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Old March 16th, 2014, 12:22 PM   #3321
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I suppose it's would be too cheap for contractor then.
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:22 PM   #3322
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……….

Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT
Hi everyone!

Well, due to my political position, I lost possibility to post something at SSC from my own name. However, I promised to some forumers to load another chapter from the history of Russian Trams at SSC. Due to different reasons, I was not able to complete this chapter in time. In current situation, I have no possibility to complete this stuff. That’s why I forced to stop my work. I want to apologize to the people who waited this material. However, during last years, I prepared some material on history of Russian Trams in few cities. I spent my time, efforts and money for writing it. That’s why I want to post uncompleted stuff as some compensation before forumers. It will be my last work for SSC.

I want to say big thanks to my friend geometarkv. I sent incomplete material to him, and he kindly agreed to post it instead of me. Many thanks!

During writing chapter about interwar period in the history of Russian Trams (1920-1941), I found interesting additional material about pre-Revolutionary history which I didn't posted earlier. That’s why I decided to post updated material about pre-Revolutionary history as addition to the interwar period in the history of Russian Trams. I think it will be interesting to read.
……….

Quote:
Originally Posted by ode of bund View Post
Can you also start a thread of the history of Russian trolley-bus?
Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT
Well, next chapter will be mainly focused on history of trams in 1920s and 1930s. However, I decided to add some information about other kinds of public transport which appeared in Russian cities during that period (buses, trolleybuses and Metro).
……….

Quote:
Originally Posted by historyworks View Post
Apart from trams we are getting a picture of Russia before communism that was not presented very well in our school education in "the west"! We were told everybody was a poor peasant living in a hut but here we see prosperous and advanced cities. No surprise I guess. What is interesting AlekseyVT is the number of streets, bridges etc that apparently still have communist names (Lenin, Soviet etc). In other former communist countries after the 1990s everybody was busy returning streets to their former pre-communist names or giving them new names!
Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT
Well, I ask you to avoid any kind of political discussion in this thread. If you didn't notice it, I tried to write this historical material as unbiased person. That’s mean that I tried to mention only about objective information and facts – as about achievements of Soviet period, as about failures of this era.

Please don’t need to add political offtopic into this thread!
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:24 PM   #3323
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HISTORY OF TRAM IN RUSSIA

(DEVOTED TO THE BRIGHT MEMORY OF RUSSIAN TRAM)

PART FOUR - ELECTRIC TRAM IN THE ERA OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

I) AFTERMATH OF THE WARS

In 1922 ended a long and exhausting period in Russian history, which included World War I (1914-1918), two Russian Revolutions (1917), the Civil War (1918-1922), and Western interventions.

Russian patriotic march "Farewell of Slavianka" (written in 1912, composer - Vasily Agapkin):


By April 1920 the Red Army controlled almost the entire territory of country. Major military operations ended on October 25, 1922 when the Red Army seized Vladivostok, previously held by the Provisional Priamur Government. The last enclave of the White Forces was the Ayano-Maysky District on the Pacific coast, where General Anatoly Pepelyayev did not capitulate until June 17, 1923.

On December 28, 1922, a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. These two documents were confirmed by the 1st Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by the heads of the delegations, Mikhail Kalinin, Mikha Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze, Grigory Petrovsky, and Aleksandr Chervyakov, on December 30, 1922.

On February 1, 1924, the USSR was recognized by the British Empire. The same year, a Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December 1922 union. After nine continuous years of wartime, peaceful life came into the country.

Marching song "White Army, Black Baron" (written in 1920; composer - Samuil Pokrass, lyrics - Pavel Grigoryev):


After the end of war, it was time to take stock and to rebuild damaged infrastructure. Meanwhile, aftermaths of the eight years of wars were extremely catastrophic.

At the end of the Civil War, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was exhausted and near ruin. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3 mln. dying of typhus alone in 1920. Millions more were also killed by widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides, and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. By 1922, there were at least 7 mln. street children in Russia as a result of nearly 8 years of devastation from the Great War and the Civil War.

Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia — many with Lieutenant-General Pyotr Wrangel ("The Black Baron"), some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. These émigrés included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia.

"White Song" (written in 1967-1968, music and lyrics by Yury Borisov):


It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre–World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2% of pre-war levels.

War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. By 1921, cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920, and cattle from 58 to 37 million. The exchange rate with the U.S. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920.

The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. The industrial production value descended to one seventh of the value of 1913, and agriculture to one third. According to "Pravda" newspaper, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The railways barely crawl. The houses are crumbling. The towns are full of refuse. Epidemics spread and death strikes - industry is ruined".
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:25 PM   #3324
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THE ALL-RUSSIA TRAM CONFERENCE 1922

Written by Nikolay Semyonov

Rise and development of the Russian urban transport

The history of the public transport in Russia is long enough. As far back as 1840, St. Petersburg residents began to use the services provided by "Public Carriage Society", seven years later in Moscow appeared the regular routs of multi-seater horse-drawn carriages ("lineika"). The first horse-drawn tramline was launched in September 1863 along Nevsky Avenue, St. Petersburg. In autumn of 1880 Fyodor Pirotsky, an artillery officer, tested his invention: "A carriage was moved by electric force for the first time in Russia" in the Sands, the historical district of St. Petersburg. Nine years later, another Russian officer, second lieutenant Alexander Neyolov offered to Saint-Petersburg his "motor omnibuses" (buses), an absolutely new invention in the world practice. In 1892 a regular operation of the electric tram that had a quite modern design and was the first in the country, was started in Kyiv, the Russia Empire city at that time. Four years later, the "passenger elevators" (the initial name of funiculars) was built on steep slopes of Nizhny Novgorod. In summer of 1900 Odessa inventor Ippolit Romanov successfully tested a suspended passenger monorail electric propulsion railway with automatic block system and traffic lights in Gatchina town near St. Petersburg. It was one of the first monorail railways in the world.

