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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:37 PM   #2861
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD, METRO STATION "GORKOVSKAYA" (2012)

"Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky") is the eastern terminal station on the Avtozavodskaya Line 1 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It located near the Maxim Gorky Square and Maxim Gorky Street, in the Nizhegorodsky District. "Gorkovskaya" is the first station on the right bank of Oka River.

The station is named after square and street near which it located. Maxim Gorky Square is one of three central squares of Nizhny Novgorod (two others are Minin & Pozharsky Square and Freedom Square). It located at the intersection of the Maxim Gorky Street and Greater Intercession Street, the main pedestrian street of the city. In the beginning of 19th century there was big ravine and marshes at the place of square. This ravine was filled in the course of the works under the direction of engineer P. Gotman. The contours of the square for future development were identified in 1842 by architect Georg Kiesewetter (1808-1857). This square was named New Square. The first buildings at New Square were prison with school for prisoners and orphanage for boys, that was opened by Countess O. Kutasova. For this reason, New Square was also known as Prisoners Square. In the beginning of 20th century there was built Church of St. John the Baptist (architect - Dmitry Verner) near Kutasova's orphanage - this church was demolished in Soviet years. In the end of 19th century there was located large market at New Square, the largest at the upland part of city. The peasants from neighboring villages often came at the square and stayed here to sleep outdoor. For this reason, this square became known as New Market Square. During Russian Revolution of 1905-1907, this square became place for political meetings and demonstrations. In Soviet years, the market was moved to the present-day Belinsky Street and became known as Middle Market, and New Market Square was renamed into May Day Square. In 1933-1938 there was opened House of Communications (Central Post Office) which was built according to the project of architects M. Gintsberg and Yermingeld Michurin. In 1939 was organized All-Soviet contest for best project of monument of great Russian writer Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), which was won by great Soviet sculptor Vera Mukhina (1889-1953). This monument was supposed to be placed at May Day Square, but its realization was postponed due to Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. After Soviet Victory in WWII, the square was reconstructed and turned into garden square. On November 2, 1952 there was opened bronze Monument of Maxim Gorky (sculptor - Vera Mukhina, architects - Viktor Lebedev and Pavel Schteller) which was made at "Monumentsculptura" Plant in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), height - 7 m. It's known that Vera Mukhina wanted to place this monument at the bank of Volga River, and refused to visit opening ceremony for this reason. As a result, May Day Square was renamed into Maxim Gorky Square.

Maxim Gorky Street is one of the central streets of Nizhny Novgorod. Its construction began in 1830s-1850s - mainly with one-storey and two-storey wooden houses. Previously it was known as Field Street. This name derived due to fact that street was located at the outskirt of city, and there were large fields beyond this outskirt. In 1958 this street was renamed into Maxim Gorky Street in the honour of great Russian writer Maxim Gorky (1868-1936). In 1970s began reconstruction of this street. As a result, the part of old houses was demolished and there were built multi-storey living houses with shops in the ground floors. In the end of 1970s, there was built new building of Theatre for Young Spectators (founded in 1928) at Maxim Gorky Street.

The construction of Metro station "Gorkovskaya" had been planned by Soviet authorities in mid-1970s. In 1987 was drafted project of station and Metro bridge across Oka River. There was built part of tunnel between Metro station "Moskovskaya" in direction to the portal of future Nizhny Novgorod Metro bridge. In 1988 there began preparation of construction site of the Metro station "Gorkovskaya". For this purpose, it was necessary to cut few trees at the garden square. However, next day local residents organized picketing and sabotaged construction. It was made on the initiative of "Greens" under leadership of Stanislav Dmitriyevsky (born 1966) - future human rights activist and outspoken critic of Vladimir Putin. The one of organizers of this protest was Boris Nemtsov (born 1959) - future politician and Governor of Nizhny Novgorod (1991-1997), another outspoken critic of Putin. As a result, the officials "surrendered" to a non-numerous group of protesters. The project was sent back for revision and uncompleted construction site was eliminated. The construction was stopped before its beginning. Thanks to Dmitriyevsky and Nemtsov, during more than 10 years Nizhny Novgorod residents were forced to endure great inconveniences in the ground transport due to regular traffic jams during cross-river transportation from one bank to another . During Nemtsov's governorship, the funding of Metro construction has significantly decreased, and the construction of Metro station "Gorkovskaya" was put on hold.

The construction of the station was restarted after 20 years in the night of July 5/6, 2008, when construction of Metro bridge was close to completion. That night was stopped road traffic at the part of Maxim Gorky Street. Like in 1988, there were people who didn't wanted to see the Metro construction near their homes. During anti-construction agitation, they used unproven and false information about danger of construction and potential collapse. But in contrast to Gorbachev's times, Putin's officials cared much less about hundreds of protesters because hundreds thousands people were expecting this station for more than 10 years. The official ceremony of the beginning of construction with participation of the Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Region Valery Shantsev and Head of Nizhny Novgorod Vadim Bulavinov was held on July 23, 2008 . The distance between Metro stations "Moskovskaya" ("Moscow") and "Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky") is 3.44 km, including 1.23 km section on the Metro bridge. In August 2008 was delivered TBM "Abigaille" ("Lovat ME238SE Series 21801") for construction of tunnel. On November 3, 2008 began construction of the foundation pit of station. On December 18, 2008 was started construction of the 1324-metres long right tunnel between Metro bridge and "Gorkovskaya" station, which was finished on September 17, 2009. On December 1, 2009 was started construction of the 1328-metres left tunnel, which was finished on June 17, 2010. On July 26, 2012 the first fuel-powered car rode from "Moskovskaya" to "Gorkovskaya" stations. On October 24, 2012 the first testing Metro train rode between these stations. On November 4, 2012, during the celebrations dedicated to the 400th anniversary of liberation of Moscow from the hordes of Polish-Lithuanian aggressors, there was held official opening of Metro station "Gorkovskaya" with participation of the Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Region Valery Shantsev and other officials. On November 5, 2012, at 5:15 am, the new Metro station was opened for regular passenger operation.

The architect of station was Pavel Presnyakov. "Gorkovskaya" is the shallow three-vaulted station of the column type (depth - 17 m). The main theme of station's decoration is based on the great Maxim Gorky's short poem - "The Song of the Stormy Petrel" (1901). This leitmotif became main for the station's design. The illuminated arches between the columns looks like the wings of symbolic bird. There installed lines of light fixtures along the axis of station at the centre of ceiling. The columns are faced with light marble, the floor is paved with white granite. The track walls are faced with brown marble and decorated with Florentine mosaic panels with images of Nizhny Novgorod from Oka River. There installed elevator in the western vestibule that leads directly to the platform. The two vestibules and back wall of elevator are decorated with Florentine mosaic panels with images of Maxim Gorky and views of the city of Nizhny Novgorod which "was founded in 1221". Alexey Rogonov and Oleg Mustafin were authors of mosaic panels. There are built two underground vestibules. The stairs leads from the platform to the eastern vestibule of station, the escalators - to the western vestibule. The eastern vestibule have three exits near the Maxim Gorky Street, Korolenko Street and Gelid Street. The western vestibule have two exits near the Maxim Gorky Square, Greater Intercession Street, Zvezdinka Street, New Street and Kostin Street. All five exits are covered with ground-level pavilions.




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НИА "Нижний Новгород"


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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:40 PM   #2862
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НИА "Нижний Новгород"


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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:41 PM   #2863
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2012 - RECONSTRUCTIONS, RESTORATIONS AND RENOVATIONS:

In 2012 was built pedestrian transfer bridge at Metro station "Moskovskaya" ("Moscow").

"Moskovskaya" ("Moscow") is a station on the Avtozavodskaya Line 1 and Sormovskaya Line 2 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It's located near the Moscow Rail Terminal on Revolution Square, in the Kanavinsky District.

The station is named after Moscow Rail Terminal (opened in 1862) and Moscow Highway near which it located. Metro station "Moskovskaya" was opened as part of the first Metro line on November 20, 1985. It was built as station with cross-platform interchange between Line 1 and Line 2.

The station was built under project of Moscow architect Viktor Cheryomin. "Moskovskaya" is a shallow five-vaulted station of the column type. It's only Russian Metro station with two platforms at one level and four track ways that serving two lines. There are four rows of columns (column spacing - 6 m). The columns of station are faced with white Koelga marble. The track walls are faced with red Georgian Salieti marble and white Koelga marble that forming a pattern in the form of "toothy" walls of the Moscow Kremlin. The floor is paved with red and grey granite. The station is illuminated by electric sconces that are placed at the all sides of each column. "Moskovskaya" have two underground vestibules. There are escalators and stairs at the each of four descents that leads to the platforms. The ticket halls of vestibules are decorated with four Florentine mosaic panels with images of Moscow (artists Pyotr Shorchev and Lyudmila Shorcheva). The themes of four mosaic panels are "Historical Moscow", "Moscow of Military Years", "Festive Moscow" and "Labor Moscow".

