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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:03 PM   #3361
geometarkv
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August 3, 1923. Reopening of the Nizhny Novgorod Tram:

sbchf


museum.nnov

1920s, Moscow Street (now Soviet Street). For the first time, tramcars are riding by the double-track line:

sbchf
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:03 PM   #3362
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End of 1920s. "F" tramcar of Sormovo Plant:

tramnn

End of 1920s. "F" tramcar of Sormovo Plant:

tramnn

End of 1920s. Modernized "F" tramcar in Nizhny Novgorod:

tramnn

1927. Modernized "F" tramcar at the cargo tramline to "Red Etna" Plant:

tramnn

Early 1930s. The construction of the second track of the tramline to Myza settlement:

tramnn
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:04 PM   #3363
geometarkv
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In 1932 happened two significant events in the history of the city

1) In that year, Nizhny Novgorod was renamed into Gorky in the honour of Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), who was a great Russian and Soviet author, a founder of the Socialist Realism literary method and a political activist. Maxim Gorky was born in Nizhny Novgorod on March 28, 1868 as Alexey Peshkov and became an orphan at the age of nine. His childhood home is preserved as a museum, known as the Kashirin House, after Alexey's grandfather who owned the place. Gorky was brought up by his grandmother. Her death deeply affected him, and after an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, changing jobs and accumulating impressions used later in his writing. Gorky's first book "Essays and Stories" in 1898 enjoyed a sensational success and his career as a writer began. Gorky wrote incessantly, viewing literature less as an aesthetic practice (though he worked hard on style and form) than as a moral and political act that could change the world. He described the lives of people in the lowest strata and on the margins of society, revealing their hardships, humiliations, and brutalization, but also their inward spark of humani.

Maxim Gorky’s reputation as a unique literary voice from the bottom strata of society and as a fervent advocate of Russia's social, political, and cultural transformation grew. In his writing, he counterposed individuals, aware of their natural dignity, and inspired by energy and will, with people who succumb to the degrading conditions of life around them. Gorky publicly opposed the Imperial regime and was arrested many times. Gorky befriended many revolutionaries and became Lenin's personal friend after they met in 1902. He exposed governmental control of the press. In 1902, Maxim Gorky was elected an honorary Academician of Literature, but Russian Emperor Nicholas II ordered this annulled. In protest, Anton Chekhov and Vladimir Korolenko left the Academy.

From 1906 to 1913, Maxim Gorky lived in Italy on the island of Capri, partly for health reasons and partly to escape the increasingly repressive atmosphere in Russia. An amnesty granted for the 300th anniversary of the Romanov Dynasty allowed Gorky to return to Russia in 1913, where he continued his social criticism, mentored other writers from the common people, and wrote a series of important cultural memoirs, including the first part of his autobiography. During WWI, his apartment in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) was turned into a Bolshevik staff room, and his politics remained close to the Bolsheviks throughout the revolutionary period of 1917. These relations became strained, however, after his newspaper "New Life" fell prey to Bolshevik censorship during the ensuing Civil War, around which time Gorky published a collection of essays critical of the Bolsheviks called "Untimely Thoughts" in 1918. (It would not be re-published in Russia until after the collapse of the Soviet Union). The essays call Lenin a tyrant for his senseless arrests and repression of free discourse, and an anarchist for his conspiratorial tactics; Gorky compares Lenin to both the Emperor and Sergey Nechayev. In October 1921, Maxim Gorky returned to abroad due to ideological differences with the Soviet power and on health grounds: he had tuberculosis.

According to Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Gorky's return to the Soviet Union was motivated by material needs. In Sorrento, Gorky found himself without money and without fame. He visited the USSR several times after 1929, and in 1932 Joseph Stalin personally invited him to return for good, an offer he accepted. Maxim Gorky's return from Fascist Italy was a major propaganda victory for the Soviets. He was decorated with the Order of Lenin and given a mansion (formerly belonging to the millionaire Ryabushinsky, now the Gorky Museum) in Moscow and a cottage in the suburbs. The major street in Moscow (Tver Street) as well as streets in the many other Soviet cities were renamed in his honor. Even during his lifetime, Nizhny Novgorod was renamed Gorky following his return to the Soviet Union. On October 7, 1932, according to Decree of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union, the city of Nizhny Novgorod was renamed into Gorky and Nizhny Novgorod Region was renamed into Gorky Region "to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the literary and social activities of Maxim Gorky". It's known what writer was against this renaming.

