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Old April 1st, 2014, 02:55 PM   #3381
geometarkv
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SOVIET STANDARD TRAMCARS OF THE INTERWAR PERIOD (1920-1940)

Before October Revolution 1917, majority of the tram enterprises in Russia belonged to private companies, including foreign ones. Therefore, there were used different types of tramcars, including those tramcars that previously operated in European cities. Since 1920s all tramcars of the country have been standardized. There were few standard types of tramcars that operated in all cities of Soviet Union.

In the museum of Urban Electric Transport of Nizhny Novgorod preserved some exemplars as well as replica of rarity tramcars. On the example of Nizhny Novgorod, we can talk about the types of tramcars that operated during that period in Russian/Soviet cities.


September 10, 2005. Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the Nizhny Novgorod tram depot №1. Museum site:

Сергей Орлов

September 16, 2009. General view of the museum site at the Nizhny Novgorod tram depot №1:

Сергей Филатов

June 22, 2010. General view of the museum site at the Nizhny Novgorod tram depot №1:

Шпекавыг

Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the tram depot №1. The models of the old tramcars of Nizhny Novgorod:

Сергей Орлов
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Old April 1st, 2014, 02:57 PM   #3382
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"OERLIKON" TRAMCARS

Manufacturer: "Oerlikon";
Country: Belgium;
First year in Nizhny Novgorod: 1896;
Year of the "write-off" of last tramcar in Nizhny Novgorod: 1929-1932;
Number of tramcars, which operated in Nizhny Novgorod: near 15;
Number of tramcars in the museum of Urban Electric Transport: none;
Seating capacity: 14;
Total capacity: near 30;
Length: near 8.0 meters;
Width: near 1.6 meters;
Gauge: 1000 mm;
System of control: Direct;
Type of brake: hand-driven rim-block mechanical and electrical emergency;
Maximal speed: near 20 km/h.

"Oerlikons" in Nizhny Novgorod

Written by Anatoly Sorokin

At the turn of 19th and at the beginning of 20th century, building and exploitation of tramlines in many cities of the Russian Empire were carried out by Belgian shareholders and concessioners. The tramlines they constructed were noted for technical and organizational points, for example the track was 1000 mm. It is natural that the rolling stock for the tramlines was ordered from and manufactured at Belgian engineering enterprises. One of those was "Oerlikon" company that manufactured a diversity of technical equipment, the most famous of which was weaponry. Suffice it to say that during the Great Patriotic War and prior to it, any 20-mm automatic rapid-fire arms was called "oerlikon", irrespective of its manufacturer (in the same way the name of "Xerox" company became the synonym of any copier). However, half a century before, the aforesaid engineering plant also produced tramcars that operated in many cities of the country up to the 1930s.

Technically, "Oerlikon" tramcars built in the mid-1890s were two-axle bilateral cars for 1000-mm track. The front and rear door platforms were open, there was a controller and hand-drive brakes and a hand driven sandbox device. The saloon was separated from the platforms by partition-walls with a door in their central part for the passengers to board and exit the tram. The seats were located along the walls of the hull lengthwise facing the engine. The tram driver worked in the standing position, moving from one end of the car to the other when the travel direction was changed. The running gear included a two-axle bogie with rim block brakes, which were hand driven. There was an electric brake as well, but it was seldom used in Nizhny Novgorod, only in case of emergency stop. Only single motor "Oerlikon" tramcars were used in Nizhny Novgorod. Apart from the aforesaid electric break, non-hauling equipment of "Oerlikons" included devices of exterior and interior electric lighting. They were equipped with a rod-type current receiver with a roller going under the wire (so the Nizhny Novgorod tram network employees started to call "Oerlikons" "rollikons"). The rod often fell off the trolley wire, and at terminus stations it had to be manually thrown over in the reverse direction of the traffic route. In general, the tramcar structure was so simple that could be called primitive, which was more an advantage than a disadvantage for those times.

During pre-revolutionary times, "Oerlikons" operated only in the upland part of the city along the lines owned by concessioner von Hartmann (also one or two tramcars of that type operated along the winter tram track over the ice of the Oka River). After the onset of First World War the tram was bought by the City Council (originally von Hartmann concluded concession agreement up to 1931) and remained municipalized until May 1, 1919, when the traffic ceased due to the total devastation of the municipal facilities and services. By that time all "Oerlikons" were completely run down, many tramcars had been operating along the tramlines since 1896 and they had not undergone essential maintenance.

Rehabilitation after the civil-war devastation included startup of tram traffic. However, though tram tracks were successfully reconstructed, the rolling stock left much to be desired - in 1923 the country had no enterprises capable of manufacturing new tramcars. Therefore, the Nizhny Novgorod tram network employees made the most of their current resources. As for the upland part of the city, it was decided to alter the gauge of the tram road from 1000 mm to standard 1524 mm, but there was no rolling stock available. They solved the problem having completely overhauled the running gear of narrow-gauge "Oerlikons" and having replaced the wheel pairs by new ones that fitted the 60-inch gauge. Traction motors were also completely overhauled. Such overhauled "Oerlikons" started to operate along the tramlines of the upland part of the city on November 28, 1923.

However, irrespective of the wheel pair changing, the drawbacks of "Oerlikon" running gears remained intact, including such major drawbacks as hand brakes and troublesome sandbox construction. Sandbox hoses required constant cleaning-up, and tram drivers performing the said operation in winter often got severely frostbitten. But in 1925 new lantern two-axels of the "Red Sormovo" Plant appeared in the city, and two years later the Mytishchi Plant near Moscow put "proper" motor tramcar of "Kh" series and trailer of "M" series into mass production. In 1928 those tramcars started to operate at Nizhny Novgorod streets. As soon as the number of the new stock became sufficient for serving of all upland lines, "Oerlikons" were immediately excluded from the rolling stock in the late 1920s. Some components of write-off "Oerlikons" (for instance, side panels of the hull) were used to construct modernized lantern tramcars built by the Nizhny Novgorod tram network employees with technical assistance of the "Red Sormovo" Plant.

Five narrow-gauge "Oerlikons" were used in the part of the city containing the last 1000-mm track along Yakov Vorobyov Street (now Little Intercession Street). However, at the beginning 1930s, due to the startup of the tramline along Praise Descent and due to the closure of the funicular with the same name, tram traffic along the street ceased. Nowadays there are not even any signs of the former tramline.

As at that time nobody thought of the possible museum value of "Oerlikons", they were destroyed and used as scrap metal along with all write-off pre-revolutionary-built tramcars. No authentic (or even redesigned) "Oerlikon" tramcar preserved to this day in Nizhny Novgorod.

The existing replica of the historical tram, which called "Oerlikon" even by the employees of "Nizhegorodelectrotrans", is "Oerlikon" by no means. Its running gear was borrowed from a very old (the early 1920s) BF tramcar taken from Noginsk. The hull was also reconstructed approximately on the basis of pre-revolutionary trams of the "Red Sormovo" Plant for making the film "Forbidden people" directed by Gleb Panfilov (based on Maxim Gorky's novel "Mother", it got 1990 Cannes Film Festival's Award for Best Artistic Contribution). Consequently, it would be right to name this item of museum rolling stock with the oldest running gear in the city just a replica of the historical tram without any link with the tramcar types existing at that period of time.

Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the tram depot №1. Model of "Oerlikon" tramcar:

Сергей Филатов

Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the tram depot №1. Model of "Oerlikon" tramcar:

Сергей Орлов

Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the tram depot №1. Model of "Oerlikon" tramcar:

Рома
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Old April 1st, 2014, 02:58 PM   #3383
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Episodes with tramcar from the Gleb Panfilov's film "Forbidden people" (1990) based on Maxim Gorky's novel "Mother" (1906-1907). It's dedicated to the non-fictional revolutionary struggle of the workers of Sormovo Plant for their human rights.



1900s. "Oerlikon" tramcar at the intersection of Greater Intercession Street and Little Intercession Street:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day, replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar (so-called "Oerlikon") in Nizhny Novgorod:

Евгений Хвалынский

September 12, 2004. City Day, replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at Belinsky Street:

Евгений Хвалынский

September 10, 2005. Saloon of the replica:

Сергей Орлов

September 10, 2005. Replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Сергей Орлов

December 16, 2006. Saloon of the so-called "Oerlikon" tramcar:

Антон Буслов

December 16, 2006. Trailer to the replica of "Oerlikon" tramcar at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Антон Буслов

December 16, 2006. Replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Антон Буслов
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:01 PM   #3384
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June 29, 2007. Replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the tram depot №1:

Артём Светлов

June 29, 2007. Trailer to the replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the tram depot №1:

Артём Светлов

November 21, 2009. Replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the tram depot №1:

Евгений Куйбышев

November 21, 2009. Replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the tram depot №1:

Евгений Куйбышев

November 21, 2009. Trailer to the replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the tram depot №1:

Евгений Куйбышев

May 26, 2011. Replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar at the tram depot №1:

Сергей Филатов

May 26, 2011. Trailer to the replica of historical pre-revolutionary tramcar, decorated to the 115th anniversary of Nizhny Novgorod Tram:

Сергей Филатов
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:02 PM   #3385
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"F" TRAMCARS OF PUTILOV PLANT

Manufacturer: Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant), St. Petersburg;
Country: Russian Empire;
First year in Nizhny Novgorod: 1896;
Year of the "write-off" of last tramcar in Nizhny Novgorod: 1929-1932;
Number of tramcars, which operated in Nizhny Novgorod: near 25;
Number of tramcars in the museum of Urban Electric Transport: none;
Seating capacity: 16;
Total capacity: near 30;
Length: near 8.5 meters;
Width: near 1.7 meters;
Gauge: 1524 mm;
System of control: Direct;
Type of brake: hand mechanical;
Maximal speed: near 20 km/h.

Lantern tramcars of the Putilov Plant

Written by Anatoly Sorokin

Nowadays Belgian tramcars of "Oerlikon" company are the most famous of the Nizhny Novgorod pre-revolutionary tramcars, partly due to the fact that they were the most popular in tramway economy of that age, and partly due to the Nizhny Novgorod museum replica based on a later BF tramcar, which got the name "Oerlikon" for no serious reasons at all. In fact, the replica looks more like lantern tramcars of the Putilov Plant in St. Petersburg at the close of 19th century; those lantern tramcars were the first to start tram traffic in Nizhny Novgorod on May 20, 1896.

From the point of view of their design, these motor tramcars differed little from "Oerlikons", except for the track – they were intended for work on a 60-inch (1524 mm) wide track ("Oerlikons" - 1000 mm). In other respects they were very much alike – open platforms, primitive handbrakes, rod-type current receiver. External distinctions include different number and different shape of cabin windows in "Oerlikons" and the Putilov Plant tramcars. The first had five top-round-headed windows alongside, and the latter had six windows of conventional rectangular type (the same as the existing replica). The Putilov Plant tramcars had no headlamps; there were two searchlights instead, the searchlights were suspended from bottom to the roof of both tramcar platforms. The platforms were smaller than those of "Oerlikons", they had flatter guard rail ending almost right at the beginning of the side deck. However, it allowed of making a more spacious passenger saloon that occupied a much longer part of the Putilov Plant tramcar as compared to "Oerlikons". There was a small superstructure with low window glass on both sides – a so-called "lantern", hence the name of this series - "F" ("Lantern" mean "Fonarny" in Russian). As for its dimensions, the "lantern" of the Putilov plant tramcars was considerably less than that of the later Sormovo Plant tramcars. The "lantern" was quite useless in terms of saloon lighting as its glasses were shuttered with advertising panels on both sides of the tramcar roof. These peculiarities made it possible to clearly distinguish between the two types of tramcars in the photos of pre-revolutionary Nizhny Novgorod. Besides, unlike "Oerlikons", many tramcars of the Putilov Plant functioned with trailers of various structures (mostly open-top or half-open ones).

Since prior to the Revolution the tram network was divided into two parts of different track width, the Putilov Plant cars operated only at the left bank of Oka River and at Nativity Street. The travel line was almost similar to former tram route №1 except the part of Gunpowder Descent: Moscow Rail Terminal - Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) - Nizhny Novgorod Fair - pontoon bridge (situated closer to confluence of the Oka and the Volga than contemporary Kanavino Bridge) - Nativity Street - Staple area (transfer to the Kremlin Funicular).

