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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:42 PM   #3341
geometarkv
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19th century, Main Hall of Nizhny Novgorod Fair:

Wikipedia

1900s. Sormovo Plant:

Link

End of 1890s. Locomotive OD class at the shop of Sormovo Plant:

Link

1899. Locomotive OD class - 100th made at Sormovo Plant:

Wikipedia

1899. Religious moleben dedicated to the production of 100th locomotive at Sormovo Plant:

VladiLaslo

1905. The 1000th steam locomotive made at Sormovo Plant:

Link

1910s. Forge shop of the Sormovo Plant:

Link

1915-1916. Shrapnel shop of the Sormovo Plant:

Link

1917. Gun shop of the Sormovo Plant:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:43 PM   #3342
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1909, tramcar for Moscow at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

AlexSan

1909, tramcar for Moscow at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

AlexSan

1911, tramcar for Moscow at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

Ааре Оландер

1912, tramcar for Moscow at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

AlexSan

1912, tramcars for Moscow at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

AlexSan
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:44 PM   #3343
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Opening of the electric tram (1896)

Tram system in Nizhny Novgorod was opened in 1896, to the All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition, which was held from June 9 till October 13 at the suburb of Kanavino, on the left bank of Oka River. The 1896 exhibition was the biggest pre-revolutionary exhibition in Russian Empire. Here were demonstrated the best achievements of the industrial development in Russia like the world’s first radio receiver (thunderstorm register) designed by great Russian physicist Alexander Popov (1859-1906) or the world’s first hyperboloid steel tower-shell, the world’s first steel lattice hanging and arch-like overhead covers-shells, which were designed by great Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939).

The exhibition became powerful incentive for the full-scale modernization of the city. In particular, in Nizhny Novgorod was built tram network. It's interesting that originally it consisted from the four different systems, which were built by three independent companies.

1) On May 20, 1896, few days before opening of All-Russia Exhibition, German company "Siemens & Halske AG" put into operation 4.3-km long single-track Kanavino tramline (gauge - 1524 mm), which was seemed to be temporary. This line was built at Kanavino suburb between main entrance of All-Russia Exhibition and the pontoon bridge, via territory near Moscow Rail Terminal and Nizhny Novgorod Fair, along the Exhibition Highway (now Chkalov Street), Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) and Alexander Nevsky Street (now Soviet Street). There were used lantern tramcars of Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant) in St. Petersburg (length - 8.5 m, width - 1.7 m, gauge - 1.524 m, capacity - 14 seats + 16 standing, max. speed - 20 km/h). On June 28, 1896 Kanavino tramline was extended via temporary pontoon bridge across Oka River to the Praise Funicular. Initially, this line was continued along the embankment to Sofronov Square (now Markin Square). But later the city authorities ordered to dismantle this "excessive" part of Kanavino Line, because factually it duplicated von Hartmann's Lower Market Line.

2) On June 21, 1896 was put into operation temporary circular 3.7-km long single-track tramline (gauge - 750 mm). This line was built by "Partnership for exploitation of electricity of Mikhail Podobedov and Co" inside the territory of All-Russia Exhibition. It served for transportation of visitors in the exhibition area. The electricity was supplied through a third, insulated rail situated between the tracks. There was special tramcar for royal family in the tram depot.

3) In 1895-1896 firm "Hartmann & Co" under leadership of St. Petersburg Kammerjunker Rafael von Hartmann built Upper Market Line (along the streets at the upland of the right bank) and Lower Market Line (along the low-lying coastal streets on right bank and later across temporary pontoon bridge to the Kanavino suburb on the left bank). Those lines on the right bank of Oka River were put into operation simultaneously with the exhibition line on June 21, 1896. The tramlines were single-track (1 meter wide). The 3.7-km long Upper Market Line was built between Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin and Smirnov Garden (near present-day Hotel "Nizhny Novgorod"), along the Greater Intercession Street, Little Intercession Street and Praise Street (now Zalomov Street). The 1.4-km long Lower Market Line was built between the Staple area to the area near pontoon bridge, along the Nativity Street. There were used Belgian "Oerlikon" tramcars at those two lines (length - 8 m, width - 1.6 m, gauge - 1 m, capacity - 14 seats + 16 standing, max. speed - 20 km/h).

