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Old February 26th, 2013, 11:41 AM   #2821
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"Moskovskiye Vorota" ("Moscow Gate") is the station on the Moskovsko-Petrogradskaya Line 2 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It's located near the Moscow Gate Square and intersection of the Moscow Avenue and Tashkent Street, in the Moskovskaya Zastava Municipal Okrug, Moskovsky District. The station was opened on April 29, 1961. It's named after nearest Moscow Triumphal Gate at the Moscow Gate Square.

The architects of station were Vasily Petrov, Konstantin Mitrofanov and A. Goritsky, engineer - Viktor Akatov. "Moskovskiye Vorota" is the deep-level three-vaulted station of the pylon type with shortened central hall (depth - 35 m). The pylons are decorated with red-brown marble and aluminum profiles. The track walls are faced with white ceramic tile. The floor of the central hall was originally paved with light stone, the floors of the side platforms - with asphalt. The northern end of central hall is decorated with copy of the one of structural fragments of the Moscow Triumphal Gate symbolizing war trophies. It consist of weapons, armor, guns and swords. The exit from station is located at the southern end, with three escalators. In 2004 was replaced illumination at the station. In 2011-2012 were repaired floors. Its surface was replaced with granite. The ground-level vestibule of the station was built according to the project of architects Alexander Andreyev, Alexander Sokolov and V. Kudryavtsev. It was built into ground floor of the former administrative four-storey building at #103 Moscow Avenue (now 3rd Corps of the Saint Petersburg State University of Engineering and Economics). There is large canopy which supported by two round columns near entrance to the station. In the near future transfer to the Line 6 is planned to open. The future station will be called "Zastavskaya".

The architects of Metro station "Zastavskaya" are Dmitry Boytsov, O. Ryazantseva and M. Martynova. "Zastavskaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of the pylon type. There will be transfer to the Line 6 at the eastern end of the station. The underground vestibule of the station will be located near the intersection of the Tashkent Street and Eastern St. Mitrofan Driveway.

The project of Metro station "Zastavskaya" ("Outpost"; Line 6):

Link

April 9, 2010. The future transfer station "Moskovskie Vorota" ("Moscow Gate"; Line 2; opened on April 29, 1961) before renovation works:

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December 21, 2011. In October 2011-May 2012 asphalt surface at the side platforms was replaced with granite:

Urban

March 7, 2012. In February-July 2012 was replaced floor at the central hall:

METRO-USSR

May 29, 2012:

METRO-USSR


Битцевский панк
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Old February 26th, 2013, 11:42 AM   #2822
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April 9, 2010. The vestibule of Metro station "Moskovskiye Vorota":

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July 30, 2011:

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Old February 26th, 2013, 11:43 AM   #2823
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"BRONEVAYA"

"Bronevaya" ("Armored") is a future station of the Krasnoselsko-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located near the railway station "Bronevaya", in the Novoizmaylovskoye Municipal Okrug, Moskovsky District.

The station is named after nearest Armored Street and railway station "Bronevaya" ("Armored"). The railway station "Bronevaya" was opened in 1922. Its name derived due to fact that it was used for transportation of the military production (including tanks) manufactured at the nearby "Red Putilovite" Plant (now Kirov Plant), the major Russian machine-building plant in Saint Petersburg. Since 1930s, the street that leads to this railway station is also known as Armored Street.

The architects of Metro station "Bronevaya" are Dmitry Boytsov, O. Ryazantseva and M. Martynova. "Bronevaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of the column-wall type. There will be built two vestibules. The western ground-level vestibule will be located near Western High-Speed Diameter (toll highway) and intersection of the Favored Street and Cuban Street, not far from railway station "Bronevaya". The eastern vestibule will be underground. It will be located near intersection of the Favored Street and Novoizmaylovsky Avenue and will be linked with network of underpasses with exits at the both sides of avenue.

It's planned that Metro station "Bronevaya" will be served passenger who use interchange between railway and Metro. As result, it will help to decrease number of passengers who currently uses overloaded interchange between neighboring Baltic Rail Terminal and Metro station "Baltiyskaya" ("Baltic"). In the future, there planned to be built transfer to the station of the Ring Line.


Link


Link


Link

March 18, 2008. The railway station "Bronevaya":

AndreyA

The place of the location of the future western vestibule (red circle - existing underpass under the railway):

Link
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Old February 26th, 2013, 12:09 PM   #2824
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"PUTILOVSKAYA"

"Putilovskaya" ("Nikolay Putilov") is a future station of the Krasnoselsko-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located near the intersection of the Vasya Alexeyev Street and Marshal Govorov Street, in the Avtovo Municipal Okrug, Kirovsky District.

The station is named due to location near Kirov Plant, which was known as Putilov Plant (in 1868-1922) and "Red Putilovite" Plant (1922-1934). The project name of station was "Kirovsky Zavod 2" ("Kirov Plant 2"). Nikolay Putilov (1820-1880) was outstanding Russian engineer, entrepreneur and owner of Putilov Plant in Saint Petersburg. He was born in Nizhny Novgorod Governorate in the family of invalid of the Patriotic War of 1812. In 1840 he graduated officer's classes in the Sea Cadet Corps in Saint Petersburg. Later he served as lecturer of mathematics and worked in Crimea as supervisor of the construction of the different objects. During the Crimean War of 1853-1856, Putilov used method of network planning and design for organization of the production of the steam engines, boilers and materials for screw gunboats, corvettes and clippers at the mechanical workshops of Saint Petersburg. Within one year (1854-1855), there were built 81 ships. For these achievements in the creation of the screw steam fleet, Putilov was awarded with the Order of Saint Stanislaus of 2nd class. On May 16, 1863, in the partnership with Colonel of the Corps of Mining Engineers Pavel Obukhov (1820-1869) and merchant Sergey Kudryavtsev, Nikolay Putilov became founding member of the major Russian metallurgy and heavy machine-building plant in St. Petersburg. Putilov took part in solving technical issues related to construction and startup of this plant which was named Obukhov Plant after Pavel Obukhov's death. Founded to produce naval artillery based on German designs by "Krupp", Obukhov Plant has since been a major producer of artillery and other military equipment. As a result, Russia became independent from the British import. The percentage of orders of the military foreign equipment from abroad decreased from 88.5% to 11.7%.

Previously Russia imported rails for own railways from abroad. However, foreign rails were seriously damaged due to frosts during harsh winter of 1867/1868. It led to the transport collapse at the railways. In 1868 Putilov bought an iron foundry from the government, which was later named Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant). He developed production of more durable rails which were on 30% cheaper than British or German ones. Initially Putilov Plant produced rails and started making railroad cars in 1874. The last Putilov's project was construction of the Sea Port of Saint Petersburg and Sea Canal from Kronstadt to Saint Petersburg. Previously there was no own sea port in Saint Petersburg. Gulf of Finland is shallow. At that times, cargoes from ocean ships were transported in the port of Kronstadt and later - by the river boats to Saint Petersburg. As a result, transportation of goods was very expensive. Putilov drew up a project of uniting seaways, river ways, and railways into a single system and began to build a commercial port near Guttuyev Island with the deep-level Sea Canal. The branch line (so-called Putilov Line) between port and Nicholas Railway was built in 1876, it was the first step toward implementation of this project. However, due to intrigues of competitors, the funding from treasury was ceased, and Putilov was forced to fund construction on own money. This project had a negative effect on the business of entrepreneur, and he was busted. In the last years of his life, Putilov lived at #9 Greater Stabling Street in Saint Petersburg. He died of a heart attack on April 30, 1880. Death saved Putilov from disgrace and debtors' prison, and he was buried, just as he had willed, on the bank of the Yekateringofka River on Smooth Island that provides a view over his plant, his port and the Sea Canal. The 32-km long Sea Canal and Sea Port were commissioned on May 27, 1885, after 5 years since his death. As a result, Saint Petersburg became Russia's largest port. A chapel was erected on Putilov's grave by architect Fyodor Kharlamov. His remains were re-buried in 1907 in the crypt of St. Nicholas Church (also known as Putilov Church), which was built by architect Vladimir Kosyakov in 1901-1906 at the present-day Avenue of Strikes. His grave was destroyed in 1951. In 2009, to the 125th anniversary of the opening of Sea Canal, the nameless embankment of this canal at the Cannoneer Island was named Putilov Embankment in his honour.

The Kirov Plant (#47 Avenue of Strikes) is a major Russian machine-building plant in Saint Petersburg. It's joint-stock company, an enterprise manufacturing a comprehensive range of metallurgy and machinery products; one of the biggest in Russia. It was established in 1789 as Kronstadt Iron Foundry, which mostly produced artillery shells. On February 28, 1801, according to the order of Russian Emperor Paul I, it was moved to the Peterhof Road in Saint Petersburg (its present site) as a foundry for production of the cannon balls. In November 1824 it was seriously damaged as result of St. Petersburg flooding. The next four decades turned into struggle for surviving of this plant. From 1839 to 1842, it mostly produced what was needed for restoration of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg after the fire of 1837. Later the plant passed to different owners several times. In 1868 it was bought by Nikolay Putilov and was named Putilov Plant. By the late 1860s the plant started production of rail tracks, artillery shells, bridge constructions, and other goods. In 1873 the plant became property of a joint-stock company. Manufacturing of freight train cars started in the 1870s, and first passenger train cars were made in 1890. In the 1890s director of Putilov Plant Nikolay Danilevsky organised production of the railway engines. The plant boomed during the industrialization of the 1890s, with the work force quadrupling in a decade, reaching 12400 in 1900. It traditionally produced goods for the Russian government and railway products accounted for more than half of its total output. Starting in 1900 it also produced artillery, eventually becoming a major supplier of it to the Imperial Russian Army alongside the state arsenals. In the early 20th century the artillery department, producing gun turrets for the fleet, field cannonry and gun-carriages, took the leading position in the plant. Three inch light field cannon constructed at the plant in 1902 remained in the inventory of the Russian Army for several decades. The shipbuilding department was made an independent enterprise. The Putilov Plant was famous because of its revolutionary traditions. In January 1905 strike, which was organized by the workers of Putilov Plant, resulted to Bloody Sunday on January 22 (massacre in St. Petersburg, where unarmed, peaceful demonstrators marching to present a petition to the Emperor Nicholas II were gunned down by the Imperial Guard while approaching the city center and the Winter Palace from several gathering points). Bloody Sunday was an event with grave consequences for the Imperial regime, as the disregard for ordinary people shown by the massacre undermined support for the state. The events which occurred on this Sunday have been assessed by historians to be one of the key events which led to the Russian Revolutions of 1905-1907 and 1917.

