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Old July 6th, 2010, 12:07 AM   #221
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5. Samara Metro:
Samara Metro is operate by a quarter of project opportunities. The four-carriages trains run every 10 minutes.

When in the early 1980s it was decided to started the construction of Metro, the demand in the underground kind of transport was huge. The ground public transport could not cope with the delivery of tens thousands workers at the factory outskirts of Samara. Today all these factories have great problems, the number of personnel decreased by an order. For this reason passanger volume in the Samara Metro is 30 thousand people maximum in the busiest days. However, during the February 2008, when the snow was paralyzed auto movement, the subway was the big time. People come in the Metro, but it was only during a week.

Currently only 3-5% of the Samara passangers are regularly used Metro as a kind of transport. Only after the opening of three new stations - "Alabinskaya", "Samarskaya" and "Teatralnaya" - Samara Metro can count on 10% and become profitable. At the eastern end, one more station "Krylya Sovetov" is planned to replace the ground station "Yunkgorodok". However, the construction of the next station "Alabinskaya" was stopped due to lack of funding, this station planned be opened only until 2015.

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Old July 6th, 2010, 12:09 AM   #222
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6. Yekaterinburg Metro:
Preliminary design for the first metro line started in 1980, construction began in 1982. On 26 April 1991, the sixth Metro of Russia and the thirteenth and last Metro of the Soviet Union, which had ceased to exist only a few months later, was finally opened to the public. However, the economic crisis of the early 1990s rocked the Metro very hard and the first stage encompassed only three stations. However, then Russian president Boris Yeltsin (who was born in this region and worked in Yekaterinburg) diverted funds to complete its construction and by 1995 the Metro doubled in length. Since then, only one extension has been built.

The "achivements" of Yekaterinburg during 30 years of Metro building are 7 stations and 8.5 kilometres of Metro ways. The time of riding between final stations is 12.5 minutes. Before opening of the Metro in Kazan, Yekaterinburg has shortest Metro line in the world. Line 1 runs from the industrial areas in the north towards the city centre and serves the railway station at "Uralskaya" and, in the future, the bus station at "Chkalovskaya". Part of the route was excavated by "drill-and-blast" in very difficult hydrogeological conditions. All stations are underground (four are deep and three are shallow) and have 100 m. long platforms for 5-car trains, although currently only 4-car trains are in service (total number of cars - 54). The traffic volume in Metro is very high - near 150 thousand passangers per workdays and near 300 thousands during holidays. All stations are richly decorated, but Yekatering Metro poorly illuminate due to saving of money - almost half of the fixtures at the stations do not work there.

The next opening will be two stations, "Chkalovskaya" and "Botanicheskaya" (4.2 km). These stations planned to be opened in 2012. Intermediate "Bazhovskaya" station will be finished at a later date.

Line 1 is actually the first line of a planned 3-line network, with all three lines forming a typical Russian triangle in the city centre. But construction of these lines is not very likely in the near future. After the opening of the two stations would be decided question about the construction of the alternative kinds of transport instead of Metro lines.

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Old July 6th, 2010, 12:09 AM   #223
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7. Kazan Metro:
In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the USSR, Kazan became the center of Tatar culture, and separatist tendencies intensified in Tatarstan region. On August 30, 1990 Tatarstan announced its sovereignty with Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1992 Tatarstan held a referendum on the new constitution, and 62 percent of those who took part voted in favor of the constitution. However, during the leadership of Mintimer Shaimiev, who was the President of Tatarstan since 1991 till 2010, the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation has been preserved, and Republic of Tatarstan hasn't got its full independence. On February 15, 1994 the Treaty On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Tatarstan (On Delimitation of Authority in the Sphere of Foreign Economic Relations) were signed. Articles 1 and 3 of the Tatarstan constitution, as introduced in 2002 define Tatarstan as a part of Russian Federation.

During the presidency of Shaimiev Tatarstan become one of the most developing regions of the Russian Federation. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan, capital of Tatarstan, the right to brand itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia (after Moscow and St.-Peterburg). In 2009 it was chosen as the "sports capital of Russia".