The history of the industry in the beginning of the 20th century was marked by the advanced design accumulator battery electric car invented by Ippolit Romanov. It were an open carriages, comfortable coaches and ten-seats omnibus for regular passenger city traffic. In 1902, the Pyotr Freze’s carriage plant in St. Petersburg successfully started to use a simple freight trolleybus that was recommended by the experts (its improved version) after relevant tests to the passenger lines in St. Petersburg, Baku and the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus. Finally, the various designs of "off-street high-speed roads", i.e. tunnel or trestle Metro systems were offered for St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kyiv in the last decades of the 19th century. In June 1907 northern Arkhangelsk became the first Russian town that opened its municipal bus line.

Nevsky Avenue, Saint Petersburg. The first horse-drawn tram system in Russian Empire (opened on September 8, 1863):

babs71

First world's electric tram, inveted by Fyodor Pirotsky (tested in September 1880 in Saint Petersburg):

Link

Tramcars of Kolomna Plant at Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) in Kyiv, Ukraine. The opening of the first electric tramline in Russian Empire (opened on June 13, 1892):

[Книга]

Kremlin Funicular in Nizhny Novgorod, the one of two first funicular systems in Russian Empire (opened on July 15, 1896):

Link

Praise Funicular in Nizhny Novgorod, the one of two first funicular systems in Russian Empire (opened on July 15, 1896):

Link
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:27 PM   #3325
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July 1900. Gatchina town near Saint Petersburg. The one of the first monorail railways in the world, built by engineer Ippolit Romanov at the route "Baltic Rail Terminal - Gatchina Palace":

history-gatchina


xix-vek


izmerov


izmerov


izmerov

Ippolit Romanov's monorail electric propulsion railway. Gatchina Palace on the background:

izmerov
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:27 PM   #3326
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1900. Gatchina town near Saint Petersburg. Accumulator electric omnibus, invented by Ippolit Romanov:

sammler

1900. Gatchina town near Saint Petersburg. Accumulator electric open carriage, invented by Ippolit Romanov:

sammler

1900. Gatchina town near Saint Petersburg. Accumulator electric comfortable coach, invented by Ippolit Romanov:

sammler

1900. Ippolit Romanov and his invention near Gatchina Palace:

sammler
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:28 PM   #3327
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The project of Saint Petersburg Metro (1902, author - Pyotr Balinsky). The Metro bridge across Neva River:

Link

The overground Metro station at Bypass Canal near Warsaw Rail Terminal:

Link

The overground Metro station "Tauride Garden":

Link

The overground Metro station "Baltic Rail Terminal":

Link
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:29 PM   #3328
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The overground Metro station "Nicholas Rail Terminal":

Link


Link


Link
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:30 PM   #3329
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The project of Moscow Metro (1902, authors - Pyotr Balinsky and Yevgeny Knorre, illustrator - Nikolay Karazin). Metro bridge across Moscow River:

mosmetro

The overground Metro station at Red Square:

mosmetro

The Metro line in Moscow:

mosmetro

The bus of German "NAG" company in Arkhangelsk. The first municipal bus line in Russian Empire (opened in June 1907):

Wikipedia

Bus near Alexander Garden. The first municipal bus route in Saint Petersburg (opened on November 24, 1907):

Wikipedia
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:31 PM   #3330
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Tram in the prerevolutionary period

An electric tram was the most popular in country in the first decades of the 20th century despite the early rise of almost all kinds of transport in Russia, which are still being used. The streets in Russian cities were wide and the traffic was not dense. It enabled engineers to lay branched urban railway networks. At the same time, the Russian car industry was an embryo and the buses, trolleybuses and taxies manufactured abroad were extremely costly and did not ensure a proper capacity, reliability and exterior. As a result, by prerevolutionary 1916 the length of tramlines has reached 301 km in Moscow, 213 km in Odessa, 203 km in Kyiv and 139 km in St. Petersburg. In 1916, 395 million of passengers was carried by tramcars in Moscow, 383 million in St. Petersburg, 108 million in Kyiv, 86 million in Russian Warsaw, 55 million in Odessa, 38 million in Samara and Rostov-on-Don respectively, 35 million in Kharkiv and 27 million in Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk).

However, each Russian city in the 19th and early 20th century was forced to solve its transportation problems on its own, considering not so much a real demand of its population and visitors for transportation, but the conditions of a modest local budget and passengers’ paying capacity. The example is the plant and factory workers, who lived in barracks very compactly not far from their plants and factories or even on their territories (like in the notorious "Ural plant cities"). This numerous and relatively poor group of population used transport (if any) just occasionally to buy long-use goods, to get medical advices etc. while more wealthy and cultured strata, who were free from the rigorous production discipline, could afford to use individual kinds of transport such as a cab, taxi and own carriage.