4) According to the proposal of Rafael von Hartmann, the terminus stations of those two Market Lines were linked by the two funiculars (which were known as elevators in these times) on the slopes - Kremlyovsky (Kremlin) and Pokhvalinsky (Praise). Need to build funiculars was due to the fact that the exploitation of the electric tramlines on steep inclines seemed unsafe. These funicular lines were opened on July 15, 1896. It were first funicular lines in Russian Empire. Kremlin Funicular line was built between Staple area (present-day People's Unity Square) and the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. This route was partly located under ground (under the Kremlin wall). Praise Funicular line was built between the area near pontoon bridge across Oka River and the former Smirnov Garden. As result, von Hartmann's system has become look as a closed loop.

According to the original plans, Podobedov's circular line and Siemens's Kanavino Line were built as temporary for the period of the All-Russia Exhibition. For this reason, Podobedov's line was closed and dismantled on October 14, 1896, next day after closing of exhibition. Also there was started dismantling of Kanavino Line. However, Siemens's Line was purchased by firm "Hartmann & Co", who became the sole owner of the Nizhny Novgorod Tram. Its route was changed - there was dismantled segment at the Exhibition Highway (now Chkalov Street), and tramline was moved from Alexander Nevsky Street (now Soviet Street) to the parallel 2nd Siberian Street (now Dolzhanskaya Street). In 1897 this line was reopened at the route from the area on right bank near temporary pontoon bridge to the Rail Terminal on the left bank. However, due to lack of a permanent connection between two banks of the Oka River (pontoon bridge operated only during summer time), the connection between Kanavino and Nizhny Novgorod was interrupted during every floating of ice, sometimes for very long period. In winter of 1899 was put into operation first "on-ice" tramline in Nizhny Novgorod.

Years of activity of "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" (1897-1914)

In 1897 Rafael von Hartmann handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting", which became owner of the whole tram network. Von Hartmann became chairman of this company. In 1901-1902 were built two more tramlines on the right bank:
1) In 1901 was opened tramline in direction to the Prison Square (now Freedom Square) - via New Square (now Maxim Gorky Square), along the Field Street (now Maxim Gorky Street);
2) In 1902 was opened tramline in direction to the Exaltation of the Cross Monastery - via New Square (now Maxim Gorky Square), along the Field Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) and Greater Yam Street (now St. Elijah Street).

In addition, tramline from Praise Street (now Zalomov Street) was been partly removed to the Veal Street (now Gogol Street). Therefore, Upper Market Line was transformed into Kremlin-Monastery Line and Praise-Prison Line. The total length of lines at right bank was increased from 5.1 to 7 km.

After the two long-term strikes of tram workers in 1905, city officials forced "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" to pay a large fine into city treasury. For this reason, relationships between city officials and owners of tram system were severely damaged. In 1908 city officials built 2.5-km long horse-drawn tramline (1 meter wide) at the right bank of Oka River - from St. Tikhon Street (now Ulyanov Street) to the Trinity Square (now territory of Linguistic University); along the Little Pechersk Street (now Piskunov Street) and Greater Pechersk Street. The tramcars were made by Belgian company "Oerlikon".

In 1910 "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" re-gauged Lower Market Line along Nativity Street (from 1000 mm to 1524 mm) and combined it with Kanavino Line. After this, it's became possible (in the presence of a temporary pontoon bridge or "on-ice" tram line) to ride by tram from Staple area to the Moscow Rail Terminal through territory of Nizhny Novgorod Fair.

Tram network was supplied from Kanavino power station at the left bank of Oka River and Pokhvalinskaya (Praise) traction substation near the pontoon bridge and Praise Funicular. There were two tram depots at the Little Intercession street (built in 1896 and 1901), which served narrow-gauge tramlines at the right bank of Oka River. The 1524-mm gauge Kanavino Line was served by Kanavino tram depot at the left bank of Oka River (built in 1896). In addition, there was small barn near Praise Funicular. Originally, it was used as tram depot. However, after merging of Kanavino Line and Lower Market Line, this barn became to used only for nighttime inspection of tramcars.