A single-line Kazan Metro opened on 27 August 2005, as the present to the 1000-anniversary of Kazan's foundation. The history of its construction is very interesting. In 1995 Kazan was not include in the list of cities, approved by the Russian Government, where construction of Metro was planned to be started. Knowing about it, the Goverment of Tatarstan and Mayority of Kazan turned to Moscow and began to demand that Kazan was been included in the list. As result of this campaign, Tatarstan officials decided to celebrate Kazan millennium in 2005, although the date and year of the "millennium", was fixed rather arbitrarily. After this in 1996 Russian president Boris Yeltsin decided to built Metro in Kazan.

Since 2000, the city has been undergoing a total renovation. The historical center, including its Kremlin, has been rebuilt. During the millennium celebrations, the largest mosque in Russia, Qolsharif, was inaugurated in the Kazan Kremlin, the holiest copy of Our Lady of Kazan was returned to the city, and the "Millennium Bridge" was also inaugurated that year. The construction of Kazan Metro was started in 1997 and was opened in 2005 to the imagine 1000-anniversary of foundation.

Current Central Line runs from the northern industrial sites through the city centre to the southeastern residential areas. Kazan Metro is modern, all its stations are richly decorated, but passanger volume is very low compared to other Russian Metros. At least 3 from 6 Kazan Metro stations have small passanger traffic. Due to this reason there were closed second vestibules at the 4 stations. The critics are sured that Kazan Metro is nothing more than "expensive toy" and its future construction is inefficient. The supporters of the Metro building answered that current stations are located in the central part of city and the passanger volume must be greatly increased during the future developing. The future must be prove of right of the one side.

Metro cars in Kazan:




Central Line is being extended at the northern end. In 2011 Kazan Metro planned be crossed Kazanka River, there will be built underground tunnel under river at a depth of up to 28 meters. Four stations at this bank must be opened before Summer Universiade 2013, which is sheduled in Kazan.

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Old July 6th, 2010, 02:30 AM   #224
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
Regarding the comparison metro and transport:
1) Since 1991 in Russia dramatically increased the number of residents having their own car. Consequently, increased the number of cars on the roads that leading to traffic for public ground transport.
2) Many of the passengers are going through from their residence to place of work through the city. By subway it takes few minutes, by public ground transport - about an hour.
3) For the construction of public ground transport also need money - the reconstruction of roads, demolition of buildings, etc.
4) The density and intervals of the ground public transport are much more than the Metro.
5) During the winter, traffic increases. Add to that the discomfort for the pasangers of the ground public transport. In addition, winter weather in Russia is more harder than in other world cities.
Something what happened in West Europe in 1945-1985, now happen in Russia. Very good network of urban overground railways is now victim of car invasion (oil invasion). But Russian tramway systems have better projected properties then the most of tramways in the midle of 20th century in west europe. They are not victims of car congestions, they are victims of being neglected, losing municipal funds end stopping in technical development.

I am glad to read that Moscow has plan to develope tramway and fast tramway network like secondary network in wide urban area for midle-high transport needs, but what with other cities in Russia?

Example Yekaterinburg: Yekaterinburg makes one metro line very long time with delaying opening new stations every year. At this time, surface public transport is neglected. Yekaterinburg have very wide tramway system, but it put to much lines with long intervals, in little or medium capacity transport units which is oposite to conception of modern tramway (LRT). On the most of the network is used (best option) cheap second hend railtrack in separate tram lanes, but it is in bad condition. To repair one kilometer of line like this need <2.000.000$/km for both directions for max speeds 50-70km/h (exepted some downtown parts) and average 20-30km/h, which is high speed in the city. Faster system need lessen number of tramcars, lessen number of employ and better service to customers (citizens). My hosts from USURT give a definition of tramway in their city: "Tramway is move anyway, when everythig other move no way". In some parts of Yekaterinburg in rush hours only tramway is faster then walking in rush hours, with all mistakes in menagment of the system and neglect.

