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Old February 8th, 2012, 01:54 AM   #2061
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APPEARANCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRIC TRAM

The period from invention of electric tram till beginning of WWI can be consider of "golden age" of this kind of transport as in Russia, as in the all world. During this historical period, personal cars were a luxury rather than a means of transportation. The other kinds of public transport (like bus or Metro) were only in the early stage of own development. Therefore, electric tram was most popular kind of public transport in all world. By 1910, horse-drawn kinds of transport almost disappeared from the urban streets of Europe and North America.

The first world's model of electric tram was made in Russia and tested in St. Petersburg on September 3, 1880. Despite this, the development of this kind of transport in Russian Empire started only in late-1890s, when the electric tram systems already existed in many cities around the world.

There were several reasons for this lag. One of them had a monopoly of owners of horse-drawn tram. It was not surprising, that first electric horse-drawn systems in Russian Empire were built in the three most populated cities - St. Petersburg (1863), Warsaw (1872) and Moscow (1875). In contrast; the permanent electric tram system in Moscow was put into operation in 1899, in St. Petersburg (the capital of Russian Empire) - only in 1907, in Warsaw (the capital of Polish province within Russian Empire) - only in 1908. In some cities competition between new and old kind of transport was very strong. For this reason, electric tram system in Samara was opened only in 1915.

It was much easier to build a tram system in the cities, where were two necessary conditions for this. The first condition was the lack of horse-drawn tram network. In this case, it was possible to build electric tram without any resistance from competitors. The second condition was a hilly terrain (like Kyiv, Nizhny Novgorod, Kursk, Smolensk, etc). With this condition, the advantages of electric tram were too obvious and it was not smart to ignore this. Due to those two conditions, early electric tram systems in Russian Empire were mostly built in medium-sized cities and towns.

Tram systems were not common in Russian Empire as it was in United States. Its appearance was connected with the economic status of cities, the availability of effective demand of its residents and the activity of local authorities. In general, there were built more than 1000 km of tramlines in 45 cities and towns of Russian Empire, including 21 in present-day Russia. But the early history of the another 24 tram systems (in Finland, Poland, Ukraine, etc) were also part of history of Russian Tram - in accordance with Russian Imperial laws and regulations, many questions of construction and exploitation of tram systems were solved in the Ministry of Internal Affairs in St. Petersburg. The half of 21 Russian tram systems was built in the large cities (St. Petersburg and Moscow) as well as in "Group of Eight" commercial and industrial cities of Volga Region. But the first electric tram system in the Asian part of country was opened only in 1912 (Vladivostok). Few months later was opened electric tram system in Toshkent, Uzbekistan (Central Asia). However, there were no electric tram systems in the large industrial cities of Siberia and Ural Region like Perm, Yekaterinburg, Omsk, Tomsk, Irkutsk, etc.

In many medium-sized cities, the construction of electric tram system was accompanied by general improvement of city infrastructure. For example, were built few city power stations, which generated energy not only for tram networks, but also for electric illumination of city streets as well as for other purposes. In particular, in Yessentuki resort was built "White Coal" (1903) - the first industrial hydro power station of the Russian Empire. This station generated electric energy for the four resort towns of Caucasian Mineral Waters Region and, in particular, for tramlines in Pyatigorsk and Kislovodsk. Before construction of tram system, in such cities were only low-capacity power stations at some enterprises. Also, in some cities were built new bridges for tramlines and pedestrians (or were reconstructed old bridges) and were reconstructed city streets.

Pre-revolutionary tram in Russian Empire had many differences from the present-day tram. In majority of cities, the owners of the tram systems were private companies. City authorities had no enough money for construction of electric tram systems. For this reason, they were forced to sign contracts with foreign joint-stock companies (mostly - Belgian). As a result, foreign entrepreneurs received big profit from the exploitation of tram systems, while city officials received only a small percentage from these money.