Mikhail Podobedov's circular tramline at All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition (1896):

opentextnn

1895-1896. The construction of Mikhail Podobedov's tramline:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:45 PM   #3344
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THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1896:
Green line on the left bank of Oka River - "Siemens & Halske AG"'s Kanavino line, 1524 mm gauge; opened on May 20, 1896; built as an exhibit for the All-Russia Exhibition; initial intent was to be dismantle the line after the Exhibition; extended on the right bank of Oka River via pontoon bridge on June 28, 1896.
Blue line on the left bank of Oka River - Mikhail Podobedov's Exhibition circular line, 750 mm gauge with third rail; opened on June 21, 1896; exact alignment is unknown; dismantled after the Exhibition on October 14, 1896.
Red line on the right bank of Oka River - Rafael von Hartmann's Upper Market line, 1000 mm gauge; opened on June 21, 1896.
Dark-red line on the right bank of Oka River - Rafael von Hartmann's Lower Market line, 1000 mm gauge; opened on June 21, 1896.
Purple line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise funicular, linking Upper and Lower Market lines; opened on July 15, 1896.
Brown line on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin funicular, linking Upper and Lower Market lines; opened on July 15, 1896.
Yellow point on the left bank of Oka River - Kanavino power station.
Yellow point on the right bank of Oka River - Praise traction substation.
Green point on the left bank of Oka River - Kanavino tram depot.
Pink and brown points on the right bank of Oka River - tram depots.
Black lines on the left bank of Oka River - Railroads.


Wikipedia

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1896:
Red line on the left bank of Oka River - Mikhail Podobedov's Exhibition circular line.
Purple line on the left bank of Oka River - "Siemens & Halske AG"'s Kanavino line.
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Rafael von Hartmann's Lower Market line.
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Rafael von Hartmann's Upper Market line.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Brown lines on the left bank of Oka River - Railroads.


Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1897:
Purple line on the left bank of Oka River - Kanavino line.
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Lower Market line.
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Upper Market line.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Brown lines on the left bank of Oka River - Railroads.


Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1901:
Purple line on the left bank of Oka River - Kanavino line.
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Lower Market line.
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Upper Market line.
Purple line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise-Prison line.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Brown lines on the left bank of Oka River - Railroads.


Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1902:
Purple line on the left bank of Oka River - Kanavino line.
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Lower Market line.
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Upper Market line.
Purple line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise-Prison line.
Tan line on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin-Monastery line.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.


Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1908:
Purple line on the left bank of Oka River - Kanavino line.
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Lower Market line.
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Upper Market line.
Purple line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise-Prison line.
Tan line on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin-Monastery line.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Light green line on the right bank of Oka River - Horse-drawn tramline.
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.


Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1910:
Purple line on the left bank of Oka River - Kanavino line.
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Lower Market line (re-gauged from 1000 to 1524 mm and combined with Kanavino line).
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Upper Market line.
Purple line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise-Prison line.
Tan line on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin-Monastery line.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Light green line on the right bank of Oka River - Horse-drawn tramline.
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.


Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1917:
Green line on the left and right banks of Oka River - Kanavino line, 1524 mm gauge.
Dotted green line - Seasonal river crossing (pontoon bridge in summer, track laid on ice in winter).
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise-Prison line, 1000 mm gauge.
Red line on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin-Monastery line, 1000 mm gauge.
Dark-red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin and Praise funicular lines;
Orange line on the right bank of Oka River - Horse-drawn tramline, 1000 mm gauge.
Black lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.


Wikipedia
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:46 PM   #3345
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1896. Mikhail Podobedov's tramline at All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition:

Link

1896. Mikhail Podobedov's tramline at All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition:

Медоваров Евгений (колл.)

1911, Kanavino Line. Chapel of Gorodets St. Theodore Monastery near Moscow Rail Terminal:

Maxim Dmitriev

1896. Kanavino suburb, Moscow Street (now Soviet Street):

Link

1896. Alexander Nevsky Street (now Soviet Street), view from the Vladimir Church:

Link

1900s, Kanavino Line. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (also known as New Fair Cathedral) on the background:

andcvet

1900s, Kanavino Line. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral on the background:

andcvet
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:47 PM   #3346
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1910. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built in 1868-1881 by architect Lev Dal at the Nizhny Novgorod Spit (site of confluence of Volga and Oka Rivers):

yahooeu

The temporary (summer) pontoon bridge across Oka River:

Link

1910s. The temporary (summer) pontoon bridge across Oka River:

nizhnyfoto

1910s. Kanavino Line on the temporary (summer) pontoon bridge:

nd161076
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:47 PM   #3347
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Winter crossing of Oka River:

spider123

During winters there was used "on-ice tram" for the crossing of Oka River:

yahooeu

1896. Praise traction substation and Praise funicular on the background:

yahooeu

1910s. Praise traction substation and Praise funicular on the background:

Link

Beginning of the pontoon bridge:

yahooeu

Tramcar of Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant):

Link

1900s. Praise Funicular:

PAUchoK
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:48 PM   #3348
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1913. Annunciation Monastery (left) and Praise traction substation (right):

Link

1913. View to the Praise traction substation:

Link

Praise Funicular:

PAUchoK

Praise Funicular. View to the pontoon bridge across Oka River:

Link

1900s-1910s. Pokhvalinskaya (Praise) traction substation at Nativity Street near the pontoon bridge:

nizhnyfoto
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:49 PM   #3349
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1890s, Lower Market Line. The beginning of Nativity Street:

russiahistory

1896, Lower Market Line. Nativity Street:

yahooeu

1890s, Lower Market Line. Sts. Cosmas and Damian Church on the background:

yahooeu

1890s, Nativity Street. Sts. Cosmas and Damian Church on the background:

russiahistory
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:50 PM   #3350
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1890s, Lower Market Line. Sts. Cosmas and Damian Church (left), Trinity Church on the background:

Link

1890s, Lower Market Line. Blinov's House at Nativity Street:

russiahistory

1890s, Lower Market Line. Church of Nativity of St. John the Baptist:

Link

1900s, Nativity Street. Nizhneposadsky Guest Court (right):

yahooeu

1890s, Lower Market Line. End of Nativity Street:

TatroNik555

1890s, Lower Market Line. Nizhneposadsky Guest Court:

russiahistory

1890s. View from the St. John Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin to the Nativity Street:

yahooeu
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:50 PM   #3351
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1900s. Nativity Street:

PAUchoK

1890s, Lower Market Line. End of Nativity Street near Kremlin Funicular:

andcvet

1890s. The lower station of the Kremlin Funicular:

PAUchoK

1890s, Kremlin Funicular. Portal of the tunnel:

PAUchoK

Kremlin Funicular. View at the Lower Market Line and Volga River:

Maxim Dmitriev
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:51 PM   #3352
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1900s, tramcar at the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. Cadet Corps (now House of Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Region; left) and Archangel Michael Cathedral (right):

tramnn

1900s, Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square). Transfiguration Cathedral and Dmitry Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin:

Link

1900s-1910s. Monument to Russian Emperor Alexander II at the Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square) was opened in 1906:

andcvet

1896. Tramcar at the Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square) near Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin:

tramnn

1900s. Annunciation Cathedral (left) and Church of Metropolitan Alexius (right) at the Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square):

spider123
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:52 PM   #3353
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1912. Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square):

Link

1912. Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square):

Link

1917. Meeting at Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square):

Link

1910s, view from the side of Greater Intercession Street to the Annunciation Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square). Church of Metropolitan Alexius (right):

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:53 PM   #3354
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1896, Greater Intercession Street. The preparations for construction of the building of City Council (right):

yahooeu

1900s. Trade rows at Greater Intercession Street:

Link

1900s. Trade rows at Greater Intercession Street:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:53 PM   #3355
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1900s. Greater Intercession Street, Dmitry Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin on the background:

Link

1900s. Greater Intercession Street, Dmitry Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin on the background:

Link

1900s. Greater Intercession Street:

Link

1890s, Greater Intercession Street. Nicholas Drama Theatre (now State Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky) was built in 1894-1896 by architect Victor Schr÷ter at Theatre Square:

andcvet

1890s, Greater Intercession Street. Nicholas Drama Theatre (now State Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky) at right side:

andcvet

1900s. Kudryashovs-Chesnokovs's apartment house at Greater Intercession Street:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:55 PM   #3356
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1900s. Greater Intercession Street:

Link

1913, Kremlin-Monastery Line. The building of Gentry Assembly (now House of Culture named after Yakov Sverdlov) at Greater Intercession Street:

Avronn

1913. Greater Intercession Street:

Link

1913, Greater Intercession Street. Vladimir Realschule (now Nizhny Novgorod State University named after Nikolay Lobachevsky - National Research University):

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:55 PM   #3357
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1913, Kremlin-Monastery Line. Intercession Church at Greater Intercession Street, Dmitry Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin on the background:

Wikipedia

1910s. The building of State Bank at Greater Intercession Street was built in 1911-1913 by architect Vladimir Pokrovsky:

Link

1910s. State Bank at Greater Intercession Street:

nd161076

1910s. State Bank (right) at Greater Intercession Street:

Link

1913. State Bank at Greater Intercession Street:

bu33er

1910s. State Bank at Greater Intercession Street:

Link

1910s, State Bank at Greater Intercession Street:

MagicSpark
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:57 PM   #3358
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1900s, New Market Square (now Maxim Gorky Square):

Maxim Dmitriev

1900s, Praise-Prison Line. Tramline at Field Street (now Maxim Gorky Street), Nizhny Novgorod Prison (right) at Prison Square (now Freedom Square):

Link

1900s. The intersection of the Little Intercession Street and St. Elijah Street:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 04:58 PM   #3359
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1910s. Horse-drawn tramline at the beginning of Greater Pechersk Street near Bishop Garden (now Children's Park named after Yakov Sverdlov):

Link

1910s. Bashkirov's House at the intersection of the Greater Pechersk Street and Martynov Street (now Semashko Street):

Link

1910s. Horse-drawn tramline near intersection of the Greater Pechersk Street and Saviour Street (now Labour Street), view from Trinity Church:

Link

1910s. Horse-drawn tramline at Greater Pechersk Street, view from wooden fire watchtower:

Link

1910s. Horse-drawn tramline near intersection of the Greater Pechersk Street and Saviour Street (now Labour Street), view from wooden fire watchtower:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:00 PM   #3360
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The military and revolutionary years. Cessation of tram operation (1914-1919)

Before Revolution, transport system in Nizhny Novgorod had many serious disadvantages.

1) The transport system was consisted of a very different segments (narrow-gauge tramlines, broad-gauge tramlines, horse-drawn tramline, funicular lines). As result, it was necessary to use different rolling stock. For the long trips, the passengers were forced to make few transfers from one kind of transport to another.

2) The was no permanent transport connection between both banks of Oka River. There was used tramline at the temporary pontoon bridge during summer period and "on-ice" tramline during winter period. During other seasons (spring and autumn) tram transportation between two banks of Oka River was stopped. It also happens that it wasn't restored during most of the year. For example, in the spring of 1908 installing of the pontoon bridge was delayed and the first tramcars passed by the bridge only on June 3. During the winter of 1905/1906, "on-ice" tramline was launched only on January 10. Such interruptions of transport communication between the banks were very uncomfortable for passengers.

3) Nizhny Novgorod, one of the major trade and industry centres of Russia, could not develop its tram network established in 1896, for two decades (!) and to spread it beyond the several central (so-called faзade) streets.

According to the Main Tram Treaty of 1895, city authorities had rights to buy tram enterprise in 1914, after 18 years since opening of tram network. Exploitation of tram network was very profitable, and "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" exploited tram network to the limit. For this reason, quality of equipment and rails was constantly deteriorating. On November 14, 1914 city authorities municipalized tram enterprise.

During World War I passenger traffic increased due to refugees and military persons. Despite of the beginning of WWI, in 1915 was raised issue about development of tram network. There was developed plan providing for the reconstruction of all tramlines into double-track lines and the construction of many new lines, including lines to the Myza and Sormovo suburbs. In 1916 city authorities approved a plan to modernize tram network, which was developed by engineer Pavel Sutkevich (1871-1919), the "Father of Electric Tram in Samara". However, it was not realized. Due to the difficulties of war time - lack of materials, personnel, and coal for power stations - the tram network began to fall into decline. Revolution and the Civil War led to economic ruin, which completed the decay of the Nizhny Novgorod Tramway. On May 1, 1919 tram network in Nizhny Novgorod was closed. All 48 tramcars stayed in tram depots for four years. In subsequent years, much of the tram equipment and rolling stock was looted.

