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Old September 3rd, 2012, 08:14 PM   #2321
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Old September 3rd, 2012, 08:16 PM   #2322
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The future exit to the tram stop:

Teamsky

The exits to the future tram stop are not completed yet:

Teamsky

The future line of fast tram at Great Kazan Ring:

Teamsky
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Old September 4th, 2012, 10:33 PM   #2323
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What about Chelyabinsk,Rostov on Don,Ufa,Perm.Do they plan to built metro in future.
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Old September 5th, 2012, 01:23 AM   #2324
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Quote:
Originally Posted by geometarkv View Post
What about Chelyabinsk, Rostov on Don, Ufa, Perm. Do they plan to built metro in future.
Chelyabinsk - Metro construction is extremely slow:
http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?p=88107542

Rostov-on-Don - much talks and plans, but no practical works (currently beginning of Metro construction from scratch without solid guarantees of reliable and stable funding looks very doubtful affair in Russia);

Ufa - all plans of Metro construction were cancelled due to lack of funding;

Perm - all plans of Metro construction were cancelled due to lack of funding.
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Old September 5th, 2012, 12:28 PM   #2325
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Thanks for the info AlekseyVT.I see you have posted a lot in this thread.Where You find all those informations.
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Old September 5th, 2012, 01:12 PM   #2326
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Quote:
Originally Posted by geometarkv View Post
I see you have posted a lot in this thread. Where You find all those informations.
I just translate information received from other Russian forumers on different transport sites
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Old September 6th, 2012, 05:38 AM   #2327
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It's not a "fast tram" but either Rapid or better to call it LRT.
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Old September 6th, 2012, 09:36 AM   #2328
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Quote:
Originally Posted by _Night City Dream_ View Post
It's not a "fast tram" but either Rapid or better to call it LRT.
Fast tram (Italian: tranvia veloce or metrotranvia, Polish: Szybki tramwaj, Dutch: Sneltram, Russian: Скоростной трамвай, Ukrainian: Швидкісний трамвай) is a type of LRT, which is a tram system with high velocities.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_tram

«What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet»
(William Shakespeare, "Romeo and Juliet")



Wikipedia
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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:44 AM   #2329
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KAZAN TRAM

August 19, 2012. The construction of the tramlines on the new road interchange by Richard Sorge Street over the Victory Avenue:

Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky

September 1, 2011. Tramlines on new road interchange by Richard Sorge Street over the Victory Avenue:

Teamsky


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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:46 AM   #2330
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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:47 AM   #2331
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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:49 AM   #2332
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO

Quote:
Originally Posted by TheKorean View Post
Isnt it unnecessary expense to build it so deep? Not to mention inconvenient. What if the escalator breaks?
Quote:
Originally Posted by Luki_SL View Post
I thought that some metro stations in Moscow are the deepest in Russia, I was wrong
Speaking about St. Petersburg Metro, I decided to write about most notorious episodes in the history of the Russian Metro construction. It were accidents during construction and further exploitation of the tunnels between the stations "Lesnaya" ("Forest") and "Ploshchad Muzhestva" ("Bravery Square").


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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:51 AM   #2333
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FIRST ACCIDENT (1974)

The story is next: new 8.8-km segment of Line 1 of Leningrad Metro with five stations was planned to be opened in 1975, to the 30-anniversary of Soviet Victory in WWII and 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (held in Moscow from February 24 to March 5, 1976). In additions, future stations "Ploshchad Muzhestva" ("Bravery Square"; depth - 67 meters) and "Politekhnicheskaya" ("Polytechnical"; depth - 65 meters) should to be first single-vault deep-level Metro stations in the world. That's why Metro workers and city authorities were in a hurry to launch this segment.

Initially construction of this extension was without big problems. However, construction of deep-level tunnels between future Metro stations "Lesnaya" ("Forest") and "Ploshchad Muzhestva" should to be held into the unstable soils with a high level of groundwaters (there was channel of underground river at the depth of 90 meters). The planners were aware about this problem, but they underestimated the scale of this threat. They decided to freeze soils in the dangerous area during construction and take additional steps to secure waterproofing of tunnels in order to solve problem of groundwaters. In addition, in order to reduce the square of cross section of the area of freezing as well as numbers of required wells and pipes with refrigerant, it was decided to build one tunnel above another in two tiers (not parallel to each other at the same depth).

However, the capacity of the ordinary freon freezing machines was not enough for that. The temperature of frozen soil was not lower than -10...12°C. On April 8, 1974, about 4:30pm, during the construction, the mixture of water and sand began to come into the lower tunnel. During few hours, there was flooded about one kilometer in upper and lower tunnels. Due to rapid flow of waters, the workers were unable to completely close hermetic doors. But all people were able to escape.