1901, Gaspra (Crimea). Three great Russian writers - Leo Tolstoy, Maxim Gorky and Anton Chekhov:

Link

1920, Petrograd (now St. Petersburg). Maxim Gorky and Herbert Wells:

Link

July 1935, Gorki-10 (Moscow Region). Maxim Gorky and Romain Rolland:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:05 PM   #3364
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2) The second significant event was the opening of Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ). It started in 1932 as Nizhny Novgorod Automobile Plant (NAZ), a cooperation between "Ford" and the Soviet Union. Currently it's one of the largest companies in the Russian automotive industry. In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the "Ford Motor Company". Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while "Ford" agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started on January 1, 1932, and the factory and marque was titled "Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod" (Nizhny Novgorod Automobile Plant), or NAZ, but also displayed the "Ford" sign. GAZ's first vehicle was the medium-priced Ford Model A, sold as the NAZ-A, and a light truck, the Ford Model AA (NAZ-AA). NAZ-A production commenced in 1932 and lasted until 1936, during which time over 41.917 examples were built.

In 1933, the factory's name changed to "Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod", or GAZ, when the city was renamed after Maxim Gorky; similarly, models were renamed GAZ-A and GAZ-AA. From 1935 to 1956, the official name was augmented with "imeni Molotova" (literally, named after Vyacheslav Molotov). The GAZ-A was succeeded by the more modern GAZ M1 (based largely on the four cylinder version of the Ford Model B), produced from 1936 to 1942. The M letter stands for Molotovets ('of Molotov's fame'), it was the origin of the car's nickname, M'ka ("Emka").

GAZ-A (licensed version of Ford Model A), the first vehicle of Gorky Automobile Plant (produced in 1932-1936):

Link

GAZ-AA (licensed version of Ford Model AA), the first light truck of Gorky Automobile Plant (produced in 1932-1950):

Link


February 1, 1930. First Soviet "Ford" at the first assembly shop of the Automobile Plant:

Shade

February 1, 1930. July Days Street. First Soviet "Ford" at the first assembly shop of the Automobile Plant:

MagicSpark
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:06 PM   #3365
geometarkv
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November 1, 1931. The solemn meeting dedicated to the end of construction of the NAZ (Nizhny Novgorod Automobile Plant), now GAZ (Gorky Automobile Plant):

Shade

December 10, 1932. The production of GAZ-A vehicle:

Shade

1932. The first production of the NAZ (Nizhny Novgorod Automobile Plant), now GAZ (Gorky Automobile Plant) - GAZ-AA light trucks:

MEGA78

1933. The first cars made at Automobile Plant goes to Moscow:

gen444
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:07 PM   #3366
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The further forming of tram network (1933-1941)

In 1930s and 1940s Gorky city was known as "Soviet Detroit". There was demand for the transportation between large enterprise and central part of the city. On April 1, 1933 was opened double-track tramline from October Revolution Street to the entrances of GAZ Plant, along the Auto Plant Highway (now Lenin Avenue). In the summer of 1933 was opened parallel tramline from Molitovka settlement to the two plants - "Engine of Revolution" and Machine-Tool Plant.

There were no permanent bridges over the Volga or Oka before the October Revolution of 1917. The construction of first bridge over the Volga River was started by the Moscow-Kazan Railway Company in 1914, but only finished in the Soviet Era when the railway to Kotelnich town was opened for service in 1927.

In 1930s was solved problem of the permanent transport communication between two banks of Oka River. On May 1, 1933 was opened tramline at the new permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge), which was built in 1930-1933 to replace seasonal pontoon bridge across Oka River. By November 7, 1933 was opened tramline to the Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge) - from May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square); along the Spinning Street (now Maslyakov Street) and newly-reconstructed Komsomol Descent (now Praise Descent).