There is no city in the world where metro solves all transit problems, and it is only a part of all transport systems. In every case metro rider need to walk 10 min to the station or from the station on surface on cold weather, or make transfer to surface transport. The most of the tramway systems in Russia need only:
- Repairing railtrack, with partialy reconstructions (somewhere with multilevel crossings above or below some main intersections)
- Making intervals in working days 7min or lessen all day.
- Lessen number of lines on one railtrack (not more then 3)
- Higher platform of stations and longer stations
- Longer tramtrains
- Signal priority for trams on intersections with 2nd rank streets.
- Putting roadsides along the tram lanes
- Make dispatching system in tram system, and central control
- Make park&ride terminals in suburbs

This projects can be feasible, against building metro systems in city with 800.000-2.000.000 inhabitants with budget problems. Building full metro in city with lessen then 2.000.000 is feasible only if benefit/cost analysis is made professionaly. It look like that all cities in Russia exepted Moscow and St.Petersburg have the same problem. That doesn`t mean that those cities don`t need metro no way, that only mean that they first need learn to crawl (tramway) before they learn to walk (metro) and that is natural algorithm. To don`t repeat mistake of a lot of cities in "west world".
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Old July 8th, 2010, 12:25 AM   #225
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July 5, 2010. Mayor of Kazan, Ilsur Metshin visited station "Kozya Sloboda":

Photos taken from:
http://www.metshin.ru/rus/photogallery/230.htm













Mayor is man in black:




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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:34 AM   #226
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Write something about Volgograd.
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:34 AM   #227
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Volgograd Metrotram

Volgograd, formerly called Tsaritsyn (1589–1925) and Stalingrad (1925–1961) is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometres (50 mi) long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River. The city was made famous for its resistance and extensive damage during the Battle of Stalingrad, which was the turning point of the World War II.

Volgograd operates a large tram network (216 km, 27 km on reserved track). The Volgograd Metrotram is a light rail system operating in this city. It consists of 19 stations on one line, paralleling the Volga River from the northern suburbs of Volgograd to its downtown core for a total length of 13.5 kilometres. Most of the Metrotram line shares a surface-level right of way with a previously constructed tramline for 10.2 kilometres, the three downtown stations, on the other hand, were built underground over a total length of 3.3 kilometres, meeting design standards consistent with existing Russian Metro systems.

In the second half of 20th century there was transport problem in Volgograd. There was more and more difficult for residents to find free places in the urban trains and trams. However, according the Soviet principles, Metro can be built only in the cities with population over 1 million people, while population of Volgograd in 1970s was only 800 thousand people. Then they were decided to built Volgograd Metrotram, which combines the advantages of both Metro and ordinary tram. Advantages of trams are relatively low cost of construction, simplicity, power supply facilities and low cost of operation of existing tram cars and tracks. Advantages of Metro are high speed of operating, higher reliability and comfort, and, most importantly, the lack of interference to other kinds of public transport.

The decision to build Metrotram was made in 1976. During construction of Metrotram lines under centre of Volgograd was built its underground section with three stations and total length of 3.3 kilometres. In addition, was built ground part of route after reconstruction of way sections and stops of the ordinary tram, which were included in the composition of the Metrotram line.

The Volgograd Metrotram was inaugurated on 5 November 1984, and almost not changed since these times (only indermediate station near Europe City Mall was added on December 29, 2008). The experience of the Metrotram' construction in Volgograd was used during construction of same system in city Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine. Metrotram in Kryvyi Rih was inaugurated on December 26, 1986. These are only two Metrotram systems, which are operate in the post-Soviet states.



Today Metrotram is one of the attractions of Volgograd. The Volgograd Express Tram operates from 6:00 until 0:30, every 3 minutes during the day and every 90 seconds during rush hours. After 23:00 trams run every 25 minutes. The average speed of Metrotram is 25.3 km/h. The average time of the ride from the one final station to another is 32 minutes. Presently it serves 50 million passengers per year. Passanger traffic in Volgograd Metrotram is more than in Metros of Yekaterinburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Samara and Kazan, although the population of Volgograd (1.011 million people) in 1.3-1.4 times less than in these cities.