When the Nizhny Novgorod tram sector had been restored after civil-war devastation, the Putilov Plant tramcars were again the first to start the traffic on August 3, 1923. As there was no necessity to alter the gauge, repairs of the Putilov Plant tramcars were completed much earlier than repairs of "Oerlikons" in the upland part of the city. In mid-1920s, the tramcars started to operate along newly-railed tramlines to Lengorodok (future tram route №3) and to upland part of the city along Gunpowder Descent. However, irrespective of the completed repairs, old Putilov Plant tramcars were removed of service as new Sormovo Plant lantern tramcars and afterwards standard "Kh" tramcars were received. Their components were partly used to make modernization lantern tramcars in the mid 1920s. By the end of the said decade, there were no originally-built tramcars of the Putilov Plant in the Nizhny Novgorod tram depots. However, the existing replica reproduces to a great extent the Putilov Plant car (the same track, six windows alongside, searchlight imitation and ability to operate with a trailer), and far better than "Oerlikon", though it is wrongly called this name nowadays. But the replica can by no means be considered the adequate imitation as the railing of the platforms and the ratio of the saloon length and the total length of the car are totally different from the Putilov Plant lantern tramcar.

1890s. "F" tramcar of Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant) on the pontoon bridge across Oka River:

tramnn

"F" tramcar of Putilov Plant (left) in Nizhny Novgorod. At the right - unidentified type of tramcar (maybe, this is pre-revolutionary tramcar of "Wl. Gostyński and Co" in Warsaw):

tramnn

1890s. "F" tramcar of Putilov Plant (now Kirov Plant) at Nativity Street in Nizhny Novgorod. Sts. Cosmas and Damian Church on the background:

tramnn
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:04 PM   #3386
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MODERNIZED "F" TRAMCARS

Manufacturers: Nizhny Novgorod Tram enterprise and "Red Sormovo" Plant, Nizhny Novgorod;
Country: Soviet Union;
Years of exploitation in Nizhny Novgorod: 1925 - end of 1930s;
Length: near 8.5 meters;
Width: near 1.6 meters;
Gauge: 1524 mm;
System of control: Direct;
Type of brake: hand mechanical;
Maximal speed: near 20 km/h.

"Last service" of pre-revolutionary lantern tramcars

Written by Anatoly Sorokin

After the tram traffic had been renewed in Nizhny Novgorod in 1923, the most urgent issue was to change the completely worn-out rolling stock of pre-revolutionary times. The wheel pair changing could only prolong the service life only on several years and was a temporary solution in the absence of new tramcars. In 1925, the tram sector of the city received 20 new lantern tramcars from the "Red Sormovo" Plant. And at the same time the first renumbering of the rolling stock took place. New tramcars got the numbers from 1 to 20. However, as the length of tram network became considerably longer, the tramcars could only partially solve the problem.

At those times a large-scale production of tramcars was not yet organized in the country, and the "Red Sormovo" Plant was overburden with various orders aimed at the enhancement of national military capability, and those for railway transport and water transport. Though small lots of tramcars were still produced, the tramcars were supplied to other cities. The problem related to the lack of rolling stock had to be solved by the Nizhny Novgorod tram network employees, and it was successfully solved through upgrading of pre-revolutionary tramcars.

Apparently, running gears of the Putilov Plant tramcars with replaced wheel pairs and traction engines were used as the basis for the rebuilt tramcars. The hull was completely changed – it looked very much alike the hull of lantern tramcars of the Sormovo Plant. The platforms were identical, there was some difference in the side panels of passenger saloon (their appearance and design were similar to those of "Oerlikon" components; they might even have been taken from there). Another distinction was that the width of the modernized tramcar was less as compared to the lantern tramcar of the Sormovo Plant. Lanterns and bow collectors of the tramcar types in question were very similar, almost identical. It is rather logically considered that the Nizhny Novgorod tram network employees had bought a set of hull components and electrical equipment from the Sormovo Plant and adapted them to the pre-revolutionary tramcar base.

On the other hand, the "inside" of modernized tramcars remained the same. Instead of pneumatics (like it was at lantern tramcars of the Somovo Plant) they had the same handbrake, with all its consequences for the driver. Though the labour conditions of the driver had been improved to some extent (the platforms became half-open and were glazed in the front), on the whole the tramcar was at the same level as at the beginning of the 20th century. The modernized tramcars, received by the Nizhny Novgorod tram sector, had the numbers from 21 and upwards, they operated till the early (or no longer than till the mid) 1930s. As the standard "Kh"-series tramcars arrived, the modernized tramcars were excluded from the inventory rolling stock of the tram sector. None of the tramcars was preserved to this day.

1927. Modernized "F" tramcar at the cargo line to "Red Etna" Plant:

tramnn

"F" TRAMCARS OF SORMOVO PLANT

Manufacturer: Sormovo Plant (since 1922 - "Red Sormovo" Plant), Nizhny Novgorod;
Country: Russian Empire (till 1917), Soviet Union (since 1925);
Years of manufacturing: 1912(?)-1917, 1925-1928(?);
Years of exploitation: 1912(?) (since 1925 in Nizhny Novgorod) - 1949 (?);
Seating capacity: 24;
Total capacity: near 100;
Length: near 10.0 meters;
Width: near 2.1 meters;
Gauge: 1524 mm;
Type of brake: hand mechanical and rim-block pneumatical;
Maximal speed: near 40 km/h.

The Sormovo Lantern Tramcars

Written by Anatoly Sorokin

Development of the Nizhny Novgorod tram in the early Soviet era was not limited to its restart in 1923. During several subsequent years the length of tram tracks increased considerably: new tramlines leading to Lengorodok, Sormovo, "Red Etna" plant were open. As for the upland part, the overwhelming majority of tramlines were altered from 1000 mm gauge, which was nonstandard for Russia, to standard 60 inches gauge (1524 mm), the traffic routing included the former horse-drawn tram route along Greater Pechersk Street. In 1924 both networks were combined after the tramline along Gunpowder Descent was built. However, the development was hindered by the rolling stock condition. When the traffic was renewed, the tram depot rolling stock amounted to 48 motor tramcars and trailers built before the Revolution at the Putilov Plant in St. Petersburg, at the plant of "Wl. Gostyński and Co" in Warsaw and by the Belgian company "Oerlikon". All of them were completely run down and were insufficient in number to serve new tramlines.

The problem had been solved with the help of the "Red Sormovo" Plant, the oldest plant in the city, before the series production of standard tramcars was started. Its rail car building facilities continued to function even during the grim years of the Civil War, the plant produced armoured platforms and equipped armoured steam engines for the Red Army. Many vessels were reequipped in Sormovo and were turned into gun boats for the Volga Military Flotilla, and in 1919-1920 the plant started the era of Soviet tank building, having manufactured about 20 light tanks according to the model of the captured French Char Leger Renault FT17 ("Russkiy Renos", the first machine was known as "Freedom Fighter Lenin"). In the first post-war years, the plant doubled the output of steam locomotives, and started to build vessels again. The increased employment required solution of the transport problem for the benefit of the plant. At those times the tram was the only type of public transport, so it was decided to renew tramcar production at the plant (the enterprise produced small lots of tramcars prior to the Revolution).

In 1925, the Nizhny Novgorod tram sector received 20 new lantern two-axle tramcars, which inventory numbers were 1 – 20, from the "Red Sormovo" Plant. Such tramcars were also supplied to other cities. From the point of view of their structure, they were almost identical with the tramcars made by the Sormovo Plant for Moscow prior to the Revolution of 1917. It is believed that those twenty tramcars were completed using the hulls and stock of components that remained at the Sormovo Plant since the Civil War, when tramcar production was totally neglected. The supposition has no documentary confirmation though. The year when the tramcars of the said model ceased to be manufactured is not clear either. In 1935, "Red Sormovo" Plant started to develop the manufacture of more complicated eight-wheel КМ tramcar, but it must have stopped manufacturing two-axle tramcars even earlier.

The lantern two-axle tramcar of the Sormovo Plant make was to a great extent a transition model to change from pre-revolutionary tramcars to the standard "Kh" series tramcar. It was a bilateral motor tramcar for 1524-mm gauge. Similar to "Oerlikons", the saloon was separated from the platforms by partition walls with doors for passengers to board and exit the tramcar and was equipped with lengthwise seats along the walls. The tram driver still worked in the standing position, moving from one end of the car to the other when the travel direction was changed. However, the platforms were glazed and the work of the tram driver became a bit more comfortable. There were no doors on the platforms, there was a fancy pivot-hinged grating instead (such gratings might have been partly borrowed from pre-revolutionary tramcars). For this reason, tram drivers had to wear warm outdoor clothes as they did before the Revolution. Each of the four doorways for boarding and deboarding was equipped with two lengthwise handrails on both sides and a step to make it more convenient for the passengers. Later on, the said components were moved to the real door way of КМ-series tramcars. In case of exorbitant load, people clustered on the handrails and steps, which often resulted in accidents such as fall on the run, strikes against poles and buildings and the like passengers of oncoming tramcars. For better illumination and convenience of tall passengers the saloon was covered with a well-developed lantern – roof superstructure with windows on both sides, due to which the tramcar got its name.

A considerable number of technical innovations were implemented in the aforesaid type of tramcars. Although the running gear was still a two-axle bogie with rim block brakes, the brakes had a pneumatic drive (power handbrake with a specific steering wheel on the right of the driver was preserved for reasons of safety). The bogie became longer due to the improvement of the frame material and structure, which made it possible to increase the tramcar carrying capacity. Route lights appeared on the extremities of the tramcar. Instead of the rod current receiver, which was traditional for Nizhny Novgorod in those days (and which was extremely unreliable), the new tramcars were equipped with a "bow" collector.

Lantern tramcars of the Sormovo Plant operated at the tramlines of Nizhny Novgorod (from 1932 – the city of Gorky) for quite a long period of time – you can see them in photos taken in the 1930s and during the war. But in 1949-1950 they gradually disappeared from the streets of Gorky (whereas two-axle "Kh"-series tramcars, which looked very much alike but were not so old, functioned for another decade). None of the tramcars of the said series survived to this day. Not considering the lantern, the external appearance of the Sormovo Plant tramcar of those days was to a great extent inherited by its successor – eight wheel КМ series tramcar, two of which have been preserved in Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod.

1920s. "F" tramcar of the "Red Sormovo" Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

tramnn

1920s. "F" tramcar of the "Red Sormovo" Plant in Nizhny Novgorod:

tramnn
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:07 PM   #3387
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MS/PS TRAMCARS

Manufacturer: "Red Putilovite" Plant (now Kirov Plant), Leningrad (now St. Petersburg);
Country: Soviet Union;
The project: 1926;
Years of manufacturing: 1927-1933;
Years of exploitation: 1927-1968;
Where was operated: Almaty (Kazakhstan), Astrakhan, Biysk, Izhevsk, Kalinin (now Tver), Kirovabad (now Ganja, Azerbaijan), Krasnodar, Kursk, Kuybyshev (now Samara), Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), Lipetsk, Minsk (Belarus), Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Novorossiysk, Ordzhonikidze (now Vladikavkaz), Simferopol, Stalinsk (now Novokuznetsk), Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), Ufa;
Copies for Leningrad: 915 (MS motor tramcars), 335 (PS trailers);
Mass without passengers: 12.56 tons
Total area for standing: 10.4 square meters;
Seating capacity: 24;
Total capacity: 107;
Length between buffers: 10345 mm;
Length of coachwork with door platforms: 9839 mm;
Length of coachwork without door platforms: 6085 mm;
Length of door platform: 1757 mm;
External width: 2450 mm;
Internal width: 2198 mm;
Height of the roof: 3260 mm;
Wheel diameter: 760 mm;
Gauge: 1524 mm;
Base: 2700 mm;
Power of engines: 2x52.3 kW;
Type of brake: pneumatic and rim-block mechanical;
Maximal speed: 40 km/h.
First year in Nizhny Novgorod: 1927 (?);
Year of "write-off" in Nizhny Novgorod: 1971 (?);
Number of tramcars, which operated in Nizhny Novgorod: 1;
Number of tramcars in the museum of Urban Electric Transport: none.

Steel tramcars of Putilov Plant

Written by Alexander Shanin and Anatoly Sorokin

The rapid growth rates of Leningrad in 1920s required the appropriate development of the city transport infrastructure. At those times the tram was the only acceptable kind of public transport, that is why new tramlines were widely built, and the existing ones were prolonged. However, the rolling stock was not sufficient to serve those tramlines, and many prerevolutionary-built tramcars of St. Petersburg had been operating for more than fifteen years and, at least, required serious repairs. In such circumstances it was decided to arrange the production of tramcars at the Putilov Plant, which in 1922 was renamed into "Red Putilovite" Plant.

