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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:22 PM   #3401
geometarkv
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1900s. View from the Tuskar River:

kurskcity

1900s. View from the Tuskar River:

kurskcity

1900s. View from the Tuskar River:

kurskcity

1909. View from the Tuskar River:

kurskcity

1900s. Power station for electric lighting of the city:

kurskcity

1900s, Jordan Descent. Power station for electric lighting of the city:

kurskcity

1900s. Power station for electric lighting of the city:

kurskcity

1900s. Power station for electric lighting of the city:

kurskcity
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:23 PM   #3402
geometarkv
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Pre-revolutionary history of Kursk Tram (1898-1918)

Kursk is located at hilly terrain. By this reason, it was difficult to move around the city. Travel by coach was too expensive for majority of residents (travel prices were from 0.5 to 1 ruble). After opening of horse-drawn tram in the neighboring city of Voronezh (August 23, 1891), in Kursk began to discuss issue about construction of horse-drawn tram. Since the city authorities had no own money for construction of tram system, in spring of 1895 was announced a contest for the best cheap project of tram network. During three months, authorities received two bids. According to both projects, horse-drawn tram and omnibus were unsuitable kinds of transport in Kursk due to hilly and rugged terrain, the presence of deep valleys of the Kur and Tuskar Rivers, and steep climbs and descents at the two main city magistrals - Moscow Street (now Lenin Street) and Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). Therefore, they decided to opt for an electric tram.

One of two above-mentioned bids was developed by Ivan Likhachov, Moscow engineer of Railways. According to his project, tramlines were supposed to be laid along the main streets - Moscow Street (now Lenin Street) and Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). This choice was not accidental: along these streets were housed the goverment buildings of the Kursk Governorate and majority of commercial enterprises, thus life here has been more intense. In this area travelled many residents due to their business. It meant that it was possible to get profit from operation of tramline. The second project was presented by German company "Siemens & Halske AG", which took part in construction of tramlines in Nizhny Novgorod and Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine). According to the project of German company, electric tramlines were supposed to be laid not only along the main streets, but also near suburban Yamskoy Rail Terminal.

As a result, authorities opted for the Likhachov's project. On October 31, 1895 Ivan Likhachov established in Brussel "Joint stock company of the electric railroad in Kursk" ("Tramways de Koursk (société anonyme)"). Board of Governors was located at #31 Rue du Marais, Brussels. The basic capital of the company was 3500000 francs, which was divided into 35.000 shares at 100 francs each. Those shares were sold on foreign stock exchanges. On March 3, 1896 Likhachov's project was officially approved in Ministry of Internal Affairs. According to Russian law, foreign capital could not be directly used at the territory in country. By this reason, on July 10, 1896 there was established representation office of Belgian company in Russian Empire. Thus, Ivan Likhachov become representative of the company in Russia.

In summer of 1896 there was began construction of the power station and tram depot at the St. George Square (now Proletarian garden square at the intersection of Dzerzhinsky Street and Gaidar Street). The capacity of first station was 250-300 kW, that supplied 460/230 V. The first tram depot was located near the power station. In July 1896 were ordered 12 motor tramcars and 6 trailers. Those tramcars were constructed at Belgian plants "Ragheno" и "Franco-Belge". The equipment for tramcars was made at "Electricite et Hudraulique" plant. In spring of 1897 in Kursk began construction of tram tracks and overhead lines, which was mainly finished in September 1897.

The tramline was laid along the two major streets of the city - Moscow Street (now Lenin Street) and Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). The both streets bordered with Red Square - the central square of the city. The main sight of the square and Kursk in general is Cathedral of the Sign (1816–1826) - imposing edifice, rigorously formulated in the purest Neoclassical style, with a cupola measuring 20 meters in diameter and rising 48 meters high. The two terminus stops - "Moscow Spires" and "Kherson Spires" (Kherson is a important Ukrainian port on the Black Sea and Dnieper River) - were located near beginnings of the roads to Moscow and Kharkiv (Ukraine) respectively. Near these roads were located two other sights - Moscow Gate (erected in 1823 in memory of the visit of Russian Emperor Alexander I) and Kherson Gate (erected in 1836 in memory of the visit of Russian Emperor Nicholas I; instead of old gate built in 1787 and dedicated to the visit of Russian Empress Catherine the Great).