"Vladimir Lenin's Speech at a Meeting of Workers at Putilov Plant in May 1917" (1929, painter – Isaak Brodsky):

Wikipedia
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Old February 26th, 2013, 12:10 PM   #2825
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Before WWI (1914-1918), Putilov Plant was one of the biggest in Russia. By 1917 it grew into a giant enterprise that was by far the largest in the city of St. Petersburg. In February 1917 strikes at the plant contributed to setting in motion the chain of events which led to the February Revolution. After October Revolution of 1917, Putilov Plant was nationalised. On March 10, 1919 at protest rally in the plant striking workers condemned the Bolshevik government in a resolution claiming "...the Bolshevik government is not the authority of the proletariat and peasants, but the authority of the dictatorship of the Central Committee of the Communist Party..." When Vladimir Lenin came to Petrograd to give a speech on March 13, the workers demanded his resignation and when Grigory Zinoviev tried to address the workers he was greeted with shouts: "Down with the Jew!" Strikers barricaded themselves in the plant which was stormed by the Cheka (Emergency Commission) to suppress the strike, and about 200 workers were executed. In 1922 it was renamed into "Red Putilovite" Plant, famous for its manufacture of the first Soviet tractors, "Fordzon-Putilovets", based on the "Fordson tractor". The plant manufactured tractors, tanks, tramcars, railway platforms, aviation engines, agricultural and power station equipment; the plant manufactured a trial series of cars and different grades of steel were eliquated in the 1920-1930s. On December 17, 1934, after 16 days since assassination of prominent Bolshevik leader Sergey Kirov (1886-1934), it was renamed into Kirov Plant No. 100. In the beginning of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 a part of the equipment was evacuated, but the front-line plant continued manufacturing guns, ammunition and tanks. The T-34 tank was manufactured here. The production of turbines for battleships, cargo ships and icebreakers was mastered after the WWII, and tractor construction became an important branch: "Kirovets" tractor made in the early 1960s became a model for production of other industrial machines. In 1992 the company was reincorporated as a joint-stock company; the program of reorganisation into a group of companies, specialising in manufacturing of various kinds of products, was implemented in 1994. All these companies are a part of Kirov Plant joint-stock company, which had included by the early 2001 included 22 daughter enterprises: "Petrostal" metallurgic plant produces graded rolled iron; "Metallik" plant - steel press work and forge work; "Splav" plant - non-ferrous, iron and steel castings; Petersburg Tractor Plant, "Universalmash", "Kirovenergomash", "Atomenergo" and other plants produce various agricultural equipment (including universal light tractors, non-inverting ploughs, combine harvesters), road building machines, armoured cars for transportation of valuable cargoes, equipment for energy production, machinery for metallurgy, mining engineering, oil and gas industry and many other branches of industry. A considerable part of the total output is ordered by the Ministry of Defence.

"Kirovsky Zavod" ("Kirov Plant") is the station on the Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line 1 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It's located near the intersection of the Avenue of Strikes and Vasya Alexeyev Street, in the Avtovo Municipal Okrug, Kirovsky District. The station was opened as part of the first Metro line on November 15, 1955. It's named due to location near territory of Kirov Plant.

The architect of station was Alexander Andreyev. "Kirovsky Zavod" is the deep-level three-vaulted station of the column type (depth - 50 m). The main theme of station's decor is a development of the Soviet industry. The track walls and 62 columns of station are faced with grey Caucasian marble "Svanetia". The capitals of the columns are decorated with aluminium high-relief cartouches with industrial emblems. It devoted to the four bases of heavy industry - electrification, coal industry, oil industry and metallurgy. The station is illuminated with light fixtures at the ceiling. The vault of the central hall is decorated with stuccos - letters "K" surrounded by wreaths of leaves and star. The floor of central hall is paved with maroon granite with black and white edging. The floors of the side platforms are paved with asphalt. In November 2012 began replacement of floor surface with granite. There is bust of Vladimir Lenin at the southern end of central hall (sculptor - Nikolay Dydykin). The exit from station is located at the northern end, with three escalators. The ground-level vestibule of station is located at the intersection of the Avenue of Strikes and Vasya Alexeyev Street. Its building was built in Classical style and supported with 42 Doric columns with flutings. In the near future transfer to the Line 6 is planned to open. The future station will be called "Putilovskaya".

The architects of Metro station "Putilovskaya" are Nikolay Romashkin-Timanov and Ye. Shustrova. "Putilovskaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of the column-wall type. Its sole ground-level vestibule will be located near intersection of the Vasya Alexeyev Street and Marshal Govorov Street.

The project of Metro station "Putilovskaya" ("Nikolay Putilov"; Line 6):

Link

April 9, 2010. The future transfer station "Kirovsky Zavod" ("Kirov Plant"; Line 1; opened on November 15, 1955):

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"Call of the Wild" (2008) by Swedish rock band "Decoy" (the album's cover image):

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Old February 26th, 2013, 12:12 PM   #2826
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Битцевский панк


Битцевский панк

July 30, 2011:

Битцевский панк


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Kirov Plant:

Wikipedia
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Old February 26th, 2013, 12:13 PM   #2827
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"YUGO-ZAPADNAYA"

"Yugo-Zapadnaya" ("South-Western") is a future southwestern terminal station of the Krasnoselsko-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located near the intersection of the Marshal Zhukov Avenue and Marshal Kazakov Street, at the border of the Yugo-Zapad Municipal Okrug of Krasnoselsky District and Krasnenskaya Rechka Municipal Okrug of Kirovsky District.

The station is named after Yugo-Zapad Municipal Okrug in which it will be located. This name was approved on May 13, 2009. Its project names were "Ulitsa Marshala Kazakova" and "Kazakovskaya" in the honour of Vasily Kazakov (1898-1968), Soviet Marshal of the Artillery. Born to a peasant family, Kazakov was drafted into the Imperial Army at May 1915 and participated in the WWI. After being wounded in the area of Riga at early 1917, Kazakov was transferred to a reserve unit in St. Peterburg. There, he took part in the February Revolution of 1917. When the army was dissolved, following the October Revolution of 1917, he was demobilized. Kazakov soon volunteered to join the newly established Red Army, where he commanded an artillery battery throughout the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922 and the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1921. At 1925, Kazakov graduated from the Artillery Academy of Moscow, joining the All-Union Communist Party(B) at 1932. Two years later he finished his studies in the Frunze Academy. On May 7, 1940 he was promoted to the rank of Major General. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, he commanded the 7th Mechanized Corps' artillery formations. Kazakov took part in the battles for Smolensk and Moscow, and developed new methods for the use of anti-tank artillery, which were adopted by the entire army. In July 1942 he was made Konstantin Rokossovsky's artillery commander at the Bryansk Front. In that capacity, he continued to work with the Rokossovsky at the Stalingrad, Don, Central and 1st Belorussian Fronts. On November 17, 1942 he became an Lieutenant General, and was made a Colonel-General on September 18 the next year. Kazakov was among the planners of the Kursk deep defense lines in 1943. He participated in the Lower Dnieper Offensive (1943), in Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation "Bagration" (1944) and in the battles inside Germany (1945). For his contribution to the Vistula-Oder Offensive (1945), Kazakov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union (Medal no. 5871) on April 6, 1945. After the WWII, he commanded the artillery formations of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, and since March 1950 was the first deputy commander of the Artillery Corps. In January 1952 he became their commander, but was demoted to deputy again at April the following year. Kazakov was promoted to the rank of Marshal on March 11, 1955, commanding the Ground Forces' Air Defence from 1958 until 1965. After three more years as an inspector in the Ministry of Defense, he died aged 69.

It will be first station in the Yugo-Zapad Municipal Okrug (population - 66.746 inhabitants). This is region of large-scale residential development, a part of the territory of Krasnoselsky District to the north of the Peterhof Highway and to the west from Avenue of Strikes. In the north-west, it opens on the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland; in the west, it adjoins South Seaside Park, in the south - Sosnovaya Polyana (Pine Glade) Municipal Okrug, in the north - the territory of the Sea Port and the industrial zone adjacent to it. It is named according to its location from the centre of Saint Petersburg. Until the late 1970s, it remained a water-logged neglected ground, while today it is one of the largest and most rapidly developing residential districts of the city. In the course of construction works, the territory level was raised on 2.5-3.2 metres with the sand pad from the gulf. The main thoroughfares are Lenin Avenue, Marshal Zhukov Avenue, Marshal Kazakov Street and Valor Street. In the south of the district, there is an extensive "Juno" Market.

The architects of Metro station "Yugo-Zapadnaya" are Nikolay Romashkin-Timanov, Marina Pavlova and Ya. Romanova. "Yugo-Zapadnaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of the pylon type. There will be built two vestibules. The southern ground-level vestibule will be built into ground floor of the future five-storey building of the administrative complex. The northern vestibule will be underground. It will be located near intersection of the Marshal Zhukov Avenue and Marshal Kazakov Street and will be linked with network of underpasses with exits at the both sides of the street.

METRO DEPOT "KRASNOSELSKOYE"

Metro depot "Krasnoselskoye" is a future depot of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located east of the intersection of the Marshal Kazakov Street and Valor Street, in the the Yugo-Zapad Municipal Okrug, Krasnoselsky District. After launching, it will be serve Krasnoselsko-Kalininskaya Line 6.


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Old February 26th, 2013, 08:04 PM   #2828
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THE CONSTRUCTION OF METRO STATION "TEATRALNAYA"

Also, city authorities have plans to extend Line 4 on west, with new Metro station "Teatralnaya".


karpovka

Theatre Square is a city square in the Admiralteysky District of Saint Petersburg, surrounded by Griboyedov Canal Quay, Kryukov Canal Quay, Decembrists Street, Glinka Street and Union of Printers' Street. This is one of the oldest squares in city, which appeared in 1730s and was built in the 1760s. In 1760s, it was known as Brumberg Square, by the surname of the Dutch merchant Semyon Brumberg, who was owner of nearest sawmills and lived near this square. In the 1760s-1770s it was a regular place for so-called carousels or roundabouts, amphitheatres for equestrian games (hence the original name). That's why it became known as Carousel Place in 1770s-1780s. In 1775-1783, the Bolshoi Stone Theatre in Antonio Rinaldi's Neoclassical design was built at the site of dilapidated amphitheatre. As a result, the square became known as Stone Theatre' Square (1790s-1820) and Theatre Square (since 1821). Stone Theatre was rebuilt repeatedly. At present this site holds the building of the Saint Petersburg State Conservatory named after Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (#3 Theatre Square). In 1845, a wooden circus was built on the square, superseded by a stone theatre-circus in 1847-1849 (architect Alberto Cavos). The theatre-circus was rebuilt in 1859 according to project of Alberto Cavos to accommodate the Mariinsky Theatre (#1 Theatre Square). In the late 18th century the former Mordvinov’s Mansion was erected (#14 Theatre Square), in the early 19th century architect Yegor Sokolov's own house was built (#4 Theatre Square), in 1875 house #2 Theatre Square was constructed (architect Andrey Gun). In 1906, a monument to great Russian composer Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) was set up in front of the building of the Conservatory (sculptor Robert Bach, architect Alexander Bach; transferred to a public garden on the right of the building in 1925). In 1952, a monument to great Russian composer Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) was opened (sculptors Veniamin Bogolyubov and Vladimir Ingal, architect Modest Shepilevsky). Among the residents of the Theatre Square were: great Russian theatre director Vsevolod Meyerhold (#2 Theatre Square, in 1909-1914), great Russian painter Mikhail Vrubel (#4 Theatre Square, in 1904-1905). In 1818-1820, great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin frequented house #8 Theatre Square, where the gatherings of the "Green Lamp" literary society were held. In January 1820 Russian poet Fyodor Glinka hosted a meeting of the members of the Prosperity Union secret society in his flat situated in the house #18 Theatre Square.

The Mariinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg. Opened in 1860, it became the preeminent music theatre of late 19th century Russia, where many of the stage masterpieces of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Modest Mussorgsky and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov received their premieres. The Imperial opera and ballet theatre in Saint Petersburg was established on July 12, 1783, at the behest of Catherine the Great, although an Italian ballet troupe had performed at the Russian court since the early 18th century. Originally, the ballet and opera performances were given in the wooden Karl Knipper Theatre on Tsarina Meadow, near the present-day Tripartite Bridge (also known as the Little Theatre or the Maly Theatre). The Hermitage Theatre, next door to the Winter Palace, was used to host performances for an elite audience of aristocratic guests invited by the Empress. A permanent theatre building for the new company of opera and ballet artists was designed by Antonio Rinaldi and opened in 1783. Known as the Imperial Bolshoi Stone Theatre, the structure was situated on Carousel Square, which was renamed Theatre Square in honour of the building. Both names - "Kamenny" (Russian word for "stone") and "Bolshoi" (Russian word for "big") - were coined to distinguish it from the wooden Little Theatre. In 1835-1836, the Bolshoi Stone Theatre was renovated to a design by Alberto Cavos (son of Catterino Cavos, an opera composer), and served as the principal theatre of the Imperial Ballet and opera. On January 29, 1849, the Equestrian circus was opened on Theatre Square. This was also the work of the architect Cavos. The building was designed to double as a theatre. It was a stone structure in the then-fashionable neo-Byzantine style. Ten years later, when this circus burnt down, Cavos rebuilt it as an opera and ballet house with the largest stage in the world. With a seating capacity of 1625 and a U-shaped Italian-style auditorium, the theatre opened on October 2, 1860 with a performance of Mikhail Glinka's opera "A Life for the Tsar" (1836). The new theatre was named Imperial Mariinsky after its imperial patroness Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, 1824-1880), Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia (1818-1881).

The Imperial Mariinsky Theatre and its predecessor, the Bolshoi Stone Theatre, hosted the premieres of many of the operas of Mikhail Glinka, Modest Mussorgsky and Pyotr Tchaikovsky. At the behest of the theatre director Ivan Vsevolozhsky (1835-1909), both the Imperial Ballet and the Imperial Opera were relocated to the Mariinsky Theatre in 1886, as the Bolshoi Stone Theatre was considered unsafe. It was there that the renowned French-Russian choreographer Marius Petipa (1818-1910) presented many of his masterpieces, including such staples of the ballet repertory as "The Sleeping Beauty" in 1890, "The Nutcracker" in 1892, "Raymonda" in 1898, and the definitive revival of "Swan Lake" (with Lev Ivanov) in 1895. When the theatre was designated as principal venue of the Imperial Ballet and Opera in 1886, it was extensively renovated. A lavish inauguration celebration was given at the behest of Russian Emperor Alexander III, in which the first original ballet to be produced at the Mariinsky was given - Petipa's "The Magic Pills", to the music of Ludwig Minkus. Other world premieres given at the house included Mussorgsky's opera "Boris Godunov" in 1874, Tchaikovsky's operas "The Queen of Spades" in 1890 and "Iolanta" in 1892, the revised version of Prokofiev's ballet "Romeo and Juliet" in 1940, and Khachaturian's ballet "Spartacus" in 1956. Other notable productions included Rimsky-Korsakov's opera "The Golden Cockerel" in 1909 and Prokofiev's ballet "Cinderella" in 1946 (with Natalya Dudinskaya). In 1919 the theatre assumed the title of Academic Theatre, to adopt the name of State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre in 1920. The companies that operate within it have for brand recognition purposes retained the famous Kirov name, acquired during the Soviet era in 1935 to commemorate the assassinated Leningrad Communist Party leader Sergey Kirov (1886–1934). Since January 16, 1992, it's known as State Academic Mariinsky Theatre.

The imperial and Soviet theatre was the home of numerous great impresarios, conductors and musicians. Under Yury Temirkanov (b. 1938), Principal Conductor from 1976 to 1988, the Opera Company continued to stage innovative productions of both modern and classic Russian operas. However, since 1988, under the artistic leadership of Valery Gergiev (b. 1953), the Opera Company has entered a new era of artistic excellence and creativity. The Mariinsky Theatre is home to the Mariinsky Ballet, Mariinsky Opera and Mariinsky Orchestra. Although functioning separately from the Theatre's Ballet Company, both Opera and Ballet Companies are headed by Gergiev as Artistic Director of the entire Theatre. His tenure as head of the present day Opera Company at the Mariinsky Theatre began in 1988 and (especially since 1993) Gergiev's impact on opera there has been enormous. Firstly, he reorganized the company’s operations and established links with many of the world's great opera houses, including the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, the Metropolitan Opera, the Opéra Bastille, La Scala, La Fenice, the Tel Aviv Opera, the Washington National Opera and the San Francisco Opera. Today, the Opera Company regularly tours to most of these cities. Gergiev has also been innovative as far as Russian opera is concerned: in 1989, there was an all-Mussorgsky festival featuring the composer's entire operatic output. Similarly, many of Sergey Prokofiev’s operas were presented from the late 1990s. Operas by non-Russian composers began to be performed in their original languages, which helped the Opera Company to incorporate world trends. The annual international "Stars of the White Nights Festival" in Saint Petersburg, started by Gergiev in 1993, has also put the Mariinsky on the world's cultural map. That year, as a salute to the imperial origins of the Mariinsky, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "The Force of Destiny", which received its premiere in Saint Petersburg in 1862, was produced with its original sets, costumes and scenery. Since then, it has become a characteristic of the "White Nights Festival" to present the premieres from the company’s upcoming season during this magical period, when the hours of darkness practically disappear as the summer solstice approaches. Presently, the Company lists on its roster 22 sopranos (of which Anna Netrebko may be the best known); 13 mezzo-sopranos (with Olga Borodina familiar to US and European audiences); 23 tenors; eight baritones; and 14 basses. With Gergiev in charge overall, there is a Head of Stage Administration, a Stage Director, Stage Managers and Assistants, along with 14 accompanists. In 2003, construction began on a new home for the theatre, to be named "The Second Stage". Technical difficulties connected with sub-soil problems have led to a slowing down in its progress, but work is continuing. The Canadian firm, "Diamond and Schmitt Architects", along with its local partner "KB ViPS Architects" have designed a building with 2000 seats, which will complement the existing 1600-seat Mariinsky and the nearby Mariinsky Theatre Concert Hall, which was designed by French architects Xavier Fabre and opened in spring 2007 with room for 1100 patrons. The completion of the new Mariinsky will result in what some have called Saint Petersburg's equivalent of New York's Lincoln Center.

The Mariinsky Theatre Second Stage

The Mariinsky Theatre Second Stage is a planned second part of a theatre complex which will be made up of the original 1860 Mariinsky Theatre and the 2007 Mariinsky Theatre Concert Hall. The Second Stage is currently under construction and is being financed by the federal budget. Throughout construction, which began in 2003, various changes have had to be made and this has led to an increase in expenses. The post-modernist French architect Dominique Perrault won a much-publicised contest for his design for a new home for the theatre, which is to be located adjacent to the current building. At the same time, the historic original structure had been due to undergo a complete renovation and this was planned to begin in the Autumn 2006. After seeing projected costs rise to $244 million (U.S.) from $100 million, the Russian government announced in November 2008 that it was killing the Perrault plan. The Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin overruled both Valery Gergiev (the artistic director of the Mariinsky Theatre) and the Minister for Culture, announcing in early June 2009 that there would be a new competition to solicit proposals. 15 proposals were received, a list which was then shortened to five. "We wanted to give the impression that although we were in a tense situation and we didn't want to delay forever ... no one felt like it was the best way to simply sit down quietly and say, 'You are a great architect; just come and do it,'" Mr. Gergiev explained. With a budget of €295-million (about US $452-million), all of which will be paid by the Russian government with a completion date of no later than December 2011, the Canadian firm, "Diamond and Schmitt Architects", prevailed over four other finalists, one of which came from Germany and three from Russia. The building has been hyped as "Russia's most important building project in 70 years". As noted by Mr. Diamond, (it is) "the first major opera house to be built in Russia since the Czars".

At the end of the design competition for The Second Stage of the Mariinsky Theatre in 2003, 11 proposals had been received. The winner was well-known French architect Dominique Perrault with "a gold cocoon" (an external cover of a building of the wrong form from glass and aluminium). By 2005 experts discovered that detailed proposals presented by the competition winner did not meet Russian building codes. They failed to include sections relating to water supply, drainage, and ventilation. The result was that in 2007, FGU ("Northwest management on building, reconstruction and restorations") terminated the contract with the French architectural firm. However, in June of that year the new general contractor, "Joint-Stock Company "NPO" Georeconstruction-fundamentproekt", in a short space of time removed all 286 obstacles shown on the working drawings of Perrault. As had become clear, the winning design was far from that presented when it won the international competition. In particular, it was necessary to make changes - based on the Saint Petersburg climate - in order to strengthen load-bearing structures above which the gold cupola would be located. As a result, the building would not look so open to the air. By July, the project had been simplified as much as possible, and it was determined that it would "not intrude so much into the existing city environment", Gergiev said. The height of the building was reduced and other elements were also reconsidered. In 2008 the foundation work for the building of the theatre continued, but by April, it was found that the consistency of the soil under the construction area was unpredictable. (Later builders have compared the properties of the soil to those of sour cream). In order to overcome these problems, the builders strengthened the consistency of the soil to a depth of 12 to 14 metres and, as a result, cost estimates had to be increased. Also, the builders informed the authorities that the construction of a glass dome, as planned by Dominique Perrault's architectural firm, was impossible. Therefore that part of the project would have to be changed. By June, the project had a new local architect partner, "KB ViPS Architects", a firm working on high-rise and underground construction, and it became the third firm to work on the building. During 2009 foundation work was completed. Valery Gutovsky, the director of "KB ViPS Architects", a specialist in high-rise and underground construction, became the new head of construction for the project, and on May 29 Vladimir Putin held a meeting at which he confirmed that the building would be completed in 2011 at the cost estimated in the published budget. On July 28 the result of the last competition was announced, the winner being "KB ViPS Architects", a specialist in high-rise and underground construction. Within a month, a contract was signed with that company and construction proceeded, with some parts of the building then reaching a height 5 metres. At the same time, according to Valery Gutovsky, the project was to be submitted to the town-planning council of St. Petersburg in October 2009 and to Glavgosekspertiza ("The General State Expert Review Department of the State Committee for Construction, Housing and Utilities" which was authorized to perform the state expert review of all projects by spring 2010. The construction cost was estimated at about $283 million (U.S.).