The first new two-axle tramcars of МS-series ("Motor Steel") were manufactured in 1927, and production thereof continued up to 1933. All in all 915 motor tramcars (according to other information - 865) were built. Starting from 1929 the "Red Putilovite" Plant employees began to manufacture PS trailers ("Pritsepnoy Stalnoy", English: "Steel Trailer") for МS motor tramcars. All in all 335 trailers were built.

МS tramcars were built in four different versions, three of which had noticeable external differences: МS-1 had round front plates, whereas МS-2, МS-3 and МS-4 had flat front plates. МS-2 had open platforms, but had no doors at the entrance to the saloon, there were handrails instead. МS-3 and МS-4 had no external differences, the platforms were closed and there were doors at the entrance to the saloon. The common characteristics of all motor tramcars built at the "Red Putilovite" Plant was a riveted metal hull; direct traction-engine control system; pneumatic brake system. МS tramcars were equipped with "bow" current collection of a typical "Leningrad" or "Petersburg" form, which made it possible to distinguish them from other two-axle tramcars externally resembling them, but built somewhere else. Later on, bows of that type were installed in eight-wheel LM-33 tramcars. Some production tramcars were technically improved as an experiment – thus, MS with inventory number 2752 had a welded not a riveted hull.

Special attention should be paid to the hull structure of MS tramcar. At those times the conventional industrial design of tramcars included the use of standard roll stock underframe as a carrier, and the wooden hull was fixed on it. As the wooden hull could not bear load, it was the carriage underframe that ensured mechanical strength. MS steel structure made it possible to shift part of the load on the tramcar hull. MS tramcar consisted of the frame with longitudinal beams being the lower boom of girder rack-mountable frames that formed the tramcar walls. All loads were accepted by the structure on the whole, and the frame was no longer in significance in its own right. The MS tramcar with side bearing walls and a frame was lighter, more solid and more durable than bearer frame tramcars.

From the point of view of its structure, the PS trailer differed essentially from the motor tramcar: it had no bogie and had free axles; the wheel diameter was less, and the platforms were shorter than those of the МS. A number of motor tramcars were also used as trailers. They were marked as MSP and were equipped with electrical solenoid brake.

Production of МS/PS series tramcars was ceased in 1933. The last two МS tramcars were assembled at the "Red Putilovite" Plant, in excess of the plan, from the remaining stock of components. The reason was that the plant was overburdened with defense-purpose orders; historically the enterprise was a contractor of artillery and military-industrial programmes. In 1933 the plant started to implement the tanks production programme – Leningrad enterprises were getting ready for mass production of light infantry tanks Т-26 and medium tanks Т-28. The "Red Putilovite" Plant acted both as a manufacturer and a partner enterprise under the tanks building programme – there was neither strength nor resources left for tramcars (later on, the situation at the Mytishchi Plant and "Red Sormovo" Plant, for which tramcars were not the basic type of production, was the same).

However, the "Northern Capital" was not deprived of the production of trams – it had been decided in advance that the tram repair plant (VARZ) under construction would not only repair the cars but would manufacture new ones. The said enterprise had developed and built such famous trams of its time as LM/LP-33, LM/LP-49, LM-57, LM-68 and other.

МS tramcar passenger traffic started in 1927 – the first МS motor tramcars were received by the Ivan Konyashin tram depot (now tram depot №1) for route №9: "Narva Triumphal Gate – Polytechnical Institute". The tramcars had the following inventory numbers:

MS-1: 1837-1936, 1977-2111;
MS-2: 2112-2322, 2324-2339, 2344, 2350, 2368;
MS-3: 2323, 2340, 2349, 2351, 2354, 2364-2366, 2369-2402 (with blanks);
MS-4: 2403-2752;
PS: 1-335.

МS-4 tramcar №2601 was a 1000th steel tramcar of the "Red Putilovite" Plant and operated in the Alexander Skorokhodov tram depot (now tram depot №6) along route №12. Irrespective of the fact that the "Red Putilovite" Plant had built a considerable number of tramcars, there still was a lack of tramcars and two-axle "Kh"-series tramcars of the Mytishchi plant operated along the city lines as well. Starting from 1934 eight-wheel LM/LP-33 "Americans" joined them.

During the hard times of the Siege of Leningrad (1941-1944), МS tramcars continued to operate along the city lines ensuring vital traffic of goods and passenger transportation. As all Leningrad citizens, МS tramcars incurred loss due to bombing and artillery bombardment of the city, but nevertheless they operated along the tramlines every day. Overhead contact system could not be restored near the Kirov Plant (as the "Red Putilovite" Plant was now called), which was native home for МS tramcars, due to the proximity of the front. The train consisting of shunting steam locomotive and two or three trailer МS cars operated there. An armoured tramcar based on МS-4 was built in the Smirnov tram depot (now tram depot №4). At times of war, a number of MS tramcars were equipped with bows to prevent sparking in case one of the current collectors came off the overhead contact system (that is to prevent disclosure of the tramcar at night).

In post war years МS tramcars were transferred to other cities of the USSR. In Leningrad МS tramcars operated long after World War II. They ceased transportation of passengers on May 1, 1968. However, even after that part of МS tramcars continued to operate as tows and special cars, some of them are used for this purpose nowadays. During the period of its operation МS have acquired a reputation of reliable, durable and low-maintenance tramcars (it was characteristic of all trams of the said generation though).

МS tramcars were time and again transferred or "let on lease" to museums in other cities. In 1970, МS-4 inv. №2603 was presented to Amsterdam tram museum. To commemorate the 75th anniversary (1971) of the Gorky Tram (now Nizhny Novgorod Tram), one of the Leningrad МS-4, borrowed specially for the occasion, was exhibited at the rolling stock exhibition. In 1981, an excursion tramcar, an imitation of "Brush" tramcar №1028, was constructed on the basis of МS-1 №2066 originally built in 1929. In 1987, МS-4 tramcar №2490 was transferred from Leningrad to Lipetsk to be preserved as a historical one. In 1997, to commemorate the 90th anniversary of St.-Petersburg Tram, МS-4 & MSP tram train №2642-2384 was restored. Later on, two more historical МS-1 and МS-2 tramcars were repaired.

An unknown page in the history of Gorky Tram

Written by Anatoly Sorokin

The story of MS tramcars in Gorky is the most darkest place among all types of tramcars, had ever operated in this city. By and large, it consist from one word "was" without any details. It's known that one MS tramcar was transferred from Leningrad to Gorky and it really operated at the urban routes. Yury Kossoy, who for many years worked by Head of the Gorky Tram and Trolleybus Administration, borrowed one MS-4 from Leningrad colleagues for participation in tram parade, because tramcar of that type worked in Gorky and by that time there was no this tramcar in the city. This is all objective information about the MS tramcar in Gorky that's known to date. It should be added a pair of facts - MS-4 borrowed for the parade is also completely disappeared in the obscurity, and Oleg Timiryazev's search in the archives of "Nizhegorodelektrotrans" on this issue have led only to a conclusion about the absence in it any information about the MS tramcar.

On this issue there is also a bit subjective considerations, based on just one old photo from the book of Yury Kossoy "Your Friend Tram", released to the 100th anniversary of the Nizhny Novgorod Tram (1996). The service two-axle tramcar on the background equipped with "bow" current collection of a typical "Leningrad" form. The bows of that type were never produced in Gorky, and the LM/LP-33 tramcars, at which were installed bows of that type, were never delivered in the said city. Any subsequent Leningrad tramcars were delivered with the installed pantographs. Not arguing - whether this service tramcar at the photo is remade MS (although a slight resemblance can be seen) - it possible to considered this bow as the proof of the fact that there were tramcars of that type in Gorky. The photo in the book is dated 1929, but in reality it can be argued that it was made no earlier than 1928 according to the inscription on the pediment of the depot building. Therefore, with its help it's difficult to determine even time frames with reasonable accuracy...

1929, Nizhny Novgorod. Kremlin tram depot, which was opened in 1925 at the former Manege building:

tramnn

MS/PS tramcar of "Red Putilovite" Plant (now Kirov Plant) in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg):

tramnn

May 27, 2002. City Day in St. Petersburg. Garden Street, museum tram train МS-4 & MSP №2642-2384 at the tram parade:

tramnn

2002. Museum tram train МS-4 & MSP №2642-2384 (constructed in 1933/1932) at the parade dedicated to the 95th anniversary of St. Petersburg Tram:

tramnn

April 27, 2003. Museum tram train МS-4 & MSP №2642-2384 in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

April 15, 2006. Museum MS-4 tramcars №2424 (constructed in 1930) and №2575 (constructed in 1933) in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

April 15, 2006. Museum MS-4 tramcar №2424 in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

April 15, 2006. Museum MS-4 tramcar №2424 in St. Petersburg:

tramnn
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:09 PM   #3388
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Kh/M TRAMCARS

Manufacturer: Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant (Moscow Region), Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant (Chelyabinsk Region);
Country: Soviet Union;
The project: 1925;
The first exemplar: 1926;
Years of manufacturing: 1927-1941;
Years of exploitation: 1927-1972;
Copies: more than 2000;
Mass without passengers: near 12 tons;
Seating capacity: 24 or 16;
Total capacity: 100 ("Kh" motor tramcar), 114 ("M" trailer);
Length: 9800 mm;
Width: 2500 mm (broad-gauge), 2200 mm (narrow-gauge);
Height of the roof: 3300 mm;
Wheel diameter: 850 mm ("Kh" motor tramcar), 760 mm ("M" trailer);
Gauge: 1000 mm, 1435 mm and 1524 mm;
Base: 2700 mm ("Kh" motor tramcar), 3400 mm ("M" trailer);
Number and types of engines: 2xDM-1A or 2xDTI-60;
Power of one engine: 52.3 kW (DM-1A) or 55.0 kW (DTI-60);
Type of brake: pneumatic and hand mechanical;
Maximal speed: 40 km/h.
First year in Nizhny Novgorod: 1929 (?);
Year of "write-off" in Nizhny Novgorod: 1968 (?);
Number of tramcars, which operated in Nizhny Novgorod: near 70;
Inventory numbers: №№75-105 and others;
Number of tramcars in the museum of Urban Electric Transport: 1 ("Kh" motor tramcar);
Serviceable: yes.

Standard tramcars

Written by Alexander Shanin

With the outbreak of the First World War tramcar production in Russia was ceased. The subsequent Revolution and Civil War led to complete devastation of the tram sector. Different-type prerevolutionary-built rolling stock could not ensure the traffic and required reconstruction and replenishment. The revival of tramcar production was placed on the agenda. In 1923 Kolomna Plant and in 1926 "Red Putilovite" Plant in Leningrad started to manufacture trailers and further on motor tramcars, the construction thereof was almost similar to that of pre-revolutionary tramcars but there were minor improvements. By that time there were more than 20 varieties of tramcars, mostly two-axle ones. However, economically it was expedient to manufacture standard tramcars of a unified model for all tram enterprises of the country.

At the beginning of 1925 the second All-Russia Congress of Tram Workers took place in Leningrad. It was resolved to adopt a "standard" train consisting of two-axle motor tramcar and a trailer with all-metal hulls. The Mytishchi Plant near Moscow was entrusted with the task of organizing serial production of such tramcars. The first models of motor tramcars were manufactured in 1926, and serial production of motor tramcars and trailers started since 1927. Motor tramcars received "Kh" series ("Kharkiv type"), trailers - "М" ("Moscow type") – according to the addresses of the first large-scale deliveries. Both series were named after two capitals of Soviet Socialist Republics (Kharkiv was capital of Ukrainian SSR from 1919 till 1934). And that was how they were marked in every city except Leningrad, where there existed a specific notation system: motor tramcars were marked "МKh", trailers - "PM" and trailers reequipped from motor tramcars - "PKh".

In 1928, tramcars of similar construction and external appearance were manufactured in Kyiv in the Central tram workshops named after Tomasz Dąbal (later on, it was called the Kyiv Electric Transport Plant named after Felix Dzerzhinsky). They were marked as "К" series ("Kyiv type") and operated in Kyiv, Vinnytsia (along the gauge of 1000 mm) and in other Ukrainian cities. Externally they appeared to be more angled due to another shape of platform railing front plates. They were manufactured in Kyiv up to 1932. All in all 68 motor tramcars and 47 trailer two-axle cars were built there. Such a tramcar was restored in Kyiv in 1986 and was installed as a monument near the Krasin tram depot. A small quantity of similar tramcars was manufactured at André Marty (South) Yard (Shipyard No. 198) in Mykolaiv (Ukraine), but the major manufacturer was still the Mytishchi Plant, where the production volume reached the figure of 2000 tramcars a year.