On April 23, 1898 tramcars were tested at the route from Kherson Gate to the St. George Square (now Proletarian garden square), and later - along whole Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street) to Moscow Street (now Lenin Street). The official ceremony of opening was held on April 30, 1898. There was put into operation double-track tramline (1524-mm gauge) from Moscow Spires to Kherson Spires. The length of this tramline was 4.9 km by axis of streets. During next 37 years, it was only electric tramline in Kursk. According to local tradition, the celebration was started from religious procession. Orthodox priests consecrated a tramcars. The famous icon "Our Lady of Kursk" was used in the consecration ceremony. Thus were debunked prejudices of the some religious citizens, who were convinced that riding in an electric tram is a sinful.

From the first day tram became a popular kind of transport in the city. During first year of operation tramcars carried 0.5 million passengers. In 1913 annual passenger traffic increased till 2.772 million passengers. There were 13 stops at the line. The travel time by whole route was 25 minutes. There were daily used 8-9 motor tramcars, while trailers were used only during summer period. The basis of hull of Belgian tramcars was wooden frame. The basis parts of hull frame were longitudinal and transverse beams. The platform frames were riveted to the external longitudinal beams. The hull walls were double: external part was manufactured from cladding iron of 1.5-2 mm thickness, interior part was made from wooden skin, which served as both facing and warming of the tramcar. At the roof of tramcar was installed rod-type current receiver with roller, which clinged to a contact network. The earthing of the tramcar was through a rails. At the tramcar bogie were installed two engines of small capacity (about 14.7 kW each). Sometimes this capacity was not enough to pick up the tramcar filled with passengers on Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). In this case, tramcar stopped, passengers disembarked and walked to the more or less "flat" stop, where tramcar already waited them.

Time intervals were 20 minutes. The average speed of tramcars was limited till 12 km/h. The roominess of tramcar was 48 persons: 24 seats + 10 standing (inside the tramcar) and 7+7 standing at the opened sites in front and back of the tramcar. The tram system operated from 7:00am till 10:00pm (during summer period) and from 8:00am till 9:00pm (during winter period). The travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (trip along one street) and 8 kopecks or 0.08 rubles (trip along two streets), that was no cheap at those times. Tram drivers worked during 10-12 hours per day. The monthly salary was 23-30 rubles for drivers and 40 rubles for conductors. However, due to rigid system of fines, monthly salary could be reduced by half.

Belgian shareholders were the principal owners of the tram network in Kursk. According to the contract, Belgians should not pay anything in the town treasury during first decade. They had big profit from the tram operation. That's why they didn't care about repair of existing equipment or about improving the living standards of workers. All it led to the first strike of tram employees in summer 1901. The protesters demanded reduction of working hours, reduction of fines and warm clothing for the work during winter periods. However, this strike ended without result.

Since 1898, the total profit for all years of tram operation reached 432.353 francs by 1910, 483.831 francs by 1911 (51.478 francs in 1910), 565.000 francs by 1913, 619.000 francs by 1914 (54.000 francs in 1913). In 1912 new tram depot for 10 tramcars with workshops was built at Pasture Street (now 50 Years of October' Street) near Kherson Gate. The number of tram employees was 60 people, including: tram drivers and conductors - 40 people, Head of tram depot - 1 man, master - 1 man, the workers of different specialties (turners, joiners, electrician, laborers, etc.) - 18 people.

