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Old February 5th, 2012, 07:39 AM   #2041
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post

This sums it all. "The metro is not to be"

Krasnoyarsk Metro is an embarrassment of epic proportions. I cannot imagine there is a single soul in this city who imagines seeing a Krasnoyarsk Metro in his or her lifetime.

Perhaps they should stop this pointless construction (apparently they can only build a short stretch of tunnel every few years before funding dries up) and use whatever money they have left to buy the domain name metro.net from Los Angeles Metro.
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Old February 5th, 2012, 10:32 AM   #2042
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Originally Posted by WB2010 View Post
I don't speak Russian, but I watched the Youtube film on the Krasnoyarsk metro construction you had posted and heard the word "podzemka" which sounds very funny to my Polish ear But it's an ingenious way of translating the English word "underground" understandable to all Slavs
"Podzemka" is a slang word, which is used in mass-media during last 20 years. I do not like this pejorative word, because it shows the ignorance of journalists. However, in this case Krasnoyarsk system look more like "podzemka", not like a "Metropolitan".

Here is old interview with a former Chief of Moscow Metro, Dmitry Gaev. He said: "I'm not a Chief of "podzemka", I'm Chief of Metropolitan!".

Quote:
В.КАРПОВ: Итак, начальник московской подземки Дмитрий Гаев в студии «Русской службы новостей». Здравствуйте, Дмитрий Владимирович.

Д.ГАЕВ: Здравствуйте. Неправда, я не начальник подземки, я начальник метрополитена.

В.КАРПОВ: Простите, мы так привыкли называть.

Д.ГАЕВ: Нет, нет, нет. Это не вы привыкли называть, это английское название «подземка».

В.КАРПОВ: Андеграунд.

Д.ГАЕВ: Да, андеграунд. В России и СССР этот термин никогда не употреблялся. Может быть у господина Михайлова, который кусками кого-то где-то выносил откуда-то, при этом я не помню его и не видел его на каких-то случаях, которые печальные, к сожалению, были на метрополитене. Мы не андеграунд, мы не подземка. Мы метрополитен.

http://rusnovosti.ru/guests/interviews/31802/31803/
Here is opinion of architect and a vocal preservation advocate Natalya Dushkina, granddaughter of greatest architect of Moscow Metro stations Alexey Dushkin (1903-1977).

Quote:
НАТАЛИЯ ДУШКИНА ОБ "ЭСТЕТИЧЕСКОЙ СЛЕПОТЕ" В МОСКОВСКОМ МЕТРОПОЛИТЕНЕ

Сейчас мы все чаще слышим выражение "московская подземка". Оно звучит и в устах журналистов, и в разговорах начальников метрополитена. Но я хочу подчеркнуть, что слово "подземка", которое в русском языке носит несколько уничижительный оттенок (в отличие от английского underground, subway), никогда не использовалось применительно к московскому метрополитену. Он с самого начала назывался именно "метрополитен", с акцентом на ключевом значении слова metropolis - "столичный город". То есть метрополитен был не только частью транспортной инфраструктуры, но воспринимался как одна из составляющих образа столицы, его художественной программы, которая одновременно осуществлялась на поверхности земли и в подземном пространстве.

http://dino.disneyjazz.net/news/news123.html
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Old February 5th, 2012, 06:02 PM   #2043
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VLADIVSTOK AEROEXPRESS

January 27, 2012. New building of the Vladivostok International Airport:

Aid


Aid

The future terminal of the Aeroexpress:

Aid
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Old February 5th, 2012, 06:05 PM   #2044
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January 25, 2012. Arrival of the new train ED9M for Vladivostok Aeroexpress:

bam4232

January 27, 2012. Construction of the new terminal for Aeroexpress:

Black Diamond


Black Diamond

The new part of the platform:

Black Diamond


Black Diamond


Black Diamond

February 2, 2012:

Vlad-i-vostok


Vlad-i-vostok
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Old February 5th, 2012, 06:06 PM   #2045
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February 2, 2012. Visit of Igor Shuvalov, First Deputy Prime Minister:

newsvl


newsvl


newsvl


newsvl


newsvl


newsvl

February 3, 2012:

Aid


Aid
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Old February 5th, 2012, 09:24 PM   #2046
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KAZAN AEROEXPRESS

January 29, 2012. Construction of the terminal for Kazan Aeroexpress:

Герцог Игторн


Герцог Игторн


Герцог Игторн


Герцог Игторн


Герцог Игторн
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Last edited by AlekseyVT; February 5th, 2012 at 09:48 PM.
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Old February 5th, 2012, 10:20 PM   #2047
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SOCHI AEROEXPRESS

January 22, 2012. Aeroexpress station "Esto-Sadok":

Пельмень


Пельмень


Пельмень


Пельмень


Пельмень
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Old February 5th, 2012, 10:21 PM   #2048
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January 27, 2012. Beginning of the test exploitation of the railway between Sochi International Airport and Adler Rail Terminal:

olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep
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Old February 5th, 2012, 10:22 PM   #2049
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Aeroexpress Terminal:

olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep


olympdep
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Old February 6th, 2012, 05:21 PM   #2050
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO

January 13, 2012. Construction of the station "Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International"), which planned to be open this year:

Antoha2012


Antoha2012


Antoha2012


Antoha2012
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Old February 6th, 2012, 05:22 PM   #2051
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Janaury 28, 2012. Construction of the trade store "Mezhdunarodny", where will be located entrance to the vestibule of "Mezhdunarodnaya" station:

djtonik


djtonik


djtonik


djtonik


djtonik
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Old February 6th, 2012, 05:24 PM   #2052
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January 25, 2012. Construction of the trade store "Continent", where will be located entrance to the vestibule of "Bukharestskaya" ("Bucharest") station:

Nomernoy


Nomernoy


Nomernoy

January 28, 2012:

djtonik


djtonik
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Old February 6th, 2012, 05:25 PM   #2053
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djtonik

The vestibule:

djtonik


djtonik

The future entrance to the vestibule:

djtonik

The future exit to the city:

djtonik
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Old February 6th, 2012, 05:26 PM   #2054
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January 30, 2012. Construction of the own vestibule of "Spasskaya" ("Saviour") station:

USSR Man


USSR Man


USSR Man
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Old February 6th, 2012, 05:50 PM   #2055
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD METRO

January 28, 2012. Construction of the Metro bridge and Metro station "Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky"), which planned to be open on November 4, 2012:

CrossC


CrossC


CrossC


CrossC


CrossC


CrossC
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Old February 6th, 2012, 06:40 PM   #2056
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD METRO

January 30, 2012. The works at Metro bridge:

Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin

Lyadov Square. Construction of the underpasses:

Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin

Regional and city authorities:

Yaroslav Gunin
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Old February 6th, 2012, 06:41 PM   #2057
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Metro station "Gorkovskaya":

Yaroslav Gunin

Diesel locomotive:

Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin

Tunnel from "Moskovskaya" to "Gorkovskaya" station:

Yaroslav Gunin


Yaroslav Gunin
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Old February 8th, 2012, 01:42 AM   #2058
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SUMMARY

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS IN RUSSIA BEFORE WWI (short review)

In general, last decades of the existance of Russian Empire were golden times for welfare and rapid growth of Russian industry. There were built many thousand kilometers of railways across all country, which greatly improved communication between cities. The symbol of great development of Russian railways became Trans-Siberian Magistral, which was completed in 1916 and connected European part of Russia with Far Eastern Region. As result, it led to the fast development of the Russian regions. Many local and foreign business people opened own factories, plants and other commercial enterprises. One after another Russian cities lost its patriarchal rural view and turned in the "centres of growth".