The main purpose of tram owners was to have big profit from tram exploitation. For this reason, tramlines were built only along the major urban streets, where lived or worked many potential passengers. In some cities were built so-called "cottage lines", which operated only during summer period. Also there were built few tramlines along the embankments, which operated only during the period of river navigation. Many tramlines were built in the central and most picturesque parts of the cities like Moscow's Red Square, Kremlins in Nizhny Novgorod and Smolensk, St. Petersburg bridges, Volga Embankments, etc. Some tramlines were unique in the world. For example, the first electric tram system in St. Petersburg was built on the ice of Neva River and worked only during winter seasons. "On-ice" tramlines were part of tram systems in Nizhny Novgorod and Arkhangelsk. In our times, when winters became more warmer and tramcars became more heavier, it's impossible to imagine this picture. Arkhangelsk Tramway was also most northern tram system in the world. Also it's need to mention tram system in Kislovodsk, which was built and worked during all period of existance only for transportation of "Narzan" mineral water.

The other symbol of this period was division of tramlines into zones (segments). The cost of tram ticket depended from the distance of journey. Tramcars were also divided into two classes - "first class" for respectable persons (in the middle of tramcar) and "second-class" for poorer people (at the front and back sides). The cost of tickets depended from the class. The difference was few kopecks, what was no cheap at these times.

Tramcars and other equipment were mostly built abroad - in Belgium, Germany and Great Britain. The Russian producers of tramcars were Mytishchi Plant near Moscow, Kolomna Plant, Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant) in St. Petersburg and Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod. However, these Russian plants were not fully independent from foreign capital, because they had many foreign shareholders and they used many foreign technologies and equipment in the production. In big cities former horsecars were used as trailers for electric tram. Kazan was only city in Russia, where two-floor trailers (former horsecars) were used at the electric tramlines. The such two-floor trailers were used in some other cities (for example, in St. Petersburg). However, upper floors in those systems were closed for pedestrians due to safety reasons.

The tram systems in Russian Empire had either "broad gauge" (1524 mm) or "narrow gauge" (1000 mm). However, there were few exceptions. For example, Kyiv Tramway (first electric tram system in Russian Empire) had 1511-mm gauge. Due to the small difference with the "broad gauge" (1524 mm) there was a compatibility of rolling stock in Kyiv. In 1896, at the territory All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod, was opened temporary circular tramline with 750-mm gauge. This line operated during few months and was dismantled soon after closing of exhibition. In Rostov-on-Don and neighboring Nakhichevan-on-Don was built tram system with "standart European gauge" (1435 mm), which has been preserved till current times. It was also the first electric tram system, which was built in two towns of Russian Empire. Also it's need to mentioned "Oranela" - the first Russia's suburban electric tramline, which was built in 1910s between St. Petersburg and Strelna (later it became part of tram system of St. Petersburg). In general, "narrow-gauge" tram systems were mostly built in the small towns and medium-sized cities while "broad-gauge" tram systems were mostly built in the large cities of Russian Empire. The number of "narrow-gauge" tram systems was a little more than number of "broad-gauge" tram systems. However, majority of tramcars were exploited in the large Russian cities (like St. Petersburg and Moscow). For this reason, number of "broad-gauge" tramcars in Russian Empire was much more than "narrow-gauge" tramcars.

Working conditions at those times were also different, and not for the better. Tram drivers were forced to work standing on the opened front side during several hours in row, with short breaks. This work was especially difficult in winter period. The working conditions of controllers were not much better. According to rules, controllers should to stay on the opened back side (for better control of passengers) and to give signal to tram drivers about possibility of moving. In many cities it was extremely difficult (severe and prolonged work at open air, absence of conditions for the lunch and short rest between trips, bad hostel, rigid system of penalties, frequent accidents and disease). For this reason, tram owners in all cities hired only men for this work. And only after beginning of WWI, when men workers were mobilized on front, they were forced to hire women.

Fighting for own human rights, tram workers periodically organized strikes. They demanded to improve working conditions - to introduce eight-hour working day, to increase the salaries and living conditions, to reduce the fines, to give warm clothing for the work during winter periods, etc. The majority of strikes were finished without positive result for tram workers. For this reason, those strikes as well as strikes of workers at the other enterprises led to the Russian Revolutions of 1905-1907 and 1917. The tram workers were active participants of the all Russian Revolutions in early-20th century.