After beginning of WWI, many tram employees gone to the front. According to the order of the Kursk Governor, tramcars became used for transportation of wounded people into hospitals. For this purpose, was built short branch line from City Rail Terminal to Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). The number of passengers greatly decreased. On December 9, 1917 Bolsheviks took power in the city. In 1917 tram drivers organized another strike. As result, in March 1918 they achieved introduction of eight-hour working day and significant increase of their salaries. However, on April 27, 1918, due to severe deterioration of the tracks and lack of fuel for power station, tram operation was stopped. Belgian owners decided to go home. On the eve of departure, they ordered to disassemble tram engines, the overhead lines, tram rails, and to send this equipment to Belgium. However, workers refused to do it. They stated that they have earned it by their toil. Belgians were forced to leave city empty-handed. On September 20, 1919, during Russian Civil War, Anton Denikin's White Army captured city, but they forced to leave it on November 19, 1919.

1897, Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). The construction of the electric tramline:

tkursk

1897, Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). The construction of the electric tramline:

Anubis

April 30, 1898. Tram power station at Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

tkursk

April 30, 1898. Red Square, the opening of electric tram system. Moleben and consecration of tramcars:

Anubis

April 30, 1898. The opening of electric tram system. The religious procession near Cathedral of the Sign:

kurskcity

The share of the Belgian joint stock company "Tramways de Koursk":

tkursk

The scheme of first tramline in Kursk. The tram stops:
1 - Kherson Spires;
2 - Kherson Gate;
3 - Theological seminary;
4 - Rtishchev Street;
5 - Bridge across Kur River;
6 - General Street (City Rail Terminal);
7 - City Square (Red Square);
8 - Post office;
9 - Golden Street;
10 - State Bank;
11 - Garden Street;
12 - Moscow Gate;
13 - Moscow Spires.



tkursk
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:24 PM   #3403
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1900s, Road to Moscow. Moscow Spires and Moscow Gate:

kurskcity

1900s. Moscow Spires:

Андрей-Курский

1900s. Moscow Spires and Moscow Gate:

kursk-museum

1900s. Moscow Gate (erected in 1823 in memory of the visit of Russian Emperor Alexander I):

kurskcity
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:25 PM   #3404
geometarkv
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"Moscow Gate" (painter - Gennady Kaminsky):

kurskcity

1900s. Moscow Gate:

kurskcity

1900s. Moscow Gate:

kurskcity

1900s. Moscow Gate:

kursk-museum

1900s, Moscow Gate. Annunciation Church (right):

russianhistory

1900s. Governorate Executive Board (now Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of the city of Kursk) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Governorate Executive Board (now Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of the city of Kursk) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Governorate Executive Board (right; now Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of the city of Kursk) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kursk-museum

1910s. House of Nelidov-Volkov at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:27 PM   #3405
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1900s. Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Teacher Seminary and Meteorological Observatory (left; now Administration of Kursk and Rylsk Eparchy) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Teacher Seminary and Meteorological Observatory (now Administration of Kursk and Rylsk Eparchy) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Teacher Seminary and Meteorological Observatory (now Administration of Kursk and Rylsk Eparchy) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

russianhistory

1900s. Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1910s. Nobles' and Peasants' State Land Banks (now Chief Directorate of the Bank of Russia in Kursk Region) at the intersection of Moscow Street (now Lenin Street) and Belevtsev Street (now Chelyuskinites Street):

russianhistory

1900s. State Bank at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Rybakov's shop at the intersection of Moscow Street (now Lenin Street) and Mozhayevskaya Street:

russianhistory
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:30 PM   #3406
geometarkv
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1900s. Tramline at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

Wikipedia

1900s. Tramline at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kursk-museum

1900s. Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

gen-khramcov

1900s. Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Churilov's House (now Military Garrison Hospital) and Lutheran Church (now Prosecutor's office of Kursk Region) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Lutheran Church of the Apostles Peter and Paul (now Office of the Prosecutor of Kursk Region) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:32 PM   #3407
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1900s. Post and Telegraph Office (left) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

russiahistory

1909. Post and Telegraph Office at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Post and Telegraph Office at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kursk-museum