Many experts reasonably believed that truly mass and cheap urban transport would be able to facilitate life in their cities and make it more convenient. Additionally, paying their fares, they would not only repay initial construction and management expenses but also establish a fund for a further development of the industry. However, under the former social and economic conditions, it was necessary to conduct long "trade and negotiations" with numerous owners of the real estate near a future lines and, sometimes, with the foreign suppliers of passenger cars and other requisite equipment. Such orders were extremely expensive due to small volumes (an average Russian city needed ten or fifteen rolling stock units max) and various technical requirements to the finished products. For example, St. Petersburg «requested for» longitudinal arrangement of passenger seats (like in the modern Russian Metro trains), Moscow requested for lateral arrangement (the one used in today’s surface transport in Russia), Kyiv requested for combined arrangement, i.e. longitudinal branch along one side and lateral seats along another. As a result, even the well-developed projects were being implemented for many years and provided for establishing initially obsolete transportation enterprises. Nizhny Novgorod, one of the major trade and industry centres of Russia, could not develop its tram network established in 1896, for two decades (!) and spread it beyond the several central (so-called façade) streets. Many densely populated and rich cities such as Yekaterinburg, Omsk, Tomsk, Irkutsk failed to establish their own transport systems.

The First World War that began in 1914 cut the international economic links that were being established for decades. Many tramcars manufactured by Belgian companies for Odessa and Toshkent were not delivered to the destination. They spent their service life in the Benelux and Spanish cities. The tram enterprises of Nizhny Novgorod and Tbilisi, which were built and initially operated by foreign entrepreneurs, were transferred under jurisdiction of local municipal authorities during the war period. Commissioning of the electric trams in Samara in spring of 1915 and Arkhangelsk (a year later) were mostly based on domestic resources. It turned out to be possible to order a new rolling stock for Samara from the Kolomna Plant but the economic and war situation got worse and the plants were overloaded with military orders. And in 1916, Arkhangelsk was forced to purchase outdated and used tramcars that were used to open the electric tram traffic in Moscow in 1899. So the Arkhangelsk tramcars was subjected to the Moscow standards and operation practices.

1916 was marked by the first issue of domestic traction electric motors for trams instead of imported ones that were extremely expensive and in a big shortage that restrained opening new lines and producing new tramcars. Thus, the First World War has played a favourable protectionist role for Russian electric transportation utilities especially subject to increasing well-being of rear cities and their populations engaged in military services.
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:32 PM   #3331
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Before Revolution, in Russian Empire were opened 45 electric tram systems:
1) June 13, 1892 - Kyiv, Ukraine;
2) May 20, 1896 - Nizhny Novgorod;
3) June 26, 1897 - Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), Ukraine;
4) July 25, 1897 - Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad), Ukraine;
5) April 30, 1898 - Kursk;
6) June 30, 1898 - Vitebsk, Belarus;
7) September 24, 1898 - Sevastopol;
8) November 15, 1898 - Oryol;
9) December 24, 1898 - Łуdź, Poland;
10) April 6, 1899 - Moscow;
11) September 3, 1899 - Zhytomyr, Ukraine;
12) September 26, 1899 - Libava (now Liepāja), Latvia;
13) December 2, 1899 - Kazan;
December 11, 1899 - Kremenchuk, Ukraine;
14) June 24, 1900 - Astrakhan;
15) September 4, 1900 - Helsinki, Finland;
16) December 23, 1900 - Yekaterinodar (now Krasnodar);
17) December 30, 1900 - Yaroslavl;
18) July 23, 1901 - Riga, Latvia;
19) August 28, 1901 - Tver;
20) October 20, 1901 - Smolensk;
21) January 2, 1902 - Rostov-on-Don;
January 4, 1903 - Nakhichevan-on-Don;
22) May 5, 1904 - Pyatigorsk;
1904 - Kislovodsk (only for cargo transportation);
23) August 16, 1904 - Vladikavkaz;
24) December 25, 1904 - Tbilisi, Georgia;
25) July 16, 1906 - Kharkiv, Ukraine;
26) August 22, 1907 - Lustdorf (now Chernomorka microdistrict, Odessa, Ukraine);
27) September 29, 1907 - St. Petersburg;
28) March 26, 1908 - Warsaw, Poland;
29) October 18, 1908 - Saratov;
30) December 22, 1908 - Turku, Finland;
31) September 24, 1910 - Odessa, Ukraine;
32) September 25, 1910 - Kulosaari island (now suburb in Helsinki), Finland;
33) January 22, 1912 - Pskov;
34) June 16, 1912 - Ķemeri resort (now part of Jūrmala), Latvia;
35) September 28, 1912 - Vyborg;
36) October 22, 1912 - Vladivostok;
37) January 11, 1913 - Toshkent, Uzbekistan;
38) April 22, 1913 - Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd);
39) October 28, 1913 - Vinnytsia, Ukraine;
40) January 25, 1914 - Chişinău, Moldova;
41) May 23, 1914 - Yevpatoria;
42) August 13, 1914 - Simferopol;
43) January 3, 1915 - Mykolaiv, Ukraine;
44) February 25, 1915 - Samara;
45) June 26, 1916 - Arkhangelsk.

As a result of the October Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent Russian Civil War, the territory of country was greatly shortened. As result, 10 electric tram enterprises became operated in the independent states:
Finland (4) - Helsinki (opened in 1900), Turku (1908), Kulosaari island (1910) and Vyborg (1912);
Latvia (3) - Liepāja (1899), Riga (1901), Ķemeri resort (1912 *);
Poland (2) - Łуdź (1898) and Warsaw (1908);
Romania (1) - Chişinău (1914).

