got irritated, but kept their cool for the sake of peace.

The mission of peace spoken by de Goiti in his conferences with Rajah Soliman implied recognition by the Maynilad rulers of their vassalage to the king of Spain and payment of tribute as a token of that vassalage. But Rajah Soliman would not accept peace on that basis. He let it be known to de Goiti that he would never pay tribute. He considered the implication of de Goiti's proposition as an affront to his honor and dignity.

On the morning of the second day - June 5, Soliman sent an envoy with a message to Goiti that no Spaniard could bring their ships into the river. So de Goiti asked for another meeting and immediately went ashore and entered the fort. In the meeting held with the Maynila rulers, terms of peace were discussed.

They agreed that the Spaniards would be allowed settlement in Manila and no tribute would be exacted. In the afternoon of the drawing up of the peace pact, the Spaniards became anxious at the news they received that Rajah Soliman was mustering all his warriors for a military review, but the shots would be directed in the air. Causing more suspicion to the Spaniards was the rumor that Soliman was just waiting for the rain to pour, a condition wherein the Spaniards' muskets could not be fired. And then he would attack the Spaniards.

Caused by misunderstanding, hostilities ensued the next day. As a result, the Spaniards, superiorly armed, attacked and burned Maynila. Many of its inhabitants perished and the large house of Soliman with its valuables turned into ashes.

Some of those captured by the Spaniards stated that Rajah Soliman ordered the attack on the Spaniards and had fired the first shot which pierced the side of de Goiti's ship.

In 1571, the Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi became the head of the second Spanish expedition to Maynilad. It was in pursuance of the order of the King of Spain to colonize the Philippines. Rajah Soliman did not welcome him. But through the prodding and intercession of his uncles, Rajah Matanda and Lakandula, who were convinced by Legazpi's honeyed words of goodwill, Soliman reluctantly went with them and concluded a pact with the Adelantado.

According to their terms of the agreement, the Spaniards were allowed to settle in the old site of the burned town of Maynilad and would have the right to collect tributes from the other inhabitants. The Maynilad rulers and their descendants were granted exemption from paying tributes.

The native rulers remained faithful to their pledge of friendship to Legazpi when he finally ruled Maynila.

Shortly, Rajah Matanda died and Legazpi formally declared Rajah Soliman as the successor of his deceased uncle. Rajah Soliman received the senorio of Maynila with Spanish approval in April of 1572.

Two years after the death of Legazpi in 1574 Rajah Soliman and Lakandula headed a local revolt in towns north of Maynila. It arose over the system of government apportionment of encomiendas to the Spanish officials. Certain lands of Soliman and Lakandula were given and assigned to encomenderos in utter disregard of their patrimonial rights.

Initial conciliatory talks between Fray Geronimo Marian and the two leaders held in Pagaga were unacceptable to Rajah Soliman so he took his men to another village. He was the greatest problem of Marian, because he did not act fairly in whatever the Spaniards were concerned, nor did he regard them with friendly eyes. Capitan Juan de Salcedo, the conciliator, effected peace first with Lakandula. Later, Soliman yielded to the assurance that the rebels' complaints would be given due attendance by the Spanish government.

Rajah Kalamayin was the ruler of Namayan
( Santa Ana area ).

According to some historians and scholars , the high point of Namayan history was the marriage, sometime in the 13th century, of Namayan princess (later Empress) Sasaban to Madjapahit Empire crown prince (later Emperor) Soledan (orAnka Widyaya). They ruled Indonesia.

The imperial couple had a son, Prince Balagtas. Because he was to become King of Namayan, he married Banginoan. Banginoan was the daughter of Lontok and Kalangitan, princess of Pasig. Her grandfather was Araw.

One of King Balagtas’ descendants was Lakan Takhan who had an illegitimate son named Pasay. Takhan bequeathed to his son the kingdom we now know as Pasay City.

After Takhan, Namayan was ruled by his son Palaba, who was in turn succeeded by his son Laboy. Laboy was succeeded on the throne by his son Kalamayin. It was Kalamayin’s sad fortune to be the sovereign when the palefaces arrived. When Kalamayin’s son was baptized a Christian, prince Martin, the Kingdom of Namayan was extinct.

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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:34 PM   #157
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Pls read below from Maranao website :

I Am A Moro

y: Tommy Pangcoga (05-Jan-2009)

(Addressed to the Filipinos of Luzon, Visayas, and even Mindanao who do not know and do not care to know because they think they already know. What a pity.)

I am a Moro. I was born that way. I have Moro blood, Moro flesh, and Moro heritage. It is not wrong to be this way. I am different from you. I do not need to be judged or looked down upon. I do not need to be converted to the ways and beliefs of the mainstream majority. I do not need to follow your ways, because I do not want to. What I need and what all of those who are like me need is your understanding and your respect for our differences.

We have not started this conflict in any way. And yet you scorn us and attack us. Perhaps it is because you have read our history from the eyes and the pens of your historians. Our history is older, much older than yours. And if you could only see it through our own eyes, you would understand. But you do not, and perhaps you never will.

Before your nation was born, we already had our own sovereignty in Mindanao. We had lived peacefully with honor, prosperity and dignity and we had lived in peaceful coexistence with others of different cultures and beliefs within this land. This was before the Spaniards came to colonize you. This was before the Spaniards sold you – and us too, though without our knowledge and consent – to the Americans.