Restoration of the tram operation (1919-1923)

However, during World War I there happened few positive changes in Nizhny Novgorod. On August 14, 1915, thanks to Governor Alexey Giers, near the Myza suburb not so far from Nizhny Novgorod, began construction of the telephone plant "Siemens & Halske". It was opened in 1917. Currently known as OJSC "Nitel", it producing radar stations. On January 30, 1916 was established Nizhny Novgorod People's University (now Nizhny Novgorod State University named after Nikolay Lobachevsky - National Research University). In 1915 Warsaw University of Technology (opened on January 4, 1826) was temporarily evacuated to Moscow. Many cities of Russian Empire wanted to place this large university - Odessa, Tbilisi, Saratov, Orenburg, Omsk, Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), Yekaterinodar (now Krasnodar), etc. But finally in 1917 this university was moved to Nizhny Novgorod, where became foundation for establishing of the Nizhny Novgorod University of Technology.

Also, in 1915 two plants were evacuated from Riga to Nizhny Novgorod - "Fцlser" (established in 1874; producing of diesel generators) and "Etna" (established in 1898; producing of nails, wire, rivets, bolts, nuts, etc.). In 1922 these plants were renamed into "Engine of Revolution" and "Red Etna" respectively. In August 1918 was launched first radio station in the city. On February 27, 1919 the first voice transmission was aired by Nizhny Novgorod Radio Laboratory under the leadership of Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich. In 1920 it started a regular broadcast. In 1930s there was discovered phenomenon of cross modulation between two radio waves, one of which is strong, passing through the same part of a medium, especially a conductive region of atmosphere or a plasma. Currently this physical phenomen is known as Luxemburg–Gorky effect.

In 1922, after the end of Russian Civil War, began to revive production at the Nizhny Novgorod factories and plants. During the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920, the Sormovo Plant built armored trains, armored carriages, and weapons for the vessels of the Volga Military Flotilla. In 1920, the factory remanufactured fourteen burnt-out French Renault FT tanks for the Red Army, the "Russkiy Renos", and assembled a single new copy, named "Freedom Fighter Lenin". In 1922, the factory changed its name by appending the adjective Krasnoye (Red) to it. During 1918-1935, another 1111 standard Russian 1524-mm gauge steam locomotives were built there. In 1923 was reopened Nizhny Novgorod Fair (it, however, was ceased in 1930 with the beginning of industrialization as a "hostile social phenomenon").

The revival and development of economic objects in Nizhny Novgorod after the Civil War necessitated the urban transport provision. The tram network was also restored. Due to the large volume of construction works (as result of high wear of the tram equipment), initially expected to hold talks with foreign concessionaires (at the same time was addressed the issue of construction of permanent bridge across the Oka River). However, it was decided to restore tram network by own forces. On August 3, 1923 was reopened tramline between the Rail Terminal and Kremlin Funicular; through Nizhny Novgorod Fair and pontoon bridge across Oka River.

They planned to reopen tram movement at the historical upland part with construction of second track and re-gauging of tramlines from 1000 to 1524 mm. They also wanted to electrify separate horse-drawn tramline and to include it into urban tram network. However, there arose problem with fresh asphalt at the central street - it was a pity to sacrifice it. For this reason, on October 8 it was decided to remove tramline from Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin and to laid it along the Mound Street (now Piskunov Street).

On November 28, 1923 was launched central tramline - along the Greater Pechersk Street, Little Pechersk Street (now Piskunov Street), Mound Street (now Piskunov Street), Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street), May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square), Field Street (now Maxim Gorky Street), Freedom Square and Prison Street (now Maxim Gorky Street). As it was planned, this segment became double-track with broad gauge (1524 mm). For this reason, old Belgian "Oerlikon" tramcars were remade for the using at the 1524-mm tramlines. The only narrow-gauge segment has been between Praise Funicular and the intersection of the Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street) and Yakov Vorobyov Street (now Little Intercession Street); along the Praise Street (now Zalomov Street), Ascension Lane (now Nizhny Novgorod Street) and Gogol Street. At this segment were used five old "Oerlikon" tramcars, which were not remade for broad gauge. Two funiculars were also reopened, although the distance between tramline and upper station of the Kremlin Funicular significantly increased.