October 11, 2006. Saint Petersburg State Conservatory named after Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (#3 Theatre Square):

Wikipedia

2009. State Academic Mariinsky Theatre (#1 Theatre Square):

cityspb

January 26, 2013. The Mariinsky Theatre Second Stage:

xerx

February 21, 2013. The Mariinsky Theatre Second Stage:

Galinaaple
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Old February 26th, 2013, 08:06 PM   #2829
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"TEATRALNAYA"

"Teatralnaya" ("Theatre") is a future western terminal station of the Pravoberezhnaya Line 4 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located near the Theatre Square, at the border of the Admiralteysky Municipal Okrug and Kolomna Municipal Okrug, Admiralteysky District. The station is named after Theatre Square near which it will be located.

"Teatralnaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of the pylon type. There will be built two underground vestibules. The one vestibule will be built near the Saint Petersburg State Conservatory named after Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. The other vestibule will be built at the place of the house at the intersection of the Decembrists Street and Lermontov Avenue (#44 Decembrists Street). The detailed project of the station is not ready yet. According to official plans, the construction of "Teatralnaya" will begin after end of construction of the own vestibule of Metro station "Spasskaya".

After "Teatralnaya", Line 4 planned to be extended on northwest with Metro stations "Bolshoy Prospekt" ("Greater Avenue"), "Shkiperskaya" ("Skipper"), "Morskoy Fasad" ("Marine Facade") and "Novokrestovskaya".

The place of the location of the one of two underground vestibules of Metro station "Teatralnaya" (red cross):

Link


Link


Link
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Old February 26th, 2013, 08:08 PM   #2830
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"SHUVALOVSKY PROSPEKT"

"Shuvalovsky Prospekt" ("Shuvalov Avenue") is a planned northern terminal station of the Frunzensko-Primorskaya Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located in the Yuntolovo Municipal Okrug, Primorsky District.

The station is named after 4.6-km long Shuvalov Avenue near which it will be located. The project names of the station were "Magistral №30", "Ulitsa Shavrova" ("Shavrov Street"), "Nizhne-Kamenskaya" and "Shuvalovskaya". Shuvalov Avenue was named on April 4, 1988 due to planned location near settlement of Shuvalovo. This avenue appeared in 1992, but still not reach Shuvalovo settlement. Shuvalovo is a settlement in the northern part of Saint Petersburg along the banks of Lake Bolshoye Nizhneye Suzdalskoye. Shuvalovo is bounded by the Vyborg Highway on the east, adjoining Pargolovo settlement on the north, and historical area of Ozerki on the south. Shuvalovo received its name from the estate of Counts Shuvalov located north (now, in the south of Pargolovo). In the late 1870s, after completion of the railway to Vyborg, the land was purchased by the Share Company for Cottage Settlements in Shuvalovo, and built up with summer cottages. In 1963, Shuvalovo became part of Leningrad. The territory is dominated with individual residential houses. The Shuvalovskoye Cemetery is located there. The settlement's name has been given to its railway station, Shuvalov Avenue, and the Shuvalovo-Ozerki Municipal Okrug of Vyborgsky District.

"Shuvalovsky Prospekt" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of the pylon type. The exact place of its location is not approved yet. According to the one of possible variants, it should be located near intersection of the Commandant Avenue and Shavrov Street.

"NOVOKRESTOVSKAYA"

"Novokrestovskaya" is a planned northwestern terminal station of the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line 3 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located near the future football stadium at the Cross Island, in the Chkalovskoye Municipal Okrug, Petrogradsky District.

The station is named after Krestovsky (Cross) Island in the western part of which it will be located. Metro station "Krestovsky Ostrov" ("Cross Island; Line 5) was opened on September 3, 1999 in the eastern part of the this island. That's why it was decided to name new station "Novokrestovskaya" that means "new Metro station at the Cross Island". Cross Island is a 3.4 km² island in Saint Petersburg, situated between several tributaries of the Neva River: Middle Nevka, Little Nevka and Krestovka. It situated between the Middle Nevka River separating it from Yelagin Island, Little Nevka River separating it from Petrovsky Island, Petrograd Island, Pharmacy Island, and Krestovka River separating it from Stony Island. The island is 340 hectares in area, 3.9 kilometres long, and one kilometre wide. It's linked to Petrograd Island via Lazarev Bridge and Greater Cross Bridge, to Petrovsky Island via Greater Petrovsky Bridge, to Stony Island via Little Cross Bridge and to Yelagin Island via 2nd Yelagin Bridge. The name of Cross Island appeared even before St. Petersburg was founded. According to the one of variants, this name is derived due to fact that there was located chapel with big cross. The island belonged to 1st Governor-General of St. Petersburg Alexander Menshikov (1673-1729) in 1710, then to Tsarevna Natalya Alexeyevna (1673-1716), Peter the Great's sister, in 1714-1716, and Count Burkhard Christoph von Münnich (1683-1767) from 1731. Later it was ownership of Counts Razumovsky and bought by Prince Beloselsky-Belozersky in the early 19th century. The north of the island was occupied by Cross Village. The island has been a place of resort for city inhabitants since the early 20th century. Residential blocks were built for workers at the Marine Avenue in 1930s. House #29 of that blocks has been housing the Baltic Centre of International Tourism since 1992. In the island, there is also Kirov Stadium, "Dynamo" Stadium, rowing centres, hospital No. 31 (former Sverdlov Hospital), swimming pool, etc. Until recently, the western part of the island was occupied by the Maritime Victory Park, where the international Goodwill Games of sports and athletics competition took place in 1994, which was the first large scale post-Soviet international event in Russia. The island has been heavily built up with exclusive houses and cottages since the late 1990s. Marine Avenue and Cross Avenue are main magistral roads. On the island there is a Metro station of the same name. A new stadium is currently under construction, where Kirov Stadium was previously located. The new stadium will serve the FC "Zenit", which is the leading St Petersburg football club. FC "Zenit" Saint Petersburg has frequently led the Russian football top league and recently has had good international success, in the 2007–08 UEFA Cup and 2008 UEFA Super Cup.

Kirov Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium in Saint Petersburg, and was one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world. The stadium was named after assassinated Leningrad Communist Party leader Sergey Kirov (1886–1934). The stadium was situated on the spit of Cross Island, its east side adjoining the Maritime Victory Park. The stands of the Kirov Stadium were located on the slopes of a circular artificial mound in the western part of Cross Island, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. The stadium base was a loop-shaped earth-filled oval hill, created by alleviation of the ground from the Neva's delta. The stands were located on the inner side of the hill; stairs and ramps led up the hill's landscaped outer slopes; the double front staircase was decorated by cascades and sculptures is situated on the east side. The sports arena included a football field and a 400-meter track around it. In front of the entrance there is a bronze monument of Sergey Kirov (sculptor Veniamin Pinchuk, architect Lazar Khidekel).

The construction started in 1932, initial project was designed by architect Alexander Nikolsky (1884-1953) and his workshop. During the 1930s and 1940s, construction was mainly focused on groundworks for the artificial mound on the sea shore. By the summer of 1941, most early works were finished. Construction was interrupted by the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 and Siege of Leningrad of 1941-1944, and resumed in 1945 with the return of citizens to Leningrad. Thousands of Red Army and Red Navy recruits were also conscripted as labor force for construction. The stadium was opened on July 30, 1950 with the game between two main Leningrad clubs of that time, "Zenit" and "Dynamo" (draw 1-1). The architects of stadium were Alexander Nikolsky, Konstantin Kashin-Linde and Nikolay Stepanov. Initially the stadium held 100.000 people (including 16.000 standing places). For the match between "Zenit" and CDSA Moscow (now CSKA Moscow) on July 14, 1951, additional temporary stands were installed, increasing the capacity of the stadium to 100.000. The stadium was sold out, and the attendance of 100.000 is the record for the Soviet football (CDSA won 3:1). Kirov Stadium was reconstructed in 1976-1979 and 1993 (architects Stanislav Odnovalov, Anatoly Pribulsky and Maya Tsimbal, engineers V. Arsenov and A. Chugunov). During the 1980 Summer Olympics, the Olympic flame was lit there, and the group stage football matches took place at this stadium. The capacity was reduced to 72.000. The Kirov Stadium was the home to "Zenit" football club in 1950-1989 and 1992. In 1994 the stadium was used as the main arena for the holding of 1994 Goodwill Games in Saint Petersburg. During reconstruction, its capacity was reduced during to 62.000. The Goodwill Games' opening and closing ceremonies were held there. This was the last major international event at the Kirov Stadium, with participation of athletes from over 50 nations of the world. After the Goodwill Games, the stadium was used for several more years for football matches, as well as for athletics and training. In 2005 it was decided to demolish the main arena of the stadium and build a new one in its place. International competition for construction design of the new stadium of FC "Zenit" was won by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa (1934-2007). On July 6, 2006 "Zenit" decided to play a match against "Dynamo" Moscow at the Kirov Stadium because of unavailability of pitch at the Petrovsky Stadium, the current "Zenit" ground. Part of the seats were already uninstalled because of planned deconstruction, so the match was visited by only 44.000 spectators despite the sold-out stadium (result - draw 0-0). The last official match at Kirov Stadium was FC "Petrotrest" Saint Petersburg - "Spartak" Shchyolkovo on August 17, 2006 (match of the third-level Russian Second Division). Visitors won 3-0. The stadium was demolished in September 2006. A new stadium is under construction, tentatively scheduled to open in 2015.

New Arena for FC "Zenit" is a stadium in Saint Petersburg, which is currently under construction. It will host the home matches of FC "Zenit" Saint Petersburg. The stadium was planned to be completed by December 2008, which was changed to late 2011. It is now proposed that the stadium will open in 2015. The stadium will have a capacity of 69.500 people. The name of the future stadium has not been decided yet. At this moment its official name is "Football stadium in the western part of Cross Island", and is commonly referred to in English as the New Zenit Stadium. The competition between architectural projects was won by Kisho Kurokawa's "The Spaceship". The design of the stadium is a modified and enlarged version of Toyota Stadium in Toyota city (Japan), which was also designed by Kurokawa. The stadium is being built on the location where the former Kirov Stadium used to stand before it was demolished. In January 2009 the newspaper "The St. Petersburg Times" reported that the project was now to be funded by the city government of Saint Petersburg, with "Gazprom" company switching to build a separate skyscraper project. City Hall had to step in after "Gazprom" declined to invest any further money into the stadium's construction. During construction, the project of stadium was seriously changed in comparison with original design.