When your people finally gained your independence from the Americans, we had already been doubtful that you would treat us and our ways with respect. Because for over three hundred years, the colonizers had not only converted you to their faith and their western ways, they had also used you as shock troops against us. Where before their arrival, we had shared relations of amity and commerce and perhaps some history as well, now after over three hundred years of fighting one another, you with all your hate and enmity against my people, had been given the opportunity to govern us against our will.

And what have you done since that independence? You continued what the colonizers had done to us. You claim us to be part of your citizenry, yet you mock our ways, thinking our ways are backward and wrong and that yours are right. You forced us to follow your laws. You treated us as second class citizens. Even as savages. You claimed your prize for the three hundred years of servitude as shock troops of your colonizers and, through your laws, divested us of our ancestral lands. And when we became fed up and our braver brethren took up arms to make our point, you were contemptuous and assaulted us at every opportunity given to you. You knew that if you could force us to surrender, you could take all the natural riches underneath our ancestral lands for your own, in addition to the lands you have already taken away from us, either by force, deceit, or stealth. Because you have already needlessly wasted and squandered what little resources your lands have had before.

You are up in arms when only one of you is injured or killed by one of us. It is sensationalized on television. Yet you remain silent after millions of us have been displaced, tens of thousands left dying of disease and hunger, and hundreds killed by your army, your police and your vigilantees. We are lucky if we find an article about this on the last page of one of your little known tabloids. You have harmed our old folk, our women, and our children. You have not only marginalized us, you have also disenfranchised us and displaced us, socially, politically, culturally and economically. You have made us poor and weak. All this because we are different.

What we do is no different from what you do. We talk and laugh. We complain about work. We bleed when we are injured. And we wonder about growing old. We talk about our families and we worry about the future. And we cry with each other when things seem hopeless. All of the things you do with each other, that is also what we do. And for that we are called deviants, criminals, secessionists, even terrorists, and then are made to suffer.

What right do you have to make us suffer like this? What right do you have to change us? What makes you think you can dictate how we live our lives?

I and my people desire no rancor against you or anyone. We only aspire to live in peace, dignity, honor, and prosperity within our homeland - The Bangsamoro Homeland – or what little remains of it we can genuinely reclaim from you, anyway. We only seek to regain the things that your people and your governments, past and present, have taken away from us. We only seek to enjoy our right to self-determination and to live our way of life according to our beliefs, not according to yours. That is our rightful due.

You are the stronger "other". If you wish to talk of peace, look through the lense of justice and of our history. If you wish to talk of peace, do not play double-talk, semantics, or word calisthenics. And if you wish to talk of peace, do not hold a sword behind your back. That simply will not do. We were not born yesterday.

I am a Moro. And I am proud to be a Moro. Deal with it, or leave me alone.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:36 PM   #158
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History of the Muslims in the Philippines
2nd Edition, By Salah Jubair

Islam Moves North

In many instances, global politics affected directly or indirectly the turn of events even in faraway places. Had not the Moors been defeated by the Spaniards in 1492. the Spaniards could not have come in 1521 and conquered the Philippines. Or had the Spaniards delayed their coming to the Philippines for just half a century there would be no such thing as the "only Christian country" in Asia. There could have been an entirely different story to tell regarding the spread of Islam in Luzon and the Visayas.

There is evidence that as early as the last years of the fifteenth century, Islam was already gaining headway in many places in the Philippines. It was carried directly from or via Sulu or Mindanao by preachers, traders or voyagers from Borneo who settled among the inhabitants of the islands. In the words of one popular writer:

... It is hard to believe that Manila was once firmly under Muslim heel, Muslims controlled the seat of government, the wealth and the trade up and down the Pasig and around Bai lake and Batangas as well as the sea lanes to Mindanao and Borneo.

The Muslims were the ruling class in Luzon, the rich traders, cultural leaders and missionaries, the ones with the knowhow and the right connections, the literacy and what's more, the right religion.

Aside from Manila, then known as Selurong, Islam had already gained ground in Batangas, Pampanga, Cagayan, Mindoro, Palawan, Catanduanes, Bonbon, Cebu, Oton, Laguna and other districts. Preachers of Islam, all reportedly coming from Borneo, came to teach the natives the rudiments of the new religion. Such Islamic practices as circumcision, reading the Qur'an, avoidance of pork, and the use of Muslim names were already noted among the natives of these districts.

What is Metropolitan Manila today was formerly the bastion of Islam. Manila was ruled by Rajah Sulaiman Mahmud, jointly or assisted by Rajah Matanda, his uncle and Tondo under the rule of Rajah Lakandula. Manila was not only the commercial center but a powerful fort (cotta) was built near the mouth of the Pasig River in defense of the realm.

It was to the islamized natives of Manila that the word Moro was first applied by the Spaniards in 1570 to denote those who professed Islam. Indio first denoted the pagan natives, but was later to include even the christianized. It was only in later years, more specifically in 1578 and after, that the name Moro was generally applied to the Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu.
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:38 PM   #159
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Death of Magellan

Our Muslim conflict started when Magellan arrived in the Philippines, so
I will post here the details of Magellan death.

From "Eyewitness to


(some funny and hilarious story)

Lapu-Lapu - Philippine Warrior

Battle of Mactan

First Wave - Battle of Mactan

Lapu Lapu - The Movie (1 of 13)

Lapu Lapu - The Movie (2 of 12)
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Old July 14th, 2009, 03:40 PM   #160
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