Prior to 2012, "Moskovskaya" was only station of Nizhny Novgorod Metro at which were installed escalators. However, these escalators were turned off during 10 years due to lack of necessary passenger traffic. Its operation was restarted after opening of Metro station "Gorkovskaya". Before 2012, "Moskovskaya" was a terminus for both Metro lines. The trains that arrived from one line continued into the other. Only two (1st and 4th) of the four tracks on "Moskovskaya" were in regular use. After opening of "Gorkovskaya", all four tracks became regularly used. After changing of the scheme of operation, the middle tracks (2nd and 3th) became used for the serving of trains at the Line 1, 1st and 4th tracks - for the serving of trains at the Line 2. To reduce time of transfer between two lines, in late-July - late-October 2012 there was built pedestrian bridge over the tracks (length - 10.56 m, width - 3.5 m, heigth above platforms - 3.36 m).

The current scheme of operation:

Anakin

October 25, 2008. "Historical Moscow":

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November 4, 2008. "Festive Moscow":

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August 21, 2012. The construction of bridge:

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November 5, 2012:

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November 5, 2012. The view from the bridge:

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2012 - CULTURAL EVENTS:

On December 17, 2012 was opened monument of Metro builders at the vestibule of Metro station "Leninskaya" ("Vladimir Lenin"; Line 1; opened on November 20, 1985). Metro construction in Nizhny Novgorod (then Gorky) was started 35 years ago, on December 17, 1977, near present-day "Leninskaya" station.

"Leninskaya" is the station on the Avtozavodskaya Line 1 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It's located near the intersection of the Lenin Avenue, October Revolution Street and July Days Street, at the border of Kanavinsky and Leninsky Districts. The station is close to Komsomol Square and Komsomol Highway.

Metro station "Leninskaya" was opened as part of the first Metro line on November 20, 1985. It's named due to location near the Lenin Avenue.

The architects of station was Vladimir Dmitriyev. "Leninskaya" is a shallow single-vaulted station. Its decoration is relatively simple. The shape of vault and track walls is associated with the breaking wave of Revolution. The vault of station is whitewashed. The socle of track walls lined with polished black Agursky marble. The floor is paved with Karelian dark-red and grey granite. There are installed trapezoidal-shaped light fixtures of gold colour at the vault of station. There are two underground vestibule. Each of two vestibules are decorated with stained glass dedicated to the theme "Vladimir Lenin is the Chieftain of Revolution" (artists A. Tsymbal, V. Shindyaikin, A. Fufygin and G. Kuritsyn). The northern vestibule is located near intersection of the Lenin Avenue, October Revolution Street and July Days Street; the southern vestibule - near intersection of the Lenin Avenue and Roubaud Street. Each vestibule is linked with underpass under the Lenin Avenue with two exits at the both sides of avenue.

The construction of Metro in Nizhny Novgorod (then Gorky) was started on December 17, 1977 near present-day "Leninskaya" station. There are memorial sign dedicated to this event near the station. On December 17, 2012, to commemorate 35th anniversary of beginning of Metro construction in the city, there was opened monument of Metro builders in the vestibule of station. The sculptor of monument was Viktor Purikhov, Honored Artist of the Russian Federation. The prototype for monument was Nikolay Bazhenov from Nizhny Novgorod who took direct participation in the construction of the first Metro line.

December 17, 2012. The opening of monument:

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Metro station "Leninskaya":

Anakin

The memorial sign dedicated to the beginning of Metro construction in 1977 near Metro station "Leninskaya":

vremyan

March 7, 2013:

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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:41 PM   #2864
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On November 4, 2012 there began to operate new special Metro train "Kuzma Minin" dedicated to the 400th anniversary of the victory of Russian people for freedom and independence from the hordes of Polish-Lithuanian aggressors. For its creation, was used 81-717.6/714.6 rolling stock.

Currently there are 92 (including 46 head) cars in Nizhny Novgorod Metro depot "Proletarskoye". 88 of 92 cars are using for forming 22 trains, and four cars are using as reserve cars. 80 of 92 cars were constructed more than 20 years ago. Due to lack of necessary maintenance, Metro trains in Nizhny Novgorod looks gloomy and obsolete even in comparison with Moscow Metro trains that were constructed in same period. There are plans to replace major part of old trains before the start of 2018 FIFA World Cup. In September-October 2012 in Nizhny Novgorod were delivered 12 new cars - 6 head (81-717.6) and 6 intermediate cars (81-714.6) made by "Metrovagonmash" engineering company based in Mytishchi, Moscow Region. It were used for forming 3 four-car trains. The one of these new trains got name "Kuzma Minin", its two head cars were decorated with reproductions of historical paintings dedicated to the events of 1611-1612 (intermediate cars have no any special decoration).

Kuzma Minin (? – 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, who, together with Moscow Prince Dmitry Pozharsky (1577-1642), became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early-17th century. A native of neighboring Balakhna town, Minin was a prosperous butcher (meat trader) in the Nizhny Novgorod. When the popular patriotic movement to organize volunteer corps in his home city was formed, the merchants chose Minin, a trusted and respected member of the guild, to oversee the handling of the public funds donated by them to raise and equip the Second Volunteer Army. The army led by prince Dmitry Pozharsky was credited with clearing the Moscow Kremlin of Polish-Lithuanian forces in November 1612. Minin distinguished himself as a skilled commander and was made a nobleman and member of the Boyar Duma under the newly elected Russian Tsar Mikhail Romanov (1596-1645). He died in 1616 and was interred in the Archangel Michael Cathedral of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. A central square of Nizhny Novgorod is named after him and Prince Pozharsky.

Minin had a single son, Nefyod. After Minin's death his property rights passed to his widow, Tatyana, and his son. A royal decree was issued on July 5, 1616, confirming the family's possession of an estate in the Nizhny Novgorod district consisting of the settlement of Bogorodskoye with its associated villages. Additionally, Nefyod Minin owned property in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, although after the completion of his service, he lived mostly in Moscow where he worked as a government clerk. In 1625 he attended the departure of the Persian ambassador and in 1626 he is recorded as standing by the sovereign's lantern at two royal weddings. No mention is made of him in official records after 1628. Nefyod died in 1632 and the lands granted to his father reverted to the crown before being passed to Prince Jacob Cherkassky (? - 1666). Tatyana Minina continued to live in Nizhny Novgorod. It appears that at an advanced age she took monastic vows and entered a convent - most likely the Resurrection Convent, located inside the city's Kremlin.

November 5, 2012. The special train "Kuzma Minin" at Metro station "Moskovskaya":

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Anakin

"Proclamation of Kuzma Minin on the Nizhny Novgorod square" (1896, artist - Konstantin Makovsky):

Anakin

"Appeal of Citizen Minin to the Nizhny Novgorod residents in 1611" (1861, artist - Mikhail Peskov):

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"Dmitry Pozharsky and envoys from Nizhny Novgorod" (1882, artist - Vasily Savinsky):

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"The outgo of Nizhny Novgorod Volunteer Army" (1941, artist - Ilya Kulikov):

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"The storming of Moscow Kremlin by Nizhny Novgorod Volunteer Army" (unknown artist):

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"The expulsion of Polish invaders from Moscow Kremlin in 1612" (1907, artist - Ernst Lissner):

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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:42 PM   #2865
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2013:

Although new Metro station "Gorkovskaya" was opened on November 5, 2012, not all things are operates so as it was planned. The elevator for people with reduced mobility is not operates. Also, there appeared problems with escalators (unfortunately, it was predictable).

"Gorkovskaya" became second Metro station in Nizhny Novgorod at which were installed escalators. The first such station was "Moskovskaya" opened in 1985 (during about 10 years prior to opening of "Gorkovskaya", escalators were turned off due to lack of necessary passenger traffic). Since the first day of operation, there appeared problems with its exploitation. Currently almost all new Metro stations in Russia (except Kazan) are equipped with escalators constructed at the ELES Plant in Saint Petersburg. However, in the last years there were many cases when ELES was not able to deliver escalator parts in time. As a result, the opening of new Metro stations and reopening of old stations after reconstruction was rescheduled many times due to this reason. It became clear that ELES is not able to satisfy growing demand for new escalators.

To avoid these problems, Nizhny Novgorod officials decided to order new escalators to "Constructor Ltd" (General Director - Viktor Khristich). This choice was very strange because previously Khristich's escalators were installed in Russian Metros only in the corridors between St. Petersburg's Metro station "Spasskaya" and two transfer stations - "Sennaya Ploshchad" and "Sadovaya". Saint Petersburg experience of exploitation was very negative - at first, due to problems with installation of escalators and lack of permission from "Rostekhnadzor" (Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision), the opening of Metro station "Spasskaya" was rescheduled on 2.5 months - to March 7, 2009. From the first days of its operation, these escalators become sadly famous due to high level of noise and vibration during exploitation. Some later, some escalators at the both transfer corridors broke. As a result, there were organized repairment works. Due to this, since May 13, 2010 till February 12, 2011 in St. Petersburg Metro was organized difficult scheme of the operation of this transfer node - two transfer corridors operated only for one direction. For this reason, Khristich's escalators were contemptuously nicknamed "Khristolators" ("Christolators").

Previously similar problem occured with experimental models of "Khhristolators" that were installed at Kiev Metro station "Akademmistechko" ("Academic town"; Line 1; opened on May 24, 2003) - it operated just few days since the opening of station. Therefore, there is no experience of the successful operation of "Khristolators". That's why the choice of Nizhny Novgorod officials was very strange. Unfortunately, the worst fears were confirmed. It became impossible to organize normal work of all escalators. There operated only one of three escalators. As a result, passengers were forced to use it as ordinary stairs. In February 2013 it was declared that during one year "Christolators" will be replaced with new escalators constructed by German company "ThyssenKrupp AG" (the escalators of this company are operates in Kazan Metro).