"Novokrestovskaya" is planned to be build as shallow double-decker station (depth - 24 m) with transfer to the future station of the Pravoberezhnaya Line 4. Although new stadium is planned to host matches of 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup (including final match) and 2018 FIFA World Cup, and problem of transportation of fans to stadium remains actual, construction of Metro station "Novokrestovskaya" is not primary goal for Saint Petersburg authorities as extension of Metro network is more necessary for many residential areas. More likely, "Novokrestovskaya" will be not built by 2018.

After "Novokrestovskaya", Line 2 planned to be extended on north. There are plans to build Metro stations with project names "Ulitsa Savushkina" ("Savushkin Street"), "Yakhtennaya" ("Yacht") and "Zoopark" ("Zoo").

September 2006. The demolition of Kirov Stadium:


The map of Cross Island:

Wikipedia

1980. The Olympic flame at Kirov Stadium:

Домосед

The project of New Stadium (69.500 seats):

Link


Link

December 3, 2012. The construction of New Stadium at the Cross Island:

Link

Feruary 8, 2013:

Link

Feruary 16, 2013. The construction of new sport complex of BC "Spartak" Saint Petersburg at the Cross Island:

s.mkirillov


s.mkirillov

In the distant future (i.e. somewhen in 2050) the scheme of Saint Petersburg Metro will be look something like it:

Wikipedia
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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:05 AM   #2831
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ST. PETERSBURG TRAM

March 1, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) on Little Kalinkin Bridge:

misa

March 1, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) on Old St. Nicholas Bridge:

Влад96

March 1, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5211 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) on Old St. Nicholas Bridge, tram route №3:

DenisKe

March 1, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5212 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) at Garden Street, tram route №3:

Ирина Весова

March 1, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5211 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) at terminal stop "Hay Square", tram route №3:

Dissident

March 1, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5211 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) at terminal stop "Repin Square", tram route №3:

Dissident

March 1, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5211 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) at terminal stop "Repin Square", tram route №3:

DenisKe

March 2, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5212 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) on Little Kalinkin Bridge, tram route №3:

Михаил Черныш
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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:06 AM   #2832
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March 2, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5211 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) at Garden Street, tram route №3:

DODGER

March 2, 2013. 71-631-02 (KTM-31) tramcar №7402 (constructed in 2012 at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant) at Zanevsky Avenue, tram route №64:

ЭР200

March 2, 2013. 71-631-02 (KTM-31) tramcar №7402 (constructed in 2012 at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant) at terminal stop "Rzhevka", tram route №64:

ЭР200

March 4, 2013. 71-631-02 (KTM-31) tramcar №5214 (constructed in December 2012 at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant) at Fontanka River Quay, tram route №3:

DenisKe

March 4, 2013. 71-631-02 (KTM-31) tramcar №5214 (constructed in December 2012 at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant) at terminal stop "Repin Square", tram route №3:

DenisKe

March 5, 2013. BKM 84300M tramcar №5213 (constructed in 2012 at "Belkommunmash" Plant in Minsk, Belarus) at Hay Square, tram route №3:

mYm

March 6, 2013. 71-631-02 (KTM-31) tramcar №5214 (constructed in December 2012 at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant) on Old St. Nicholas Bridge, tram route №3:

yR29ik
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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:08 AM   #2833
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YEKATERINBURG METRO

2012 - THE MOST SIGNIFICANT EVENTS:

On July 28, 2012 there was opened "ghost" station "Chkalovskaya" ("Valery Chkalov") - 9th station of the Yekaterinburg Metro. This deep-level station was supposed to be open in 2011, simultaneously with opening of Metro station "Botanicheskaya" ("Botanical"; opened on November 28, 2011). However, its opening was postponed because the escalator parts from ELES Plant in Saint Petersburg were no delivered in time.

The opening of this station symbolized end of the construction of the Line 1 which had planned by Soviet authorities in late-1970s. According to Soviet plans, this Metro station near the Bus Terminal was supposed to be southern terminal station of the Line 1. These Soviet plans for construction of the Line 1 were almost realized, except one thing - there was built southern terminal station "Botanicheskaya" instead of the planned intermediate station "Bazhovskaya".

Like in Saint Petersburg, the construction of newest Metro segment ("Geologicheskaya" - "Botanicheskaya") in Yekaterinburg lasted very long - for almost 20 years. This period included lack of funding in post-Soviet years and numerous (hunger) strikes of Metro builders in late-1990s. In 2011-2012 the construction of this segment was finally completed.



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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:09 AM   #2834
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CHKALOVSKY DISTRICT

The station is named after Chkalovsky District in which it located. This district was established on June 25, 1943. Its area - 402 square metres (largest in the city), population - 225.410 inhabitants. The history of the development of the area of present-day district goes back in 1704, before the foundation of Yekaterinburg city. As a result of the great reforms of the Russian Emperor Peter the Great (1672-1725), in Russia arose need to equip the army and navy with guns and artillery weapon. That's why Peter the Great drew attention on Ural Region, rich by mineral resources. In 1702, according to initiative of the Head of Siberian Order Andrey Vinius (1641-1717), in the village of Verkhny Uktus (present-day territory of Yekaterinburg) was founded Uktussky ironworks which was launched in 1704. After that, there began construction of residential housing near ironworks. However, later this ironworks was burned during raids of Bashkirs and wasn't completely restored. In addition, shallow Utkuska River near plant shoaled. That's why in 1721-1723 under leadership of prominent Russian statesman Vasily Tatishchev (1686-1750) was built new ironworks near more affluent Iset River, and the city of Yekaterinburg was founded. As a result, Utkussky ironworks lost its initial significance. But nevertheless, near Utkuska River was established marble plant with lapidary and grinding factories. The first schools were opened in 1720. In 1722 was built new ironworks named after Tsesarevna Elizaveta. In this area growed smelting of cast iron, gold mining, mining and processing of marble. After October Revolution of 1917, territory of this area was included into city boundaries as part of the Leninsky and Oktyabrsky Districts. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, on the basis of the evacuated plants of rubber and chemical industries, there were founded "Uralkhimmash" chemical plant, "Uralelektrougli" and "Vtorchermet" plants, the plants on production of rubber products, hard rubber products, tires, etc. On June 25, 1943 was established Chkalovsky District (initial area - 450 square metres, population - 40.000 people). On October 17, 1943 trolleybus line was opened in the Chkalovsky District. It was the first trolleybus line in the city. On February 23, 1944 was opened first tramline in the Chkalovsky District.

The post-WWII period was marked by development of area, reconstruction of industries, transformation of economy on production of non-military customer goods and active construction of residential housing. There was developed road infrastructure and operation of public transport in the district. In 1962 was opened bus terminal at Shchors Street, in 1964 - hospital with beds for 265 patients, in 1967 - Higher Military-Political Tank Artillery School and Palace of Culture named after 50 Years of October. The 1970s and 1980s were marked with construction of schools and health facilities in the Chkalovsky District such as children's polyclinics, dental clinic, maternity hospital, etc. The population of district reached 205.800 inhabitants in 1985. In 1980s began construction of Botanichesky microdistrict. The disintegration of the Soviet Union caused a slowdown in development of the district. But nevertheless, there were opened new schools, polyclinics, kindergartens, shopping malls, and were restored churches destroyed by Soviet authorities. In 2011-2012 there were opened Metro stations "Botanicheskaya" and "Chkalovskaya". Like Chkalovsky District, the latter Metro station bears name of the great Soviet pilot Valery Chkalov.

VALERY CHKALOV

Valery Chkalov (1904-1938) was a Russian aircraft test pilot and a Hero of the Soviet Union (1936). Chkalov was born on February 2, 1904 in the settlement of Vasilyovo, near city of Nizhny Novgorod, in the family of a boiler maker. His mother died when he was six years old. In 1916-1918 Chkalov studied in the technical school in the city of Cherepovets but later returned to work as an apprentice with his father and as a stoker on river boats. In 1919, during work at steamship "Bayan" on Volga River, he saw his first plane and decided to join the Red Army's air force. He trained as a pilot and graduated in 1924 joining a fighter squadron. In 1927 Chkalov married Olga Orekhova, a schoolteacher from Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). In the early 1930s he became a test pilot. Chkalov developed several new figures of aerobatics. In 1935 Chkalov was offered to take part in ultra long non-stop flights, which should demonstrate increased air power of the USSR to the whole world. Especially for such distant flights an airplane ANT–25 was developed in Tupolev design bureau. The first attempt to commit ultra long non-stop flight from USSR (Moscow) to United States (San Francisco) via North Pole was made on August 3, 1935. The crew included Soviet command pilot of Polish origin Sigizmund Levanevsky (1902-1937), co-pilot Georgy Baydukov (1907-1994) and flight navigator Vasily Levchenko (1906-1937). However, due to technical failures, Levanevsky was forced to interrupt flight over Barents Sea and came back.

In 1936 and 1937, Chkalov participated in several ultra long flights. In the beginning of 1936 some crews for distant flights were prepared. The command pilot Valery Chkalov, co-pilot Georgy Baydukov (1907-1994) and flight navigator Alexander Belyakov (1897-1982) were the first to fly. After Levanevsky's failure, Stalin didn't want to risk to repeat non-stop flight via North Pole. On July 20-22, 1936 Chkalov's crew made the first flight above the Arctic Ocean by the route Moscow - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Having taken off from the Shchyolkovo aerodrome in Moscow Region, the airplane flew all northeast coast of the USSR by a huge non-stop distance of 9375 kilometres (5826 miles). The route of 56.33-hour flight was: Moscow - Arkhangelsk - Franz Josef Land - Northern Land - Taymyr - Tiksi - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky - Sakhalin. Having flown thousands of kilometers above the seas of the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, the ANT-25 reached the destination in three days. Because of heavy icing it was necessary to make forced landing on Udd Island (now Chkalov Island) near to town of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. The weather conditions were bad. In dense clouds and at a strong wind Chkalov had to fly blindly for many hours, and in the end to land on a completely unsuitable platform among ravines and boulders. Only the highest-class pilots could overcome all these difficulties. The Soviet government appreciated a feat of the brave crew. On July 24, 1936 ranks of the Heroes of the Soviet Union were given to all three pilots. Chkalov also received 30 thousand rubles premium, and his companions - 15 thousand. They became well known in all the country. In August, when the weather was slightly improved, Chkalov began a return flight. When on August 10 the ANT-25 landed on the Shchyolkovo aerodrome, all leaders of the country led by Joseph Stalin, met him.