Forming of the tram network (1924-1932)

On November 16, 1924 was opened important tramline between Staple area (now People's Unity Square) and Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street); along the Gunpowder Descent. Finally, all Nizhny Novgorod tramlines were directly connected between together. It was not necessary to use funiculars for the transfer between tramlines at the upland and lower parts of the city. Kremlin Funicular continued to operate, but its significance and passenger traffic greatly decreased. For these reasons, it was closed in 1928 due to lack of necessary.

In addition, there began construction of the tramlines to the workers' outskirts. For acceleration of works, some of these tramlines were originally built single-track. The second tracks were built few years later. In 1924 was built tramline from Kanavino suburb to the old Sormovo Rail Terminal (near present-day Sormovo Turn). In 1926 were built two tramlines: 1) from Kanavino to Molitovka settlement (through Lengorodok - Lenin Town living microdistrict), where was located Molitovskaya Flax Mill; 2) from Kanavino to the "Red Etna" Plant.

The extension of the tram network and increasing of passenger traffic required improving of the technical base of the tram enterprise. In 1925 at the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin was launched Kremlin tram depot. It was built in the former Manege building. After this, two tram depots (built in 1896 and 1901) at the Yakov Vorobyov Street (now Little Intercession Street) were closed. There were also opened new workshops at the Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street). However, there still continued to operate old tramcars that were used to open the electric tram traffic in 1896. The situation with rolling stock began to improve after delivering of the old tramcars from Kyiv. Very soon, local Sormovo Plant began to produce own tramcars.

But on January 15, 1926 happened disaster - as result of the fire, was burned Kanavino tram depot (with 16 tramcars) at the left bank of Oka River. During one year, all tramlines in Nizhny Novgorod were served by only Kremlin tram depot. In 1927 Kanavino tram depot was restored. Since 1929 in the workshops began producing of the trailers. In 1930 there was started delivering of the "Kh" tramcars of the Mytishchi Plant near Moscow. After five years at the urban lines began operation of the KM/KP tramcars which were manufactured at the local "Red Sormovo" and Kolomna plants. The other limiting factor was power system. During the long time, tram network supplied from the old Kanavino power station and Pokhvalinskaya (Praise) traction substation. Only since 1931 began building of the new traction substations.

Before 1925, tram operation was managed directly by Provincial Communal Department. In 1925 was established Department of the Tram and Local Shipping, which in 1926 was turned into Nizhniy Novgorod Communal Trust of Mechanical Transport. Tram with funiculars and local shipping got economic independence. The Trust of Mechanical Transport existed till 1934, when Department of Urban Tram was been allocated from it.

On October 10, 1927 was completed construction of the urban tram ring. On November 2, 1927 in the city were opened first municipal bus routes. During the first years, buses carried minor part of passenger traffic, the main kind of transport was tram. In 1928 was ceased operation by the last narrow-gauge tramline - between Praise Funicular and the intersection of the Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street) and Yakov Vorobyov Street (now Little Intercession Street). The history of narrow-gauge transport in the city was over. In 1929 Praise Funicular was also closed and dismantled.

In 1927/1928, passenger traffic of Nizhny Novgorod Tram increased almost in 3.5 times comparing with 1923/1924. About two-thirds of passenger traffic were carried by tram route №1: "Moscow Rail Terminal - pontoon bridge - Cooperative Street (now Nativity Street) - Gunpowder Descent - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square)". There operated 45 motor tramcars and 3 trailers. The average speed of tramcars was 10.3 km/h. The total length of tramlines was 33.07 km (19.69 by axis of streets). There worked 532 employees in Nizhny Novgorod Tram. The total profit from tram operation was 1.471 million rubles while total expenses – 1.299 million rubles.

In 1929 the territory of Nizhny Novgorod was greatly increased. The suburbs of Kanavino and Sormovo as well as other villages and settlements (Gordeevka, Karpovka, Vysokovo, Koposovo, Pochinki, Burnakovka, Knyazhikha, Ratmanikha, Kostarikha, Molitovka, Borzovka, Monastyrka and etc) were incorporated into the territory of city. As result, the city became to divide into districts. Same year Nizhny Novgorod Governorate was abolished, and city became centre of Nizhny Novgorod Region. The territory of Nizhny Novgorod was greatly increased - from 6707 hectares in 1926 to 32662 hectares in 1930. In 1930s Nizhny Novgorod consisted of the city itself and few plants with workers settlement and villages around, separated between each other by vacant lots.