1900s, Moscow Street (now Lenin Street). St. Elijah Church (left):

kursk-museum

1910s. House of St. Elijah Church at the intersection of Moscow Street (now Lenin Street) and Trinity Lane (now St. Seraphim of Sarov' Street):

russianhistory

1900s. St. Elijah Church at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

russianhistory

1912. Levashkevich's confectionery (right) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Tramcar №9 at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street)::

russianhistory

1900s. 2nd Female Gymnasium (left) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1900s. 2nd Female Gymnasium at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kursk-museum

1912. 2nd Female Gymnasium at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kurskcity

1912. 2nd Female Gymnasium (left) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

kursk-museum

1900s, Moscow Street (now Lenin Street). Cathedral of the Sign on the background:

kursk-museum
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:33 PM   #3408
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1900s, City Executive Board (right) at Moscow Street (now Lenin Street). View from Red Square:

kurskcity

1900s. Moscow Street (now Lenin Street):

Андрей-Курский

1900s. Red Square:

Андрей-Курский

1900s. Red Square:

russianhistory

1900s. Red Square:

kursk-museum

1900s, Red Square. Cathedral of the Sign (center), Chapel in the memory of Russian Emperor Alexander II (right) and decorative pavilion of the tram stop "City Square" (left):

kurskcity

1900s, Red Square. Cathedral of the Sign on the background:

russiahistory

1900s, Red Square. Cathedral of the Sign (center), Chapel in the memory of Russian Emperor Alexander II (right) and decorative pavilion of the tram stop "City Square" (left):

kursk-museum

2011. Model of the decorative pavilion of the tram stop "City Square" in the Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the Eastern tram depot:

kursk-museum
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:35 PM   #3409
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1900s, Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street). This site was known as "polugora" (lit. "semi-mountain"):

kurskcity

1908. Perepyolkin's House (left; now "Sosnovsky" shopping center) at Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kurskcity

1900s. St. Nicholas Church at Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russianhistory

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kursk-museum

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kursk-museum

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kursk-museum

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kurskcity

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kursk-museum

1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kursk-museum
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:37 PM   #3410
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1900s. Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

Андрей-Курский

"Tram power station" (painter - Gennady Kaminsky):

kurskcity

1900s. Tram power station and former tram depot at Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kurskcity

1900s. City Theatre (now movie theatre named after Mikhail Shchepkin) at Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

kurskcity

1900s. City Theatre (now movie theatre named after Mikhail Shchepkin) at Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. City Theatre (now movie theatre named after Mikhail Shchepkin) at Kherson Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street):

russianhistory
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:38 PM   #3411
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"Kherson Gate" (painter - Gennady Kaminsky):

kurskcity

1900s. Kherson Gate (erected in 1836 in memory of the visit of Russian Emperor Nicholas I; instead of old gate built in 1787 and dedicated to the visit of Russian Empress Catherine the Great):

kursk-museum

1905. Kherson Gate:

kurskcity

1900s. Kherson Gate:

russianhistory

1900s. Kherson Gate:

kursk-museum

1900s. Kherson Gate:

kurskcity

1900s. Kherson Spires near Kherson Gate:

kurskcity
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:39 PM   #3412
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The revival of the Kursk Tram (1924-1931)

After the end of Civil War, tram enterprise in Kursk (like in almost all Soviet cities) was on the verge of collapse. Nevertheless, the first peaceful years were marked by the growth of the national economy (mainly thanks to the New Economic Policy - NEP). As a result, there appeared need for an improved and extended tram network in the cities. For this purpose, on August 5, 1922 the Organization Commission of All-Russia Tram Conference began to operate. They obtained the loan amounting to 900 thousand of paper Soviet rubles. The funds were partly spent for preparation and sending out both official invitations and detailed questionnaires required to collect local data. The All-Russia Tram Conference was opened on December 16, 1922, and lasted 8 days. The main theses of the conference were: "creation of a New in the electric transport sector to replace destroying Old", "normalization of electric motors for various types of railways", "the creation of a cheap but solid tram", "the regauging of the tram networks on the Soviet standard gauge 1524 mm". The culmination of the conference was the establishment of a commission to design a unified standard tramcar, which was possible to operate in all Soviet tram enterprises. It was possible to produce details of tramcar at the different plants thanks to its unification. The Head of Commission was Alexander Wulf.