Soon Valery Chkalov began to prepare for a new large polar flight - through the North Pole to America. At last, on June 18, 1937, the legendary ANT-25 headed from Shchyolkovo aerodrome in Moscow Region for the north. As for the first time, the flight was in very bad weather conditions. Above the Barents Sea the plane got in the area of a powerful cyclone. Because of cloudiness and threat of icing, Chkalov was forced to fly an airplane at a high altitude. The oxygen deficiency was constantly felt. To restore energy, the pilots used oxygen masks. However, the oxygen had to be saved - the flight above the mountains was ahead. After Franz Josef Land the weather improved, the clouds cleared. Early in the morning on June 19 the ANT-25 passed the pole and headed to the coast of Canada. Here dense clouds with the upper edge of 6.5 km appeared again. At the same time there was a dangerous breakage - in the water-cooling system of the motor. The repair was done directly during the flight and the system was filled with drinking water. The airplane flied above Canada already in the evening. And at night at a high altitude among dense clouds the ANT-25 hardly passed through the Rocky Mountains. By this time there was not any reserve of oxygen. Because of the oxygen deficiency it was difficult for the pilots to move. In the morning, above the Pacific Ocean, Chkalov lowered the machine and flew along the coast. After midday on June 20 the unprecedented 8504 km-long (5288 miles) flight lasting 63 hours and 16 minutes was finished on an aerodrome of Vancouver, Washington, United States. The flight pioneered the polar air route from Europe to the American Pacific Coast.

Fortunately for Chkalov, his professional career as a pilot coincided with a period of Soviet history when aviation’s prominence as a cultural symbol was second only to that of Stalin himself. During this era, the government of the Soviet Union lionized - in fact, almost deified - its pilots. This glorification applied to pilots in general but also tended to concentrate intensely around certain individuals deemed particularly exemplary. Joseph Stalin - a man noted for his paranoia towards anything he believed could possibly develop into a rival cult of personality - decided that deliberately elevating pilots to make them popular with the population at large posed no political risk to him or his government. Far from creating powerful, politically motivated people around whom dissatisfied Soviet citizens could gather, the motivation behind exalting the USSR's pilots was twofold: 1) to raise the population's morale, and, as a function of that 2) to strengthen the legitimacy and strength of rule of the heads of government. Aviation, specifically, was poised to positively affect public spirit. Firstly, Russian Empire had not possessed a significant air force, meaning any successes in aviation could be wholly attributed "to the virtues of Bolshevism". Furthermore, the successes of Soviet pilots (which the Soviet press publicized widely) offered the populace a feeling of technological superiority over both the world around them and Nature itself.

Stalin felt that exalting individual pilots was not dangerous to his own political interests because although the skill, strength, fortitude, etc., of the pilots were praised, Stalin was held as "ultimately responsible" for their achievements. The public narratives took pains to emphasize the father-son relationship between Stalin and his pilots. For example, Chkalov published an article titled "Our Father" soon after becoming the first person to fly from Moscow to the United States via a polar route. In this article, he explicitly stated that "he [Stalin] is our father". Stalin's role as a paternal figure (and the implied nature of the pilots as his "spiritual sons") emphasized that ultimate responsibility for the pilots' feats lay with Stalin. This point was driven home by "accounts [which]…credit Stalin with much of the initiative and planning of [important flights, including, but not limited to] listening carefully to the ideas of Soviet aviators and aviation planners, tracing [the pilots'] routes, determining who [would] fly, and...giving the final permission". Furthermore, the most prominent Soviet pilots (the ones around whom mini personality cults developed) enjoyed personal success, including compensation and other perks, within the structure of the USSR due to their successes in aviation. They thus had a strong incentive to remain publicly loyal to the regime. Stalin wished to use this system of glorifying pilots as a vehicle for promoting a type of role model to the people of the Soviet Union. The public identities of the USSR's hero-pilots were to serve as representatives of Stalin's conception of the "New Soviet Man" - someone beyond the petty machinations of politics - rather, someone who was a master of nature and an "eternally youthful… individual hero". The role Soviet pilots played in Soviet society was not solely constructive - they also served to distract. Some of the most high-profile flights Soviet pilots undertook coincided with the purges. Praise for both the victorious pilots - and, thus, Stalin - hit a fever pitch at just the moment the multitudes unfortunate enough to fall victim to the purges needed both the sympathy of the public and a thorough, unbiased examination of that which they had been accused. Distraction turned to a full assault for those more well-known victims of the purges who could not be simply swept under the carpet. Such unfortunates were instead subjected to unfavorable comparison with the pilots.

Again, fortunately for Chkalov, he had the honor of being "the Soviet Union's most famous pilot". Chkalov’s life story (as the government chose to represent it) reflects the traits of Stalin's "New Soviet Man" - apolitical, forever young (he died in an accident at the age of thirty-four), a master of nature, and as concerned with the greater good (the integrity of his experimental aircraft) as he was with his own life. Interestingly, the government chose to highlight Chkalov's personal initiative (that is, his youthful disdain for authority) - a peculiar sort of dualism in a society where the collective good was (supposed to be) prized over individual initiative. As historian John McCannon writes, "Chkalov was a brilliant instinctual flier, preferring to rely on hunches and reflex rather than standard methodology or flying instruments. He was also a daredevil who disdained authority". The intended focus was not on youthful disobedience (for which, in canon, he was punished and apologized for), but on his use of his instincts. Chkalov, as a superman, could intuit towards the end of efficiency, something prized in the "New Soviet Man". However, this intuitive strain was incomplete without a sense of "maturity and self-discipline". One story in the public canon recounts how Chkalov tells a little boy he sees fighting a small girl to stop fighting and to focus his energy on his studies. The boy takes the advice to heart and is successful because of it. The point of the story is to show that though Chkalov was a firebrand as a youth, "in becoming a hero, [he] had gained not only wisdom but the capacity to transmit that wisdom to others". This unification of bravery and maturity was the model which Stalin wished to transmit as the ideal – his conception of the "New Soviet Man".

The episode from Russian mini-series "Chkalov" (2012, director - Igor Zaytsev):


Valery Chkalov was killed in Moscow on December 15, 1938 while piloting a prototype of the Polikarpov I-180 fighter, which crashed during a test flight. The series of events leading up to the crash is not entirely clear. Neither aeronautical engineer Nikolay Polikarpov (1892-1944) nor aircraft designer Dmitry Tomashevich (1899-1974) approved the flight, and no one had signed a form releasing the prototype from the factory. In any event, Chkalov took off and made a low altitude circuit around the airfield of Central Aerodrome at Khodynka Field. For the second circuit, Chkalov flew farther away, climbing to over 2000 m (6560 ft) even though the flight plan specifically forbade exceeding 600 m (1970 ft). Chkalov apparently miscalculated his landing approach and came in short of the airfield, but when he attempted to correct his approach the engine cut out. He was able to avoid several buildings, but struck an overhead powerline. Chkalov was ejected from the cockpit, sustaining severe injuries and died two hours later. The official government investigation concluded that the engine cut out because it became too cold in the absence of the cowl flaps. Others hypothesised that Chkalov had advanced the throttle too fast and thus flooded the engine. As a result of the crash, Tomashevich and several other officials, including Arms Industry Department director S. Belyakin, who urged the first flight, were immediately arrested. Years later, fellow test pilot Mikhail Gromov (1899-1985) blamed the designers for flawed engine cooling and Chkalov himself for deviating from the flight plan. Chkalov's son claimed that a plan to assassinate his father had been in the works in the months preceding his death, but the circumstances of the crash make foul play unlikely. Regardless, with Chkalov's death Polikarpov's reputation with Stalin suffered a blow from which he would never recover.

The settlement of Vasilyovo where Chkalov was born is now the town of Chkalovsk in Nizhny Novgorod Region (since 1937). The city of Orenburg bore the name Chkalov from 1938 to 1957. There used to be a Chkalov Street in Moscow (part of Moscow's Garden Ring), now renamed Earthern Rampart; its namesakes in Nizhny Novgorod and several other Russian cities still exist. A street in Vancouver, Washington has borne the name Chkalov Drive since the 1970s. A "Chapayev" class cruiser was named "Chkalov" but was renamed "Komsomolets" in 1958. The Metro systems of Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod each have a "Chkalovskaya" station. Since 2012, Yekaterinburg Metro system have one as well.

June 20, 1937. Vancouver, Washington (USA). From left to right: flight navigator Alexander Belyakov (1897-1982), co-pilot Georgy Baydukov (1907-1994) and command pilot Valery Chkalov (1904-1938) - the first photo after landing:

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June 28, 1937. White House, Washington, D.C. (USA). The three Soviet Flyers who conquered the North Pole route between USSR and USA are shown leaving the White House after being received by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945). In the photograph, left to right: Georgy Baydukov, Valery Chkalov, Soviet Ambassador Alexander Troyanovsky (1882-1955) and Alexander Belyakov:

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1937. The solemn greeting of Chkalov's crew in United States:

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May 24, 2009. Moscow, Russia. Monument at the point of death of Valeriy Chkalov:

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August 2011. Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. Monument of Valery Chkalov was opened on December 15, 1940 to commemorate 2nd anniversary of his death (sculptor - Isaak Mendelevich):

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June 2012. Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. Chkalov Stairs which was erected in 1943-1949 by Alexander Yakovlev, Lev Rudnev and Vladimir Munz is a one of the main sights of the city:

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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:11 AM   #2835
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VALERY CHKALOV CULTURAL EXCHANGE COMMITTEE

On June 20, 1937, a Soviet ANT-25 plane landed at Vancouver's Pearson Airfield, completing the first flight from Soviet Union to United States across North Pole. Valery Chkalov and crew landed at Pearson Airfield, completing the world's first non-stop, trans-polar flight. The flight took 63 hours and 16 minutes and covered 8504 km (5288 miles). Chkalov was originally scheduled to land at an airstrip in San Francisco (where Soviet Ambassador was waiting for them), but due to engine problems and running short of fuel they turned back and headed for Portland, Oregon. People were gathering at airports in the region hoping to see this historic event. When Chkalov saw the crowd at the Portland airport, he was concerned that souvenir hunters would tear his plane apart, and so headed to Vancouver's Pearson Airfield, which at the time was a military airport and he felt there would be better crowd control as the US Army had a base. The Army wasn't expecting them, but were pleased to see them! General George Marshall, future U.S. Secretary of State (1880-1959) was in such a rush to greet the heroes that he simply put on his coat over his pajamas and dashed to the airfield. The children stopped playing on the railroad tracks near Pearson Airfield and ran home to get their parents. A news photographer fought traffic on the bridge over the Columbia River between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington as he rushed to Pearson Airfield. The unfamiliar-looking aircraft, with long, red, albatross-like wings, passed over the field in preparation for an unscheduled and unexpected landing. And although the arrival at Pearson Airfield was a complete surprise, there was no mystery as to the aircraft's identity. For the past several days people around the world have anxiously followed its progress as its crew sought to be the first to cross the North Pole from Moscow to San Francisco.