The list of the electric tram enterprises, operation of which was fully suspended due to Civil War:
Summer of 1915 * - Ķemeri resort (now part of Jūrmala), Latvia;
January 8, 1918 - Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad), Ukraine (resumed on May 1, 1922);
January 27, 1918 - Vyborg (resumed in May 1918);
April 27, 1918 - Kursk (resumed on October 1, 1924);
September 10, 1918 - Toshkent, Uzbekistan (resumed on September 22, 1921);
1918 - Pyatigorsk (resumed in March 1920);
1918 - Zhytomyr (resumed on August 10, 1920);
1918 - Kislovodsk (resumed in 1922);
1918 - Pskov (resumed in summer of 1923);
1918 - Mykolaiv, Ukraine (resumed in 1925);
February 1919 - Kazan (resumed in December 1921);
March 1, 1919 - Samara (resumed in July 1920);
April 1919 - Astrakhan (resumed in April 1922);
May 1, 1919 - Nizhny Novgorod (resumed on August 3, 1923);
June 1919 - Oryol (resumed in May 1922);
July 1919 - Saratov (resumed on August 1, 1921);
August 1919 - Smolensk (resumed in May 1922);
October 1919 - Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), Ukraine (resumed in September 1921);
1919 - Yaroslavl (resumed in 1921);
1919 - Yevpatoria (resumed in 1923);
January 1, 1920 - Kharkiv, Ukraine (resumed on June 24, 1921);
January 1920 - Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd; resumed in August 1920);
February 1920 - Vinnytsia, Ukraine (resumed on November 27, 1921);
Autumn 1920 - Vladikavkaz (resumed on November 7, 1924);
November 1920 - Tver (resumed in April 1922).

* The tram system in Ķemeri resort was opened on June 16, 1912. During 1912-1915, there used electric tramcars in summer period and steam-driven tramcars in the winter period. In 1915, due to threat of the German occupation of Latvia, all tram equipment was evacuated from Ķemeri to Staraya Russa resort, Novgorod Region, Russia. Since 1920s till 1935, on the existing tramline in Ķemeri used petrol-driven tram and later - diesel tram.
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:35 PM   #3332
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Domestic tram in the first years of the Soviet rule

The territory of the country was considerably reduced as a result of the October Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. The tram enterprises in Helsingfors (Helsinki), Åbo (Turku) and Vyborg (Viipuri) were inherited by Finland that got its independence, the enterprises in Warsaw and Łódź were given to Poland, the enterprises in Vilnius and Kovno (Kaunas) were given to Lithuania, the enterprises in Riga and Libava (Liepāja) became Latvian, the Revel (Tallinn) enterprise was inherited by Estonia, the enterprise in Kishinev (Chişinău) became Romanian. But the Bolsheviks nationalized economies on the territory they controlled including transport enterprises. The radical change in the ownership and the state borders turned out to be a deep economic dislocation that had even more deteriorating effect on the living standards of individuals undermined by numerous wartime mobilizations and expropriations.

42 percent of the tram enterprises located in the country had ceased their operation by early 1920s. More 22 percent operated from time to time (mostly in summer, the most favourable season for pedestrians, so the revenues were very small). Thus, the Vladikavkaz Tram that survived the hard times was stopped in 1921 because the "dispossessed" population of that previously prosperous territory was not able to pay even minimum fares. The equipment of the transport enterprises established at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries (including major ones such as Kyiv, Moscow, Kharkiv enterprises) were highly deteriorated, outdated and required frequent replacement. It was insufficient to service cities that again began to grow quickly.

Meanwhile the demand for transport services had greatly increased. Very few individuals could buy a horse or bicycle not speaking of a motor car. Additionally the new government performed its populist actions conducting the mass moves of workers from the factory suburbs to the houses and apartments expropriated from "nonworking classes" in the central city blocks, the "military communism" with cancelled fares, an intense propaganda of education and culture spare time among "the proletarians oppressed by Tsarism". All this turned out to be an additional load on the insufficiently developed tram networks. The demand for urban transport services had dramatically increased in the first years of the Soviet rule while the transport means kept falling into a quick decay.

The All-Russia Tram Conference

Being aware of a dreary situation in the industry, the electric transport experts decided to unite and seek an escape. The overcoming of dissociation evoked by the previous differences in ownership considerably conduced to the union. For example, in Dnipropetrovsk one tram depot was municipal and another was owned by Belgian joint-stock company prior to the revolution. So they had very different operation routines and procedures. The final unification should take place at the All-Russia tram conference. Many experts were aware of the experience of the International Tram Union established in Brussels in 1885. This union included up to 730 enterprises on different continents, generally conducted its congresses twice in a year, but suspended its activities because of the First World War. The regular professional forums also took place in Russia since the late 19th century that were resumed in the Soviet rule period. They were the forums for railway workers (for artificial installation, locomotive sector, traffic management etc.), metallurgists and other industries workers (for example, the XII All-Russia Sanitary Technician Congress took place in Moscow in November of 1922).

The devastation interfered with the All-Russia Tram Conference that was planned to be convened in 1921. However, the New Economic Policy (NEP) had considerably improved the situation. On August 5, 1922 the Conference Organization Commission began to operate and obtained the loan amounting to 900 thousand of paper Soviet rubles. The funds were partly spent for preparation and sending out both official invitations and detailed questionnaires required to collect local data (see Table below). Each participant was offered to pay the trip to the capital and back, accommodation, food and considerable organization contribution on his own or by obtaining the requisite funds at his working place.

The All-Russia Tram Conference was opened on December 16th, 1922, and lasted till December 24th. 28 reports were read and evoked the impassioned discussions such as "The (scientific) basis for building and equipping the rolling stock", "About situations on the market and production of tram equipment articles", etc.