November 5, 2012. The operation of "Khristolators" at Metro station "Gorkovskaya":


Also, there was not completed construction of dead ends for turnover of trains beyond the "Moskovskaya" station. For this reason, two lines of Nizhny Novgorod Metro were still no separated. Sormovskaya Line 2 became to operate as branch line of the Avtozavodskaya Line 1, not as separate line. There was organized such scheme of operation: two thirds of trains from terminal station "Park Kultury" ("Park of Culture") goes to the terminal station "Gorkovskaya" of the Line 1, and one third goes to the terminal station "Burevestnik" of the Line 2. As a result, in the rush hours, time intervals became 6 minutes at the path "Park Kultury"-"Gorkovskaya" and 12 minutes at the path "Moskovskaya"-"Burevestnik". After completion of the construction of dead ends beyond "Moskovskaya" station, these intervals will be decreased to 5 and 7 minutes respectively. Currently these dead ends are structurally built, but no equipped with electric equipment. There are plans to finish works for full separation of two lines by autumn of 2013.

March 9, 2013. The dead ends for turnover of trains beyond the "Moskovskaya" station:

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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:43 PM   #2866
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2014-2018:

On September 29, 2012 it was announced that Nizhny Novgorod included in the list of Russian cities which will be host matches of 2018 FIFA World Cup. Previously it was considered that Nizhny Novgorod have good chances to host it, but there were no solid guarantees in this.



September 29, 2012. Minin & Pozharsky Square in Nizhny Novgorod:

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As a result, the plans for further development of Nizhny Novgorod Metro were revised. Previously there existed plans for the further extension of the Line 1 at the right bank of Oka River, with construction of two new stations. However, these plans were postponed. Instead of this, in April 2012 it was decided to extend Sormovskaya Line 2 in direction to the new stadium, with two new stations - "Strelka" and "Volga". The length of new segment is 4.3 km. Previously, there were also plans for construction of two intermediate stations - "Yarmarka" ("Fair") and "Meshcherskoye Ozero" ("Meshcherskoye Lake") at the path "Moskovskaya"-"Volga", but in September 2012 these plans were cancelled in order to accelerate pace and to decrease cost of construction.


Wikipedia


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Urbanrail

"STRELKA"

"Strelka" ("Spit", literally - "Little Arrow") is a future station of the Sormovskaya Line 2 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It will be located near the intersection of the Samarkand Street and Betancourt Street, in the Kanavinsky District.

The station is named after Nizhny Novgorod Spit - the site of the confluence of the Volga and Oka River. It's a arrow-shaped cape of Nizhny Novgorod, that previously was part of the settlement of Kanavino at the left bank of Oka River. In the 19th century, Nizhny Novgorod Spit was north-eastern edge of the famous Nizhny Novgorod Fair which was held in 1817-1917 and 1921-1929. The main sight of Nizhny Novgorod Spit is a Alexander Nevsky (New Fair) Cathedral which was built in 1868-1881 according to project of architect Lev Dal (1834-1878). It's a one of main sights of whole city. By 2018, there are plans to build football stadium for hosting matches of FIFA World Cup.

The future station will be serve for transportation of football fans to the future stadium. "Strelka" will be shallow station. Its platform will be located under the Samarkand Street. There will be exits near the Betancourt Street and Dolzhanskaya Street. The detailed plan of the construction of this station should be ready in 2013. The construction of this station should be started in 2014, it should be completed in 2-3 years.

The site of location of the future football stadium at the Nizhny Novgorod Spit:

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January 31, 2013:

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Alexander Nevsky (New Fair) Cathedral was built in 1868-1881 by architect Lev Dal:

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The views at the arrow-shaped Nizhny Novgorod Spit:

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Elena.i

"VOLGA"

"Volga" is a future terminal station of the Sormovskaya Line 2 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It will be located near the intersection of the Karl Marx Street and Sergey Akimov Street, in the Kanavinsky District.

The station is named after Volga River near which it will be located. The Volga is the longest river in Europe; it is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed. It flows through central Russia, and is widely viewed as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, Moscow, are situated in the Volga's drainage basin. Some of the largest reservoirs in the world can be found along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture and is often referred to as "Volga-Matushka" ("Mother Volga") in Russian literature and folklore. Volga belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea. Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 metres above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometres (200 miles) southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Tver, Dubna, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Tolyatti, Samara, Saratov and Volgograd, and discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 metres below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don River ("the big bend"). Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad, is located there. The Volga has many tributaries, most importantly Kama, Oka, Vetluga and Sura Rivers. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which flows through an area of about 1.35 million square kilometres in the most heavily populated part of Russia. The Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans, flamingos, and lotuses may be found. The Volga freezes for most of its length for three months each year. The Volga drains most of Western Russia. Its many large reservoirs provide irrigation and hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal (built in 1932-1937), Volga–Don Canal (built in 1948-1952) and Volga–Baltic Waterway form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov and Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution have adversely affected the river and its habitats. The fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat and also has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centers on the Volga valley. Other resources include natural gas, salt, and potash. The Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the center of the caviar industry.

The downstream of the Volga, widely believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Huns and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing Scythians. The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria (c. 90 – c. 168) mentions the lower Volga in his "Geography". He calls it the Rha, which was the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains. Subsequently, the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama River joins the Volga, while Khazaria controlled the lower stretches of the river. Such Volga cities as Atil, Saqsin or Sarai were among the largest in the medieval world. The river served as an important trade route connecting Scandinavia, Rus' and Volga Bulgaria with Khazaria and Persia. Khazars were replaced by Kipchaks, Kimeks and Mongols, who founded the Golden Horde in the lower reaches of the Volga. Later their empire divided into the Khanate of Kazan and Khanate of Astrakhan, both of which were conquered by the Russians in the course of the 16th century Russo-Kazan Wars. The Russian people's deep feeling for the Volga echoes in national culture and literature, starting from the 12th-century epic poem "The Tale of Igor's Campaign". "The Volga Boatman's Song" is one of many songs devoted to the national river of Russia. Construction of Soviet dams often involved enforced resettlement of huge numbers of people, as well as destruction of their historical heritage. For instance, the town of Mologa was flooded for the purpose of constructing the Rybinsk Reservoir in 1935-1947 (then the largest artificial lake in the world). The construction of the Uglich Reservoir in 1939 caused the flooding of several monasteries with buildings dating from the 15th and 16th centuries. In such cases the ecological and cultural damage often outbalanced any economical advantage.

The first recorded people along the upper Volga were the Mari and their west ethnic group named Merya. In the 8th and 9th centuries Slavic colonization began from Kievan Rus'. The Slavs brought Christianity, and a part of local people took Christianity and gradually became East Slavs; the remainder of Mari people migrated to the west far inland. In the course of several centuries they assimilated the indigenous Finnic population which included Merya and Meshchera peoples. The surviving peoples of Volga Finnic ethnicity include the Maris and Mordvins of the middle Volga. Apart from the Huns, the earliest Turkic tribes arrived in the 7th century and assimilated some Finnic and Indo-European population on the middle and lower Volga. The Christian Chuvash and Muslim Tatars are descendants of the population of medieval Volga Bulgaria. Another Turkic group, the Nogais, formerly inhabited the lower Volga steppes. The Volga region is home to a German minority group, the Volga Germans. Russian Empress Catherine the Great (1729-1796) had issued a Manifesto in 1763 inviting all foreigners to come and populate the region, offering them numerous incentives to do so. This was partly to develop the region but also to provide a buffer zone between Russians and Mongol hordes to the East. Because of conditions in German territories, Germans responded in the largest numbers. Under the Soviet Union a slice of the region was turned into the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Others were executed or dispersed throughout the Soviet Union prior to and after WWII.

During the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922, both sides fielded warships on the Volga. In 1918, the Red Volga Flotilla participated in driving the Whites eastward, from the Middle Volga at Kazan to the Kama and eventually to Ufa on the Belaya River. In modern times, the city on the big bend of the Volga, currently known as Volgograd, witnessed the Battle of Stalingrad of 1942-1943, possibly the bloodiest battle in human history, in which the Soviet Union and the German forces were deadlocked in a stalemate battle for access to the river. The Volga was (and still is) a vital transport route between central Russia and the Caspian Sea, which provides access to the oil fields of the Apsheron Peninsula. Adolf Hitler planned to use access to the oil fields of Azerbaijan to fuel future German conquests. Apart from that, whoever held both sides of the river could move valuable troops and war machines, across the river, to defeat the enemy's fortifications beyond the river. By taking the river, Hitler's Germany would have been able to move supplies, guns, and men into the northern part of Russia. For this reason, many amphibious military assaults were brought about in an attempt to remove the other side from the banks of the river. In these battles, the Soviet Union was the main offensive side, while the German troops used a more defensive stance, though most of the fighting was close quarters combat, with no clear offensive or defensive side.