After beginning of WWI tram enterprises faced with many problems. There were problems with the supply of fuel for tram power stations, with replacement of parts during repairs of tramcars (European plants could not to supply necessary equipment), with increasing of passenger traffic (it led to big load on tram network), with insufficient number of men workers (many of them were mobilized on front). In addition, WWI led to big inflation, and the salaries of tram workers became not enough. During this period were built additional branch lines to the military plants and railways for cargo transportation. Nevertheless, even during this difficult period were launched tram systems in Samara and Arkhangelsk. Due to problems of wartime, those systems were built by own efforts, without participation of foreign capital.

By 1916, the total length of passenger tramlines in the large cities was:
1) Moscow - 301 km;
2) Odessa - 213 km;
3) Kyiv - 203 km;
4) St. Petersburg - 139 km.

Annual passenger traffic of the Russian tram systems in 1916:
1) Moscow - 395 mln. people;
2) St. Petersburg - 383 mln. people;
3) Kyiv - 108 mln. people;
4) Warsaw - 86 mln. people;
5) Odessa - 55 mln. people;
6-7) Samara - 38 mln. people;
6-7) Rostov-on-Don - 38 mln. people;
8) Kharkiv - 35 mln. people;
9) Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk) - 27 mln. people.

But the biggest damage to tram enterprises was made not during WWI, but during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. After Russian Revolution of 1917, all tram enterprises, which belonged to foreign companies, were municipalized. Many tram systems were seriously damaged as result of military actions, urban battles and interruptions in electricity supply. In addition, the problems with fuel for power supply and lack of materials for repairs of tram system became more actual. There were introduced free tickets for the soldiers, workers and Soviet authorities. For this reason, tram enterprises lost sources of funding. They lost ability to pay specialists, who could to do repairs and to serve tramcars and tracks. As result, tram operation almost in all small and medium-sized cities was suspended. In the large cities (like St. Petersburg and Moscow) tram systems continued to operate. However, this operation was limited due to reduced working time and insufficient number of working tramcars.

Eight continuous years (1914-1922), which included First World War, Russian Revolutions, Russian Civil War and Western interventions caused enormous damage to Russia's infrastructure. By early-1920s, 42% of the Russian tram enterprises completely stopped working and 22% worked sporadically, mainly during the summer period, when many potential passengers preferred to walk. For this reason, revenue of tram exploitation was no high. After eight years, the life in the country was completely changed.

Well-known final episode in the tramcar from the Soviet movie "A Slave of Love" (1976, director - Nikita Mikhalkov). Set in Autumn 1918, it followed the efforts of a film crew to make a silent melodrama in a resort Crimean town while the Revolution rages around them. The film is based upon the last days of Vera Kholodnaya (1893-1919) - the first star of Russian silent cinema, who died under mysterious circumstances. It was highly acclaimed upon its release in the United States. Its final episode was filmed in Odessa. The song "Where is you, My Dream?" performed by Yelena Kamburova (composer - Eduard Artemyev):

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Old February 8th, 2012, 01:55 AM   #2062
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POST SCRIPTUM

Well, now I must to take a long break to prepare the material for the next chapter. I plan to finish it this spring.

Of course, I'm realize that this topic is very specific. I want to give a wide retrospective analysis of the history of tram transport in Russia (in the context of the general Russian history). And I was glad to know that some members of this forum support this idea.

I want to apologize that my knowledge of English is not excellent. I hope some of you were able to understand a few my sentences at the 19 pages I'm also want apologize to the residents of cities, about which I wrote, if I wrote something wrong about history of their native cities. I really tried to use different sources of information about different Russian cities. In any case, I welcome any clarifications and questions.

Next chapter will be about interwar period of the Russian history - about very difficult, but interesting times from a historical point of view. I will write about development of the pre-Revolutionary tram systems as well as about the opening of the new tram systems in other cities. After this, I will write next chapter. In general, it will take about one year for the writing of the full history of Russian tram transport. After this, I will write about actual news.