Among the most famous foreign entrepreneurs, who worked in Russia in this period, were Nobel brothers - Ludvig, Alfred and Robert. Their father Immanuel Nobel (1801-1872) moved to Russia from Sweden in 1838, to sell his inventions in Saint Petersburg, where he lived for two decades with his family. Among his successful creations was an improved version of an underwater exploding mine that personally interested Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. Immanuel founded a war supplies factory, "Fonderies et Ateliers Mécaniques Nobel Fils", which turned out to be a very profitable business. The partnership of his sons - "Branobel" - carried out oil extraction works at the Apsheron peninsula and exported oil products to Europe. Ludvig Nobel (1831-1888), older brother of Alfred Nobel (founder of the Nobel Prize), is credited with creating the Russian oil industry. He invented oil tankers, and better refineries, pipelines. Before 1880 the United States was Russia's teacher in most aspects of the oil business. The roles were reversed in some respects by Nobel. The oil business lacked technical know-how and scientific methodology. To rectify this, Nobel established technical chemical research labs in Baku. These research centers were very active and when something of commercial interest was found, Nobel was fast in trying the new products out on a large scale. Dozens of scientists were employed, finding ways to treat oil, developing new uses for oil, and developing products derived from oil. Creation of first oil tankers for the Caspian Sea is also connected with the Nobels. Ludvig Nobel successfully developed the idea of the Artemyev brothers, Astrakhan ship owners, who were the first to transport oil and oil products not in tanks, but in cargo holds of their vessels. But unlike them Ludvig Nobel built metal tankers. The world's first successful oil tanker was Nobel's "Zoroaster". Ludvig designed this in Sweden with Sven Almqvist. The contract to build it was signed January 1878, and it made its first run later that year from Baku to Astrakhan. Ludvig Nobel died in 1888 and was buried in the Smolensk Lutheran Cemetery in Saint Petersburg. His son Emanuel (1859-1932) was a Head of "Branobel" partnership until own emigration in 1918.

In 1878 great Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939) invented first world’s cylindric oil depot in Baku. Such form was a more optimal for oil storage as well as more economical and simplier for mounting. Today modern cylindrical depots are being built worldwide according to the basic principles, developed by Vladimir Shukhov. His projects were instrumental in constructing of oil pipeline, the first in the Russian Empire, between Balkhany and Cherny Gorod near Baku (12 km, 1878 complete, used by the "Branobel"). Shukhov designed the first Trans-Caucasian kerosene pipeline between Baku and Batumi (835 km long) and Grozny-Tuapse pipeline (618 km long). A superior design for oil-tanker barges (less than half of the metal previously required), 150-meters long barges were built (mostly for the Volga River) as well as the first Russian seaworthy oil tanker ship. His approach to the ship strength analysis (using the model of a shell on an elastic foundation) was absolutely novel for that time. Shukhov designed inexpensive oil tanks with the bottom calculated as a membrane on elastic foundation. They became very popular among oil-producers of the Imperial Russia. By 1881, 130 such tanks were built in Baku alone. Shukhov made important contributions to the chemical industry. He designed and built an oil cracking plant. His patents (Shukhov cracking process - patent of Russian empire No. 12926 from November, 27th, 1891) on cracking were used to invalidate "Standard Oil"'s patents (Burton process – Patent of USA No. 1,049,667 on January 7, 1913) on oil refineries. He designed an original oil pump. Shukhov's pumps revolutionized Baku's oil industry allowing to increase its oil output. He designed one of the first furnaces that used the residual oil: before his works the residual oil was considered a waste and was discarded, due to his works it became recognized as an important technical product known as a fuel oil. These engineering solutions were revolutionary in oil industry, allowing for a long-distance transportation of oil products, including transportation across the Atlantic Ocean.