The Volga, widened for navigation purposes with construction of huge dams during the years of Joseph Stalin's industrialization, is of great importance to inland shipping and transport in Russia: all the dams in the river have been equipped with large (double) ship locks, so that vessels of considerable dimensions can actually travel from the Caspian Sea almost to the upstream end of the river. Connections with the Don River and the Black Sea are possible through Volga–Don Canal. Connections with the lakes of the North (Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega), Saint Petersburg and the Baltic Sea are possible through Volga–Baltic Waterway; and a liaison with Moscow has been realised by Moscow Canal connecting Volga and Moscow Rivers. This infrastructure has been designed for vessels of a relatively large scale (lock dimensions of 290 x 30 meters on the Volga, slightly smaller on some of the other rivers and canals) and it spans many thousands of kilometers. A number of formerly state-run, now mostly privatized, companies operate passenger and cargo vessels on the river; "Volgotanker", with over 200 petroleum tankers, is one of them. In the later Soviet era, up to the modern times, grain and oil have been among the largest cargo exports transported on the Volga River. Until recently access to the Russian waterways was granted to foreign vessels on a very limited scale. The increasing contacts between the European Union and Russia have led to new policies with regard to the access to the Russian inland waterways. It is expected that vessels of other nations will be allowed on Russian rivers soon.

"Volga" will be shallow Metro station. Its platform will be located under the Karl Marx Street. There will be exits near the Sergey Akimov Street and Proletarian Street. The detailed plan for construction of this station should be ready in 2013. The construction of this station should be started after completion of major part of works at the Metro station "Strelka".

May 21, 2010. The smoke over the Volga River at Nizhny Novgorod:

Link

August 7, 2012. The place of location of the future eastern vestibule of Metro station "Volga":

Андрей Суриков
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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:45 PM   #2867
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - AFTER 2018:

After 2018 FIFA World Cup, there are plans to return to construction of new stations at the right bank of Oka River. There are plans for northeastern extension of the Line 1 with two new stations - "Operny Teatr" and "Sennaya Ploshchad". The length of new segment is about 3 km.


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Urbanrail

"OPERNY TEATR"

"Operny Teatr" ("Opera Theatre") is a future station of the Avtozavodskaya Line 1 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It will be located near the intersections of the Belinsky Street with Vaneyev Street and Osharskaya Street, in the Sovetsky District.

The station is named after Nizhny Novgorod State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Alexander Pushkin which located nearby (#59 Belinsky Street). This theatre was founded in 1931. It's located in the building of Public House, which was built in 1903 on the initiative of the Society of Primary Education in Nizhny Novgorod Governorate with the assistance of great Russian writer Maxim Gorky (1868-1936). Public House was conceived as a "cultural center" in the provincial city (with club, library and community theater). The building was built under project of the architect Pavel Malinovsky (1869-1943) on private donations, the larger part of which were given by Countess Sofia Panina (1871-1956) and great Russian opera singer Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938), who gave a concert at Gorky's request in favor of the construction. The reconstruction of Public House for opera and ballet theatre was finished on May 31, 1935. The new theatre was opened on October 24, 1935 as the Gorky Opera and Ballet Theatre with performance of Alexander Borodin's opera "Prince Igor". Since then, it became tradition to open new season with performance of this opera. On February 10, 1937 this theatre was named in the honour of great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin (1799-1937) in order to commemorate 100th anniversary of his death. In 1938-1943 great Russian operatic stage director Boris Pokrovsky (1912-2009) worked at this theatre. The first foreign tour of opera company took place in Italy in 1992, the tour of ballet company - in Spain in 1992. In 1994 Nizhny Novgorod Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Alexander Pushkin assumed the title of Academic Theatre.

However, the name of future Metro station can be changed because there are plans to construct new building of theatre in the Pushkin Park, at the place of restaurant "Onegin". The other proposed names are "Ploshchad Svobody" ("Freedom Square") - in the honour of nearest square; "Ostrozhnaya" ("Prison") - in the honour of nearest museum building of Nizhny Novgorod Prison; and "Kulibinskaya" ("Ivan Kulibin") - in the honour of Kulibin Park which located nearby.

The architect of station is Pavel Presnyakov. "Operny Teatr" will be shallow two-vaulted station of the column type. Its platform will be located under the Belinsky Street. There will be built two underground vestibules with exits near the Vaneyev Street and Osharskaya Street.

Nizhny Novgorod State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Alexander Pushkin:

mynizhnynovgorod


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"SENNAYA PLOSHCHAD"

"Sennaya" or "Sennaya Ploshchad" ("Hay Square") is a future north-eastern terminal station of the Avtozavodskaya Line 1 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It will be located in 400 metres from the Hay Square, near the Greater Pechersk Street and Rodionov Street, in the Nizhegorodsky District.

The station is named after Hay Square near which it will be located. Since 18th century, large hay market was situated at the Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square) near Dmitrovskaya Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. However, in 1828, due to large amount of debris, hay trade was moved at the specially planned square between Zhukovsky Street (now Minin Street) and Greater Pechersk Street, at the site of present-day Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistics University named after Nikolay Dobrolyubov. That's why this square became known as Hay Square (Haymarket Square). In 1842 gentry assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Governorate took decision about establishing of Mariinsky Institute for Noble Maidens (opened in 1852). In 1858 there was built new building of Mariinsky Institute at the Zhukovsky Street (now Minin Street). As a result, hay trade was moved outside city boundaries to the beginning of old Kazan Road. However, despite of all attempts of city authorities to change name of square, it remained known as Hay Square for residents.

The architect of station is Pavel Presnyakov. "Sennaya" will be shallow single-vaulted station. It will be located near the Belinsky Street. There will be built two underground vestibules with exits near the Greater Pechersk Street and Rodionov Street. On February 9, 2012 there was opened Nizhny Novgorod station of the Nizhny Novgorod-Bor cableway near the site of future Metro station "Sennaya".

September 21, 2010. Hay Square:

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The project of Metro station "Sennaya Ploshchad":

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The alternative variant:

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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:47 PM   #2868
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After extension of the Avtozavodskaya Line 1, city authorities have plans for extension of the Sormovskaya Line 2 in direction to the centre of Sormovsky District, with two new stations - "Varya" and "Sormovo". Also, there are plans for construction of the second Metro depot "Sormovskoye". The length of new segment is about 2.2 km.


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"VARYA"

"Varya" is a future station of the Sormovskaya Line 2 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It will be located near the intersection of the Comintern Street and Guardian of Revolution Street, in the Moskovsky District.

The station is named after railway station "Varya", at the place of which it will be located. Varya is a name of settlement and railway station within Nizhny Novgorod. According to the urban legend, it was named in the honour of the daughter of the landlord (Varya is a Russian diminutive form of the female name Varvara, English: Barbie, Barbara), to whom were donated these lands.

This station has planned by Soviet authorities in late-1970s as part of Sormovsky Radius of the Line 2. Initially this station was named "Sportivnaya" ("Sportive"), it supposed to be shallow single-vaulted station. The preparation works for construction of station were started in early-1990s. However, due to lack of funding and necessary to built more important Metro bridge, the works were stopped and never restarted.

Currently "Varya" is planned to be built as above-ground Metro station which is supposed to located at the site of existing eponymous railway station of the Gorky Railway. The railway station "Varya" will be dismantled for construction of Metro station.

December 25, 2011. The railway station "Varya":

Алексей Белобородов

"SORMOVSKAYA"

"Sormovskaya" is a future western terminal station of the Sormovskaya Line 2 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro. It will be located near the Comintern street and railway station "Sormovo", in the centre of Sormovsky District.

The station was named after Sormovsky District in which it will be located. Sormovsky District or Sormovo is one of the eight districts of the city of Nizhny Novgorod. It occupies the northwestern corner of the city, adjacent to the Volga River. The village originally known as Soromovo was firstly mentioned in the chronicles in 1542. This name derived due to fact that its landlord Terenty Shumenev was nicknamed "Soroma" (i.e. "shameless man") due to his rackety way of life. In 1794 in Soromovo were 94 households where lived 686 people. By 1850, this number increased to 199 households. In 1849 the life of village greatly changed because the "Sormovo Works" - soon one of Russia's most important machine-building plants, later known as "Red Sormovo" - was founded. Its owner Dmitry Bernadaki (1799-1870) renamed village to more euphonic Sormovo. The plant became main centre of lives of many generations of people. In 1850 there was built first steamship "Swallow". The people from all Russia came to work in Sormovo Plant. As a result, there began construction of residential (mostly wooden) houses in Sormovo. There were built church school (1885), Transfiguration Cathedral (1903) and club for Sormovo workers (1905). Although legally a village, it soon grew into a large workers' settlement. In July 1922 Sormovo became a town. In 1924 was established Sormovsky Worker District. In 1925, the settlement of Koposovo was incorporated into Sormovo town. In 1928 Sormovo was amalgamated into the city of Nizhny Novgorod, becoming one of its districts. Currently it's one of the city's industrial districts. Besides "Red Sormovo", its well-known enterprises include the "Volga Shipyard" (which was spun off from "Red Sormovo" in 1970, and is geographically adjacent to its parent plant) and the Sormovo Confectionery Factory (launched in 1937). The district does not have good, conveniently accessible beaches on the Volga shoreline, due to much of it being used by shipyards and floodlands. Instead, the locals prefer to use sand beaches on several artificial lakes, which formed several decades ago in the pits left from defunct sand quarries. The population of Sormovsky District: 168.761 (2010 Census); 177.940 (2002 Census); 185.994 (1989 Census).