In 1934-1935 was taken a pause in the expansion of the tram network. However, during these years were actively repaired and reconstructed the old tracks and other constructions, there was completed construction of the second tracks to the single-track lines. In addition, there were modernized communications and power system. After increasing of the number of tramcars, were organized additional routes at the existing tramlines. There was started construction of the Plant of Repairment of Wagons, which was completed in 1940.

In 1936 tramline to the Gorky Automobile Plant was extended along the Kirov Avenue to the living massives of Sotsgorod (Social town). In 1938 from this line was built branch tramline to the Malyshevo settlement. Next year it was extended to the Gnilitsy settlement.

In 1938, at the upland part of Gorky, tramlines were moved from the major Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street) to the Dobrolyubov Street and Red Fleet Street (now St. Elijah Street). In 1941 began construction of the new tramline along the Moscow Highway to the Vtorcermet settlement. However, this construction was interrupted by beginning of the Great Patriotic War.

During the Soviet years, Gorky turned into large industrial and transport centre of the country. Its population greatly increased - from 185 thousand people in 1926 to 431 thousand people in 1932 and 644 thousand people in 1939. Prior to beginning of WWII, Gorky was the most populous city of Volga Region and the third most populous city in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic after Moscow and Leningrad (now St. Petersburg).

During 18 years - since the restoring of the tram operation till beginning of the Great Patriotic War - the total length of tram network and passenger traffic increased in dozens of times. There were built new lines from the city centre to the former suburban workers' settlement. The big success was construction of the "mountain" tramlines along the Gunpowder Descent and Komsomol Descent (now Praise Descent), as well as construction of the permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge) across Oka River. As result, there eliminated the need for funiculars, and two tram networks at the upland and lower part were combined into one system. Electrical equipment replenished with new traction substations based on the mercury rectifiers electric current, antiquated motor-generators became part of the past. There was also updated rolling stock - old "Oerlikon" tramcars were replaced with modern for that time tramcars of the Sormovo and Mytishchi plants. There were launched new tram depot at Gordeevka and new Plant of Repairment of Wagons. During these years, was laid the foundation of the urban tram network. By 1941, there were 10 tram routes, three of which were been between two banks of Oka River.

THE SCHEME OF GORKY TRAMLINES IN 1933:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Engine of Revolution" Plant;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District;
№7: Kanavino - Baevka settlement;
№8: Moscow Rail Terminal - Eastern settlement;
№9: Moscow Rail Terminal - May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square).



Link

THE SCHEME OF GORKY TRAMLINES IN 1934:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Engine of Revolution" Plant;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District;
№7: Kanavino - Baevka settlement;
№8: Moscow Rail Terminal - Eastern settlement;
№9: Moscow Rail Terminal - May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square).



Link

THE SCHEME OF GORKY TRAMLINES IN 1935:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Engine of Revolution" Plant;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District;
№7: Kanavino - Baevka settlement;
№8: Moscow Rail Terminal - Eastern settlement;
№9: Moscow Rail Terminal - May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square);
№10: Moscow Rail Terminal - Staple area;
№11: Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge) - Staple area.



Link

THE SCHEME OF GORKY TRAMLINES IN 1936:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Engine of Revolution" Plant;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District;
№7: Kanavino - Baevka settlement;
№8: Moscow Rail Terminal - Eastern settlement;
№9: Moscow Rail Terminal - May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square);
№10: Moscow Rail Terminal - Staple area;
№11: Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge) - Staple area;
№12: Moscow Rail Terminal - Sotsgorod (Social town).



Link

THE SCHEME OF GORKY TRAMLINES IN 1938:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Engine of Revolution" Plant;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District;
№7: Kanavino - Baevka settlement;
№8: Moscow Rail Termianl - Eastern settlement - Malyshevo settlement;
№9: Moscow Rail Terminal - May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square);
№10: Moscow Rail Terminal - Staple area;
№11: Staple area - Eastern settlement;
№12: Moscow Rail Terminal - Sotsgorod (Social town).



Link

THE SCHEME OF GORKY TRAMLINES IN 1939-1946:
Brown lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.
Blue lines on the left and right bank of Oka River - Tramlines.