I want to ask everyone to ask questions about the actual development of tram transport in the general thread about Russian Urban Transport. I'm hope that next year I will finish my historical material and we will be able to discuss actual news in current thread.

Thanks for understanding and bye for now.

Let me choose another melody from the same film for the final chord to this chapter. Requiem for a deceased epoch:
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Old February 9th, 2012, 02:05 AM   #2063
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I've read that Sochi is building a metro. Others say it is a commuter railway similar to South Africa's Gautrain. Which is correct?

http://www.subways.net/russia/sochi.htm
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Old February 9th, 2012, 06:14 AM   #2064
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Quote:
Originally Posted by dwdwone View Post
I've read that Sochi is building a metro. Others say it is a commuter railway similar to South Africa's Gautrain. Which is correct?

http://www.subways.net/russia/sochi.htm
It's funny - for the last three years I have answered this question at SCC four or five times.

The correct (final) answer: They really wanted to build Sochi Light Metro, but crisis forced them to correct this plan. Now they (almost) built Sochi Aeroexpress - railway between Airport and Krasnaya Polyana (Red Valley) ski resort with intermediate stop at Adler.

There will be operate such trains:

Presentation of Siemens Desiro ML Rus "Swallow". Kazan Rail Terminal in Moscow, 2010:

Wikipedia


Wikipedia
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Old February 9th, 2012, 03:54 PM   #2065
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They called the train "Lastochka?" It doesn't translate well into English.
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Old February 9th, 2012, 04:57 PM   #2066
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Do they build Mezduranorodnaya and Bukureshtskaya in Saint Peterburg like PPP? (Private Public Partnership) If they are, are there somewhere else building metro stations like PPP? (as I remember, Vokovskaya in Moscow is built like PPP).
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Old February 9th, 2012, 06:08 PM   #2067
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Woonsocket54 View Post
They called the train "Lastochka?"
Yes, they called it "Lastochka" ("Swallow Bird").

Quote:
Originally Posted by Woonsocket54 View Post
It doesn't translate well into English.
Oops... Sorry, I didn't knew it.
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Old February 9th, 2012, 07:02 PM   #2068
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Quote:
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Do they build Mezduranorodnaya and Bukureshtskaya in Saint Peterburg like PPP? (Private Public Partnership)
No, the stations are not. But during last four years "Adamant" Holding builds trade stores, in the ground-floor of which are located vestibules of the Metro stations. So, city authorities finance the construction of the stations itself (underground part + vestibule), while owners of "Adamant" Holding finance the construction of the buildings of trade stores.

I wrote about "Adamant" Holding one year ago in this thread. Please read my posts #846, #847 and #848 at the Page 43.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Rail_Serbia View Post
(as I remember, Vokovskaya in Moscow is built like PPP).
You mixed something. The station "Voykovskaya" ("Pyotr Voykov") of Moscow Metro was opened in 1964, when it was impossible to build stations like PPP. There is station with similar name "Volkovskaya" ("Volkovo") of Saint Petersburg Metro, the vestibule of which was built into ground-floor of the trade store "Radius" of "Adamant" Holding.

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If they are, are there somewhere else building metro stations like PPP?
No. In most cases, the construction of such stations is economically disadvantageous for private enterpreneurs. At best, their money will be pay off only after 10 years. The only similar station is "Myakinino" of Moscow Metro, which was built in 2009 on the money of businessman Aras Agalarov near own exhibition and trade-business centre "Crocus Expo" in Krasnogorsk town near Moscow. And many Muscovites don't like this station, because Mr. Agalarov didn't paid for decoration of station. It's look like one large parking shelter.

There were talks about construction of the ground-level station "Tekhnopark" ("Technology park") near the technology park "Nagatino i-Land" (read my post #1485 at Page 75). However, currently investors do not show initiative.