"Red Sormovo" Plant No. 112 named after Andrey Zhdanov was one of the oldest shipbuilding plants in the Soviet Union, located in the Sormovsky District of the Nizhny Novgorod (the city was called Gorky in 1932–1990). The plant was established on August 2, 1849 by companies "Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory" and "Volga Steam Navigation". It was originally called the "Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory". In 1851, the factory began the construction of solid metal steamers. Three years later, it developed the production of screw schooners. In 1858, the "Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory" produced the first Russian steam dredger. In 1870, the first Russian open hearth furnace was built at the plant, followed by a two-decked steamship "Perevorot" just a year later. In 1913, it produced a dry bulk cargo ship "Danilikha". The plant built 489 ships between 1849 and 1918. It also produced steam engines, carriages, steam locomotives, tramcars, bridges, diesel engines, cannons, pontoons and projectiles.

Since 1898, one of the chief products of Sormovo Plant were steam locomotives, although the plant continued building river paddle steamers for Volga service and, on a lesser scale, other industrial products. In 1910, under leadership of Russian engineer Bronislav Malakhovsky (1867-1934), at the plant was constructed steam locomotive of "S"-series which is considered as best steam locomotive in pre-Revolutionary Russia. Lists of the plant's products from that period are preserved in magazines also found in collections both in Russia and elsewhere. "Sormovo Work" advertised in many industrial magazines, the last ads been printed as late as 1916. The plant had close connections with "Krauss Lokomotive Works" in Munich, Germany until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. Krauss sold first 1524-mm gauge steam locomotive to "Sormovo Works" in 1884. The second locomotive followed in 1885, an 900-mm gauge to Sormovo's internal industrial railway. Sormovo Plant built even its own public service railway branch connecting the plant to the Nizhny Novgorod station of the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod Railway.

During 1898-1917, Sormovo Plant built 2164 steam locomotives. During 1918-1935, another 1111 standard Russian 1524-mm gauge steam locomotives were built there. Then followed the two year period when Sormovo built 200 750-mm gauge steam locomotives, after which the plant switched to making submarine diesel motors. After the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, the steam locomotive production resumed; this time on the production line was the fourth and last version of standard Soviet passenger type Su 2-6-2 (1C1-h2) steam locomotives. Overall, 411 steam locomotives were built in 1947-1951. The total steam locomotive production in 1898-1951 was 3886 steam locomotives.

During the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922, the Sormovo Plant built armored trains, armored carriages, and weapons for the vessels of the Volga Military Flotilla. In 1920, the plant remanufactured fourteen burnt-out French Renault FT tanks for the Red Army, the "Russky Renos", and assembled a single new copy, named "Freedom Fighter Lenin". In 1922, the plant changed its name by appending the adjective "Red" ("Krasnoye") to it. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, "Red Sormovo" Plant produced T-34 medium tanks. The turret for the upgunned T-34-85 was designed here by Vyacheslav Kerichev in 1943.

After the Soviet Victory in WWII, the plant switched to sectional and large-block construction of ships, sea and river tankers, suction dredgers, and dredgers. The "Red Sormovo" Plant was one of the most progressive and innovative plants in the USSR. They built the first Soviet industrial device for continuous pouring of steel, developed an automated process of pouring and cutting slabs with the use of radioisotope technology, produced the first Soviet hydrofoils ("Raketa"), designed and built passenger diesel-electric ships "Lenin" and "Soviet Union" for the "Volga River Navigation" company, the first high-speed passenger hovercraft "Sormovich", a few diesel-electric railroad ferries for the Baku-Krasnovodsk route, and a unique 250-tonne double-hulled floating crane "Kyor-Ogly". The plant exists to this day and is now a part of the "United Machinebuilding Factories Corporation".

Metro station "Sormovskaya" in the centre of district has planned by Soviet authorities in late-1970s as part of Sormovskaya Radius of the Line 2. It will be ground-level Metro station. The construction of this station has not been started.

METRO DEPOT "SORMOVSKOYE"

Metro depot "Sormovskoye" is a future Metro depot №2 of the Nizhny Novgorod Metro, in the centre of Sormovsky District. It will be located near the future Metro station "Sormovskaya" and will be serve Sormovskaya Line 2. The construction of this Metro depot has not been started.

1900s. Gun shop of the Sormovo Plant:

Link

1900s. Shrapnel shop of the Sormovo Plant:

Link

1900s. Locomotive Od class in the shop of the Sormovo Plant:

Link

1899. Locomotive Od class - 100th made at the Sormovo Plant:

Wikipedia

1905. The 1000th steam locomotive made at the Sormovo Plant:

Link

1911. Tramcar for Moscow at the Sormovo Plant:

Ааре Оландер

1912. The tramcars for Moscow at the Sormovo Plant:

AlexSan

1941-1942. The production of T-34 medium tanks at the "Red Sormovo" Plant:

Link

1957. The first Soviet hydrofoil "Raketa-1" ("Rocket-1") produced at the "Red Sormovo" Plant under leadership of great Russian designer Rostislav Alexeyev (1916-1980):

riverforum

2009. "Red Sormovo" Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

Link
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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:50 PM   #2869
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD - BOR CABLEWAY

The another remarkable event of 2012 (not connected with Metro) is the opening of the cableway between Nizhny Novgorod and neighboring industrial town of Bor across Volga River. It was opened on February 9, 2012. On October 19, 2012 it was recorded into Europe Book of Records as cableway with longest span above the water surface (861.21 metres).




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Urbanrail

Bor is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Region, located on the left (northern) bank of the Volga River, across from Nizhny Novgorod. The two cities are connected by a bridge built in 1965, and by ferry service. Population: 78.058 (2010 Census); 61.525 (2002 Census); 64.512 (1989 Census); 51.000 (1969). Bor was founded in the 14th century and was granted town status in 1938. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with 300 rural localities, incorporated as the town of regional significance of Bor - an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of regional significance of Bor is incorporated as Bor Urban Okrug. Local industries include shipbuilding and glass-making. The local glass plant, AGC Bor Glass Works, has been manufacturing glass for the GAZ cars and trucks, as well as glassware for table use, since 1934.

According to estimates, about 25-30% residents of Bor town works or studies in Nizhny Novgorod. The daily cross-river passenger traffic between Nizhny Novgorod and Bor is 25.000 passenger rides. As a result, there appeared demand for organization of the transport communication for these cities. The existing Bor Bridge is obsolete, it has only two road lanes and not able to carry such traffic. That's why it was decided to build alternative kind of transport in addition to buses, trains and ferry service. It should lead to decreasing of time and cost of trips.

Nizhny Novgorod cableway is a gondola lift cable car link across the Volga River connecting the city of Nizhny Novgorod with the town of Bor. The project of cableway was presented by French company "Pomagalski S.A." ("Poma") on December 21, 2007. In 2009 the first sections of supports were delivered in Nizhny Novgorod. The construction and installation works were started on January 10, 2010. The opening of cableway was postponed few times due to different problems. The testing trip with participation of Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Valery Shantsev and other officials was held on December 2, 2011. On February 9, 2012 cableway was opened for passengers. Very soon were discovered disadvantages of this cableway - on February 15, 2012 its operation was automatically blocked due to strong winds over Volga River (wind speed - more than 15 m/s). Since then, such cases occurred few times. But nevertheless cableway became very popular kind of transport. On March 3, 2012 cableway carried one hundred thousandth passenger, on July 28, 2012 - millionth passenger. The annual passenger traffic is about 2 mln. rides.

The type of cableway - MULTIX GD8, the type of gondolas - DIAMOND C8S190. The length of cableway is 3661 metres (including 1336 metres above water surface), the length of longest span (between T6 and T7 supports) - 861 metres. There are installed 10 supports, the height difference - 62 metres. The height of the smallest support is 7 metres, the height of the two highest supports (T6 and T7) is 82 metres. There operates 28 gondolas, but there are plans to increase this number in two times. The capacity of each gondola is 8 passengers. The capacity of cableway is about 500 passengers per hour. The time of one-way trip is 12.5 minutes. The maximal speed of gondolas is 5 m/s, the speed during seating at the stations - 0.3 m/s. The area of Nizhny Novgorod station is 31.8 hectares, the area of Bor station - 29.6 hectares. The time of operation: 6:45 am - 9:00 pm (Monday-Thursday), 6:45 am - 10:00 pm (Friday-Saturday), 9:00 am - 10:00 pm (Sunday and holidays), with technical break 10:45 am - 1:00 pm (Monday and Thursday). The cost of single trip is 70 rubles (~ 2.3 USD), with discounts for students and other categories.



Mother Volga:

Иван Гусев

September 22, 2012:

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Old March 23rd, 2013, 05:52 PM   #2870
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 09:57 PM   #2872
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD FUNICULAR

Also, city authorities have plans to restore Kremlin Funicular in Nizhny Novgorod.

Kremlin Funicular in Nizhny Novgorod was built in 1895-1896 by the firm "Hartmann & Co" under leadership of Saint Petersburg Kammerjunker Rafael von Hartmann. Its opening was timed to the famous All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition which was held in Nizhny Novgorod from June 9 till October 13, 1896. For this exhibition, in Nizhny Novgorod were built electric tramlines - it considered the first permanent electric tram system in Russia. In particular, at the right bank of Oka River (in the upland part of city) were built so-called Upper Market Line (along the streets on the hills of the right bank) and Lower Market Line (along the low-lying coastal streets on the right bank and later across temporary pontoon bridge to the suburb of Kanavino on the left bank). However, the exploitation of the electric tramlines on steep slopes seemed unsafe at that times. That's why there were built two funiculars (known as elevators at that time) between Upper Market and Lower Market tramlines. Kremlyovsky (Kremlin) and Pokhvalinsky (Praise) funiculars were opened on July 15, 1896. It were first funiculars in the Russian Empire. Kremlin Funicular's line was built between the present-day People's Unity Square and the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. This line was partly located under ground (under the Kremlin wall).