The Metrotram consist of two carriages. Trams used are of the TATRA KT8D5 and TATRA T3 type common in Eastern Europe.
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:35 AM   #228
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List of the Volgograd Metrotram' stations:

The northern part of Volgograd Metroline consist from the ground stations. They are declared as "stations", although in reality they don't have fundamental differences from the ordinary tram stops. Throughout its length Volgograd Metrotram line located along the Lenin Avenue, but its northern part is some remote from the avenue and "pressed" to the railway line. Almost all stations of Volgograd Metrotram were opened on 5 November 1984, except the station "TRK Europe City Mall".


1) "VgTZ" ("Volgograd Tractor Factory"):








2) "Khlebozavod" ("Bakery Works"):


3) "Vodootstoy" ("Water-sediment"):

"Khlebozavod" - "Vodootstoy":


Station:




4) "Bolnitsa Ilyicha" ("Ilyich * Hospital"):
* Ilyich is a patronym of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

"Vodootstoy" - "Bolnitsa Ilyicha":


Station:


5) "Zavod "Barrikady"" ("Factory "Barricades""):


6) "Gimnaziya №14" ("14th Gymnasium"):


7) "Stadion "Monolit"" (""Monolith" Stadium"):

"Gymnaziya №14" - "Stadion "Monolit"":


Station:


8) "Zavod "Krasnyi Oktyabr"" (""Red October" Steel Factory"):






9) "Tridtsat Devyataya Gvardeyskaya" ("39th Guards Rifle Division Street"):




10) "Ploshchad Vozrozhdeniya" ("Revival Square"):


Monument "Motherland calls!" at backfront:


11) "Dvorets Sporta" ("Sports Palace"):


12) "Mamayev Kurgan": *
* name of the WWII memorial place

"Dvorets Sporta" - "Mamayev Kurgan":


Station:


13) "Tsentralnyi Stadion" ("Central Stadium"):


14) "TsPKiO" ("Central Park of Culture and Leisure"):






15) "TRK "Yevropa"" ("Trade Complex "Europa City Mall""):
This station is newest in the Volgograd Metrotram line. It was opened on December 29, 2008 near trade complex with same name. It was done in the interests of owners of the complex, but not in the interests of majority of passengers because time of their trips was increased by few minutes.







Europe City Mall:
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:37 AM   #229
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The most interesting section of Volgograd Metrotram is southern part with three downtown stations, which were built underground over a total length of 3.3 kilometres. These stations were built for Metrotram, but theoretically they can be transformed into a Metropoliten stations after raising the level of their platforms. Theoretically four-carriage Metro trains can operate at these stations.

As it known, Russia (like majority of the world countries) has right-hand traffic. For this reason, the Czech Tatra trams, delivered to Russia, have doors on the right side. This differs from the Metro trains, which have doors on both sides. The doors of Metro trains are opening from the left side for majority of Metro stations in Russia. The underground stations of Volgograd Metrotram were designed consistent with existing Russian Metro systems. Therefore Metrotrams are changing from right-hand to left-hand traffic in the beginning of underground tunnel.

Beginning of underground section:


16) "Ploshchad Lenina" ("Lenin Square"):

"Ploshchad Lenina" is underground single-vaulted station of Volgograd Metrotram, which was built at the depth 7 metres. The length of platform is 102 metres. Entrance to the vestibule of station is located in the underpass under Lenin Avenue. The station is located near famous Pavlov House (fortified apartment building during the Battle of Stalingrad from 27 September 1942 to February 2, 1943) and Museum-panorame "Battle of Stalingrad".

Entrance:


"Salute of Victory":


There were installed two escalators at the station, which are working on rise at a certain hours. The vault is decorated with caissons:








The station is faced with granite and marble:








Southern end of station is decorated with stained glass, which depicted composition of Socialistic content with sickle and hammer. It's possible to see the non-used part of station behind the stained-glass, which was made according the Metropolitan standarts (with high level of platform and low ceiling, supported by columns):
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:38 AM   #230
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17) "Komsomolskaya" ("Komsomol" *):
* Communist Union of Youth

"Komsomolskaya" is most busiest station of Volgograd Metrotram. This is underground tri-vaulted station of column type, which was built at the depth 10 metres. The length of platform is 102 metres. Entrance to the vestibule of station is located in the underpass. The station is located at the cross of Lenin Avenue and Komsomolskaya street.