TRAM ROUTES:
№1: Moscow Rail Terminal - Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square);
№2: Urban Tram Ring;
№3: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Engine of Revolution" Plant;
№4: Moscow Rail Terminal - "Red Etna" Plant;
№5: May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square) - Myza suburb;
№6: Kanavino - Sormovo District;
№7: Kanavino - Baevka settlement;
№8: Eastern settlement - Gnilitsy settlement;
№9: Moscow Rail Terminal - May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square);
№10: Moscow Rail Terminal - Staple area;
№11: Staple area - Eastern settlement;
№12: Moscow Rail Terminal - Sotsgorod (Social town).



Link

SCHEME OF THE NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAMLINES:
Purple lines - tramlines in 1941;
Blue lines - tramlines, which were built during 1941-1960;
Dotted blue lines - tramlines, which were dismantled during 1941-1960;
Orange lines - tramlines, which were built during 1961-1990;
Dotted orange lines - tramlines, which were dismantled during 1961-1990;
Yellow lines - tramlines, which were projected for construction during previous years;
Yellow circles - tram stops (not all);
Big yellow circles - terminus tram stops;
Yellow squares - tram depots.


tramnn
CLICKABLE
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:08 PM   #3367
geometarkv
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1930s, Chelyuskinites Square (now Revolution Square) near Moscow Rail Terminal. House-commune of Railwayman (so-called "Clothing iron") at left side (built in 1929-1934):

BorodaMCMXXCII

1930s. Chelyuskinites Square (now Revolution Square):

Avronn

1920s-1930s. Demonstration near Moscow Rail Terminal:

p0dnike

1930. The beginning of the construction of living massives of Sotsgorod (Social town) near the Nizhny Novgorod Automobile Plant (now Gorky Automobile Plant - GAZ):

spider123

1937, Sotsgorod (Social town). The intersection of the Kirov Avenue and Stalin Avenue (now October Avenue):

spider123

1938. The tramline at the Kirov Avenue in Sotsgorod (Social town):

spider123

Sotsgorod (Social town). Radius House (built in 1935-1937) near Gorky Automobile Plant:

автозавод
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:09 PM   #3368
geometarkv
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1900s-1910s. Tramline on the pontoon bridge across Oka River:

nizhnyfoto

1900s-1910s. View at the pontoon bridge and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral:

nizhnyfoto

1920s. View to the pontoon bridge:

andcvet
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:10 PM   #3369
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1920s. Pontoon bridge across Oka River:

Link

1930-1931. Beginning of the construction of the permanent Oka Bridge, now Kanavino Bridge (left) near temporary pontoon bridge (right):

spider123

1930-1931. Beginning of the construction of the permanent Oka Bridge, now Kanavino Bridge (left) near temporary pontoon bridge (right):

Link

1931. Beginning of the construction of the permanent Oka Bridge, now Kanavino Bridge (left) near temporary pontoon bridge (right):

spider123

1932. The construction of the Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

PAUchoK

1932. Oka Bridge, now Kanavino Bridge (left) and pontoon bridge (right):

Boroda MCMXXCII

Early 1930s. Construction of the Komsomol Descent (now Praise Descent) for installation of tramline to the Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

contemplatio
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:11 PM   #3370
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1932-1933. The construction of the Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

spider123

1932-1933. The construction of the Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

Link

1932-1933. The construction of the Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

Link

1933. The testing of the Oka Bridge (Kanavino Bridge) before its opening:

spider123
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:11 PM   #3371
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May 1, 1933. The opening of tramline at the new permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

spider123

May 1, 1933. The opening of tramline at the new permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

spider123

May 1933. Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

PAUchoK
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:12 PM   #3372
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1933. Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

spider123

1935. Tramline at Komsomol Descent (now Praise Descent):

MagicSpark

1935. Oka Embankment, view to the permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge) and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral:

Link

1935. Tramline at the permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

Link

1935. Tramline at the permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

PAUchoK

1937. Water sport station "Dynamo" near Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

Link

1930s. Tramline at the permanent Oka Bridge (now Kanavino Bridge):

p0dnike
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:12 PM   #3373
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1920s, Cooperative Street (now Nativity Street):

romires

1920s, Cooperative Street (now Nativity Street). "F" tramcar of Sormovo Plant:

АЛЕКСАНЧЕГ

1930s. Cooperative Street (now Nativity Street):

MagicSpark

1930s. Cooperative Street (now Nativity Street):

Link

1930s. Tramline near the Church of the Synaxis of Our Lady at Cooperative Street (now Nativity Street):

PAUchoK
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:13 PM   #3374
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1920s, Kremlin Funicular. Portal of the tunnel:

spider123

1929. Kremlin tram depot, which was opened in 1925 at the former Manege building:

tramnn

1920s. New tramline at Gunpowder Descent:

PAUchok

1930s. Gunpowder Descent:

MagicSpark

1930s. Gunpowder Descent:

MagicSpark

1933. Gunpowder Descent:

MagicSpark

1935. Gunpowder Descent:

MagicSpark

1933. Gunpowder Descent:

Link
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:14 PM   #3375
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Belinsky Street:

[p0d]NikE

1920s. Field Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

[p0d]NikE

1930s, Soviet Square (now Minin & Pozharsky Square). Dmitry Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin on the background:

Link

1930s. Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

MagicSpark

1930s. Tramcar at the intersection of the Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street) and MOPR Street (now Piskunov Street):

PAUchoK

1934-1937, Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street). Gorky Regional Drama Theatre (now State Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky) at Theatre Square:

Link

1930s. Gorky Regional Drama Theatre (now State Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky) at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

Link

1935. Gorky Regional Drama Theatre (now State Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky) at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

MEGA78

1930s. Hotel "Intourist" at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

Link

1935. Hotel "Intourist" at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

Link

1938. Gorky Regional Drama Theatre (now State Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky) at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

[p0d]NikE
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:15 PM   #3376
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1920s. House of Culture named after Yakov Sverdlov at the intersection of the Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street) and October Street:

[p0d]NikE

1930s. Tramline at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street) near "Dynamo" Stadium:

spider123

1930s. State Bank at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

MagicSpark

1932. State Bank at Sverdlov Street (now Greater Intercession Street):

PAUchoK

End of 1920s. The laying of telephone cabel at Mound Street (now Piskunov Street):

Link

1933. The construction of the House of Communication at the May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square):

p0dnike

1937. House of Communication (Central Post Office) at the May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square):

p0dnike

1940. Athletes at the May Day Square (now Maxim Gorky Square):

PAUchoK
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:16 PM   #3377
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1930s. MOPR Street (now Piskunov Street) named after MOPR (International Red Aid) organization:

gen444

1935. Pioneer Palace at the intersection of Ulyanov Street and MOPR Street (now Piskunov Street):

Link

1935. Pioneer Palace at the intersection of Ulyanov Street and MOPR Street (now Piskunov Street):

etoretro

1930s. Tramcar at the route №2 "Urban ring":

spider123

"Kh" tramcar №12 at the route №2 "Urban ring":

PAUchoK

August 26, 1958. "Kh" tramcar №30 at the route №2 "Urban ring":

BorodaMCMXXCII
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Old March 27th, 2014, 05:17 PM   #3378
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1939 - Gorky Children's Railway

A children's railway is an extracurricular educational institution, where teenagers learn railway professions. This phenomenon originated in the USSR and was greatly developed in Soviet times. At the breakup of the USSR, 52 children's railways existed in the country.

The world's first children's railway was opened in Moscow, at Gorky Park in 1932. It, however, was used mainly for entertainment purposes rather than educational. It was electrified, closed in late 1930s and then forgotten. The world's first permanent children's railway was opened on June 24, 1935 in Tbilisi, Georgia. Some later were opened children's railways in other Soviet cities - Krasnoyarsk (1936), Gomel (Belarus, 1936), Kratovo (Moscow Region, 1937), Yerevan (Armenia, 1937) and Melitopol (Ukraine, 1937). On November 8, 1939 were opened children's railways in two Russian cities - Gorky and Irkutsk.