Technical parameters of the Kremlin Funicular:
one track with a siding;
water-ballast;
gauge - 1000 mm;
length - 143 m;
altitude difference - 45 m;
gradient - 36%.

The operation of the Kremlin Funicular (as well as all electric tramlines in Nizhny Novgorod) was interrupted in 1919 as result of the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922. But in 1923, after the end of Civil War, its operation was restarted again. On November 16, 1924 there was opened important tramline between the present-day People's Unity Square and Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession street); along the Gunpowder Descent. As a result, all Nizhny Novgorod tramlines were directly connected between together. There became no necessary to use funiculars for the transfer between tramlines at the upland and lower parts of the city. Kremlin Funicular continued to operate, but its significance and passenger traffic greatly decreased. Finally, it was closed in 1928 due to lack of necessary. Its rails were dismantled, and the tunnel under the Kremlin wall was filled with ground.

Kremlin Funicular in Nizhny Novgorod operated in 1896-1919 and 1923-1928:

Link

About seven years ago, there appeared plans to use remaining track for restoration of the Kremlin Funicular in Nizhny Novgorod. According to this project, new funicular will not copy the old. There are plans to purchase modern Austrian wagons and to build modern stations of Kremlin Funicular. The planned cost of construction works is 350 million rubles (~ 11 mln. USD).

However, the necessary for restoration of Kremlin Funicular is questionable. It planned to be used as tourist attraction rather than kind of transport. There are many doubts that operation of funicular will be profitable. That's why many residents sured that it's better to spend money on more important project such as construction of new Metro lines.

The decision for restoration of the Kremlin Funicular is not made yet.

The project of the restoration of the Kremlin Funicular:

nn-today


nn-today


nn-today


nn-today


progorodnn


Link
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 09:59 PM   #2873
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KAZAN METRO

2012 - THE MOST SIGNIFICANT EVENTS:

In 2012 there were opened additional exits from Metro station "Prospekt Pobedy" ("Victory Avenue") at the opposite side of the Richard Sorge Street. This Metro station was opened on December 29, 2008.

"PROSPEKT POBEDY"

"Prospekt Pobedy" or "Ci Prospektı" ("Victory Avenue") is the southern terminal station on the Tsentralnaya Line 1 of the Kazan Metro. It's located near the intersection of the Victory Avenue and Richard Sorge Street, in the Privolzhsky District. The station is located in the centre of the Gorki-2 large residential area, near the Alley of Glory and few trade stores.

This station was the first extension of the Kazan Metro system, three years since its opening on August 27, 2005. It's named due to location near 9.7-km long Victory Avenue. Victory Avenue is the six-lane magistral, the one of longest and important magistrals of the city, the main axis at the eastern part of Kazan. It connects Sovetsky and Privolzhsky Districts and passes through "bedroom areas" of Azino and Gorki as well as through Universiade Village. It was named in 1975 during celebrations dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the Soviet Victory in WWII. Victory Avenue is the one of the largest parts of the Great Kazan Ring beltway. During recent years, there were built set of road interchanges, underpasses and tramlines. On December 29, 2008 there was opened Metro station "Prospekt Pobedy".

The architect of the station was Azat Mustafin. "Prospekt Pobedy" is a shallow three-vaulted station of the column type (depth - 16 m). Its architectural ensemble incorporates the Soviet Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 as the main theme, resulting in the flamboyant parade look that reminds of Stalinist Architecture past. Each pair of coupled columns forms "Triumphal arch". The standard design forms two rows of "triumphal arches" (column space - 10.4 m) running along both of the axis of the columns. The 12 of 20 archways are dedicated to the twelve Hero Cities in the former Soviet Union, one archway - to the Brest Hero-Fortress, and three archways - to the twelve Cities of Military Glory in Russia. The name of the each city is carved into the glass located amid the coupled columns. The base of each "triumphal arch" contains a wooden bench. Both the station walls, and the columns are faced in red marble, whilst the floor is laid in red, grey and black polished granite arranged in a special pattern. Lighting upon the central vault comes from a set of lamps arranged to symbolise the celebration fireworks. There are built two underground vestibules. Each vestibule is built according to the three-vaulted design of the column type (column space - 4.5 m). There are installed three escalators and elevator for people with reduced mobility in the northern vestibule, and four escalators - in the southern vestibule. "Prospekt Pobedy" became the first Russian Metro station at which were installed modern escalators which were made by German company "ThyssenKrupp AG". The northern vestibule is decorated with reproduction of the famous historic World War II photograph "Raising a Victory flag over the Reichstag" taken during the Battle of Berlin on May 2, 1945 by great Russian photographer Yevgeny Khaldei (1917-1997) - it came to be regarded around the world as one of the most significant and recognizable images of the war. The southern vestibule is decorated with text about the contribution of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Tatar people to the Soviet Victory in WWII. Both vestibule are linked with underpasses with exits to the all sides of the intersection of the Victory Avenue and Richard Sorge Street.

Initially there was opened only northern underground vestibule with southern ground-level pavilion right of the Richard Sorge Street. Due to technical problems with operating systems of cash registers and turnstiles, the southern underground vestibule was opened three weeks later - on January 19, 2009. On April 1, 2009 there were opened (western) underpass under the Victory Avenue and northern ground-level pavilion at the other side of the avenue, right of the Richard Sorge Street. The construction of the two ground-level pavilions left of the Richard Sorge Street was started during construction of station in 2007-2008, but it was interrupted due to problems with funding. The works were restarted in November 2010. These two pavilions and underpasses under the Richard Sorge Street were opened on August 29, 2012. On November 1, 2012 was opened second (eastern) underpass under the Victory Avenue (linked with Metro vestibules), with two exits to tram stop of the Great Kazan Ring. As result, there was formed loop-shaped system of the underpasses under the intersection of the Victory Avenue and Richard Sorge Street.

October 24, 2009. TV report about uncompleted underpasses:


Metro station "Prospekt Pobedy" / "Ci Prospektı" ("Victory Avenue"; Line 1; opened on December 29, 2008):

Gelio

"Hero City Leningrad":

Gelio

July 23, 2011. The northern underground vestibule of station:

Битцевский панк

The scheme of the location of exits from station:

K-Lex

August 9, 2011. The southern ground-level pavilion right of the Richard Sorge Street:

АМТ реклама в метро

September 4, 2011. The construction of the underpass and additional exits left of the Richard Sorge Street:

Teamsky


Teamsky

November 6, 2011:

Teamsky

November 26, 2011:

Teamsky
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 10:00 PM   #2874
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September 1, 2012. The underpasses under the Richard Sorge Street and two additional entrances to the Metro station "Prospekt Pobedy" / "Ci Prospektı" ("Victory Avenue") were opened on August 29, 2012:

Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky


Teamsky

The exits to the stop of fast tram at the Great Kazan Ring:

Teamsky
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 10:00 PM   #2875
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November 12, 2012. The exits to the stop of fast tram at the Great Kazan Ring and underpass under the Victory Avenue were opened on November 1, 2012:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

November 12, 2012:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

March 2, 2013:

Дмитрий Сагдеев
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 10:02 PM   #2876
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In 2012, eighteen new "Rusich" Metro cars were delivered in Kazan in order to reduce time intervals between trains after further extension of the Metro network.

Before 2011, there were only 20 Metro cars in Kazan. These cars uses for forming 5 four-car "Kazan" Metro trains (type 81-553.3/554.3/555.3). It were constructed in 2004-2005 especially for Kazan Metro by St. Petersburg "Vagonmash" engineering company in cooperation with "Škoda Dopravn technika" (Plzeň, Czech Republic). Czech company made 3-phase asynchronous motors for these trains. The total length of four-car "Kazan" train is 77.3 m.

In the end of 2010, due to problems with producing of "Kazan" trains at "Vagonmash" engineering company, it was decided to purchase three-car "Rusich" trains (type 81-740.4/741.4). These trains were constructed by "Metrovagonmash" engineering company in Mytishchi city near Moscow. Therefore, Kazan Metro become third world subway, where became to operate "Rusich" trains (after Moscow Metro and Sofia Metro). The length of "Rusich" cars is about 1.5 times longer than length of the "Kazan" cars (head car - 28.15 m vs 19.85 m, intermediate car - 27.2 m vs 18.8 m). Therefore, three-car "Rusich" train is longer (83.5 m vs 77.3 m) and have bigger capacity than four-car "Kazan" train. The first "Rusich" train was delivered in Kazan on January 28, 2011 and began to operate in Kazan Metro since February 16, 2011. The two next "Rusich" trains were delivered in Kazan on February 26, 2011 and began to operate in Kazan Metro since March 14 and March 28, 2011.