The advanced foreign experience, mostly German one, evoked a keen interest. Its actual novelty and practical value (a remote control of car doors from a driver or a conductor workplace, construction of light-weight capacity-retaining rolling stock, improved rail thermit welding etc.) as well as general priorities for domestic foreign policy of 1920s, when the Weimar Republic seemed to the Soviet Government to be a kind of ski jump to transfer the world revolution into Europe, were considered. Relying on the international experience, the conference emphasized the professional recruiting of personnel for the transport industry through so-called "psychotechnical laboratories" that offered numerous tests for intelligence, psychological stability, physical endurance and strength. These laboratories were very useful for Russia in early 1920s, as many positions in the transport, a relatively minor industry, were occupied by absolute outsiders who were not able to ensure safe traffic in increasingly busy streets even with the best will in the world. So their professional unfitness should be revealed as soon as possible.

The conference organizers, and Professor Alexander Wulf, in particular, tried to make the event as optimistic as they could. They stated at the preparation stage that "the opportunity to create a new thing instead of old one is very favourable because it enables not only to consider but to correct any mistake made in the past". The speakers emphasized the accomplishments of the first post-revolutionary years, they told about a revival of many industries that fell into decay during the Russian Civil War and about resumption of prerevolutionary projects for construction of electric tram in Baku, Bogorodsk (now Noginsk, Moscow Region) and Voronezh. The first two projects were of interest for the experts as they provided for gradual transfer from traditional, urban-only tram to laying the independent electrified railway dimension lines Baku-Sabunçu-Suraxanı and Bogorodsk-Moscow. One of the speakers mentioned "normalization of electric motor capacities for municipal, local and main-line railways" for that reason. If seven two-carriages trains manufactured by German "MAN" company, which were used and subjected to capital repair in the Moscow, were given to Bogorodsk, the representatives of Azerbaijan were happy to declare that "Baku proletariat would be a pioneer in building the first Soviet tram on its own using capacities of its own plants!".

The conference emphasized some industry problems. Thus, Voronezh could not order even a small batch of rolling stock because the gauge of the rail track laid by the city prior to the First World War was 1000 mm and the links with "bourgeois West" were torn by the Revolution, the domestic rail car manufacturing was in ruins, and other electric tram enterprises with similar gauge of rail track width faced with acute shortage of tramcars and could not spare even outdated trams.

The situation in Staraya Russa, the known resort, was different but complicated too. Due to WWI, to the city was evacuated the almost new equipment (manufactured in 1912) owned by the tramline Ķemeri-Jaunķemeri on Riga coast. When it turned out that Latvians don't want to be included in Soviet Russia, the authorities of Staraya Russa used the equipment to build its own tramline between Rail Terminal and Resort, which was ready for operation by summer season of 1922. However, a dispute for the power station between "Glavelektro" and "Kommunkolhoz" arose. So the traffic was opened on July 11, 1922, using a miniature steam engine evacuated from Latvia in 1915. The electric traction was introduced on July 6, 1924 only.
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:36 PM   #3333
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Standardization as a key matter

The conference summarized: "We live in the poor country which is not able to build as solid as it possible not counting expenses. It is hard to obtain a ruble to be used to build so our tram movement will be able to develop only if we would learn to built any tramcar cheaply and solidly".

Meanwhile Moscow had accumulated a successful experience of the approach to development of electric transport. Having tested various types of the rolling stock (domestic and imported one), the Moscow tram experts chose in favour of two-axle motor and trailer tramcars in the early part of the 20th century (1907). The tramcars met all requirements set by both operator and passengers. By the beginning of the First World War the total number of such motor tramcars was 699 and the number of trailer cars was 320. The widespread unification of the rolling stock enabled to service it by applying considerably little efforts and by using accumulated stock of standard details, materials tools and to retain at least a limited traffic in the city even during the hard period from 1915 till 1920 when the country was shaken with the wars, revolutions and decay.

The mass "replication" of a single model had its weak points such as the design that was optimum in 1906 but became outdated quickly due to development of the science and engineering as well as inability to fit to radical change of social and economic conditions, in particular, the multiplied demand for cars. It was absolutely impossible to replace the multiple, still serviceable cars (by the way, some of them were quite reliable and used up to mid-1960s!) with modern ones under the social and economic conditions of the 1920s, the more especially that the whole infrastructure of the Moscow depots and terminus stations complied with specific features of the rolling stock standard accepted in 1907.

The interchange of opinions at the conference and the analysis of the questionnaires collected from all corners of the country revealed that the tramcar designs should be unified throughout the country. It turned out to be that cities with population exceeding 450 thousand people (with the exception of Moscow and Petrograd, now St. Petersburg) could well use the similar two-axle motor tramcars for 24 seats with own mass equal to about 10.5 tons, the speed equal to 14-16 km/h, coefficient of friction with rail equal to 0.12 and max braking retardation equal to 0.6 m/s². 18-seats motor tramcars with mass equal to 8.5 tons would be suitable for less populated cities.

The conference delegates highly appreciated the prerevolutionary experience in operation of motor tramcars with the trailers identical by capacity and design in Moscow. The tramcar equipped with only two traction motors and controlled by one driver could manage the passenger traffic in rush hours. After the rush hour is over, the trailer could be left on a siding line and the motor tramcar could continue movement with considerably higher speed making more runs and servicing more passengers.

The conference participants also noted: "Despite Russia is a flat country, it has only few cities built on absolutely even ground". So a certain power margin for motor tramcars (traction motors, to be more precise) should be provided to ensure both operation with trailers and trouble free climbing the steepest inclines in Smolensk, Kursk, Nizhny Novgorod and Kyiv.