In 1929 was opened new single-track tramline to Myza suburb, along the Arzamas Highway (now Gagarin Avenue) - in 1933 this line became double-track. This tramline was connected with railway at the Myza rail station. Since 1931 it was used for delivering of the cargo wagons to the enterprises, which were located along it and had own branch lines.

In 1928 were opened bus routes in the direction to Sormovo. For this reason, tramline that was built in 1924, become unprofitable. The operation at this tramline was closed, but next year it was reopened again. The reason was rapid growth of the industry in the Sormovo District, which was incorporated into Nizhny Novgorod in 1929. It led to the rapid growth in demand for transportation. Therefore, by May 1, 1931 was built single-track tramline from Kanavino to Sormovo, through Gordeevka and Burnakovka villages, along the Sormovo Highway. In 1932 this line became two-track, near Varya rail station was built branch line to the Baevka settlement (now territory of the "Sokol" Aircraft-Building Plant, which was founded in 1932). In that year Kanavino tram depot was moved to the Gordeevka.

In 1932, city tramcars transported 50.34 mln. people. On the average, every resident rode in tramcar 117 times per year. The total length of tramlines was 66.8 km (33.5 by axis of streets). The number of tram employees increased to 1048 people. On the average (considering new and written-off tramcars), there operated 65.5 motor tramcars and 41.4 trailers in 1932. The average speed of tramcars was 11.3 km/h. The number of tram employees increased to 1048 people. The cost of tram tickets was 10, 15 and 20 kopecks (depending from length of trip) or 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 rubles. In 1932, the total profit from tram operation was 6.553 million rubles while total expenses – 3.321 million rubles.

The scheme of first tramlines, which was made by P. Piskunov during the restoring of the Nizhny Novgorod Tram in 1920s (Red lines - tram and funicular lines, red rectangles - power stations and tram depots):

tramnn
CLICKABLE

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAMLINES (1895-1923)

Left bank of Oka River:
Purple dash-dotted line - tramline, which was built in 1895-1896 by German company "Siemens & Halske AG";
Grey dash-dotted line - tramline, which was built in 1897-1898 by "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting".

River crossing across Oka River:
Yellow thick line - existing Kanavino Bridge;
Blue dotted line - temporary pontoon bridge (approximate location);
Blue line - "on-ice" tramline (approximate location).

Right bank of Oka River:
Purple dash-dotted line - tramlines, which were built in 1895-1896 by firm "Hartmann & Co";
Blue dotted line - additional tramlines, which were built in 1901-1902 by "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting";
Purple line - horse-drawn tramline, which was built in 1907-1908;
Pink line - tramline, which was re-gauged to broad gauge in 1910;
Yellow line - tramline, which was restored and rebuilt to broad gauge in 1923;
Green dotted line - tramline, which was restored with preservation of narrow gauge in 1923.


tramnn
CLICKABLE

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1923:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines (broad gauge - 1524 mm).
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Tramline (narrow gauge - 1000 mm).

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Kanavino - Staple area;
№2: Purveyance Street - Hay Square.



Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1924:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines (broad gauge - 1524 mm).
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Tramline (narrow gauge - 1000 mm).

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Kanavino - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Purveyance Street - Hay Square.



Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1926:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines (broad gauge - 1524 mm).
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Tramline (narrow gauge - 1000 mm).

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Purveyance Street - Hay Square;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - Molitovka settlement;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant.



Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1927:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Praise and Kremlin funiculars.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines (broad gauge - 1524 mm).
Green line on the right bank of Oka River - Tramline (narrow gauge - 1000 mm).

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - Molitovka settlement;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant.



Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1928:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Red line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise Funicular.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines (broad gauge - 1524 mm).

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - Molitovka settlement;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant.



Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAMLINES IN 1929:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - Molitovka settlement;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb.



Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAMLINES IN 1931:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - Molitovka settlement;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District.



Link

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAMLINES IN 1932:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - Molitovka settlement;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District;
№7: Kanavino - Baevka settlement.



Link
__________________

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