On April 9, 2012 were delivered 3 new three-car "Rusich" trains in Kazan. It began to operate in Kazan Metro since May 2012. In December 2012 another 3 new three-car "Rusich" trains were delivered in the city. It began to operate in Kazan Metro in 2013. The total cost of 6 "Rusich" trains is 1.4 billion rubles (~45 mln. USD). Currently there are 5 four-car "Kazan" trains (one of which in reserve) and 9 three-car "Rusich" trains in the Kazan Metro depot №1.

February 21, 2012. The producing of "Rusich" cars for Kazan Metro at the "Metrovagonmash" company in Mytishchi, Moscow Region:

Георгий Красников


Георгий Красников

April 9, 2012. The delivering of 3 new three-car "Rusich" trains in Kazan:

metro-kzn


metro-kzn


metro-kzn


metro-kzn

March 2, 2013. The one of three newest "Rusich" trains at Metro station "Kozya Sloboda" / "Kc Bistse" ("Goat Settlement"; Line 1; opened on December 30, 2010):

Дмитрий Сагдеев

March 23, 2013. The one of three newest "Rusich" trains at Metro station "Ametyevo" / "mt" (Line 1; opened on August 27, 2005):

Дмитрий Сагдеев
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 10:03 PM   #2877
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2013:

From July 6 to July 17, 2013 the XXVII Summer Universiade will be held in Kazan.



The northern extension of the Line 1 of the Kazan Metro is timed for this event. There will be built three new stations at the right bank of Kazanka River - "Yşlek", "Severny Vokzal" and "Aviastroitelnaya". The length of the future segment is 4.817 km. The first works for construction of this segment were started in March 2009. Its opening is scheduled on Victory Day (May 9, 2013) - on the day of celebrations dedicated to the 68th anniversary of the Great Soviet Victory in WWII.

March 18, 2013. The press tour at the future Metro stations:






Urbanrail
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 10:03 PM   #2878
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"YŞLEK"

"Yşlek" or "Yunost" ("Youth") is a future station on the Tsentralnaya Line 1 of the Kazan Metro. It will be located near the intersection of the Decembrists Street, Şamil Usmanov Street and Volgograd Street, in the Moskovsky District. The station will be served residents of nearest residential areas as well as visitors of the large Moscow Market, which located nearby. There are plans for construction of the stop of fast tram near this Metro station. Also, there are plans for construction of the transfer Metro station "Volgogradskaya" ("Volgograd") of the Savinovskaya Line 2.

Initially this Metro station was supposed to be named "Dekabristov" ("Decembrists") in the honour of 4.43-km long Decembrists Street which located nearby. This street is named after Decembrists - the participants of the Decembrist Revolt that took place in Imperial Russia on December 26, 1825. Russian Army officers led about 3000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine (1779-1831) removed himself from the line of succession. Because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists. This uprising, which was suppressed by Nicholas I (1796-1855), took place in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg. In 1925, to mark the centenary of the event, the square was renamed as Decembrists Square, but on July 31, 2008 it reverted to its original name.

Decembrists Street is the six-lane magistral, the one of longest and important magistrals of the city, the main axis at the Moskovsky District. It starts from Kremlin Dam and passes through whole territory of Moskovsky District thus connecting four large districts of Kazan - Waxitovsky, Moskovsky, Kirovsky and Aviastroitelny. The former name of this street (Transverse-Cyzicus Street) is derived from Monastery of Holy Martyrs of Cyzicus that was founded in 1691 and located in the end of present-day street. The current name of Decembrists Street is derived due to fact that in 1826 through Kazan passed transit prison carts that transported convicted Decembrists to the place of exile. There remained many memories about this event. Prior to 1950s, this street was known among residents as the Greater Road, while officially it was named either October Street or Transverse-Cyzicus Street.

In 19th century, Greater Road (now Decembrists Street) was considered by wealthy local residents as an ideal place to build a suburban estates. As a result, there was formed so-called Udelnaya Settlement. By beginning of 20th century, only Cyzicus Settlement and Goat Settlement were not densely built-up areas along the Greater Road. On September 1, 1926 there was opened first route of Kazan Bus along the Greater Road to the present-day Uprising Settlement. In 1930s there began to operate Sergo Ordzhonikidze Plant №124 (now Kazan Aircraft Production Association named after Sergey Gorbunov) in the remote settlement of Karavayevo. As a result, at the Uprising Settlement and Udelnaya Settlement began preparation of territories for mass construction of multi-storey residential houses in the middle and northern parts of the axial street of the newly-formed Leninsky District (which included present-day Moskovsky District). In mid-1930s, there was laid tramline along this street for transportation of workers to the new aviation plant. This tramline was opened in 1937. However, street was not paved till the end of 1940s. That's why it caused big problems for road traffic in the rainy period or during spring thaw. By 1948, Greater Road was paved with asphalt. On November 27, 1948 there was opened first route of Kazan Trolleybus - it connected remote areas of Leninsky District (such as Karavayevo, Aviation Plant, etc) with city centre.

Initially there were only two lanes for road traffic at the Decembrists Street. Only in 1970s this street was enlarged, there were built six lanes for road traffic which were divided by tramline in the centre of street. In 1950s-1960s there were built many living houses in the style of Stalinist architecture near the Uprising Settlement, in the middle part of the Decembrists Street. However, the larger part of the Decembrist Street - in its northern and partially medium parts (between its intersections with the Lenskaya Street and Vorovsky Street) was built up in the so-called "Khrushchev style". In 1970s-1980s there were built many residential houses, schools, trade shops, kindergartens, houses of culture, etc. In 1976 there was built remarkable building of Moscow Market near the intersection of the Decembrists Street and Şamil Usmanov Street in the shape of "tubeteika" (Central Asian cap, today worn in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, as well as in Muslim-populated regions of Russia - mainly Tatars). In 2000s, the Decembrists Street was reconstructed. There were constructed road interchanges with the Xsyen Yamaşev Avenue and Metro lines; and were dismantled tramlines.

The project name of Metro station was "Dekabristov" ("Decembrists"). However, very soon there appeared proposals to change this name. According to results of Internet poll at the official website of the Mayority of Kazan in April-May 2012, the most popular names were "Dekabristov" (3423 votes, 43%) and "Alatskaya" (3441 votes, 43%) - in the honour of historical Alat Road which passed at the area of the present-day Decembrists Street. However, on September 24, 2012, the name of future Metro station was officially changed into "Yşlek" ("Youth"). This choice of officials was very strange because this name was absolutely non-popular as result of Internet voting. "Yşlek" was name of the trade shop which was located nearby, but was closed few years ago. There are no any other objects at this area which match this name. Probably, Kazan officials decided to named it due to the coming 2013 Summer Universiade for young athletes. Also, it's not clear why the name of this Metro station officially mentioned at Tatar language in the first place ("Yşlek"), not at Russian language ("Yunost") with Tatar translation (as all other Kazan Metro stations).

The preparation works for construction of this Metro station were started in August 2010. In October 2010 there began construction of the foundation pit of the future station. On October 27, 2010 was started construction of the 1.35-km long right tunnel between Metro stations "Severny Vokzal" and "Yşlek" with using of TBM "Altın" ("Wirth-NFM") - it was finished in July 2011. In May 2011 the Decembrists Street was closed for road traffic. The cars began to ride by the temporary bypass roads. On November 24, 2011 was started construction of the 1.36-km long left tunnel between Metro stations "Yşlek" and "Kozya Sloboda" with using of TBM "Haysılu" ("Wirth-NFM") - it was finished on June 4, 2012. On December 29, 2011 was started construction of the 1.35-km long left tunnel between Metro stations "Severny Vokzal" and "Yşlek" with using of TBM "Syembik" ("Lovat") - it was finished on July 18, 2012; and construction of the 1.36-km long right tunnel between Metro stations "Yşlek" and "Kozya Sloboda" with using of TBM "Altın" ("Wirth-NFM") - it was finished on July 20, 2012.

There will be built two underground vestibules with four exits. The northern underground vestibule will be linked with underpass under the Decembrists Street with two exits near the Moscow Market and Volgograd Street. There are plans for construction of transfer to the future Metro station "Volgogradskaya" of the Savinovskaya Line 2 via the northern vestibule. The southern underground vestibule will be linked with underpass under the Decembrists Street with two exits near the Tver Street and Palace of Culture of Chemists.

The station "Yşlek" ("Yunost"):

k-metro


k-metro


k-metro

October 12, 2009. The round building belongs to the Moscow Market in Kazan. This known building of trade store is officially named "Tubeteika" because it have same form and decorated in same style (tubeteika is a Central Asian cap, today worn in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, as well as in Muslim-populated regions of Russia - mainly Tatars):

TY-124

March 12, 2013:

Зуфар-Казань


Зуфар-Казань


Зуфар-Казань


Зуфар-Казань


Зуфар-Казань


Зуфар-Казань


Зуфар-Казань


Зуфар-Казань

March 28, 2013:

sonnyforelly
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Old April 2nd, 2013, 10:05 PM   #2879
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Despite of the changing of name, the design of station will be match former project name. The decoration of station will be dedicated to the participants of the Decembrist Revolt of 1825.