Speaking at the conference and analysing the foreign experience, Professor Alexander Wulf offered to ensure a gradual reduction of own mass of a motor car up to eight tons and to lighten a trailer car up to 3.5 tons due to improved design and new materials including integrated body made of special alloyed steel and light-weight traction motor with shaft drive instead of a massive gear reduction. In opinion of Alexander Wulf, an average working speed of light-weight tramcars could reach up to 40 km/h in Russian towns/cities ensuring safety for passengers by using "automatic doors" controllable by a conductor or a tram driver considering a wide "dispersion of buildings and width of the streets". To prevent any decrease of reliability and durability due to light mass of the tramcar, Professor offered to locate the place of passenger concentration (so-called crowding ground) within the car base, i.e. in the middle of the frame between the axes. He borrowed this arrangement solution from the foreign experience of the 1920s, mostly from French and German one, although the passenger traffics in Berlin, Hamburg or Paris were considerably smaller than Kharkiv or Samara ones.

Having traced the features of the future unified state standards for municipal electric transports, the All-Russian tram conference of 1922 resolved to establish the "Continuous Bureau of All-Russian Tram Congresses" (CBARTC) to continue the work. The congresses should be convened as the need to discuss "the most vulnerable matters of our construction" arises. The Moscow tram enterprise (the largest in the country) delegated engineer A. Gerbko and the Petrograd tram enterprise delegated Grigory Dubelir and A. Zilbertal. Additionally, representatives from Odessa, Kyiv, Toshkent, Saratov and Samara, i.e. the cities from various regions of the country with different lifestyles and hence specific needs in carriage were included in the CBARTC. The bodies similar to the CBARTC existed in other countries. Thus, the "Electric Railways Presidential Conference Committee" was established in the USA in 1929 to ensure a collective solution of any problems in the industry, and similar organizations in Germany and Switzerland appeared even later (in the 1940s) under the influence of the war stress.

The destiny of the tram enterprises in Kremenchuk and Yaroslavl established at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries by "Belgian companie de traction et d’electricite" with the same technical parameters has proved that the policy of unification and standardization of the rolling stock was absolutely right. In 1920s, Kremenchuk was in a full economic decay (it was overcome only in 1950s after construction of the KrAZ Truck Plant). The town was not able to maintain its outdated tram enterprise which was rendering its services for a quarter of the century. Besides, the need in public passenger operations was decreasing while Yaroslavl has become a dramatically growing industrial centre and its increasing need in public transport was met by a simple transfer of all Kremenchuk rolling stock to the banks of Volga River.
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Old March 24th, 2014, 04:38 PM   #3334
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Creation of the standard tramcar

To implement "the standard tramcars" project, designed at the All-Russian Tram Conference, the Commission for normalization of rolling stock headed by Professor Alexander Wulf started to work on February 21, 1923. Unfortunately, Professor Wulf died soon. The loss of the learned and initiative expert, who was not afraid of responsibility, caused a refusal from many promising plans. The Moscow tramcar, i.e. two-axle motor and trailer built under the standard of 1907, was taken as a basis for the further work. Only running gears and tramcar roofs that failed to justify themselves under working conditions were subjected to changes. Considering the hard economic situation and obvious plans of "the seven-leagues steps to communism" providing for the growth of cities, the designers started to develop just "enlarged tram model" with the tramcar for 24 seats.

It was expected to commission the domestic "standard tramcar" designed on the Leningrad (now St. Petersbug) and Stalingrad (now Volgograd) routes to the fifth anniversary of the October Revolution in December of 1922. However, some failures took place. Kharkiv, a major industrial centre and the capital of Ukraine at that time, received the first batch of new rolling stock two years later. Since 1927 Kharkiv tram managers had rebuilt all tram network of almost 70 km long replacing the old prerevolutionary Russian standard 1000 mm width gauge (see below) with new standard for domestic railway roads (1524 mm). Despite some problems with "fitting" tram tracks into streets and driveways and even decisions to refuse of some previous convenient lines, the solution turned out to be a major reduction in costs of rolling stock production and repair due to use of details and units issued for railway transport in large batches. The experience gained by Kharkiv was recommended for implementation by the Third All-Russian Tram Congress (Moscow, March 9-15, 1930). Today only nine cities of the former USSR retain the 1000 mm tram track, while the standard was supported by 32 enterprises before the Revolution (subject to the country borders during respective periods).

Rolling stock of tram enterprises in the USSR according to the data provided at All-Russian Tram Conference, 1922:

Moscow (gauge - 1524 mm):
741 motor tramcars (serviceable: 332);
323 trailers (serviceable: 212);
24 cargo motor tramcars;
20 cargo trailers.
Petrograd, now St. Petersburg (gauge - 1524 mm):
670 motor tramcars (serviceable: 396);
246 trailers (serviceable: 156);
63 cargo motor tramcars;
5 cargo trailers.
Kyiv, Ukraine (gauge - 1511 mm):
308 motor tramcars (serviceable: 85);
81* trailers (serviceable: 21);
4 cargo motor tramcars;
4 cargo trailers.
Odessa, Ukraine (gauge - 1000 mm):
245 motor tramcars (serviceable: 45);
62 trailers (serviceable: 1).
Yekaterinoslav, now Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine (gauge - 1000 mm):
97 motor tramcars (serviceable: 28);
45 trailers (serviceable: 12).
Rostov-on-Don (gauge - 1435** mm):
95 motor tramcars (serviceable: 40);
21 trailers (serviceable: 13).
Saratov (gauge - 1524 mm):
69 motor tramcars (serviceable: 24);
18 trailers (serviceable: 0).
Samara (gauge - 1524 mm):
57 motor tramcars (serviceable: 28);
0 trailers;
1 cargo motor tramcar;
0 cargo trailers.
Toshkent, Uzbekistan (gauge - 1000 mm):
50 motor tramcars (serviceable: 20);
20 trailers (serviceable: 5);
1 cargo motor tramcar;
1 cargo trailer.
Kazan (gauge - 1524 mm):
42 motor tramcars (serviceable: 17);
8 trailers (serviceable: 3);
1 cargo motor tramcar;
0 cargo trailers.
Kharkiv, Ukraine (gauge - 1000 mm):
40 motor tramcars (serviceable: 40);
19 trailers (serviceable: 19);
2 cargo motor tramcars;
0 cargo trailers.
Tsaritsyn, now Volgograd (gauge - 1524 mm):
30 motor tramcars (serviceable: 12);
15 trailers (serviceable: 3).
Oryol (gauge - 1000 mm):
26 motor tramcars (serviceable: 7);
18 trailers (serviceable: 0).
Sevastopol (gauge - 1000 mm):
24 motor tramcars (serviceable: 8);
12 trailers (serviceable: 0).
Yaroslavl (gauge - 1524 mm):
24 motor tramcars (serviceable: 19);
7 trailers (serviceable: 5);
2 cargo motor tramcars;
2 cargo trailers.
Tver (gauge - 1000 mm):
21 motor tramcars (serviceable: 11);
8 trailers (serviceable: 0).
Yelisavetgrad, now Kirovohrad, Ukraine (gauge - 1000 mm):
20 motor tramcars (serviceable: 8);
10 trailers (serviceable: 0).
Vitebsk, Belarus (gauge - 1000 mm):
18 motor tramcars (serviceable: 9);
8 trailers (serviceable: 0).
Zhytomyr, Ukraine (gauge - 1000 mm):
18 motor tramcars (serviceable: 7);
4 trailers (serviceable: 0).
Smolensk (gauge - 1000 mm):
17 motor tramcars (serviceable: 19);
0* trailers;
1 cargo motor tramcars;
0 cargo trailers.
Pyatigorsk (gauge - 1000 mm):
15 motor tramcars (serviceable: 11);
8 trailers (serviceable: 1).
Yevpatoria (gauge - 1000 mm):
10 motor tramcars (serviceable: 6);
10 trailers (serviceable: 0).

* minor quantity or absence of trailer cars due to heavy track profile with considerable inclines.
** standard railway gauge for Western Europe.
Note: The track width is currently 1524 mm in Kyiv, Odessa, Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), Toshkent, Kharkiv, Oryol, Tver, Vitebsk, Smolensk; and 1000 mm in Zhytomyr, Pyatigorsk and Yevpatoria. The tram enterprises of Sevastopol and Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad) destroyed during the Great Patriotic War were not restored.

In the course of time, the resolution of Kharkiv citizens, who had enough will to "remake" the branched tracks of available and smoothly operating tram system, was memorized by the official assignment of the "Kh" (Kharkiv) mark to the "standard" tramcar. The enlarged width of track enabled to expand the bodies of new tramcars from 2.2 to 2.4 and even 2.6 m and respectively increase their capacity. It was extremely important considering the total shortage of rolling stock and transport personnel. It is necessary to note, the small tramlines Kyiv-Svyatoshin and those of upland part of Nizhny Novgorod were subjected to a similar remake as far back as 1924. The cities had their rail networks with 1524 mm track width prior to the revolution but they had other owners.

By early 1930s, the USSR has become a totalitarian and highly centralized state that ensured a fast and all-round implementation of standardized equipment including the tram rolling stock. The plant located in Mytishchi town, Moscow Region, (today’s Public limited company "Metrowagonmash") issued 1800 standard motor tramcars and trailers, fit for 1524-mm track, in 1933. Then Kyiv and Ust-Katav, Chelyabinsk Region (a bit later), commercialised such kind of tramcars and started to supply them to almost all electric transport enterprises from Arkhangelsk to Yerevan and from Minsk to Vladivostok. If the tramlines appeared in nine cities of the USSR during the period from 1917 to 1928, then the next decade was marked by tram appearance in 33 cities. The available tram networks had considerably expanded and the passenger traffic and line movement frequency had increased too.

Unfortunately, the trend that took place in Moscow in 1910s was repeated. The standard tramcar was obviously outdated on the date of its mass implementation as the designers could not foresee the accelerated industrialization of the USSR that took place in late 1920s, the large-scale and fast urbanization and growing demand for traffic, development of the car industry, financing of municipal transport under the memorable "leftover principle" and many other important things. Development of new rolling stock that is more suitable for changing domestic conditions deserves a separate study. But even standard tramcars of 1920 and 1930s were being successfully used on the lines for three or four decades and now they are retained in many cities as monuments of labour victory of the people who worked in electric transport industry of this country.

(to be continued)...
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Old March 26th, 2014, 11:23 AM   #3335
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Thanks, this is interesting thread! I'm waiting for updates!
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Old March 26th, 2014, 04:59 PM   #3336
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……….

Quote:
Originally Posted by Burevestnik View Post
Thanks, this is interesting thread! I'm waiting for updates!
Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT
Thanks, I'm glad to hear your opinion!