The Americans met the Soviet pilots with huge enthusiasm. Thousands of people arrived at the aerodrome in hope to see the Soviet ANT-25. Numerous receptions were given in their honour, crowds of people saluted them in every city they visited. They saw seas of flowers and smiles, hordes of reporters everywhere. From San Francisco the pilots went to Washington, where had a meeting with the U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) and U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull (1871-1955). President Roosevelt himself received them in White House and greeted standing. They turned out to be as skilled at diplomacy as they were at flying. After that they went to New York. At last on July 14 they went back on a steamship "Normandy". In London and Paris they were also met with huge enthusiasm. But their genuine triumph was in Moscow. Tens of thousands of people met Chkalov’s crew at the Square of the Belarus Rail Terminal (now Tver Outpost Square) and in the streets of the city. "Valery Chkalov, daredevil Russian test pilot, confident and handsome captured the hearts of the Russian people then and now" - Kelly Sills writes. Directly from the Belarus Rail Terminal Chkalov went to Kremlin, where reported to the members of the Soviet government on fulfillment of the task. All three were awarded with Orders of the Red Banner and received 30 thousand rubles.

On May 20, 1974 in Vancouver, Washington was founded public non-commercial organization named Chkalov Transpolar Flight Committee. Ninety-seven local companies donated money, labor and materials to complete the Chkalov monument by June 20, 1975, in time to play a role in Vancouver’s 150th birthday party that summer. It was the first monument to commemorate a Russian accomplishment on U.S. soil. The State of Washington donated land along the edge of Pearson Airfield and beside Highway 14 for the development of a park to complement the monument. Citizen contribution to the monument was exceptional, and the Russian response to this contribution exceeded all expectations. Among the many gifts to come were three bronze plaques of the ANT-25 and the Soviet Press's 1937 account of the flight, which were presented to the committee and compose the centerpiece of the monument. In addition, Russians sent their finest airliner, an IL-62M, to follow Chkalov's route over the North Pole and to carry Alexander Belyakov and Georgy Baydukov once more to Vancouver. Valery Chkalov's children, Igor, Valeria and Olga, were also present, as were the families of Baydukov and Belyakov. A new street in Vancouver, Chkalov Drive, was also dedicated on June 20. It was located on a barren, rural field in 1975. The Chkalov delegation then repeated the 1937 itinerary by flying to Washington, D.C. to be greeted at the White House by U.S. President Gerald Ford (1913-2006).

Delegations from Vancouver have traveled to Moscow and delegations from Moscow have traveled to Vancouver many times to commemorate the 1937 flight and the construction of the monument. In addition, ambassadors, diplomats, cosmonauts and goodwill groups have stopped by to pay tribute to the monument and what it represents in U.S.-Russian relations. One of the most memorable early visits was that of Russian cosmonauts Alexey Leonov (b. 1934) and Valery Kubasov (b. 1935), who in 1975 traded capsules with American astronauts in the Apollo-Soyuz mission. Large delegations were exchanged on the flight's 50th and 60th anniversaries. In 1997, an Aeroflot Ilyushin-96 was chartered to take almost 100 Vancouverites to Russia for a marvelous commemorative program in Saint Petersburg and Moscow. On November 18, 1999, The Valery P. Chkalov Cultural Exchange Committee was incorporated and received tax exempt status to continue the work of the Transpolar Flight Committee. Its first exchange included the 2000 visit by great Russian cosmonaut Gherman Titov (1935-2000), the second man to orbit the Earth (the first to do it 24 times). He gave an eloquent presentation to the City Council describing the beauty of the Earth from space, and a heartfelt plea for Russian-American cooperation to protect this "vulnerable, tiny, cosmic spec we call home". In 2004, a Vancouver delegation was invited to Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and Chkalovsk to celebrate Chkalov's 100th birthday, February 2nd. U.S. delegation was treated royally and shown on Russian national television in a huge celebration in the "Russia" Hotel near Red Square, and as they placed flowers by Valery Chkalov's remains in the Kremlin Wall. After that, they visited Nizhny Novgorod and Chkalovsk.

As a result of Highway 14 improvements, the monument was moved in 1996 to its present location closer to the spot where the ANT-25 came to rest in 1937 and next to the Pearson Air Museum. It lost its beautiful park, but its location is perhaps more historically relevant. The museum itself contains an outstanding exhibit of the 1937 flight history and memorabilia. Videotape with historic shots of the plane's Moscow departure and the story of the flight are constantly on display. A large scale-model of the ANT-25 can also be seen there. Many gifts were brought from Russia and placed in the Marshall House for Vancouver and its tourists to enjoy. A huge bust of Valery Chkalov and an English translation of Georgy Baydukov's book "Chkalov", signed by both U.S. President Jimmy Carter (b. 1924) and General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev (1906-1982), attract much attention. The Chkalov monument remain remind that human qualities of courage, cooperation and friendship transcends narrow nationalism. No one has said it better than Valery Chkalov, son of a half-deaf boiler maker from a tiny settlement on the Volga River. From the balcony of the George Marshall's House on June 21, 1937, 18 months before he was to die in that fatal plane crash, Valery gave the hope encompassed in the two-river metaphor. He closed by saying, "We bring the great American people wishes of happiness and well being from our great people on the red wings of the ANT-25, having overcome all obstacles of which nature is capable".

June 21, 1937. ANT-25 plane at Vancouver's Pearson Airfield:

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Chkalov Drive in Vancouver, Washington (USA):

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"Like the waters of the Columbia and Volga Rivers, which flow peacefully on the same planet and eventually contribute to the same world ocean,... The peoples of Russia and USA should live peacefully and, with cooperative work, beautify this ocean of human life". (Valery Chkalov's speech from the balcony of the George Marshall's House, 1937):

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Chkalov monument in Vancouver, Washington (USA):

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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:13 AM   #2836
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My apologies for the long introduction. I just wanted to give the necessary explanations for my following descriptions of the elements of the station's décor.

So, on July 28, 2012 new station in Yekaterinburg became fifth Metro station in the world with name "Chkalovkaya" ("Valery Chkalov"). Previously Metro stations with same name were opened in Nizhny Novgorod, Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Moscow and Saint Petersburg. It's interesting that Tashkent Metro station "Chkalov" was renamed into "Do'stlik" ("Friendship") on October 5, 2012, just after two months since the opening of eponymous Metro station in Yekaterinburg.

Let's see how theme of Chkalov's flight was realized in the decoration of these stations.

NIZHNY NOVGOROD (1985)

So, the first Metro station named after Valery Chkalov was opened in the city of Nizhny Novgorod (then Gorky) near which Chkalov was born.

"Chkalovskaya" is station on the Avtozavodskaya Line 1 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It's located near the intersections of the October Revolution Street with Chkalov Street and Vitebsk Street, in the Kanavinsky District. The station is close to May Day Park, main station of the Gorky Children's Railway and "Lokomotiv" Central Stadium.

Metro station "Chkalovskaya" was opened as part of the first Metro line on November 20, 1985. It's named due to location near Chkalov Street.

The architects of station were Yu. Sazonov, V. Voronkov and G. Malkov, artists - V. Lyubimov and Pavel Gusev. "Chkalovskaya" is a shallow single-vaulted station. Its decoration is relatively simple. The socle of track walls lined with red marble. The floor is paved with brown granite. The central part of station's vault is painted with blue colour, it illuminates more brightly. There are three rows of light fixtures located along the axis of station at the central part of vault. It look like a trace of aircraft in the blue sky. There are floor lamps with benches at the platform of station. There are two underground vestibules each of which have two exits to the October Revolution Street. There is bust of Valery Chkalov (sculptor - Pavel Gusev) in the southern vestibule. There are located two aluminium bas-reliefs on the theme of Chkalov's flights above both stairways leading to the ends of platform.


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TASHKENT (1987)

"Do'stlik" ("Friendship"), known as "Chkalov" prior to July 28, 2012 is station on the Oʻzbekiston Line 2 of the Tashkent Metro. It's located near the Vorovsky Street and Tashkent Aviation Production Association named after Valery Chkalov.

This Metro station was opened on November 7, 1987. It was named after Tashkent Aviation Production Association named after Valery Chkalov or TAPO/TAPOiCh for short. It's leading high-technology company of Uzbekistan, which was originally moved from Russia to the rear of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan in 1941 during the WWII. During the first (1928-1932) and the second (1933-1937) five-year plans, the Soviet government tried to supply the aviation sector with the national production. In the first place was created the ANT aircraft family. The planes played a great role in the civil aircraft sector but the progress in the following decades has rendered these planes obsolete and they have been modernized or replaced. In the second place, it was founded in 1932 in the city of Khimki, Moscow Region as the 84 Repairing Factory of GVF (Civil Aviation Fleet), later - the Aviation Factory named after Valery Chkalov. The factory and its entire staff were transported in Tashkent in December of the 1941 by a train convoy. In January 1942, the production was able to be pursued. This period was emphasized by the production of Lisunov Li-2, a licensed airplane variant of Douglas DC-3. This plane became a symbol of the resistance, for the factory and the employees. It was put on a pedestal next to the principal entry. TAPOiCh was a multifunctional organism. This association was responsible for aircraft production, for the social development of the city where it is situated and for the health-care system for its employees. Currently enterprise is about to close down all aircraft production.

The architects of station were O. Oydinova, A. Dashkeyevich and B. Kurbankhodzhayev. It's a shallow single-vaulted station. There were used domed concrete structures in the decoration of station. The ceiling of station is painted with turquoise colour. The aliminium is the main material of station's décor. The electric light fixtures at the ceiling are made of aluminium and have rainbow shape. The middle parts of light fixtures are more brighter than its edges. As a result, station have cosmic view. The indicators are made in the form of radars. The walls of vestibule are faced with Gazgan marble. The floor is paved with grey and black granite. There are two underground vestibule. The one of exits is directly linked with the lobby of the Tashkent Aviation Production Association named after Valery Chkalov. There was bas-relief of Valery Chkalov at the wall of vestibule. It was dedicated to 50th anniversary of the Chkalov's flight from Soviet Union to United States via North Pole. Five months ago, Metro station "Chkalov" was renamed into "Do'stlik" ("Friendship"), and bas-relief of Valery Chkalov was destroyed.


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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:14 AM   #2837
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MOSCOW (1995)

"Chkalovskaya" is station on the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line 10 of the Moscow Metro. It's located near the Square of Kursk Rail Terminal and Earthern Rampart Street, in the Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug. The station is close to Kursk Rail Terminal and have transfer to Metro stations "Kurskaya" of the Line 3 and Ring Line 5.

The station was opened on December 28, 1995 as the first stage of the Lyublinsky Radius of the Line 10. It's named after Earthen Rampart Street which was known as Chkalov Street in 1938-1990. Valery Chkalov lived at this street in 1937-1938 in the house #14-16, room #102.