Due to to the growth of social ideas about the necessary to have tram operation in the Soviet city, in 1924 it was decided to revive Kursk Tram. In June 1924 there was found way out from sad situation. The main burden of costs fell on the shoulders of Kursk railwaymen. During short period Kursk residents restored what once was property of a foreign company and brought big profit to foreigners. The supervisors of the reconstruction works were engineer N. Rendel and member of Regional Executive Committee Ivan Razinkov, the latter became director of Kursk Tram. During reconstruction, it was decided to use the ideas proposed at the All-Russia Tram Conference 1922. The restoration works were carried out by unemployed workers as well as workers of railway and Department of Local Economy. They replaced 30% of sleepers and all pillars for installation of overhead line. The part of the equipment of power station was also replaced. There were overhauled three steam boilers and refurbished two dynamo machines. There was no any necessary in regauging, because original tram network was built according to the project of engineer Ivan Likhachov with 1524-mm gauge. The total cost of reconstruction works was about 65 thousand rubles. On July 9, 1924 regional newspaper "Kursk Truth" wrote about future reopening of tram network. On September 27, 1924 was made first testing trip.

The second birthday of the Kursk Tram can be regarded October 1, 1924, when the tramcars again began to operate along Lenin Street (former Moscow Street) and Trotsky Street (former Kherson Street, since 1927 - Dzerzhinsky Street). There were 17 stops on the line, and tramline was divided into three fare sections:
1) from Kherson Spires to Red Square;
2) from Red Square to Moscow Spires;
3) from State Bank at Lenin Street to the bridge across Kur River.

Within half of year from beginning of operation, the monthly passenger traffic of Kursk Tram was next:
October 1924 - 184.850 passengers (profit - 15.700 rubles; number of trips - 2516);
November 1924 - 192.478 passengers (16.381 rubles, 3256 trips);
December 1924 - 189.869 passengers (15.941 rubles; 3379 trips);
January 1925 - 179.804 passengers (15.154 rubles; 3586 trips);
February 1925 - 163.447 passengers (13.716 rubles; 3310 trips);
March 1925 - 181.548 passengers (15.179 rubles; 3846 trips).

In 1920s in Kursk were still operated same Belgian tramcars "Ragheno" и "Franco-Belge" that were used to open the electric tram traffic in 1898. During six years of omission, its wooden hull frames decayed and metal parts badly corroded. During reconstruction works, 10 Belgian motor tramcars were overhauled in the railway workshops. There operated 13 motor tramcars in 1927/1928 (fiscal year or financial year). The average speed of tramcars was 9.7 km/h. The number of tram employees was 121 people in 1926/1927 and 125 people in 1927/1928. The total profit from tram operation was 241 thousand rubles while total expenses – 326 thousand rubles. In the mid-1920s labor union of tram employees started its active work. The total length of tramline was 9.28 km (4.5 km by axis of streets).

In January 1925 in Kursk was drafted project of the expanding tram network. The priority purposes of this project were the connection of the tram network with Yamskoy Rail Terminal and the construction of a new tram depot near the Moscow Gate. This project was widely supported by railwaymen. The freight traffic in Kursk constantly increased every year. The construction of new tramlines was supposed to let freight transportation at the special tramcars. The economic effect would be so noticeable that it could be able to compensate for expenses for the laying new tramlines and the construction of tram depot. After presenting the project to the city residents, delegation from Kursk went to Leningrad for participation in the Second All-Russian Congress of Tram Employees. In Leningrad it was resolved to adopt a "standard" tram train consisting of two-axle motor tramcar and a trailer with all-metal hull and bogie with hard base. The Mytishchi Plant was entrusted with the task of organizing serial production of such tramcars. The first model of motor tramcar was manufactured in 1926, and serial production of motor tramcars and trailers started in 1927.