In addition, movement of water led to formation of numerous voids in soil. There began subsidence of soil at the surface. As result, deep pits appeared on the roads, rails of tramlines started to burst and some buildings started to break down. The whole line was under threat of flooding, Leningrad was under threat of collapse.

To stop the flooding of tunnels, it was decided to rapidly build two concrete locks in each tunnel (thickness of 3 meters each). Factually, emergency tunnels were locked by thick concrete plugs. After that, they pumped tap water into emergency tunnels in order to balance the pressure of water. Thanks to these actions, the flow of groundwaters was stopped.

After localization of the site of accident, specialists began to search ways for a solution of the problem. There were two possible variants: to build new bypass tunnels by the appointed route, but either above or below these damaged tunnels. Also, it was possible to totally change route of future extension of Line 1.

In the case of construction of new bypass tunnels below damaged section, it would necessary to build future Metro stations "Lesnaya" and "Ploshchad Muzhestva" at deeper depths, with two escalator tunnels and additional intermediate passages between escalators at each station. In addition, it would difficult to dock these tunnels with neighboring sections of Line 1.

In the case of construction of new bypass tunnels above damaged section, it would necessary to block the large area on surface, to demolish large number of constructions. Also, it would require large-scale relocation of engineer networks.

In addition, both options were not able to solve main task: open new stations in appointed time, before the end of period of Ninth Five-Year Plan for the National Economy of the Soviet Union (1971–1975) and before beginning of 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (February 24, 1976). It was very serious lack at that times. Metro workers and officials could lose performance-related pay if new stations will not be opened in time.

As a result, people have become victims of the Soviet planned economy. They chose most original, expensive and, as it turned out later, most unsuccessful way - they decided to continue the construction in the flooded tunnels using superlow temperatures. Obviously, the realization of such a project became possible only in conditions of absurd socialist economy. There was used liquid nitrogen with boiling point -196°C which was delivered from all Soviet chemical plants which produced it. According to different sources, there was used from 6 to 8 thousand tons of liquid nitrogen. It was first case in the world practice of Metro construction. There operated 15 freezing stations, there were drilled 2000 special wells and total length of pipes for freezing reached 350 kilometers. The temperatures in tunnels reached -50°C, and Metro workers were forced to wear valenki and a few pairs of pants. These tunnels were built with reinforced waterproofing.

As result, all five stations were opened in 1975, according to plan. On April 22, 1975 was opened 3.5-km segment with two new stations - "Vyborgskaya" ("Vyborg") and "Lesnaya" ("Forest"). On December 31, 1975 Line 1 was extended on 5.3 km with three new stations: "Ploshchad Muzhestva" ("Bravery Square"), "Politekhnicheskaya" ("Polytechnical"), "Akademicheskaya" ("Academical") - it included sadly famous tunnels. As it was planned, stations "Ploshchad Muzhestva" and "Politekhnicheskaya" became the first single-vault deep-level Metro stations in the world. After that, this method of construction of single-vault stations at deep levels became known as "Leningrad method" and such stations became called "stations of Leningrad type".

In 1986 was released film "Proryv" ("Breakthrough", director - Dmitry Svetozarov) to commemorate events of 1974. Dedicated to the heroic labor of Leningrad Metro builders, "Proryv" considered the second disaster film (catastrophe movie) in the whole history of Russian and Soviet cinema (the first was "Ekipazh" - "Air Crew" produced in 1979). Like any film based on historical events, "Proryv" contains elements of fiction (it honestly written in the opening credits - "Much of what you'll see, happened in reality. Much could happen..." ). For this reason, it can't be considered fully historically accurate. Nevertheless, this film is of particular interest to fans of the history of Metro construction.

The espisodes from the Soviet film "Proryv" ("Breakthrough", 1986):
















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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:52 AM   #2334
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SECOND ACCIDENT (1995)

Unfortunately, this sad story had a sequel. During 19 years of exploitation, water continued to flow into the tunnels. Since February 1995 the volume of incoming water with sand has increased dramatically. Even reinforced waterproofing could not cope with this flow. The situation was exacerbated by a huge pressure on the outer walls of the tunnels, because its depth exceeded 110 meters in some parts. In addition, began to affect bad aftermath of mistake of planners - construction of tunnels in two tiers. As result, to the powerful static loads (the enormous pressure of the water and sand) were added dynamic loads - under the influence of passing trains upper tunnel began to sink and to "fall" into lower tunnel. Such problems occurred during 19 years of exploitation, but numerical values ​​of these factors were low. For example, the subsidence of tunnels was within 5-25 mm per year that considered normal result in world subways. The appearance of groundwaters into tunnel also is not something extreme.