Also, some officials also wanted that Chairman of FC Spartak (Leonid Fedun) pay money for construction of the station near future stadium (read my post #1500 at Page 75). But now it was declared that this station will be complete on the money from city budget.
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Old February 9th, 2012, 08:56 PM   #2069
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Quote:
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No. In most cases, the construction of such stations is economically disadvantageous for private enterpreneurs.
There is another one problem. All metro systems in Russia are the "state unitary enterprises" — GUP or MUP. It's a special form of the property when all property belongs to the state directly and the company just manage it. All purchases are purchases made by the state, all income can be moved into state budget. And not any part of the property can be sold or used on the security. GUP also can not take a loan or use any other financial instruments. So, Mr Agalarov gave money for the station, but in fact he just presented a gift to Moscow government: he does not have any rights for this property.

The problem could be solved if metro systems will be reorganized to Joint-stock company with 100% state owned share. But current federal law prohibits such reorganization of city transport monopolies.
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Old February 10th, 2012, 06:06 AM   #2070
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
It's funny - for the last three years I have answered this question at SCC four or five times.

The correct (final) answer: They really wanted to build Sochi Light Metro, but crisis forced them to correct this plan. Now they (almost) built Sochi Aeroexpress - railway between Airport and Krasnaya Polyana (Red Valley) ski resort with intermediate stop at Adler.
I think it's because there's a Wikipedia page floating around that doesn't say anything about the project changing to conventional railway. I may have to correct it myself!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sochi_Light_Metro
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Old February 10th, 2012, 01:01 PM   #2071
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Quote:
Originally Posted by historyworks View Post
What is the story behind this?

Huge light rail network planned for southern Moscow
Tuesday, December 13, 2011

PLANS have been unveiled for a network of four light rail lines totalling 214km serving an area to the south of Moscow. The Southern Chord network will extend the reach of the Moscow metro and connect the airports of Domodedovo to the south and Vnukovo to the west.

The project is being developed by Domodedovo Trans Development (DTD) with the support of the Municipal District of Domodedevo and the Ministry of Transport of the Moscow Region. DTD in cooperation with Russia's Ministry of Transport is developing a public-private partnership for the project.

A feasibility study for the first 27km section (Line 2) from Domodedovo Airport to Krasnogvardeiskaya metro station should be completed during the first half of 2012 with a view to launching it as a pilot project in 2015. The longest line in the network will be the 102km Line 1 which will connect the two airports.

DTD will set up a light rail scientific research and design institute to study and systemise foreign light rail expertise, and conduct research, feasibility studies and design work.


http://www.railjournal.com/newsflash...scow-1419.html
Well, I have no any official information and I don't want to speak too much about rumours. But, who can know - may be, it's same thing about which I'm thinking

February 9, 2012:

HAV-tram


HAV-tram

2011. Alstom Citadis 301 at Dublin, Ireland:

Spoiler
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Old February 10th, 2012, 06:10 PM   #2072
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD METRO

Report from the future station "Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky"):
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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:12 PM   #2073
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD - BOR CABLEWAY

Early January 2012. Nizhny Novgorod station:

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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:13 PM   #2074
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The sensors for monitoring the condition of the soil on the slope:

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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:15 PM   #2075
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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:16 PM   #2076
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Frozen Volga River:

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The total length of the route (horizontal length) is 3661 meters, with an average slope of 2%:

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There are installed 10 supports with the height from 9 to 82 meters. The one of the two tallest supports installed on the island:

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The difference in height of the terrain along the cableway is 57 meters:

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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:18 PM   #2077
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January 17, 2012. Testing of the cableway with empty gondolas:

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French inspectors from the "Poma" company (manufacturer of cableway):

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Trip to the industrial town Bor:

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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:26 PM   #2078
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Like in Nizhny Novgorod, Bor station is located close to the centre of the town:

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Bor station:

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Ticket office:

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To protect against rising waters, Bor station was built on the tall piles:

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For first time, there will be operate 28 gondolas:

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Inside the gondola. There are seats for 8 persons. The height of ceiling is 1.9 m:

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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:28 PM   #2079
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Power system:

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Service room:

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Old February 10th, 2012, 10:29 PM   #2080
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dimfoto

It's seem that there will be built many apartment buildings near Bor station, and this plot will be much more expensive than today:

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