The other famous dynasty of the foreign entrepreneurs in Russia was Siemens family. In 1853, Carl Heinrich Siemens traveled to Saint Petersburg where he established the second international branch office of his brothers' company "Siemens & Halske". Siemens had a contract for constructing the Russian telegraph network at the time. In his management of the telegraph installations, Carl soon proved to be a competent entrepreneur who was unafraid to make decisions, and in 1853 he was accorded power of attorney for the Russian side of the business. In 1855 the business was turned into a subsidiary, directed independently by Carl Siemens on the basis of his own capital assets. The four telegraph lines (Moscow-Kyiv-Odessa-Sevastopol, St. Petersburg-Kronstadt, St. Petersburg-Helsinki-Turku and St. Petersburg-Warsaw) were completed in 1855. Its total lenght was more than 9000 km. In 1869 Carl went to London after the death of his wife Mariya (née Kapherr), the daughter of a St. Petersburg banker and merchant, and spent the next ten years helping in his brother Wilhelm’s business. A further reason for his departure was almost certainly the decline in business in Russia, which made staying on there a less attractive proposition. In 1881 Carl Siemens, who was no longer comfortable in London in the shadow of his older brother Wilhelm, returned to St. Petersburg and again improved the performance of the Russian business. The "All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition" of 1882 in Moscow provided a good opportunity for repositioning the company: "Siemens" built an electrically powered railroad specifically for this exhibition, which was designed to demonstrate "the use of electricity for operating trains". For this achievement, the company was awarded a high distinction: the right to bear the imperial double eagle in its letterhead. In the 1880s, "Siemens & Halske" manufactured telegraph equipment and railway signal systems as well as accessories for electric lighting. The manufacture of cables was expanded with the company’s own cable factory, which had been planned since 1878 and was built on a plot of land acquired in 1879 on the Neva estuary in St. Petersburg. In addition, the Russian Siemens company increasingly concentrated on lighting. Carl Siemens attempted to gain entry into the Russian market by obtaining concessions, and for this purpose founded the "Company for Electrical Lighting" together with other St. Petersburg firms in 1886. This so-called "Lighting Company", which had substantial headquarters in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Łódź, acquired a monopoly and received the right to lay cables and establish power plants. For his service to Russia, Carl Siemens was ennobled by Emperor Nicholas II in 1895.

In the end of 19th century, Russian scientists made many great fundamental inventions. The heating radiator was invented by Franz San Galli (1842-1908), a Polish-born Russian businessman living in St. Petersburg, between 1855–1857. In 1872 Russian engineer Alexander Lodygin (1847-1923) invented his filament lamp and obtained a Russian patent in 1874. Invented in 1876 by Pavel Yablochkov (1847-1894), the so-called "Yablochkov candle" was the first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp. In 1900-1901 Russian botanist Mikhail Tsvet (1872-1919) invented adsorption chromatography. In the beginning of 20th century, Russian engineer and chemist Alexander Loran (1849 - after 1911) invented fire fighting foam, which was successfully tested in several experiments in 1902-1903. In 1904 Loran patented his invention, and developed the first foam extinguisher the same year.

The carbon arc welding could not have been created if not for the discovery of the electric arc by Sir Humphry Davy in 1800, later repeated independently by a Russian physicist Vasily Petrov (1761-1834) in 1802. Petrov studied electric arc and proposed its possible ways of usage, including for welding. The first arc welding method was introduced by Russian inventor Nikolay Benardos (1842-1905) in 1881 and later patented in 1887. Nikolay Slavyanov (1854–1897) was a Russian inventor who in 1888 introduced arc welding with consumable metal electrodes, or shielded metal arc welding, the second historical arc welding method after carbon arc welding invented earlier by Nikolay Benardos. The lightning detector was invented in 1894 by great Russian scientist Alexander Popov (1859-1906). It also was the first radio receiver in the world. Alexander Popov was the first person to demonstrate the practical application of electromagnetic radio waves.

In 1877 Russian inventor Fyodor Blinov (1827-1902) created tracked vehicle called "wagon moved on endless rails" (caterpillars). It lacked self-propelling and was horse-drawn. Blinov got a patent for his "wagon" the next year. Later, in 1881-1888 he created steam-powered caterpillar-tractor. This self-propelled crawler was successfully tested and showed at farmer's exhibition in 1896.

The first European steam-powered icebreaker, as well as the first ever metal-hull icebreaker was the Russian "Pilot", built in 1864 on orders of merchant and shipbuilder Mikhail Britnev (1822-1889). It had the bow altered to achieve an ice-clearing capability (20° raise from keel line). This allowed the "Pilot" to push itself on the top of the ice and consequently break it. Britnev fashioned the bow of his ship after the shape of old Pomor boats, which had been navigating icy waters of the White Sea and Barents Sea for centuries. "Pilot" was used between 1864-1890 for navigation in the Gulf of Finland between Kronstadt and Oranienbaum thus extending the summer navigation season by several weeks. The cold winter of 1870-1871 led to the international recognition of Britnev's design. That year the Elbe River and the port of Hamburg froze, which caused a prolonged halt of navigation and huge commercial losses. In such circumstances, Germans purchased the "Pilot"'s design from Britnev for some 300 rubles. Thus the German "Eisbrecher I" appeared in 1871, and other European countries soon followed the suit. Inspired by the success of the "Pilot", Mikhail Britnev built a second similar vessel "Boy" ("Battle" in Russian) in 1875 and a third "Booy" ("Buoy" in Russian) in 1889.