In 1816, several officers of the Imperial Russian Guard founded a society known as the "Union of Salvation", or the "Society of True and Loyal Sons of the Fatherland". The society acquired a more Liberal cast after it was joined by the idealistic Pavel Pestel (1793-1826). After a mutiny in the Semenovsky Regiment in 1820, the society decided to suspend activity in 1821. Two groups, however, continued to function secretly: a "Southern Society", based at Tulchin - a small garrison town in Ukraine, in which Pestel was the outstanding figure; and a "Northern Society", based at Saint Petersburg, led by Guard officers Nikita Muravyov (1795-1843), Prince Sergey Trubetskoy (1790-1860) and Prince Yevgeny Obolensky (1796-1865). The political aims of the more moderate "Northern Society" were a British style constitutional monarchy with a limited franchise, the abolition of serfdom and equality before the law. The "Southern Society", under Pestel's influence, was more radical and wanted to abolish the monarchy, establish a republic and redistribute land: taking half into state ownership and dividing the rest among the peasants. At first, many officers were encouraged by Emperor Alexander's early liberal reformation of Russian society and politics. In 1819 great Russian reformer Mikhail Speransky (1772-1839) was appointed as the Governor-General of Siberia, with the task of reforming local government. Equally, in 1818 the Emperor asked Russian statesman Nikolay Novosiltsev (1761-1836) to draw up a Constitution. However, internal and external unrest, which the Emperor believed stemmed from political liberalisation, led to a series of repressions and a return to a former government of restriction and conservatism.

When Russian Emperor Alexander I (1777-1825) died on December 1, 1825, the royal guards swore allegiance to the presumed heir, Alexander's brother Constantine (1779-1831). When Constantine made his renunciation public, and his younger brother Nicholas (1796-1855) stepped forward to assume the throne, the "Northern Society" acted. With the capital in temporary confusion, and one oath to Constantine having already been sworn, the society scrambled in secret meetings to convince regimental leaders not to swear allegiance to Nicholas. These efforts would culminate in the Decembrist Revolt. The leaders of the society (many of whom belonged to the high aristocracy) elected Prince Sergey Trubetskoy as interim dictator. On the morning of December 26, a group of officers commanding about 3000 men assembled in Senate Square, where they refused to swear allegiance to the new Emperor, Nicholas I, proclaiming instead their loyalty to Constantine and the Constitution. They expected to be joined by the rest of the troops stationed in Saint Petersburg, but they were disappointed. The revolt was further hampered when it was deserted by its supposed leader Prince Trubetskoy, who had a last minute change of heart, and failed to turn up at the Square. His second in command, Colonel Alexander Bulatov (1793-1826) also vanished from the scene. After a hurried consultation the rebels appointed Prince Yevgeny Obolensky as a replacement leader.

For long hours there was a stand-off between the 3000 rebels and the 9000 loyal troops stationed outside the Senate Building, with some desultory shooting from the rebel side. Also on the scene was a vast crowd of civilian on-lookers who began fraternizing with the rebels but who were not called on to participate in the action by the leaders of the revolt. Eventually Nicholas, the new Emperor, appeared in person, at the square, and sent Count Mikhail Miloradovich (1771-1825), Governor-General of Saint Petersburg and a military hero who was greatly respected by ordinary soldiers, to parley with the rebels. While delivering a speech, Miloradovich was shot and fatally wounded by officer Pyotr Kakhovsky (1797-1826). At the same time, a rebelling grenadier squad, led by Lieutenant Nikolay Panov (1803-1850), entered the Winter Palace but failed to seize it and retreated. After spending most of the day in fruitless attempts to parley with the rebel force, Nicholas ordered a cavalry charge which, however, slipped on the icy cobbles and retired in disorder. Eventually, at the end of the day, Nicholas ordered three artillery pieces to open fire, with devastating effect. To avoid the slaughter the rebels broke and ran. Some attempted to regroup on the frozen surface of the Neva River, to the north. However, here, also, they were targeted by the artillery and suffered many casualties. As the ice was broken by the cannon fire, many of the dead and dying were cast into the river. After a nighttime mopping-up operation by loyal army and police units, the revolt in the north came to an end.

While the "Northern Society" scrambled in the days leading up to the revolt, the "Southern Society" (based in Tulchin) took a serious blow. The day before (December 25), acting on reports of treason, the police arrested Pavel Pestel. It took two weeks for the "Southern Society" to learn of the events in the capital. Meanwhile, other members of the leadership were arrested. The "Southern Society", and a nationalistic group called the "United Slavs" discussed revolt. When learning of the location of some of the arrested men, the "United Slavs" freed them by force. One of the freed men, Sergey Muravyov-Apostol (1796-1826), assumed leadership of the revolt. After converting the soldiers of Vasilkov to the cause, Muravyov-Apostol easily captured the city. The rebelling army was soon confronted by superior forces armed with artillery loaded with grapeshot, and with orders to destroy the rebels. On January 15, 1826, the rebels met defeat and the surviving leaders were sent to Saint Petersburg to stand trial with the northern leaders. The Decembrists were taken to the Winter Palace to be interrogated, tried, and convicted. On July 25, 1826, Pyotr Kakhovsky (1797-1826) was executed by hanging together with four other leading Decembrists: Pavel Pestel (1793-1826), the poet Kondraty Ryleyev (1795-1826), Sergey Muravyov-Apostol (1796-1826) and Mikhail Bestuzhev-Ryumin (1801-1826). When the five Decembrists were hanged something unusual happened. The ropes that were being used to hang them parted before three of them actually died. This caused a sigh of relief in the crowd because, according to a centuries-old tradition, any condemned prisoner who survived a botched execution would be set free. Rather than free these prisoners, Nicholas ordered new ropes and the three prisoners were hanged again. This was the last public execution in Russian imperial history. Other Decembrists were exiled to Siberia, Kazakhstan and the Far East.

Despite of their noble titles, wives of many Decembrists voluntary cast aside social privileges and comfort to follow their husbands into exile. The expression "Decembrist wife" is a Russian symbol of the devotion of a wife to her husband. Mariya Volkonskaya (1806-1863), the wife of the Decembrist leader Sergey Volkonsky (1788-1865), notably followed her husband to his exile in Siberian city Irkutsk. Despite the spartan conditions of this banishment, Sergey and Mariya took opportunities to celebrate the liberalising mode of their exile. Sergey took to wearing an untrimmed beard (rejecting Peter the Great's reforms and salon fashion), wearing peasant dress and socialising with many of his peasant associates with whom he worked the land at his farm in Urik. Mariya, equally, established schools, a foundling hospital and a theater for the local population. Sergey returned after thirty years of his exile had elapsed, though his titles and land remained under royal possession. Other exiles preferred to remain in Siberia after their sentences were served, preferring its relative freedom to the stifling intrigues of Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and after years of exile there was not much for them to return to. Many Decembrists thrived in exile, in time becoming landowners and farmers. In later years, they would become the idols for the populist movement of the 1860s and the 1870s, where their advocacy for reform and their anti-serfdom platform established a great admiration for their actions, including the writer Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910).

With the failure of the Decembrists, Russia's Autocracy would continue for almost a century, although serfdom would be officially abolished in 1861. Though defeated, the Decembrists did effect some change on the regime. Their dissatisfaction forced Nicholas I to turn his attention inward to address the issues of the Empire. In 1826, a rehabilitated Mikhail Speransky began the task of codifying Russian law, a task that continued throughout Nicholas's reign. Anecdotally, after being defeated in the Crimean War of 1853-1856, Nicholas is said to have lamented that his own entourage had treated him worse than the Decembrists ever had. Although the revolt was a proscribed topic during Nicholas' reign, great Russian writer Alexander Herzen (1812-1870) placed the profiles of executed Decembrists on the cover of his radical periodical "Polar Star". Great Russian author Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837) addressed poems to his Decembrist friends, great Russian poet Nikolay Nekrasov (1821-1878) wrote a long poem about the Decembrist wives, and Leo Tolstoy started writing a novel on that liberal movement, which would later evolve into novel "War and Peace" (1863-1869). In the Soviet era, Russian composer Yury Shaporin (1887-1966) produced an opera entitled "The Decembrists", about the revolt, with the libretto written by Russian author Aleksey Tolstoy (1883-1945). It premiered at the Bolshoi Theatre on June 23, 1953. To some extent, the Decembrists were in the tradition of a long line of palace revolutionaries who wanted to place their candidate on the throne, but because the Decembrists also wanted to implement classical liberalism, their revolt has been considered the beginning of a revolutionary movement. The uprising was the first open breach between the government and reformist elements of the Russian nobility, which would subsequently widen.

The architect of the station is Azat Mustafin. "Yşlek" will be shallow single-vaulted station (depth - 12-14 metres). The station will be decorated in the Classicism style, elegance and austerity of which is represents the purity and nobility of thoughts of Decembrists. The color solution of station is based on the contrast of the white and dark-brown tones of the natural stone and bronze color of the metal. This color solution emphasizing romanticism and drama of the historical events related to December 1825. The track walls will be faced with dark-brown marble as well as with white marble of the 20 built-in columns with pilasters at the top part. The floor will be paved with light and dark polished granite arranged in a special pattern. The vault of the station will be decorated with carved arches of gilded bronze, which associated with epaulettes of officers of 19th century. The height of vault will be 6 metres. The light fixtures will be installed at the vault of station along the central axis. At the platform will be located three 8-seat benches with forged pattern at the back. At the track walls will be bronze inscriptions with names of the stations of the Line 1. The vestibules will be decorated in the same style.

The project of Metro station "Dekabristov" ("Decembrists"), now "Yşlek" ("Yunost"):

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Old April 2nd, 2013, 10:06 PM   #2880
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