The architects of station were Nina Alyoshina, Leonid Borzenkov and Alexander Vigdorov. "Chkalovskaya" is the deep-level three-vaulted station of the pylon type (depth - 51 m). Named after the great Soviet pilot Valery Chkalov, the theme of the decoration of the vestibule and underground hall is aviation (artists M. Alexeyev and L. Novikova). The pylons are reveted with grey and light blue wavy marble whilst the floor is covered with grey, red and black granite. The hinged ceiling is covered by unusual semi-circular lighting fixtures. The track walls are faced with light-coloured marble with a black strip at the base. The station is decorated with images of flying paths and models of planes made of reinforced concrete.

An escalator leads from southern end of the platform to the underground vestibule with two exits to the Kursk Rail Terminal and Earthern Rampart Street. The vestibule also acts as a transfer to Metro station "Kurskaya" ("Kursk") of the Ring Line 5 (opened on January 1, 1950). The northern end of the platform is a direct transfer to Metro station "Kurskaya" ("Kursk") of the Line 3 (opened on March 13, 1938). This direct transfer was opened on March 28, 1996, three months since the opening of station.


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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:15 AM   #2838
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SAINT PETERSBURG (1997)

"Chkalovskaya" is station on the Frunzensko-Primorskaya Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It's located near the intersection of the Chkalov Avenue and Greater Gunpowder Street, in the Petrovsky Municipal Okrug, Petrogradsky District.

"Chkalovskaya" was opened on September 15, 1997 as temporary part of the Pravoberezhnaya Line 4. On March 7, 2009 it was transferred to the newly-formed Line 5. The station is named after nearby Chkalov Avenue. This avenue was formed on December 15, 1952. It was named in the honour of Valery Chkalov who lived in 1924-1927 and 1929-1930 in the house #11 at the present-day Vsevolod Vishnevsky Street near the avenue.

The architects of station were Valerian Volonsevich and Alexander Konstantinov. "Chkalovskaya" is the deep-level single-vaulted station (depth - 60 m). The main theme of station's décor is aviation. The southern end of underground hall is decorated with mosaic panel with image of flying man. The drawing at the platform reminds marking at the airfield. The metallic light fixtures above track ways looks like constructive elements of the ANT-6 aircraft. The fixtures in the escalator tunnel made in the form of propellers. The exit from station is located at the northern end, with three escalators. The ground-level vestibule is located at the intersection of the Chkalov Avenue and Greater Gunpowder Street. There exist exit at the Ropsha Street which doesn't used today. There is bust of Valery Chkalov at the stairs which lead to the vestibule (sculptors - Albert Charkin and Valentin Sveshnkov).

Firewall at the crossing of the Chkalov Avenue and Pioneers Street in Saint Petersburg. Its left part is decorated in memory of famous Russian aviators Alexander Mozhaysky (1825-1890) and Valery Chkalov (1904-1938), depicting their portraits, the map of the first transpolar flight, and ANT-25 aircraft. The firewall to the right bears a poster with a portrait of Yury Gagarin in honour of the 50th anniversary of his orbital flight. The firewall is decorated with portraits of Yury Gagarin (1934-1968), Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), Sergey Korolyov (1907-1966) and an image of the "Vostok" rocket. At the lower right one sees a monument to Valery Chkalov:

Мишель

Metro station "Chkalovskaya" in Saint Petersburg:

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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:17 AM   #2839
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YEKATERINBURG, METRO STATION "CHKALOVSKAYA" (2012)

Well, I think you'll agree that Metro station "Chkalovskaya" in Yekaterinburg is most beautiful and better displays own name than above-mentioned eponymous Metro stations in other cities.

"Chkalovskaya" ("Valery Chkalov") is a station on the Line 1 of the Yekaterinburg Metro. It located near the Southern Bus Terminal and intersection of the 8th March Street and Shchors Street, in the Chkalovsky District. The station is named after Chkalovsky District in which it located.

It's need to say that the opening of this station symbolized end of the first stage of the construction of Yekaterinburg Metro. According to the Soviet plans of late 1970s, Metro station "Chkalovskaya" near Bus Terminal was supposed to be southern terminus of the Line 1 consisting of 9 Metro stations. The project name of station was "Shchorsa" in the honour of Nikolay Shchors (1895-1919) who was a Red Army commander, member of the Russian Communist Party, renowned for his personal courage during the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922 and sometimes being called the Ukrainian Vasily Chapayev. In 1918–1919 he fought against the new established Ukrainian government in Kiev, later he commanded the Bogunsky Regiment, brigade, 1st Soviet Ukrainian division and 44th rifle division against Symon Petliura (1879-1926) and his Polish allies. Shchors perished in a battle, while some sources claim that he was shot out of jealousy.

However, in early September 1978 it was decided to name this station "Chkalovskaya". The construction of Metro system in Yekaterinburg (then Sverdlovsk) began on August 28, 1980 near present-day "Uralskaya" station. Now it's possible to say that Soviet plans for construction of the Line 1 were realized except one thing: there was built southern terminal station "Botanicheskaya" instead of the planned intermediate Metro station "Bazhovskaya".

Metro system in Yekaterinburg (then Sverdlovsk) was opened on April 26, 1991. Originally it consisted only from 3 shallow stations (total length - 2.7 km) - "Prospekt Kosmonavtov" ("Cosmonauts Avenue"), "Uralmash" ("Ural Machine-Building Plant") and "Mashinostroiteley" ("Machine Builders"). Soon after that, it was nicknamed as "toy Metro" or "second children's railway". During first year since opening, it was more excursion object rather than kind of transport. That time appeared myth that it's most shortest Metro system in the world although it was not true. Yekaterinburg Metro was last Metro system that opened in Soviet Union. The residents are lucky that Yekaterinburg Metro was opened few months before Soviet collapse because otherwise there would be a high risk that it would have turned into long-term construction like in Chelyabinsk or Krasnoyarsk. During 21 years since the opening, the number of stations increased in three times and Yekaterinburg Metro became 4th busiest Metro system in Russia. It's only regional Metro system in Russia (outside Moscow and St. Petersburg) which contains deep-level stations. As a result, Yekaterinburg Metro stations became more varied in terms of its construction types and decorations. It's interesting that mostly there were used local (i.e. Ural) materials for decoration of stations. Unfortunately, it's difficult to enjoy this beauty because of saving of lighting - it fully operates only at new stations.

During first years after Soviet collapse, Yekaterinburg Metro builders (like their colleagues in other cities) finished construction of segments that was started in Soviet period. In the difficult period of 1992-1994, in Yekaterinburg Metro was opened deep-level segment with three stations - "Uralskaya" ("Ural"), "Dynamo" and "Ploshchad 1905 goda" ("1905 Square"). It connected "Uralmash" Plant with city center. However, the construction of next segment was interrupted many times due to lack of funding and numerous strikes of Metro builders. On December 30, 2002 in Yekaterinburg was opened 7th Metro station - "Geologicheskaya" ("Geological"). After that, there appeared question - what need to doing: to construct next Metro station "Bazhovskaya" ("Pavel Bazhov") or to build more important Metro stations "Chkalovskaya" ("Valery Chkalov") and "Botanicheskaya" ("Botanical"). As a result, on January 10, 2003 Head of Yekaterinburg approved construction according to second variant.

The construction works at the "Chkalovskaya" station began in November 1992. In December 1998 was finished construction of the 2.5-km left tunnel from "Geologicheskaya" to "Chkalovskaya" stations. In July 1999 construction works were halted after another strike of Metro builders. In June 2003 was started construction of the station itself. The works in 2003-2006 were very slow due to lack of funding. On August 31, 2006 was started construction of the 1.4-km left tunnel between "Chkalovskaya" and "Botanicheskaya" stations. In October 2006 began construction of the vestibule of station. On January 25, 2008 was started construction of the escalator tunnel of Metro station "Chkalovskaya" which was finished in May 2009. On May 30, 2008 was finished construction of the right tunnel between "Geologicheskaya" and "Chkalovskaya" stations. On September 5, 2008 was finished construction of the left tunnel between "Chkalovskaya" and "Botanicheskaya" stations. On February 25, 2010 was started construction of the right tunnel between these stations, which was finished on April 20, 2011.

On October 10, 2011, due to the problems with delivery of the necessary sections for the mounting of escalators, it was decided to the open movement at the path "Geologicheskaya"-"Botanicheskaya" without intermediate stop on "Chkalovskaya" station. This segment was launched on November 28, 2011, and "Chkalovskaya" became "ghost station" of Yekaterinburg Metro for eight months. The necessary sections were derived in January-February 2012. Due to fact that it was necessary to interrupt road traffic at the intersection of the 8th March Street and Shchors Street for restarting works, it was decided to did it after end of winter and spring thaw. On April 28, 2012 there was stopped road traffic at intersection of these streets, and were restarted works for installation of escalators. Finally, "Chkalovskaya" was opened on July 28, 2012.

May 21, 2012. The construction works at the "ghost" station "Chkalovskaya":


The architect of station was Spartak Ziganshin. "Chkalovskaya" is the deep-level single-vaulted station (depth - 40 m). It's second deepest Metro station in Yekaterinburg after "Uralskaya" station ("Ural"; depth - 42 m; opened on December 23, 1992). Structurally, "Chkalovskaya" consist of three floors - passenger hall and two technical floors (above and below the platform). The main theme of station's decoration is the famous 63-hour flight of Valery Chkalov and his crew from Moscow, Soviet Union to Vancouver, Washington, United States via the North Pole on an Tupolev ANT-25 plane (June 18–20, 1937). The opening of station was timed to 75th anniversary of this flight. The station is made in steel-gray and bluish colours. The floor is paved with grey and black granite. There is one row of nine mirrored columns made of polished stainless steel along the axis of the platform. There are installed fixtures in the niches of the decorative suspended ceiling. The sloping vault with big radius looks like the aircraft wing. It decorated with board number of ANT-25 plane (URSS N025). The walls of vestibule and underground hall are faced with gray-blue Ufaley marble. At the wall in the southern end of central hall installed four decorative clocks in the style of on-board instrumentation, which indicating standard time in Moscow, Arkhangelsk, Vancouver and San Francisco (i.e. cities on the route of Chkalov's flight). The track walls are remind fuselage from inside. It decorated with "portholes" with portraits of members of Chkalov's crew (command pilot Valery Chkalov, co-pilot Georgy Baydukov and flight navigator Alexander Belyakov) and reprints of Soviet press of 1937 about flight. The exit from station is located at the northern end, with four escalators. The underground vestibule is located near the intersection of the 8th March Street and Shchors Street. There are seven exits at the all side of this intersection. The exits are equipped with elevators for people with reduced mobility.




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Old March 8th, 2013, 01:17 AM   #2840
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