With its rounded shape and strong metal hull, "Pilot" had all the main features present in the modern icebreakers, of which is why it is often considered the first true icebreaker. Another contender for this title is icebreaker "Yermak", built in England between 1897-1898 for Russia according to the design of Vice-Admiral Stepan Makarov (1849-1904) and under his supervision. Russian icebreaker "Yermak" (named after Yermak, the conqueror of Siberia) was the first icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice. Makarov borrowed the main principles from "Pilot" and applied them for creation of the first polar icebreaker. Between 1899-1911 "Yermak" sailed in heavy ice conditions for more than 1000 days. At the beginning of the 20th century, several other countries began to operate purpose-built icebreakers. Most were coastal icebreakers, but Russia, and later, the Soviet Union, also built several oceangoing icebreakers of around 10.000 ton displacement, eventually converting to diesel-electric propulsion.

Russian "Vandal" and French "Petite-Pierre", launched in 1903, were the world's first diesel-powered ships (sources disagree over which of the two, "Vandal" or "Petite-Pierre", was the first). "Vandal" was the first equipped with fully functional diesel-electric transmission. "Vandal" was a designed by Karl Hagelin and Johny Johnson for "Branobel" company. It commenced commercial operation in the spring of 1903. "Vandal" was accidentally damaged on its maiden voyage, repaired and served on the Volga route for ten years. The positive experience led to the mass production of motor ships in Russia. By 1914, in Russia operated about 200 motor ships. It was much more than in other states, where motor ships began to produce only since 1911 (in Germany) or since 1912 (in Great Britain and Denmark).

In 1905 Nikolay Korotkov (1874-1920), Russian surgeon and a pioneer of 20th century vascular surgery, invented auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement. In 1906 Prince Boris Galitzine (1862-1916) invented the first electromagnetic seismograph. The Aerosani, propeller-driven and running on skis, was built in 1909–1910 by the young Russian inventor Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972). There is some dispute over whether Aerosanis should be considered snowmobiles, as they are not propelled by tracks, but if they are, they would be the first snowmobiles developed. Adolphe Kégresse (1879-1943) designed an original caterpillar tracks system, called the Kégresse track, while working for Emperor Nicholas II of Russia between 1906 and 1916. These used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments and could be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over soft ground, including snow. Conventional front wheels and steering were used but the wheel could be fitted with skis as seen in the upper right image. He applied it to several cars in the Royal garage including "Rolls-Royce" cars and "Packard" trucks. Although this was not a snowmobile, it could be thought as one of the ancestor of the modern concept.

In early-1910s Russians were made big successes in the developing of world aviation industry. Russian actor Gleb Kotelnikov (1872-1944) invented first world's knapsack parachute in 1911 (first in the hard casing and then in the soft pack) and braking parachute in 1912. It was successfully employed in 1914 during the World War I.

When the Wright brothers made the world’s first sustained heavier-than-air flight, they laid the foundation for what would become a major transport industry. Their flight in 1903 was just 11 years before what is often defined as the world’s first airliner. These airliners would change the world socially, economically, and politically in a way that had never been done before. If an airliner is defined as a plane intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial service, the Russian "Ilya Muromets" was the first official passenger aircraft. The "Ilya Muromets" (Sikorsky S-22) was designed and constructed at the Russo-Baltic Carriage Factory (RBVZ) in Riga in 1913 by great Russian aircraft designer Igor Sikorsky (he is more known for further invention of helicopter in 1939). It was based on his earlier S-21 "Russky Vityaz" (or "Le Grand") - the first world's four-engine aircraft, which had played an important role in the development of Russian aviation and the multi-engine aircraft industries of the world. The "Ilya Muromets" was a luxurious aircraft with an isolated passenger saloon, wicker chairs, bedroom, lounge and a bathroom. The aircraft also had heating and electrical lighting. The "Ilya Muromets" first flew on December 10, 1913. On February 25, 1914, it took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard. From June 21 – June 23, it made a round-trip from Saint Petersburg to Kyiv in 14 hours and 38 minutes with one intermediate landing. If it had not been for World War I, the "Ilya Muromets" would have probably started passenger flights. Instead of this, it was turned into bomber for the Imperial Russian Air Force and became the first strategic bomber in the world.