New tramcars had all-metal riveted hulls with bearing skin and closed platforms. The hull of the motor tramcar was based on a two-axle bogie with hard base, and the running gear of the trailer had no bogie and was fixed on free axles. The hull was separated from the platforms by partition-walls with sliding doors. External doors were of shield type with a hand lever drive. The tramcars were bilateral, motor tramcars had two control stations. The tram driver drove the tramcar in the standing position. There were sofas in the saloons along the side walls for 24 seats. The tramcars were equipped with domestic electric or pneumatic equipment: traction engines, at first - DM-1А (clockwork with capacity of 52.3 kW), later on - DTI-60 (clockwork with capacity of 55 kW) and controllers DK-5. There was a block brake with pneumatic and hand drive. A small quality of motor tramcars was manufactured with roller thrust bearings.

Overall dimensions of the tramcars are as follows: the hull length - 9800 mm, width - 2500 mm, height less current receiver - 3300 mm, base of motor tramcar - 2700 mm, trailer's base - 3400 mm, wheel diameter of motor tramcar - 850 mm, trailer's wheel diameter - 760 mm, total capacity of motor tramcar - 100 passengers (8 people per 1 sq.m. of the floor), total capacity of trailer - 114 passengers.

Complete standardization could not be achieved as there was need in the tramcars to operate both on the Russian standard (1524 mm) and narrow (1000 mm) gauges. Besides, the tram gauge in Kyiv was 1511 mm, and in Rostov-on-Don - 1435 mm. That is why tramcars both with wide (2500 mm) and narrow (2200 mm) hulls were produced, besides a number of cities ordered short tramcars: they had 6 windows instead of 8 in the hull side walls.

These tramcars were delivered to tram enterprises almost in all cities of the country; however, in Moscow there were only "М" trailers in the trains with motor tramcars of "F", "BF" and "KM" series. In Leningrad standard motor tramcars and trailers were delivered to different tram depots: motor tramcars to the Kalinin tram depot (now tram depot №5), trailers to the Konyashin tram depot (now tram depot №1) - that is why in Leningrad they never operated in one train.

The tramcars turned out to be rather reliable, user-friendly and comfortable for the passengers. Opening windows ensured good ventilation in summer, and in winter it was warm and comfortable in the tramcar due to partitions separating the hull from the platforms. Weak points were revealed in the course of operation: the most common drawbacks were bogie cracks and fractures of cantilever parts, especially in big cities, where the operating conditions were more intense. That is why in 1937-1938 all standard motor tramcars in Leningrad were reequipped as trailers with "MV" tramcar bogies. Besides, trailers were swinging considerably on the run.

In 1934, production of narrow-gauge and short tramcars was ceased. The construction of the standard tramcars was changed: transverse single seats were installed in the saloon (16 seats in the motor tramcar and 19 seats in the trailer), and internal partitions and doors separating the saloon from the platforms were dismantled. For that reason the tramcars were chilled through and in winter it was very cold inside. The construction of external doors was also altered: wing doors were installed instead of shield ones.

The demand for tramcars continually increased, and the Mytishchi Plant, which also produced Metro trains for Moscow, commuter electric trains and was engaged in military production, could not increase considerably the production volume, that is why in 1937 production of standard tramcars was transferred to the Urals at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant, which already had some experience in similar production. As far back as 1900s, the plant manufactured open tramcars for Tbilisi (Georgia).

The production volume of standard tramcars at Ust-Katav Plant amounted to about 150 tramcars a year. In 1941 the plant started to manufacture the latest version of the standard tramcars: those were improved unilateral tramcars with better electric and pneumatic equipment. They started to operate in Minsk, Belarus. The characteristic feature of their external appearance was a big surface mounted star on the front plate of platform railing.

It should be noted that at the same time tramcars of different design were manufactured (including four-axle ones) at other plants: Kolomna Steam-locomotive-Building Plant, "Red Sormovo" Plant in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod), "Red Putilovite" Plant (now Kirov Plant) and VARZ tram repair plant (now Petersburg Tram Mechanical Plant) in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), SVARZ repair and wagon-building plant in Moscow and the Tomasz Dąbal Plant (now Electric Transport Plant named after Felix Dzerzhinsky) in Kyiv. Apart from the standard tramcars, the Mytishchi Plant also manufactured novel four-axle all-metal М-38 tramcars for Moscow.

Tramcar production was ceased in June 1941. During the war, part of the tramcars was destroyed; others were redesigned and turned into freight cars, which occurred due to mobilization of lorries for the front. Tramcars were as well used to transport the wounded from railway stations to hospitals.

After the war, a new type of tramcars was produced, but Kh/М standard tramcars continued to function. In 1952, the standard plan was developed to upgrade standard tramcars through removing one of the control stations, walling in the left-side door, and equipping the right-side doors with a pneumatic drive. The front door platform was equipped with a partition separating the tram driver from passengers, and the platforms were provided with heat insulation through veneering battening. Windscreen wipers were installed to clean the windscreen from outside in case of rain or snowfall. Old cylindrical controllers were substituted by МТ-1 cam controllers.

In 1955, to fulfill the orders of other cities, the tram repair plant in Leningrad started to manufacture "Kh" tramcar bogies to replace the broken and worn ones; later on such bogies were also manufactured in Gorky. All in all more than 100 bogies were manufactured. In a number of cities (Minsk, Vitebsk) such bogies were used to built new tramcars similar to the "Kh"-type. Thus, in 1957-59 50 "KhК"-series trains were build in Kuibyshev (now Samara) – they were unilateral with a pneumatic door drive and improved finish (the hulls for them were manufactured at the local aircraft factory); during the same years six passenger and one flusher tramcars of "Kh"-type were built on Leningrad bogies in Yaroslavl; in Odessa and Tbilisi, new tramcars of totally different design were built on the basis of standard tramcars; and open "chill" ("kholodok") tramcars were manufactured in Rostov-on-Don.

As new tramcars were delivered to big cities, old tramcars were redesigned and turned into service and special cars, were transferred to other cities or just written off to be used as scrap metal. Standard Kh/М tramcars operated in passenger traffic until the early 1970s, and in some places were preserved as service ones until now. In some places "Kh"-tramcars were preserved as memorial or observation cars (Arkhangelsk, Dzerzhinsk, Kazan, Kemerovo, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Saratov, Tula, Yekaterinburg), and in Tver and Kyiv older prerevolutionary-built tramcars were replicated on the basis of standard tramcars, but at present it is difficult to predict what will happen to them in future, for the upkeep of old tramcars requires quite a lot of funds.

For many years standard Kh/М tramcars had carried passengers diligently and were the basis of tram sectors in many cities in pre-WWII and first post-WWII years. In a number of cities they were honoured with the startup of tram traffic, and there is no doubt that they should be immortalized not only as photos and models. Individual extant models should take their place in the future museum of city transport, which will sooner or later be set up.

Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the tram depot №1. Model of "Kh" tramcar:

Рома
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:12 PM   #3389
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"Kh"-series tramcars in Gorky

Written by Anatoly Sorokin

In the late-1920s the tram network quickly developed in Nizhny Novgorod. New tracks were built to lead to almost every district of Nizhny Novgorod of those times, but new rolling stock was required to serve the new tramlines. By that time the Nizhny Novgorod tram sector possessed only 20 new lantern tramcars built at the local "Red Sormovo" Plant, and the rest of the rolling stock consisted of modernized pre-revolutionary tramcars, the drawbacks thereof not being completely eliminated. At that time heavy depreciation of traction engines and bogies in pre-revolutionary two-axle tramcars could not be eliminated by the tram workers themselves – the enterprise lacked its own repair infrastructure; repairs were made by railway employees and at third-party industrial enterprises of the city.

The overall economic revival of the country after the devastation made it possible to manufacture new tramcars in Mytishchi and at the end of 1920s new "Kh" tramcars were delivered to Nizhny Novgorod. As from the structural point of view they were just slightly improved as compared to pre-revolutionary rolling stock, there was almost no difficulty with their exploitation. Unfortunately, the exact date when the first "Kh" tramcars arrived in Nizhny Novgorod is unknown; it is approximately 1929. On the other hand, Yury Kossoy in his book "Your Friend Tram" writes that in the early 1930s the Gorky tram sector employees managed to completely replace pre-revolutionary rolling stock with new tramcars. In 1929-1934 new motor tramcars could come from Mytishchi only (20 lantern tramcars of the "Red Sormovo" Plant had been delivered earlier, and КМ four-axle tramcars were accepted only in 1935).

The same book gives an opportunity to estimate the approximate number of the Gorky two-axle "Kh" tramcars: as on the date when the traffic was restarted in 1923 the tram depot consisted of 48 tramcars (a few new ones were received from Kyiv), in 1935 all of them were written off, and at that time the write-off could occur only under the condition of replacement of an old tramcar by a new one. So about 50 two-axle "Kh" tramcars were delivered by 1935. Such deliveries continued further on up to the onset of the Great Patriotic War. It is difficult to specify the exact range of numbers given to two-axle "Kh" tramcars, because old pre-revolutionary tramcars were written off or modernized, and new tramcars were delivered. It can be specified that tramcars №№ from 75 to 105 were of "Kharkiv" type. It must have been only part of the numbers allotted for the said tramcars – new lantern two-axle tramcars had №№1-20, pre-revolutionary modernized tramcars had the numbers starting from 21, and КМ tramcars accepted in 1935 received the numbers starting from 151. (КМ/КP tramcars inv. №№137-150 appeared after the war, when partial renumbering of the rolling stock was knowingly carried out).

Two-axle trailers for "Kh" tramcars deserve special attention. In Gorky there were both "authorized" М trailers and analogs built in the Gorky workshops. Tram network veterans remember that the tramcars had a solid and reliable construction, but in the course of construction the technology had to be simplified many a time due to the lack of required materials (cast steel, rolled iron and steel sheet) and equipment. It was originally planned to build all-metal trailers, but the lack of steel sheet compelled to build composite structure tramcars, where only the hull frame was made of steel and the skin was made of wood. The use of cast iron instead of scarce steel resulted in the increase in the weight of the trailer as compared to the projected one. The authorities hesitated for a long time to launch the first model along the tramlines, but the need for rolling stock compelled them to do so. The tramcar showed its worth, and in the early 1930s a few more similar trailers, which were marked as "P"-series tramcars, were built at the repair workshops.

Both single "Kh" tramcars and Kh/М and Kh/P trains operated along all the routes in Gorky at those times. Only starting from 1935 roomier КМ/КP four-axle tramcars were added to them at most intense routes №1 and №12. After revolutionary modernized tramcars had been written off, the routes in the upland part of the city (№2 and №5) were solely served by "Kh" tramcars (and their trailers). Such state of things existed during the war and some time after it.

After the post-war devastation the Gorky tram network experienced active expansion – new tramlines were built, the existing tramlines were prolonged. There was again a lack of rolling stock, that is why pre-revolutionary tramcars could not be written off. "Kh" tramcars were seriously modernized – bogies in many tramcars were replaced by new ones built at "Red Sormovo" Plant and all of them were redesigned as unilateral – left-side doors were walled in and stern control station was dismantled. The stern headlamp was dismantled and installed on the front edge of the tramcar similar to new tramcars with two headlamps. In addition, a few tramcars were renumbered – there is a photo, made in the early 1950s, of Gorky "Kh" tramcar inv. №12, which previously belonged to a lantern two-axle tramcar built at the "Red Sormovo" Plant and which had been written off by that time.

However, by the late 1950s – early 1960s two-axle "Kh" tramcars were gradually removed of service – the city received a great number of new МТV-82 and LМ/LP-49 tramcars. They were in the reserve or in conservation, but when in 1965 depot №3 was organized and in 1968 depot №1 moved from the Kremlin to Lapshikha, all two-axle tramcars were finally written off as in new spacious places small dimensions of "Kh" tramcars which previously had been considered their advantage immediately became their drawback. "Kh" tramcar of inventory number 75 was preserved for museum purposes; it is operational and is standing on a dead rail in the Nizhny Novgorod Museum of the Urban Electric Transport. On the whole, two-axle tramcars of Kharkiv type operated along the lines of Gorky for about 35 years, having become, along with pre-revolutionary and КМ/КP tramcars, long-lived tramcars on the city tram roads.