Metro staff has been forced to reduce the speed of trains at this place and close the tunnels during weekends for repair works. There was introduced emergency schedule of work. However, all efforts during half of year had not yielded the desired results. During May 1995, the subsidence of tunnels reached 35 mm, and upper tunnel sank faster. Tunnel pumps were unable to cope with the flow of water. There appeared large puddles in the tunnels. However, during the summer and autumn of 1995 the situation was been under control.

But in December, there was an accident. On the night of 3 to 4 December powerful quicksand flooded into lower tunnel. The rails were flooded, the level of water increased with every hour, there was constant downpour in the tunnel. Since December 4, 1995, both tunnels between stations "Lesnaya" and "Ploshchad Muzhestva" were closed for exploitation of passenger trains. There began construction of concrete dams-plugs at both ends of damaged tunnel. Metro staff still hoped to find engineer solution which could stop flooding of lower tunnel. But after few days the speed of subsidence of upper tunnel greatly increased. In order to preserve at least one tunnel, on the night of 5 to 6 December Metro workers were forced to flood lower tunnel after end of construction of concrete dams. It was did on December 9. This artificial flooding helped to equalize the pressure on the outer and inner walls of lower tunnel. Lower tunnel was locked by steel hermetic doors which were reinforced by concrete plugs.

Therefore, upper tunnel became sole rail connection with five northern stations of Line 1 and Metro depot "Northern". However, it became not able to preserve it. Just after two days since the flooding of lower tunnel, there began subsidence of soil at the surface and level of water in the wells of urban communications rose significantly. It was possible that these effects were only consequence of flooding of the lower tunnel and hydrological situation could to come back to normal conditions after some time, but city officials didn't wanted to risk. On the night of 15 to 16 December few Metro trains were transported through upper tunnel for the further work on cut section. After that, hermetic door were closed and reinforced by concrete plugs. The upper tunnel was also artificially flooded. At the moment of flooding, the maximal subsidence of upper tunnel was 292 mm, lower tunnel - 122 mm.

As a result, Line 1 was cut into two parts. Northern part was serviced by Metro depot "Northern", other part - by Metro depot "Avtovo". Time intervals between trains at Line 1 greatly increased. The line was separated into two independent segments (the gap was connected by a shuttle bus route). The result was devastating. More than 0.5 million residents of northern districts lost Metro link with central part of city. Not only was this important section of the line lost, but commuters now had to transfer by bus, from the station tunnels deep below the ground, considerably disrupting and lengthening journey times. The ridership of ground-level transport significally increased.

It was decided to build new bypass tunnels (0.8 km each) to replace old ones. Russian Metro builders had no equipment which able to work in conditions of high pressure and very unstable soils. That's why was declared contest for foreign companies. It was won by Italo-Swedish сorporate group "NCC Impregilo AB". On November 22, 2001 TBM "Victoria" (manufactured by Austrian company "Voest Alpine") began construction of new tunnels about 200 meters away from the old tunnels and 20 meters above them. This construction became very expensive. City authorities faced with problem of funding. This situation became instrument of political struggle. Every politician promised to eliminate the problem - from the deputies at all levels to the Governor of St. Petersburg (Vladimir Yakovlev). According to some sources, the cost of reconstruction works was more than 145 mln. USD. About half of this amount was paid by federal officials, the other half was given from regional budget. As result, further extension of St. Petersburg Metro network and realization of other city programs were postponed on few years.

According to initial plans, the full movement at Line 1 should to be restored in 2003, to the 300-anniversary of foundation of St. Petersburg. However, it was postponed on few months.

After few forced delays and stops of TBM "Victoria" due to technical problems, the construction of first tunnel was finished on May 5, 2003. The construction of second tunnel was started on August 27 and finished on November 27, 2003. The first testing train rode in new tunnels on May 26, 2004. On June 26, 2004, in the presence of Russian President Vladimir Putin, new tunnels were opened for exploitation of passenger trains. This problem became part of history. New tunnels became known as "caterpillars": it were built with rubber joints and able to oscillate together with soil.


ometro


ometro

Ventilation mine 213-bis:

ometro

Sensors:

ometro

New tunnel - general view:

ometro
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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:53 AM   #2335
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The old (lower) tunnel:

ometro

Concrete plug in the old tunnel:

ometro


ometro

The installation of the system of signaling, centralization and blocking in the new tunnel:

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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:54 AM   #2336
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September 5, 2012. The construction of the station "Bukharestskaya" ("Bucharest"), which planned to be opened in the end of December 2012:

zeffirov


zeffirov


zeffirov


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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:55 AM   #2337
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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:55 AM   #2338
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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:56 AM   #2339
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September 5, 2012. The construction of the station "Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International"), which planned to be opened in the end of December 2012:

zeffirov


zeffirov


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Old September 9th, 2012, 12:57 AM   #2340
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