The Gorky Minor Railway named after Maxim Gorky:
Opened: November 8, 1939;
Full length: 11.2 km;
Length of the main line: 9.1 km;
3 stations: "Rodina", "Pushkinskaya", "Schastlivaya", halt: "Mayakovskaya";
Rolling stock: two steam locomotives of 63-type, one steam locomotive Kp-4-430;
Signalling and communications: Electric token ring system, telephone, line telegraphy;
Engineering works: bridge over Rzhavka River (14 m.); a turntable at "Rodina" station; a reversing triangle at "Schastlivaya" station.

The decision to construct the children's railway was approved on May 13, 1939 by the Gorky regional planning committee of Communist party VKP(b). Already on May 15, the committee of assistance to construction, of which the first secretary of the planning committee Alexey Shakhurin became chairman, was created. The date of October 1, 1939 was set for completion of construction. Design and exploration work began, which were carried out within the deadlines by design group of service of the Gorky Railway together with architectural-planning management of Gorky.

Construction actually began on May 30, 1939. Like all the other pre-war children's railways, the Gorky Children's Railway was construction by the "Komsomol Subbotnik" method. In total more than 36 thousand persons took part in its construction; not only the townspeople, but also inhabitants of neighboring villages, working voluntarily on the rest-day from their normal job.

At the terminal stations, "Rodina" ("Motherland") and "Schastlivaya" ("Happy"), two most beautiful vestibules were erected in accordance with the plans of the architects Alexander Yakovlev and Anisimov. The two-storeyed station building topped with a round turret at "Rodina" was more than 40 metres long. On the building's ground floor were the bureau of the duty station chief, a waiting room, ticket offices, an information bureau, buffet, a first-aid post and bookstalls. On the second floor were the technical training rooms for use by study groups, the controller's office and a broadcasting centre, and - in the turret - a museum of the history of railway transportation.

At the intermediate stations, "Pushkinskaya" ("Alexander Pushkin") and "Mayakovskaya" ("Vladimir Mayakovsky"), less grandiose but not less beautiful wooden station buildings were constructed according to the plans by the architect Bazhan. So, "Pushkinskaya" station was designed to embody fairy tale themes, with carved fantasy scenes. Indeed, a team of the best carpenters from the Borisoglebsky collective farm named after Komintern worked on creating it.

The first train ran on the Gorky Minor Railway on November 8, 1939. The railway was equipped with advanced communication facilities and the signalling system of those times. Telephone, cable, teletype communications were available. The movement of trains was carried out using the electric token ring system. The line had a well-equipped steam loco and carriage depot with inspection pits and repair shops, to which the name Valery Chkalov was given.

Under special order the Gorky carriage depot constructed 12 coaches with soft seats equipped like the trains of the Moscow Metro for the Children's Railway. And the "Red Sormovo" Plant specially prepared two steam locomotives of type 63/65, by enclosing their boiler in a streamlined cowl. This streamlined design has made these steam locomotives resemble the very popular type of steam locomotive of those years, the IS - Joseph Stalin. On the Children's Railway they were designated LK-01 and LK-02 (Lasar Kaganovich). Apparently, the cowls were removed later; at least in later photos they are not so visible.

The 9.1-km long Children's railway connected the Kanavino with the Avtozavodsky District. In those years, the tramline that ran roughly parallel to it was very heavily overloaded, and so the townspeople began to use the Children's Railway as an alternative kind of municipal transport. In only the first year of operation the line carried more than 100 thousand passengers. For this reason the Gorky Children's Railway was repeatedly accused of excessive commercialisation and exploitation of child labour to the detriment of ideological and political education of young people. In those years that was a rather serious accusation and, to avoid its consequences, the line's management gradually began to reduce the young railwaymen's range of duties.

The original scheme of the Gorky Children's Railway (1939). Four stations (from left to right) - "Rodina", "Mayakovskaya", "Pushkinskaya" and "Schastlivaya":

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"Pushkinskaya" ("Alexander Pushkin") station:

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"Rodina" ("Motherland") station:

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"Schastlivaya" ("Happy") station:

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1930s. Steam locomotive is passing the bridge across Rzhavka River:

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Old March 28th, 2014, 05:10 AM   #3379
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Thanks,Aleksey!wonderful thread!
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Old March 28th, 2014, 11:33 AM   #3380
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Excellent!
Thank you very much!

regards from Zagreb, Croatia
toma
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