May 24, 1986. "Kh" tramcar №75 (constructed in 1931 at Mytishchi Plant) during celebrations dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Tram in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod):

spider123

May 24, 1986. "Kh" tramcar №75 (constructed in 1931 at Mytishchi Plant) during celebrations dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Tram in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod):

tramnn

February 1992. "Kh" tramcar №75 (constructed in 1931 at Mytishchi Plant) at the tram depot №2:

павел В. Кашин

1996. Museum "Kh" tramcar №75 (constructed in 1931 at Mytishchi Plant):

tramnn

August 15, 2003. Saloon of "Kh" tramcar №75:

Vladislav Prudnikov

August 15, 2003. Saloon of "Kh" tramcar №75:

Vladislav Prudnikov

May 28, 2004. Museum "Kh" tramcar №75 at the tram depot №2:

Сергей Орлов

May 29, 2004. Museum "Kh" tramcar №75 at the tram depot №2:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Museum "Kh" tramcar №2 (former №75) at the tram parade in Nizhny Novgorod:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Museum "Kh" tramcar №2 (former №75) at the tram parade in Nizhny Novgorod:

tramnn
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May 16, 2005. Right view of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2 (former №75) at the tram depot №1:

tramnn

May 16, 2005. Left view of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2 (former №75) at the tram depot №1:

tramnn

September 5, 2005. "Kh" museum tramcar №2 (former №75) at the museum site of tram depot №1. Heeling of tramcar is result of the breaking of left rear leaf spring suspension:

tramnn

September 11, 2005. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the tram depot №1:

Евгений Хвалынский

"Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the tram depot №1:

tramnn

December 16, 2006. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the tram depot №1:

Антон Буслов
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Driver's seat of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75):

tramnn

Passenger saloon of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75):

tramnn

December 16, 2006. Passenger saloon of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75):

Антон Буслов

December 16, 2006. Driver's seat of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75):

Антон Буслов

December 16, 2006. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Антон Буслов

July 17, 2008. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Алексей Лаушкин aka ALX

November 21, 2009. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Евгений Куйбышев

November 21, 2009. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Евгений Куйбышев

May 26, 2011. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Сергей Филатов

May 8, 2012. Driver's seat of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75):

seme44ka

May 8, 2012. Passenger saloon of the "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75):

seme44ka

July 1, 2012. "Kh" museum tramcar №2(75) at the museum site of tram depot №1:

ДЕД АНДРЕЙ
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:16 PM   #3392
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KM/KP TRAMCARS

Manufacturer: Kolomna Steam-locomotive-Building Plant, "Red Sormovo" Plant in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod);
Country: Soviet Union;
The project: 1925;
The first exemplar: 1927;
Years of manufacturing: 1927-1930 (Kolomna Plant); 1929-1935 and 1945-1946 ("Red Sormovo" Plant);
Years of exploitation: 1927-1974;
Copies for Moscow: 247 (КМ motor tramcars), 314 (КP trailers);
Number of preserved tramcars: 2 (KM motor tramcars), 1 (KP trailer);
Seating capacity: 38;
Total capacity: 86;
Length: 12550 mm;
Width: 2140 mm;
Gauge: 1524 mm;
Number and types of engines: 4xPT-35;
Power of one engine: 40 kW (PT-35);
System of control: Direct;
Type of brake: pneumatic of Knorr-Bremse type and hand mechanical;
First year in Nizhny Novgorod: 1929 (in operation since 1935);
Year of "write-off" in Nizhny Novgorod: 1973;
Number of tramcars, which operated in Nizhny Novgorod: 52 (KM motor tramcars), 46 (KP trailers);
Inventory numbers: №№137-193, 401-445;
Number of tramcars in the museum of Urban Electric Transport: 1 (KM motor tramcar);
Serviceable: yes.

Kolomna four-axle tramcars

Written by Alexander Shanin

Many old residents of Moscow must remember these old-fashioned trams clattering at the junctions; for many years they used these trams to get to school, institute, work, and on Sundays – to the park, to the cinema or theatre in the evening, and on Air Fleet Day – to the festival on Tushino airfield. Even those who were not interested in technics, remember a rather small saloon with corrugated floor, platforms freezing through in winter, wooden seats made of light lacquered strips, black karbolit handles hanging down from handrails on straps, it was very convenient to hold on to them. These old-fashioned tramcars went well together with the appearance of old Moscow outskirts, where tramlines were still preserved. They looked very neat with decorations ("tsirovki") – delicate frames made of thin lines with beautiful monograms in the corners and coloured lights that designated the route. This article is an attempt to tell the story of their origin and operation.

The rapid development of the tram network in Moscow in the mid-1920s and the growth of the traffic volume required enlargement and renewal of the Moscow tram rolling stock. Insufficient capacity of traction engines of those times almost excluded the opportunity for the work of two-axle motor tramcar with two trailers, especially in Moscow, which as it is known is "situated on seven hills". The undulating land hampered the work of the tramcars to a great extent. Thus, for instance, Nativity Boulevard passage has a 10% rise, that is why safety dead-end siding was built to catch the tramcar that failed to climb such a steep hill. It was not without reason that nowadays when tram tracks were removed from there, neither the bus nor the trolleybus occupied the vacant "seat".

These considerations resulted in the necessity to design four-axle tramcars of increased roominess. Four-axle motor tramcars first appeared in Russia at the beginning of the century. All of them were of foreign make and were meant to work without trailers. They operated in Moscow, Kyiv, Odessa. Thus, a small number (20) of four-axle twin-engine tramcars of "MAN" plant (Germany) and Russo-Baltic Plant with bogies of "maximum traction" operated in Moscow. In the early 1920s all of them were excluded from the inventory.

Kolomna Steam-locomotive-Building Plant was chosen to produce new four-axle tramcars; the plant had designed and built the first two tramcars in 1891 for the first tram system in Russian Empire, which started to operate in Kyiv on June 13, 1892.

In 1927 two prototype four-axle motor tramcars were ready and were transferred to Moscow for trial operation.They were delivered to the Kirov tram depot (now tram repair plant) and received city numbers 2001 and 2002. New tramcars were called КМ (Kolomna Motor Tramcar), in literature one can sometimes come across the name КМCh ("Kolomensky Motorny Chetyryokhosny", English: "Kolomna Motor Four-axle Tramcar").

Slight alterations were made taking into account the operating experience, and starting from 1929, serial production of КМ tramcars started at Kolomna Plant and the "Red Sormovo" Plant. Kolomna Plant manufactured КМ tramcars until 1930, "Red Sormovo" – until 1935, and after World War II, the Sormovo wagon-repair plant assembled about one and a half dozens of such tramcars from components manufactured at the Gorky defence enterprises, which temporarily had no orders.

In 1929, Kolomna Plant delivered to Moscow 70 tramcars built as motor tramcars but without engines and electrical equipment. At first they operated as trailers and were gradually reequipped as motor tramcars. And starting from 1930, four-axle trailers called KP ("Kolomensky Pritsepnoy", English: "Kolomna Trailer") were manufactured.

Tramcar hulls with a mixed half-wooden and half-metal structure were reequipped with two control stations with DТ-41 controllers and were fixed on two riveted bogies, each of which had two PT-35 engines with overhung axial support. There was a pneumatic brake of Knorr-Bremse type and a hand brake. There were doors without mechanical drive on both sides. Part of KP tramcars built by Kolomna Plant had doors only on the right side and were equipped with an additional central entrance. The tramcar length (along the hull) was 12.55 m, width - 2.14 m, there were 38 seats, all in all standing room and seats for 86 persons.

Bogies were the weak point of the structure – beam fracture was the most common operating defect, besides, KP tramcars were unsteady on the run due to coincidence of resonance frequency in the suspension.

КМ and КP tramcars operated in the following cities: Arkhangelsk, Baku (Azerbaijan), Barnaul, Chelyabinsk, Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod), Horlivka (Ukraine), Kazan, Kharkiv (Ukraine), Kolomna, Krasnodar, Kuybyshev (now Samara), Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), Molotov (now Perm), Moscow, Noginsk, Novosibirsk, Odessa (Ukraine), Orsk, Oryol, Riga (Latvia), Stalinsk (now Novokuznetsk), Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), Voronezh, Yaroslavl, Zaporizhia (Ukraine). This list might be enlarged. They operated the longest in Gorky - till 1970, and in Moscow - till 1974.

Let’s have a look at the way the tramcars operated in Moscow. All in all Moscow received 247 КМ motor tramcars numbered №№2001-2247 and 314 КP trailers numbered №№2501–2814; motor tramcars that were delivered without equipment were numbered №№2101-2170. The fate of prototype cars was quite different: №2001 was excluded from inventory prior to the Great Patriotic War, and №2002 was used after the war to test captured German equipment and afterwards was redesigned as a training one and was one of the last to be written off in 1974.

Before the Great Patriotic War, КМ tramcars operated in three tram depots: the Kirov tram depot (there were only КМ tramcars), the Apakov and the Artamonov tram depots (the trolleybus depot №5 at present) along the most intense routes: "B" (Garden Ring, ringroad), №2 (to Novogireevo), №3 (to the workers' settlement of ZIS automobile plant), №12, №34, №47, №49. In 1938 КМ tramcar №2246 in the Apakov depot was the first to be equipped with a pneumatic-driven windscreen wiper.

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, part of КМ tramcars (along with part of Metro trains) was evacuated from Moscow. During the war, tramcars transported different cargoes, also the wounded from railway stations to hospitals. With due account to the said experience, after the war, technical requirements for tramcars of the Riga and the Ust-Katav Plants included the following: possibility of quick mounting of a special door in the back side of the hull by tram depot employees to carry in the stretchers with the wounded. During the war, КМ tramcar №2193 from the Kirov depot operated as an emergency tramcar of Local Anti-Air Defence (MPVO). After the war the tram network was considerably reduced, part of tram depots, including the Artamonov depot, was reequipped as trolleybus depots, but КМ tramcars continued to operate. All old tramcars were reconstructed at Sokolniki car repair plant (SVARZ); in the course of the reconstruction one control station was removed, left-side doors were walled in, and right-side doors were equipped with pneumatic drive, electrical and pneumatic equipment was modernized. Thus, КМ tramcars were equipped with new welded 2DSA bogies with DTI-60 engines and МТ-4 or DK-7B controllers. Besides, a pneumatic-driven windscreen wipe was mounted on the windscreen.

They were gradually transferred from the Artamonov and the Apakov deports to the Rusakov and Krasnopresnenskoe depots. They started to be written off only in 1970, when Moscow received large quantities of tramcars from Czechoslovakia. The last КМ tramcars were written off at the end of 1974; they were in operational condition and were written off due to the obsolescence. After the war КP trailers were transferred to other cities to provide assistance, and there were none of them left in Moscow by the end of 1951.

At present the train consisting of КМ tramcar №2170 and КP trailer №2556 is preserved in Moscow, it used to operate as a track measuring tramcar up to 1987, and was overhauled afterwards. Another similar KM tramcar is preserved in Nizhny Novgorod. КМ №2170 was shot in a number of feature films, for example "The Meeting Place Cannot Be Changed" (1979), it was used for tours of the city, drawings were held in its saloon.

The episodes with KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) from the cult Soviet television film "The Meeting Place Cannot Be Changed" (1979, director - Stanislav Govorukhin). The film is set in post-WWII Moscow in August-November 1945.

TIME 08:38 - 12:38 (click on CC to see English subtitles)



TIME 45:30 - 48:30 (click on CC to see English subtitles)


The fate of Moscow КP trailers transferred to other cities was quite different. Poor rolling characteristic (swinging) and a huge lack of motor-wags let to redesigning thereof as motor tramcars in a number of cities - Arkhangelsk, Chelyabinsk, Kolomna, Molotov (now Perm), Riga (Latvia), Stalinsk (now Novokuznetsk), Yaroslavl. In addition, in Riga and Yaroslavl KP tramcar hulls were appreciably modernized in the course of operation, which made the tramcars more comfortable and their external appearance up-to-date. Old bus hulls were used for this purpose in Riga; such modernized cars were called RT-47. Nowadays in Kolomna there are two KP tramcars reequipped as motor tramcars and used as special tramcars (freight car and tower-tramcar), and a mobile traction substation mounted on KP tramcar frame and bogies operated in Riga.

The bogies of Leningrad КМ tramcars (in Leningrad they were called ММMoscow Motor Tramcars) were used as a basis to built the first four МА-PА (LМ/LP-33) trains – the first Leningrad four-axle tramcars of large roominess.