I guess you are from Nizhny Novgorod, isn't it? Coincidentally, my next material will be about history of Nizhny Novgorod Tram I will post it tomorrow!
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Old March 26th, 2014, 06:03 PM   #3337
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Very good work by AlekseyVT! I hope somehow his work will continue to be posted here, and that he won't stop...
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Old March 26th, 2014, 08:42 PM   #3338
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Klausenburg View Post
I hope somehow his work will continue to be posted here, and that he won't stop...
Me too - but the odds of that happening are slim.
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:39 PM   #3339
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del
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:40 PM   #3340
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II) DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY ELECTRIC TRAM SYSTEMS (1920-1940)

1) Kyiv, Ukraine (opened on June 13, 1892);
2) Nizhny Novgorod / Gorky (opened on May 20, 1896):


Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is the economic and cultural center of the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and also the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Region and Volga Federal District. The city is an important economic, transport and cultural center of the Russian Federation.

Pre-revolutionary history

The city was founded in 1221 by Grand Duke Yuri II of Vladimir at the confluence of Volga and Oka Rivers, two most important rivers of his principality. Its name literally means "Lower Newtown", to distinguish it from the older Veliky Novgorod or Novgorod the Great. Along with Moscow and Tver, Nizhny Novgorod was among several newly-founded towns that escaped Mongol devastation on account of their insignificance, but grew into (great) centers in vassal Russian political life during the period of the Tatar Yoke. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in 1264. After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich (1323–1383) sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; he built a stone citadel and several churches and was a patron of historians. The earliest extant manuscript of the "Russian Primary Chronicle", the "Laurentian Codex", was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377.

After the city's incorporation into Grand Duchy of Moscow (1392), the local princes took the name Shuisky and settled in Moscow, where they were prominent at the court and briefly (1606-1610) ascended the throne in the person of Vasily IV (1552-1612). After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan. The enormous red-brick Kremlin, one of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in 1508–1515 under the supervision of Peter the Italian. The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in 1521, 1536 and 1574.

In 1612, the so-called national militia, gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Minin, and commanded by Prince Dmitry Pozharsky expelled the hordes of Polish aggressors from Moscow, thus putting an end to the "Time of Troubles" and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty (1613-1917). The main square before the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is named after Minin and Pozharsky, although it is locally known simply as "Minin Square". Minin's remains are buried in the citadel. (In commemoration of these events, on October 21, 2005, an exact copy of the Moscow's Red Square statue of Minin and Pozharsky was placed in front of St. John the Baptist Church, which is believed to be the place from where the call to the people had been proclaimed). In the course of the following century, the city prospered commercially and was chosen by the Stroganovs (the wealthiest merchant family of Russia) as a base for their operations. A particular style of architecture and icon painting, known as the Stroganov style, developed there at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

In 1817, the Makaryev Fair, one of the liveliest in the world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, which thereupon started to attract millions of visitors annually. This fair held annually every July near Makaryev Monastery (St. Macarius Monastery) on the left bank of the Volga River from the mid-16th century to 1816. It was one of the most famous and important merchant fairs in Eastern Europe. Many merchants from Europe and Asia arrived in July to exchange goods. From the 1620s the fair was an important event in the Russian economy. By 1800, there were over three thousand government and private buildings to house the millions of rubles worth of trade goods. In 1816, a huge fire burned most of the buildings and millions of rubles were lost. The fair was then (in 1817) moved to Nizhny Novgorod, where it became even more famous. However, for some decades thereafter it still was commonly referred to as Makaryev Fair. It attracted many foreign merchants from India, Iran, and Central Asia. This fair was a commerce centre to sell up to half the total production of export goods in Russia. By the mid-19th century, the city on the Volga was firmly established as the trade capital of the Russian Empire.

Before beginning of WWI, the largest industrial enterprise was the Sormovo Plant (now "Red Sormovo"). This plant was established on September 2, 1849 by companies "Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory" and "Volga Steam Navigation". It was originally called the "Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory". In 1851, the factory began the construction of solid metal steamers. Three years later, it developed the production of screw schooners. In 1858, the "Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory" produced the first Russian steam dredger. In 1870, the first Russian open hearth furnace was built at the factory, followed by a two-decked steamship "Perevorot" just a year later. In 1913, it produced a dry bulk cargo ship "Danilikha". The factory built 489 ships between 1849 and 1918. It also produced steam engines, carriages, steam locomotives, bridges, diesel engines, cannons, pontoons, projectiles as well as tramcars.

Since 1898, one of the chief products of Sormovo Plant were steam locomotives, although the plant continued building river paddle steamers for Volga service and, on a lesser scale, other industrial products. Lists of the factory's products from that period are preserved in magazines also found in collections both in Russia and elsewhere. Sormovo Plant advertised in many industrial magazines, the last ads been printed as late as 1916. The plant had close connections with "Krauss Lokomotive Works" in Munich, Germany until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. Krauss sold first 1524-mm gauge steam locomotive to Sormovo Plant in 1884. The second locomotive followed in 1885, an 900-mm gauge to Sormovo's internal industrial railway. Sormovo Plant built even its own public service railway branch connecting the factory to the Nizhny Novgorod station of the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod Railway. During 1898-1917, Sormovo Plant built 2164 steam locomotives.

According to the Russian Imperial Census of 1897, there were 90.100 residents in Nizhny Novgorod.

Old Nizhny Novgorod (music - "Overture on Themes of 3 Russian Songs" by Mily Balakirev, native of city):



Link


Link
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