Entrance:


Old turnstiles (2006):


New turnstiles (2008):




There were installed two escalators at the station, which are working on rise at a certain hours:




The station is covered with rose marble and red granite. The track walls are decorated with panels from brass, depicting stylized banners:










"Soviet Youth". Like at the station "Ploshchad Lenina", non-used part of station, which was built according the Metropolitan standarts, located behind this wall:
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:39 AM   #231
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18) "Pionerskaya" ("Pioneer station"):

Station "Pionerskaya" named for nearby Children-Youth Centre, which was named Palace of Pioneers in 1984. Station "Pionerskaya" is located in the beginning of the Volgograd bridge over floodplain of Tsaritsa River. Estacade, on which located this station, was added to the existing road bridge from north-western side a few meters below:


The vestibule of station "Pionerskaya" is only ground vestibule of Volgograd Metrotram. It was built near beginning of bridge, at the cross of Lenin Avenue and Krasnoznamenskaya street.

Entrance:


The walls of vestibule and ticket hall are faced with marble. Panorama of vestibule:


Memorial plant:
Glory to the pioneers-heroes,
To the "sons of regiments" and young spies,
To the defensors of the Stalingrad land.
In the our memory
Now and forever
They are alive,
All they,...all they...all they!"



There are two escalators (which are working on rise) and one staircase in the end of each platform. However, number of the Metrotram's passangers, which are riding only one stop from the station "Ploshchad Chekistov" to "Pionerskaya", is very low. Therefore, the escalators in the end of this platform are not operate:


The floor of station is covered with light granite. The walls of station are made from insulated glazing:




Unlike stations "Ploshchad Lenina" and "Komsomolskaya" (which have a platform of island type), "Pionerskaya" was built with side platforms. Therefore, in the tunnel between stations "Komsomolskaya" and "Pionerskaya" Metrotrams in second time on the route are changing own traffic from left-hand to right-hand:








It's interesting, that now in Russia exists only three Metro stations, which are located on the bridge. Beside "Pionerskaya", there are stations "Vorobyevy Gory" (Moscow, opened in 1959) and "Ametyevo" (Kazan, opened in 2005). From 1984 till 2002, during the general reconstruction of station "Vorobyevy Gory" in Moscow, "Pionerskaya" was only one Russian Metro station on the bridge.
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:41 AM   #232
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"Pionerskaya" - "Ploshchad Chekistov":

The bridge over floodplain of Tsaritsa River:






The original pre-Revolution name of Volgograd - Tsaritsyn - was formed from the name of this river. In 1960s the part of Tsaritsa River, which now located under Metrotram bridge, was encapsulated in an underground pipe:




19) "Ploshchad Chekistov" ("Chekists * Square"):
Chekists were members of Cheka - the former Soviet state security organisation

1992:






Turnover Ring of Metrotram:
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:41 AM   #233
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Futher developming of the Volgograd Metrotram:

The line is further under construction south with a 4 km long tunnel of a total length of 7.5 km. A second long line is also planned.

First section of second stage of Metrotram building must be consist from the 4 km long line with three underground stations:

20+) "Profsoyuznaya" ("Labour Unions' station"):

All photos was made in May 2008:

This station will be built near Profsoyuznaya street. The vestibule will be built in the underpass:


It planned to be underground shallow tri-vaulted station of column type at the depth 14 meters. There will be built upper galleries for the service rooms. The station will be faced with white marble and grey granite. There will be operate two escalators in the end of platform:




21+) "TYuZ" ("Theatre for Young Spectators"):

All photos was made in May 2008:

Station "TYuZ" named for nearby Volgograd Theatre of Youth Spectator. The vestibule will be built in the underpass:




It planned to be underground shallow one-vaulted at the depth 12 meters. The station will be faced with white marble:


There will be one wide marble staircase (without escalators) in the end of platform:
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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:43 AM   #234
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22+) "Yelshanka" *
* named for Volgograd district

"Yelshanka" will be final station of new section. The vestibule of station will be at the new railway platform for the transfer on the trains of south direction.