КM tramcars were appreciated as they were of high reliability and low-maintenance. Thus, in the early 1960s, when the Apakov depot started to receive new tramcars from Czechoslovakia, the first tramcars that were transferred to other depots were post-WWII МTV-82 tramcars while older КМ tramcars were retained by the depot. КМ tramcars served longer than later all-metal М-38 tramcars. Hopefully, these new tramcars will not only be immortalized in old photos and news films, but that the preserved models will take their place in the future museum of city transport.

Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the tram depot №1. Model of KM tramcar:

Рома

Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the tram depot №1. Model of KM tramcar:

Сергей Филатов
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:19 PM   #3393
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КМ/КP in Gorky

Written by Anatoly Sorokin

Although KM tramcars started officially to transport passengers in Gorky in 1935, they first had appeared in the city six years before, in 1929. At that time, before the Nizhny Novgorod was given the new name of Gorky, "Red Sormovo" Plant started their serial production. However, prior to 1935 all the tramcars manufactured by the plant were intended for other cities. However, the new KM tramcars of the "Red Sormovo" Plant were run in on the tracks of the plant connected with the Gorky tram system. It is a rare case when the appearance of the new rolling stock in the city and the commencement of passenger transportation using the said rolling stock fail to coincide. In 1929 it was as well decided to build an enormous automobile plant in Nizhny Novgorod, the plant was the main reason for great passenger traffic in the city part at the left bank of Oka River. The growth of "Red Sormovo" Plant (and also other enterprises of the city) contributed as well to the necessity of great roominess tramcars in the Nizhny Novgorod tram depot – an ever-growing number of two-axles tramcars was required to ensure the traffic and in some directions two-axle tramcars, even with trailers, could not cope with the increased passenger traffic.

Having achieved the estimated capacity, the Gorky Automobile Plant became a narrow place in the transport system of the city. The tramline leading there was built in 1933, then it was prolonged, but two-axle tramcars were still overcrowded and their number was insufficient. That is why in the last year (1935) of КМ tramcar serial production, "Red Sormovo" Plant built 20 tramcars of the said make for their native city. КМ tramcar and its engineless KP modification were the first four-axle tramcars in Gorky. New motor tramcars received inventory numbers №№151-170. KP trailers were delivered from the manufacturer enterprise in Kolomna (Kolomna Steam-locomotive-Building Plant) and they were considerably less in number - only 5 items (inv. №№401-405). They were originally based in the Sormovo (Gordeevka) tram depot №2 and operated only along the most intense routes at the left bank of Oka River - №1 and №12. The upland part at right bank was still the estate of two-axle tramcars. Along with the standard "Kh" tramcars, four-axle КМ tramcars operated along the city lines during the most difficult wartime. Simple and reliable structure was not the least of the factors to provide the city with transport in the absence of experienced male personnel, who were at the front, and the repair base restructured for military production.

After the end of WWII, Gorky Tram and Trolleybus enterprise received 15 more КМ tramcars from Kuybyshev, now Samara (inv. №№171-185) in 1950, and 8 tramcars of the same type were received from Kazan (№№186-193) in 1951. In 1950-1955 Gorky also received 36 КP trailers (№№410-445) from Moscow, Molotov (now Perm), Barnaul and Novosibirsk. In 1958-1959, the Gorky car repair plant assembled 9 more КМ tramcars (№№137, 139, 141, 143, 146-150) and 5 more КP (№№ 138, 140, 142, 144, 145) using the stock of components manufactured by the city defence enterprises, which were temporarily deprived of defence orders. Totally it amounts to 52 motor tramcars and 46 trailers of "Kolomna type". Later on, inventory numbers of some КМ/КP tramcars must have been changed prior to renumbering that occurred in 1970 – as on the write-off date the КP tramcar preserved for museum purposes had №392, which was not originally included in the balance sheet of the enterprise.

Irrespective of the fact that new, roomier and more comfortable LМ/LP-49 and МТV-82 tramcars that were equally reliable if compared to KM tramcars, КМ tramcars continued to operate successfully along the city tramlines. In post-war years they also served the routes of the upland part of the city. Only after the emergence of the following generation of LМ-57 and RVZ-6 tramcars in the early 1960s, the four-axle tramcars were gradually removed of service and conserved. In 1965, the major part of КМ/КP tramcars was transferred from tram depot №2 to newly-organized Avtozavodskoe tram depot №3. 1970 was the last year of the КМ/КP trains scheduled work in Gorky. Numerous four-axle tramcars of new types made КМ/КP tramcars obsolescent, but the operatives did not hurry to finally part with the reliable and time-tested tramcars.

It was not in vain – the winter of 1972/73 was very severe and new Leningrad LМ-68 tramcars could not operate along the tramlines due to the mass fault of electrical equipment. Then to provide the traffic for the GAZ automobile plant having rather intense passenger flows, several КМ/КP trains had to be brought back into service. That is why, КМ/КP trams were actually removed of service in 1972. After that all the rest tramcars of that type were recycled as scrap metal, except КМ/КP train bearing inventory number №162-392, which became non-self-propelled tram-memorial in depot №3. By anniversary year of 1996, КP trailer №392 was as well recycled as scrap metal, and КМ motor tramcar №162 was restored and it is operational. At present it is exhibited in the city Museum of Urban Electrical Transport.

The history of Nizhny Novgorod museum КМ tramcar №162

The Nizhny Novgorod museum КМ tramcar №162 is one of the preserved tramcars of this type in the world. There is another tramcar of this type in Moscow. Both preserved KM tramcars are operational. The inventory number is authentic as officially КМ tramcars were removed of service prior to renumbering of the rolling stock in 1970.

The Nizhny Novgorod museum tramcar №162 was built at the "Red Sormovo" Plant in 1935 (the last year of the pre-WWII КМ output in Gorky). Originally it was bilateral, with two control stations in both ends of the tramcar. It worked as a pair with КP trailer №392, which did not survive until now. Trailer №392 was recycled approximately in 1995; it is also asserted that part of its components was used to repair the motor tramcar. КМ motor tramcar №162 together with КP tramcar №392 operated in Avtozavodsky, Leninsky and Kanavinsky districts along intense routes with a great passenger traffic: №8, №11, №12, №16, №17. Being low-maintenance, it was less comfortable for passengers and the driver as compared to post-war trams, which operated at the same routes. It was originally based in Gordeevka (Sormovo) tram depot №2, and was transferred to the Avtozavodskoe tram depot №3 in 1965 along with other tramcars of the similar type.

In the mid-1950s tramcar №162 was modernized, it was redesigned as a unilateral tramcar: left-side doorways were walled in and the rear control station was removed. As opposed to Moscow КМ tramcars, bogies in Gorky were not replaced by modern ones. In the course of redesigning the tramcar was equipped with headlamps on the front edge.

In the late 1960s КМ/КP tramcars were gradually removed of service. However, they were never recycled as scrap metal, but were conserved. It turned out to be useful – during the severe winter of 1972/73 a great number of LМ-68 tramcars, which replaced КМ/КP tramcars on GAZ plant tramlines, experienced mass fault. That is why, several КМ/КP tramcars were brought into operation to work along the intense tram routes. КМ/КP train №162-392 was among them. As a result, it operated from 1935 to 1972 and was serviceable for further operation when it was written off. As it was preserved in best condition, it was put to permanent parking in the territory of tram depot №3.

The "permanent parking" lasted until 1995 (with a small break in 1986 – it was towed to the tramcar exhibition devoted to 90th anniversary of the Gorky Tram). By the centenary of Nizhny Novgorod Tram, it was decided to restore the КМ tramcar to make it operational and to recycle the completely worn out КP tramcar. The tramcar again had only one headlamp, but it was made unilateral; and for the purpose of brake and turn alarm it was equipped with low-voltage statistical converter taken from one of КТМ-5 tramcars. The quality of repairs at the wagon repair plant was not very high and in eight years the hull of КМ tramcar was rotten. In 2004 with the help of financial assistance of businessman Sergey Pern the Nizhny Novgorod museum КМ tramcar was overhauled, the decayed wooden parts in the hull structure were replaced. In September 2005 the tramcar was put on a museum line connected with the rail network of depot №1.

In different periods of time, drivers Vladimir Tsimbalov, Lidiya Alexandrova and others operated this tramcar. КМ tramcar №162 took part in tram parades of 1986, on 20 May, 1996, 12 September 2004 and 9 May 2005.

KM tramcar of the "Red Sormovo" Plant:

tramnn

1980s. KM/KP train-memorial №162-392 at the Avtozavodskoe tram depot №3:

tramnn

1996, Nativity Street. KM tramcar №162 (constructed in 1935 at "Red Sormovo" Plant) at the parade dedicated to the centenary of Nizhny Novgorod Tram:

Rave Speeder

August 15, 2003. KM tramcar №162 (constructed in 1935 at "Red Sormovo" Plant) at the tram depot №3:

Vladislav Prudnikov

August 15, 2003. KM tramcar №162 (constructed in 1935 at "Red Sormovo" Plant) at the tram depot №3:

Vladislav Prudnikov

August 15, 2003. Passenger saloon of the KM tramcar №162:

Vladislav Prudnikov

August 15, 2003. Passenger saloon of the KM tramcar №162:

Vladislav Prudnikov

August 15, 2003. Driver's seat of the KM tramcar №162:

Vladislav Prudnikov
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:20 PM   #3394
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May 2004. KM tramcar №162 (operated in 1935-1973) at the tram depot №3. This is one of only two preserved KM tramcars in the world (the second is KM №2170 in Moscow):

Евгений Куйбышев

May 2004. KM tramcar №162 at the tram depot №3:

Евгений Куйбышев

May 28, 2004. KM tramcar №162 at the tram depot №3:

Сергей Орлов

May 28, 2004. KM tramcar №162 before overhaul:

tramnn

May 28, 2004. KM tramcar №162 before overhaul:

tramnn

May 28, 2004. Saloon of KM tramcar №162 before overhaul:

tramnn
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:21 PM   #3395
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September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 is going to the parade:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 after overhaul at Kirov Avenue:

Сергей Орлов

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 after overhaul at Kirov Avenue:

Vladislav Prudnikov

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 at Lenin Avenue near Metro station "Dvigatel Revolyutsii" ("Engine of Revolution"):

Vladislav Prudnikov

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 at the Hay Square:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 at Greater Pechersk Street:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 at Greater Pechersk Street:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Passenger saloon of the KM tramcar №162:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Driver's seat. Vladimir Tsimbalov is a veteran of tram depot №3:

tramnn
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:22 PM   #3396
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September 12, 2004. City Day. Parade is over but everyone want to ride in KM tramcar №162:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Parade is over. KM tramcar №162 is going to tram depot №3:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Parade is over. KM tramcar №162 is going to tram depot №3:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Parade is over. KM tramcar №162 is going to tram depot №3. Forty years ago this scene was a daily:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. Parade is over. KM tramcar №162 is going to tram depot №3. Forty years ago this scene was a daily:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 at Youth Avenue:

Vladislav Prudnikov

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 at the Lyadov ring after end of the parade:

tramnn

September 12, 2004. City Day. KM tramcar №162 at the Lyadov ring after end of the parade:

tramnn

General view of the KM tramcar №162 from right side:

Сергей Филатов

General view of the KM tramcar №162 from left side:

Сергей Филатов

General view of the KM tramcar №162:

Сергей Филатов

General view of the KM tramcar №162 from right side:

Сергей Филатов

General view of the KM tramcar №162 from left side:

Сергей Филатов

General view of the KM tramcar №162 from left side:

Сергей Филатов

Bogie of the KM tramcar №162:

Сергей Филатов

Automatic disconnection of power network:

Сергей Филатов


Сергей Филатов

Passenger seat of the KM trancar №162:

Сергей Филатов

Passenger saloon of the KM tramcar №162:

Сергей Филатов

Passenger saloon of the KM tramcar №162:

Сергей Филатов

Driver's seat of the KM tramcar №162:

Сергей Филатов

Driver's seat, right side:

Сергей Филатов

Driver's seat, left side:

Сергей Филатов

May 3, 2005. Driver's seat of the KM tramcar №162 at the tram depot №3:

Василий Филиппов

Back door of the KM tramcar №162:

Сергей Филатов

May 3, 2005. KM tramcar №162 at the tram depot №3:

Василий Филиппов
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:24 PM   #3397
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May 9, 2005. Victory Day. KM tramcar №162 is going to the tram parade dedicated to the 60th anniversary of Victory in WWII:

tramnn

May 9, 2005. Victory Day. KM tramcar №162 at Lykov Dam:

tramnn

May 9, 2005. Victory Day. KM tramcar №162 at Lykov Dam:

tramnn

August 18, 2005. KM tramcar №162 near gates of the tram depot №1:

Сергей Филатов

December 16, 2006. Driver's seat of the KM museum tramcar №162:

Антон Буслов

December 16, 2006. Saloon of the KM museum tramcar №162:

Антон Буслов

December 16, 2006. KM museum tramcar №162 at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Антон Буслов

July 17, 2008. KM museum tramcar №162 at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Алексей Лаушкин aka ALX

November 21, 2009. KM museum tramcar №162 at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Евгений Куйбышев

May 26, 2011. KM museum tramcar №162 at the museum site of tram depot №1:

Сергей Филатов

July 11, 2013. KM museum tramcar №162 at the museum site of tram depot №1 before overhaul:

Артём Светлов

July 24, 2013. The overhaul of the KM museum tramcar №162 at the tram depot №1:

TatroNik555

August 12, 2013. The overhaul of the KM museum tramcar №162 at the tram depot №1:

Сергей Филатов

August 12, 2013. The overhaul of the KM museum tramcar №162 at the tram depot №1:

Сергей Филатов

KM museum tramcar №162 after overhaul:

Link
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:25 PM   #3398
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TRAMCARS WHICH NEVER OPERATED IN NIZHNY NOVGOROD

LM-33/LP-33 TRAMCARS

Manufacturer: Leningrad VARZ wagon-repair plant (now St. Petersburg Tram Mechanical Plant);
Country: Soviet Union;
The project: 1933;
The first exemplar: 1933;
Years of manufacturing: 1933-1941;
Years of exploitation: 1933-1979;
Copies: 232 (LM-33 motor tramcars), 226 (LP-33 trailers);
Mass without passengers: 22.2 tons (LM-33 motor tramcars), 16.2 tons (LP-33 trailers);
Seating capacity: 49 (LM-33 motor tramcars), 52 (LP-33 trailers);
Total capacity: 178 (LM-33 motor tramcars), 202 (LP-33 trailers);
Length: 15000 mm;
Width: 2600 mm;
Height of the roof: 3318 mm;
Gauge: 1524 mm;
Base: 7500 mm;
Base trolley: 1800 mm;
Type of controller: DK-7B;
Number and types of engines: 4xPT-35 or 4xDTI-60;
Power of one engine: 40 kW (PT-35) / 55 kW (DTI-60);
Type of brake: pneumatic direct motion and hand-wheeled motorized shoe;
Maximal speed: 50 km/h.
Number of preserved tramcars by 2005: 1 (LM-33 motor tramcar), 1 (LP-33 trailer);
Serviceable: yes.

"Americans"

Written by Alexander Shanin

The previous article was devoted to the Moscow old КМ/КP tramcars. The present article is devoted to the first Leningrad four-axle tramcars of great roominess.

The tram network appeared in the capital of the Russian Empire rather late – only in 1907. Before the early 1930s only two-axle tramcars operated there. By that time they could not satisfy completely the demand for the traffic, so switch to the use of four-axle tramcars became the most urgent issue. The only similar series produced tramcars were КМ and КP, but the roominess thereof was insufficient as they had been designed for the work in narrow streets of old cities with narrow dimensions, narrow curves and steep climbs, whereas the young city on the Neva River had wide streets and totally flat relief. Besides, the production volume of КМ/КP tramcars could not completely meets the demands of Leningrad.

In 1932, the Leningrad municipal transport department decided to put into operation four-axle tramcars of great roominess.

To familiarize themselves with the structure and to obtain experience, 20 КМ motor tramcars were ordered from the "Red Sormovo" Plant in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod). They received city numbers №№4001-4020. Only 12 tramcars were actually received, and only three of them were put into operation. They were called ММ (Moscow Motor Tramcars). It was resolved to use the bogies and electrical equipment of the other tramcars to build own prototype tramcars of great roominess.

In 1933, a group of design engineers under the direction of Dmitry Kondratyev started to work. In the early 1930s, Dmitry Kondratyev and a group of Leningrad specialists visited United States to learn about local developments. A maximum allowed dimension of tramcars was chosen with due account to the operating conditions: the hull length - 15 meters, width - 2.6 meters (as compared to КМ tramcar hull length - 12.55 m , width - 2.14 m). The prototype four motor tramcars and four trailers were designed and built in the Central tram repair workshops in the Leonov tram depot at Vasilyevsky Island. To perfect the hull structure and the door drive, in the course of complete overhaul, three old two-axle tramcars of second stage (motor tramcars №№ 1523 and 1797 and trailer № 869) were equipped with new hulls similar to the type of the design tramcars, but they were shorter, with one control station and wide shield right-side doors with pneumatic drive. These reequipped tramcars received МО/ series ("Motorny Opytny" and "Pritsepnoy Opytny", English: "Motor Experimental" and "Trailer Experimental") and were afterwards transferred from Leningrad to Irkutsk, and then to Omsk.

In summer eight prototype four-axle tramcars were built and delivered to the Smirnov tram depot (now tram depot №4) for operation. A new model of the Leningrad tramcars was derived from research trip based on the Peter Witt design. The design was modified in accordance with Soviet domestic requirements; in particular, the width of the wagon was reduced. They were called МА/ ("Motorny Amerikanskogo tipa" and "Pritsepnoy Amerikanskogo tipa", English: "Motor Tramcar of American type" and "Trailer of American type'). The model quickly earned the nickname "Amerikanka" ("American") – the tramcars really looked like the USA tramcars. Later for political reasons, the tramcar names were changed to LM-33 ("Leningrad Motor of 1933 project") and LP-33 ("Leningradsky Pritsepnoy proyekta 1933 goda", English: "Leningrad Trailer of 1933 project"), respectively. However, the name "Americans" lived on.

The prototype tramcars differed a little from one another. All motor tramcars had only one control station, but the tramcars of the first train (they had numbers №№ 4021 and 4022) had three doors on each side. Such loss of simplicity failed to prove its value as for safety reasons left-side doors could be only used at end-stations.

The next two tramcars (№№ 4023 and 4024) had only two doors each – in the front and in the middle part of the saloon, there was no rear door. Such layout was characteristic of American tramcars of those times: the seats were located in the rear part of the saloon, which was meant for passengers travelling a long distance, and the vacant front half was a kind of collecting platform making it possible to speed up boarding at the stops. This version convenient for small passenger traffic turned out to be absolutely unacceptable in case of overload during the rush hours. For the same reason, the attempts to use double-deck city transport vehicles in Soviet Union failed, though such trams, trolleybuses and buses operated successfully in many countries, and in some places (Great Britain, Germany, Hong Kong, etc) they carry passengers nowadays.

All subsequent tramcars had three right-side doors each. The seats in the first half of the saloon were installed along the sides and formed a wide passage, and in the rear part the seats were located transverse. Such layout was considered successful and was recommended for series tramcars. Conductor’s seat was on the right of the middle entrance. The driver’s seat was originally fenced in by a low barrier and a curtain. Later on, in the course of reconstruction separate cabs were made for the drivers.

The tramcars had a wooden hull made of hardwood and fixed on a carriage frame. The similar construction was earlier used in two-axle tramcars. Shield doors with pneumatic drive were for the first time used in Leningrad (and in the USSR on the whole). Two-armed bogies were driven under the tramcar; the bogies were constructed similar to the bogies of Pullman-type railroad cars with double springing. The structure of the bogies turned out to be successful, and similar bogies were later on used in LМ/LP-47 and LМ/LP-49 tramcars of post-WWII production. PT-35 traction engines were installed in motor tramcars. Electrical and pneumatic equipment was of home manufacture.

The Central tram repair workshops did not suit the purpose of serial production, and the "Red Putilovite" Plant (now Kirov Plant), which manufactured all-metal two-axle МS/PS tramcars, was overburden with defence orders. That is why, just a few months prior to the startup it was decided to restructure for a different function the wagon-repair plant being under construction at Cast-iron Street in order to organize both repairs and serial production of tramcars there.

On May 15, 1934 the plant was put into operation and started the serial production of new four-axle tramcars. Production of LМ/LP-33 tramcars continued up to the outbreak of Great Patriotic War. The layout of series tramcar saloon was slightly altered: all the seats were now installed transversely similar to railway carriages. The constructed tramcars received the following city numbers: motor tramcars №№4021-4483 (odd), trailers №№4022-4472 (even). All in all 232 motor tramcars and 226 trailers were built. Part of the tramcars intended for the work on suburban tramlines was equipped with searchlights.

The tram depot of Kirov District (now tram depot №8), which was opened in 1936, was completely supplied with new tramcars. In 1946 three LМ-33+LP-33+LP-33 three-car trains were formed in this tram depot, they operated along route №13. And it was from there that on March 18, 1979 the last tram train (№4275-4454) set out on its last run along tram route №14. For more than 45 years of operation LМ/LP-33 tramcars ran 530 million km and transported 4.8 billion passengers.

Later on, a solid frame made it possible to reequip part of LМ/LP-33 tramcars as freight and special cars: №4435 – crane platform in Combined Tram and Trolley-bus depot (STTP), LМ/LP-33 - the train consisting of two oil-products tanks in STTP, asphalt-cutter (redesigned in the Leonov tram depot), №4359 – a tow for four-axle railroad-type dosing machine.

Moreover, after the Second World War, all-metal LМ/LP-47 tramcars were built in Leningrad and an original tram train was built in Yaroslavl (with an all-metal hull similar to Moscow М-38 tramcars). They were built on the basis of frames and bogies of the LМ/LP-33 tramcars, which were destroyed by Nazis. The last tram train №4275-4454 has been preserved until now, it was shot in a number of films, it was used for excursions around the city (it was restored in 1997 to mark the 90th anniversary of St. Petersburg Tram).

Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 (constructed in 1936/1937) in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

2002. Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

2002. Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 in St. Petersburg:

tramnn

May 28, 2003. Saloon of the museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454:

tramnn

May 25, 2004. Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 at the terminus stop "Small Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island":

tramnn

May 25, 2004. Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 at the Leonov tram depot at Vasilyevsky Island:

tramnn

May 9, 2005. Victory Day. Museum LM/LP-33 tram train №4275-4454 at the Victory Parade dedicated to the 60th anniversary of Victory in WWII:

tramnn
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Old April 1st, 2014, 03:27 PM   #3399
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M-38 TRAMCARS

Manufacturer: SVARZ Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (Moscow), Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant (Moscow Region);
Country: Soviet Union;
The project: 1938 (1934);
The first exemplars: 1935-1936 (SVARZ);
Years of manufacturing: 1939-1941 (Mytishchi Plant), experimental tramcars: 1935-1936 (SVARZ);
Years of exploitation: 1939-1971, experimental tramcars: 1935-1964;
Copies: 60 (Mytishchi Plant), 4 (SVARZ);
Mass without passengers: near 20 tons;
Seating capacity: near 48;
Total capacity: near 190;
Length: 15000 mm;
Width: 2600 mm;
Gauge: 1524 mm;
Base trolley: 1750 mm;
Number and types of engines: 4xDK-251 or 4xDTI-60;
Power of one engine: 45 kW (DK-251) / 55 kW (DTI-60);
System of control: indirect rheostat-contactor;
Type of brake: pneumatic drum and electric regenerative;
Maximal speed: 55 km/h.
Number of preserved tramcars: none.

"Blue tramcar"

Written by Alexander Shanin

From the point of view of their structure, tramcars of the early 1930s did not differ a lot from their predecessors built prior to World War I, which confirmed the saying "as old as a tram". The outdated bulky hull was fixed on a heavy steel frame; massive low-speed traction engines with unsprung mass overhung axial support were located in high bogies with a riveted frame. The driver was exposed to the winds and worked in a standing position at the front platform. On his left there was a massive controller with tight handles, the controller was connected to the power circuit of traction engines.

To develop the project of basically new type of tramcars, a design office was set up in the Moscow's Schepetilnikov tram depot (now trolleybus depot №4) in 1934. Engineers I. Bykov and A. Bukin wrote about this kind of work in the magazine "Transport and roads" № 9 for 1934. The rough plan was developed for the train consisting of four-axle tramcars: a motor tramcar and a trailer.