The first aerial ramming in the world was committed by Russian pilot Pyotr Nesterov in 1914 during the First World War, and in the early stages of World War II the tactic was employed by Soviet pilots who called it taran for "battering ram"; the same word is used in the Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, and Bulgarian languages. Pyotr Nesterov (1887-1914) was also an aerobatics pioneer. The first effective filtering activated charcoal gas mask in the world was invented in 1915 during WWI by Russian chemist Nikolay Zelinsky (1861-1953).

"Zoroaster", the world's first successful oil tanker (built in 1877-1878):

Wikipedia

Russian cruiser "General-Admiral", which is considered as the first true armored cruiser (launched in 1873):

Wikipedia

"Velikiy Knyaz Konstantin", the first historical torpedo boat tender (1876-1877):

Wikipedia

"Yermak", the first polar icebreaker in the world (built in 1897-1898):

Wikipedia


Wikipedia
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Old February 8th, 2012, 01:43 AM   #2059
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The aircraft Sikorsky "Russky Vityaz" (1913), or "Russian Knight", also called "Le Grand", the first four-engine aircraft in the world:

Wikipedia

The aircraft Sikorsky "Ilya Muromets" (1913), first official passenger aircraft in the world as well as first strategic bomber:

Wikipedia

Gleb Kotelnikov with his invention, the knapsack parachute (1911):

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Old February 8th, 2012, 01:50 AM   #2060
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In 1913 were national celebrations dedicated to the 300-anniversary of the establishment of the Romanov Royal Dynasty. Ironically, it became the last peaceful year for Russian Empire and the starting point for further statistics. Since then, Russia would be to compare itself with this golden year. In 1913, Russia was the world leader of agricultural production, world leader of industrial growth (6% per year) and European leader of population growth (1.5% per year). The population of Russian Empire greatly increased from 125.64 million people in 1897 to 175 million people in 1913. The Russia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 5th largest in the world. By nominal GDP, Russian economy was rapidly approaching to the world's fourth largest economy (France).

The unique collection of the color photos of the Russian Empire. The song, which sounds in this videoclip, is named "The River Volga is flowing". This song was performed earlier by various singers. However, now it's associated only with the performance of Lyudmila Zykina, because her signing is like a flow of Volga River - unhurried, stately, calm, with great width and inner strength:



Translation:

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
My Volga flows, and I’m 17 years old.

Mother said, "Everything happens, my son.
Maybe you’ll tire from the roads.
When you return home at the end of way,
Dip your hands into the Volga".

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
My Volga flows, and now I’m 30 years old.

Your first glance and first splash of oar -
Everything that used to be was carried away by the river.
But I won’t grieve for that long-past spring -
In its place is your love for me.

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
I gaze into you, Volga, in my 7th decade.

Here is my dock, and here are my best friends -
Everything I can’t live without.
From the far reaches in starry silence,
The child I was is echoing me.

From long and far away, the river Volga flows.
The river Volga flows, endless, borderless.
Among fresh grains, among white snows
My Volga flows, and I’m 17 years old.

My Volga, it still flows,
And I’m 17 years old
My Volga, it still flows,
And I’m 17 years old.












1912, Korolistskali River in Georgia:

Link

Self-portrait of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky (1863-1944), great Russian chemist and photographer, who left a legacy unique collection of the thousand color photos of Russian Empire:

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Last edited by AlekseyVT; May 19th, 2012 at 05:21 PM.
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