Photos was made in May 2008:




November 25, 2008:


Ticket hall:


One of three ways to the platform:




It planned to be underground shallow two-vaulted station of column type. Unlike of stations "Profsoyuznaya" and "TYuZ", "Yelshanka" will be built with side platforms:

Photos was made on November 25, 2008:






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Old July 10th, 2010, 11:45 AM   #235
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Renovation of Metro trams:
Now all three station are mainly completed and almost ready for opening. But the station "Yelshanka" will be built with side platform, while two other stations - "Profsoyuznaya" and "TYuZ" will be built with platform of island type. There will not be crossing of ways between the stations "TYuZ" and "Yelshanka" for changing of traffic. In addition, there will not be built turnover ring behind the "Yelshanka" station. All it mean that current Czech Tatra T3 Metrotrams are not able to run at new line, because the doors in these trams made only at right side:






Hence, it's need to replace Metrotrams. The new model of trams, which are necessary for new line, must be built by the principle of Metro trains - with doors in both sides and driver cabines at both ends of the tram. Such trams will let reduce dependence from the types of stations. In 1990s there was testing of Czech trams Tatra KT8D5 and Russian models (LVS-8-1-93 and KTM-11) at the line of Volgograd Metrotram. But finally it was chosen Russian model LVS-2009, which was made in St.-Peterburg. This tram is the longest in Russia. On December 29, 2008 this model was presented in Volgograd. The second tram arrived in Volgograd on May 31, 2009:












According the original plans, new stations was planned to be open to the 65-anniversary of the Soviet victory in WWII (May 9, 2010). However, at this moment there are only 3 LVS-2009 trams in Volgograd, while it's necessary to have 16 trams of such type. For the opening of new line it's necessary 756 millions Roubles (near 25.5 millions USD). Now Mayority of city spend negotiating with the Germans twin towns of Volgograd - Cologne and Chemnitz - concerning leasing of new trams. New stations planned to be open in the end of 2011.
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Old July 10th, 2010, 04:46 PM   #236
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Station "Avtovo" (1955):

"Avtovo" is shallow tri-vaulted station of column type (depth - 12 meters). It was named for historical district of St.-Peterburg (Avtovo is name from Finno-Karelian language). The main of decoration is Defence of Leningrad in 1941-1944.

Photos taken by Gelio:
http://gelio-nsk.livejournal.com/91916.html



































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Old July 10th, 2010, 05:09 PM   #237
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"Kirovskiy Zavod" (1955):

"Kirovskiy Zavod" ("Kirov Plant") is deep-level tri-vaulted station of column type (depth - 50 meters). It was named for nearby major Russian machine-building plant in St. Petersburg. The main theme of decoration is development of Soviet industry.

Photos taken by Gelio:
http://gelio-nsk.livejournal.com/92177.html

















Electrification:


Coal industry:


Oil industry:


Metallurg industry:












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Last edited by AlekseyVT; June 4th, 2013 at 10:38 PM.
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Old July 10th, 2010, 05:35 PM   #238
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Station "Narvskaya"

"Narvskaya" is deep-level tri-vaulted station of pylon type (depth - 52 m). It was named for nearby Narva Triumphal Gate, which was erected in 1814 in the vast Narva Square (now Stachek Square) to commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleon. The main theme of decoration is labour of Soviet people.

Photos taken by Gelio:
http://gelio-nsk.livejournal.com/92611.html









Shipbuilders:


Kolhoz Workers:


Builders:


Pupils:


Selectioners:


Sailors:


Textile workers:




























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Old July 10th, 2010, 05:48 PM   #239
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Station "Baltiyskaya"

"Baltiyskaya" is deep-level tri-vaulted station of colum type (depth - 57 m). It was named for nearby Baltic Railway Terminal. The main theme of decoration is devoted to the power and glory of Soviet fleet.

Photos taken by Gelio:
http://gelio-nsk.livejournal.com/92697.html









1917 - the storming of the Winter Palace:


Legendary cruiser "Aurora":


















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Old July 10th, 2010, 05:57 PM   #240
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