Project characteristics:
Mass without passengers: 19-20 tons;
Length: 15000 mm;
Width: 2600 mm;
Wheel diameter: 780 mm;
Seating capacity: 48 (motor tramcar), 52 (trailer);
Total capacity: 191.

It was planned that the new tramcar will have three doors, a pair of door in the middle and at the back, and the single door at the front. The front and back doors were shield doors, the middle door was a sliding door, both halves sliding into the partition being 1 m wide and installed in between. It was actually a four-door tramcar.

The rear door was the entrance, the middle door was the exit for those who travelled a short distance, and the front door was the exit for those who travelled a long distance. The doors were pneumatic-driven. It was supposed that two conductors will work in the tram at the same time: one at the entrance, the other near the middle door.

The hull was designed as all-metal welded structure. A new type bogie with the base of 1750 mm was developed. The motor tramcar was supposed to be equipped with four traction electric motors of new DTI-60 type (each 60 kW), which were produced by "Dynamo" Plant in Moscow. As it was impossible to operate the engines with the total power of 240 kW with the help of cylindrical controller, indirect contactor control was designed for the prototype tramcar, which made it possible for several motor-wags to work in one train according to a many-unit system. It was also planned to test the prototype tramcar with compound engines, which were planned to be manufactured at "Dynamo" Plant.

The Shchepetilnikov tram depot could not build prototype tramcars by its own strength, so it was decided to build tramcars at SVARZ (Sokolniki Wagon Repairment and Building Plant), which is located in Moscow District of Sokolniki (lit. Falconers). And in 1935-1936 four prototype tramcars were constructed at the plant. In the course of implementation the project was altered, in particular the hulls were made circular (of streamline shape) similar to ZIS-16 bus, and not angular (as it was originally planned). The middle door was not wing, but shield, and consisted of two spaced parts – actually the tramcars had four doors.

Prototype cars received city numbers №№1001-1004 and were delivered to the Artamonov tram depot for operation. They operated along route №40: "Maiden's Field - Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square)". According to the results of service of prototype tramcars, it was decided to start serial production of similar tramcars. Serial production could not be organized at SVARZ, so all documents were transferred to Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant.

In 1939-1941, 60 tramcars were built for Moscow at Mytishchi Plant, they were given series М-38 and city numbers №№1005-1064. All of them were delivered to the Bauman tram depot for operation. All the tramcars were built as motor tramcars. They have never been used according to a many-unit system (although it is technically feasible). The tramcars were initially painted blue, that is why passengers called them "blue tramcars".

The key specifications of serial tramcars did not almost differ from those of the prototype ones, but the external shape of the hull was changed. The hull was all-metal, welded; the skin was welded to the frame. The tramcars were equipped with current collectors and had rubberized wheels. The service brake was electrical regenerative and drum brake with a pneumatic drive. The indirect control system was applied: in the driver’s cab there was a master-controller of small sizes with a big floor-mounted lever (for 19 positions), and power contactors were under the floor of the tramcar. DК-251 compound traction motors (capacity 45 kW) with overhung axial support ensured the speed of the tramcar equal to 55 km/h and excellent acceleration performance – acceleration from rest was 1.14 m/s² as compared to 0.4-0.7 m/s² of the old tramcars. Unlike the prototype ones, serial tramcars had three shield doors each and there was only one conductor. The bogies were two-armed with double suspension.

In June 1941, the output of tramcars was ceased, and after WWII Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant did not build tramcars any longer. Due to the difficulties with electrical equipment, simpler models with the direct control system and all-rolled wheels were manufactured.

Prototype tramcars operated before the war, and then they were removed of service and were kept in the Artamonov tram depot near the fence. After the war (in 1948) they were transferred to Yaroslavl in nonoperable state and there they were restored. In addition, they were redesigned as two-engine (DTI-60 engines) with a direct control system similar to standard "Kh" tramcars, and the third door (out of four) was walled in. In such condition they operated until 1964.

In 1948, one of the serial tramcars (№1028) was transferred to Stalinsk (now Novokuznetsk), where it was written off at the second half of 1960s. The rest of the tramcars operated in the Bauman tram depot up to the mid 1960s. In the course of operation (before the war) pantographs were replaced by bow collectors, and rubberized wheels were replaced by the common ones. The write-off started on September 30, 1966, and was completed on November 11, 1971. Tramcar №1058 operated in the depot as a tractor and was written off on July 19, 1979. The last tram route, where М-38 tramcars operated was route №17. Unfortunately, М-38 tramcars have been immortalized only in old photos and news films.

At the same time 9 four-axle all-metal KTTs motor tramcars were built at Kyiv Electric Transport Plant in Ukraine (city numbers №№1101-1109), they were outwardly very much alike М-38 tramcars, but had totally different bogies and an indirect control system. In 1960-1963 they were for the first time transferred to other Ukrainian cities (Dniprodzerzhynsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Konotop, Mykolaiv). The last exemplars operated in Konotop till the mid-1970s, and their hulls have been preserved there, in the territory of a depot, until now.

Another attempt to create a trendsetter was made in Leningrad. In 1936 according to the project of Dmitry Kondratyev a prototype train was built at local VARZ wagon-repair plant, it consisted of a four-axle motor tramcar and an trailer with all-metal hulls. It was put into operation on September 25, 1936 and was delivered to the Skorokhodov tram depot (now tram depot №6). It was given МCh/PCh series ("Motorny Chetyryokhosny" and "Pritsepnoy Chetyryokhosny", English: "Motor Four-axle Tramcar" and "Trailer Four-axle"), and further on - LM-36/LP-36 series ("Leningrad Motor of 1936 project" and "Leningradsky Pritsepnoy proyekta 1936 goda", English: "Leningrad Trailer of 1936 project") and №4501-4502. It was painted blue, so it was called a "blue train".

The hull frame and structure were welded; the skin was welded to the hull. The length was 15.7 m, the width - 2.55 m, the tramcar base - 7.7 m, the mass without passengers - 21.5 tons, total capacity - 92 passengers, 48 seats (for the first time soft seats were installed in the Leningrad Tram). To reduce the time of stopovers, the width of the middle door was increased 1.5 times as compared to LМ/LP-33 tramcars. It had a two-wire air brake. It had disk nips brakes (the construction turned out to be unsuccessful). The bogies were two-armed with above-box suspension on coil springs and central cradle suspension on elliptic springs. It had PT-35 traction engines. The wheels were rubberized.

The traffic automatic control system in combination with the indirect control (similar to the RSS American tramcar) was for the first time applied in the Leningrad Tram. A multistage start and braking occurred by means of a fixed collector removed from the old tractor engine and by means of motor-starting resistors attached to it. A separate small main electric motor with a reducer was used to move the wipers along the collector.

The construction was simplified in the course of operation: rubberized wheels were replaced by all-rolled ones, and the indirect control system was replaced by the common control circuit similar to LМ-33.

The tram train operated along route №12 ("Central Park of Culture and Leisure – Smolny Avenue"). During the war the LM-36/LP-36 tramcars did not operate. After the war in 1945, the tram train was restored and started to operate along route №12 again. It was transferred to Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod) in 1953, where it received №194-195. It was written off in Gorky in 1967. There are only drawings left in "Kondratyev's album" and a few photographs of not very good quality.

The war interrupted the work for improvement of four-axle all-metal tramcar structures. The serial production of manufactured models was not started, and, unfortunately, none of them has been preserved, but the experience of designing thereof turned out to be very useful afterwards, when in the second half of the 1940s work at new tramcars was started.

1937. The only exemplar of LM-36/LP-36 tramcar (operated in 1936-1967) in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg):

AVB

1936. LM-36/LP-36 tramcar at the Konyashin tram depot (now tram depot №1) in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg):

Блескин Михаил

July 1959. M-38 tramcar №1015 (constructed in 1939 at Mytishchi Plant) at Peace Avenue, tram route №5:

Ray Degroote

July 8, 1959. M-38 tramcar №1032 (operated in 1939-1969) at Peace Avenue, tram route №5:

Ray Degroote

July 8, 1959. M-38 tramcar №1037 (operated in 1939-1966) near the terminus stop "Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy (northern)", tram route №11:

tramnn

July 8, 1959. M-38 tramcar №1040 (operated in 1939-1968) near the terminus stop "Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy (northern)", tram route №11:

Ray Degroote

July 8, 1959. M-38 tramcar №1049 (operated in 1941-1969) at Shcherbakov Street, tram route №11:

Ray Degroote

July 8, 1959. M-38 tramcar №1042 (operated in 1939-1966) at Izmaylov Avenue, tram route №11:

Ray Degroote

July 8, 1959. M-38 tramcar №1026 (operated in 1939-1966) at May Day Street, tram route №11:

Ray Degroote

July 1959. M-38 tramcar №1026 (operated in 1939-1966) at the terminus stop "16th Park Street", tram route №11:

tramnn

M-38 tramcar №1045 (constructed in 1940 at Mytishchi Plant) at the Bauman tram depot in Moscow:

tramnn
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:19 PM   #3400
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3) Yekaterinoslav / Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine (opened on June 26, 1897);
4) Yelisavetgrad / Zinovievsk / Kirovo / Kirovohrad, Ukraine (opened on July 25, 1897);
5) Kursk (opened on April 30, 1898):


Kursk is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Region, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers.

Pre-revolutionary history

Archaeology indicates that the site of Kursk was settled in the 5th or 4th century BCE. The settlement was fortified and included Slavs at least as early as the eighth century CE. The first written record of Kursk is dated 1032. It was mentioned as one of Severian towns by Prince Igor in "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" (end of 12th century): "As to my Kurskers, they are famous knights — swaddled under war-horns, nursed under helmets, fed from the point of the lance; to them the trails are familiar, to them the ravines are known, the bows they have are strung tight, the quivers, unclosed, the sabers, sharpened; themselves, like gray wolves, they lope in the field, seeking for themselves honor, and for their prince, glory".

The seat of a minor principality, Kursk was raided by the Polovtsians in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and destroyed by Batu Khan around 1238. The city was rebuilt no later than 1283. It was ruled by Grand Duchy of Lithuania between 1360 and 1508. Kursk joined the centralized Russian state in 1508, becoming its southern border province. It was an important center of the corn trade with Ukraine and hosted an important fair, which took place annually under the walls of the monastery of Our Lady of Kursk. Kursk was raided frequently by hordes of Polish–Lithuanian aggressors (in 1612, 1616, 1617 and 1634) and Crimean Khanate until late of 17th century. However, Kursk fortress was never seized by aggressors. In 1616 Kursk garrison had more than 1.3 thousand people. There were resettled residents of the Oryol and other southern Russian cities (in 1678 there were already 2.8 thousand inhabitants in Kursk).

The city developed thanks to its favorable geographical position (the shortest route from Moscow to the Crimea, road from Kursk to Kyiv). It was bounded to successively Kyiv Governorate (1708–1727), Belgorod Governorate (1727–1779) and Kursk Viceroyality (1779–1797). It was finally become center of Kursk Governorate in 1797. Town status was granted to Kursk in 1779.

In the beginning of 19th century Kursk became not only trade center, but also an industrial center. In 1780 there was opened first school, in 1808 - male gymnasium, in 1817 - theological seminary, in 1870 - female gymnasium. In 1797 there was put into operation printing house, in 1792 was opened private theatre. In 1846 the city had 70 factories. In the early 19th century, the city already had a hotel. On October 12, 1868 was opened Moscow-Kursk railway. Some later was opened Kyiv-Kursk railway. In 1869 there was completed construction of Yamskoy Rail Terminal in the suburban Yamskaya Settlement, 3.2 km from the city. In 1874 began construction of the branch rail line to the city. On June 18, 1878 there was opened City Rail Terminal in the central part of Kursk - at General Street (now Alexander Nevsky Street). In the end of 19th century Kursk became an important center of food industry (flour and sugar). In 1874 was put into operation water supply. In 1883 was opened a candle factory (since 1935 - chemical-pharmaceutical plant). In the end of 19th century the population of Kursk was 76 thousand people. There were 2799 houses and 83 large industrial enterprises, where worked 1942 people.

"Religious Procession in Kursk Governorate" (1880-1883; painter - Ilya Repin). Annual religious procession (crucession) carrying the famous icon "Our Lady of Kursk" from its home at the Kursk Cathedral of the Sign to the Korennaya Pustyn Monastery:

Wikipedia

Beginning of crucession near the Moscow Gate in Kursk:

kurskcity

1900s. General view of Kursk:

kurskcity

1900s. General view of Kursk:

kursk-museum

1900s. General view of Kursk:

kursk-museum
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