The first city that received large-scale serial delivery of new rolling stock was Kharkiv - the large industrial centre and capital of Ukraine in those times. Since 1927 Kharkiv tram managers rebuilt all tram network (almost 70 km long), replacing the old 1000-mm gauge tram tracks with new standard for domestic railways 1524-mm gauge. The experience gained by Kharkiv was recommended for implementation by the Third All-Union Tram Congress, which was held in Moscow since March 9 to March 15, 1930. In the course of time, the resoluteness of Kharkiv citizens, who had enough will to "remake" the branched tracks of available and smoothly operating tram system, was memorized by the official assignment of the "Kh" ("Kharkiv") mark to the "standard" tramcar. The standard trailers received "M" series, because first large-scale delivery of new trailers was to the Moscow.

At those years in Kursk was going construction of the new tram depot near the Moscow Gate, which later was named Northern tram depot. City authorities realised that it was necessary to build new tramlines and well-appointed depot made of brick to replace old wooden. The construction of the new depot at Karl Marx Street began in May 1929. The official opening of new tram depot was held on November 7, 1930, it was timed to the 13th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The roominess of new depot was 25 tramcars, there were repair workshops and building of tram management. For the new depot, were ordered 11 tramcars of "Kh" series. The first batch, numbering 6 units, was delivered in Kursk in December 1930, the second - in August 1931.

As a result of delivering of 11 "Kh" motor tramcars from Mytishchi Plant in 1930-1931, there began "writing off" of the remaining Belgian tramcars. From the point of view of their structure, "Kh" tramcars were almost identical with the Belgian tramcars. It helped to the fast mastering and exploitation of new technics. By 1932, there was no any Belgian tramcar in the city: the "Belgian period" in the history of Kursk Tram finally came to an end.

Exposition in the Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the Eastern tram depot:

kursk-museum


kursk-museum
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:41 PM   #3413
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June 27, 1927. The collective of Kursk tram employees:

tkursk

1929. Moscow Gate:

kurskcity

1920s. Moscow Spires:

kurskcity

1920s. City Council (now Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of the city of Kursk) at Lenin Street:

kurskcity

1929. Regional Executive Committee (now Chief Directorate of the Bank of Russia in Kursk Region) at Lenin Street:

kurskcity

1930. Final part of the construction of Northern tram depot:

tkursk

1930. Northern tram depot at Karl Marx Street near Moscow Gate:

Илья Шпаков

December 1930. Delivering of the first batch of "Kh" tramcars at the City Rail Terminal:

Илья Шпаков

1930. First "Kh" tramcar at the Northern tram depot is going for first trip:

Илья Шпаков
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:42 PM   #3414
geometarkv
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The era of "standard" tramcars (1932-1941)

New tramcars had all-metal riveted hulls with bearing skin, but roof, window frames, doors and internal panels were made of wood. The batten floor was laid on the lower profiles of the hull frame, and was covered with quick-changing rack cover. The hull of the motor tramcar was based on a two-axle bogie with hard base.

New tramcars turned out to be rather reliable, low-maintenance, user-friendly and comfortable for the passengers. Opening windows ensured good ventilation in summer, thanks to its large size, it gave a good overview to the standing passengers. Despite of lack of heating, in winter it was warm and comfortable in the tramcar due to partitions separating the hull from the platforms. There were "sofas" (wooden seats with wooden backs) in the saloon along the side walls for 24 seats. Unlike Belgian tramcars, equipment of "Kh" tramcars included devices for exterior and interior lighting.

"Kh" tramcars received electric energy from contact network of 600V through bow collectors. It were first Kursk tramcars with bow-type collectors (Belgian tramcars had rod-type current receivers with rollers). The earthing of the tramcars was through a rails.

From the point of view of tram driver, the novelty was in the fact that there began to used pneumatic equipment for the work of brake mechanism. Except pneumatic actuator, there was hand drive to the brake. Handbrake was for the emergency cases. It was possible to drive in seating position. As process of braking didn't required big physical efforts anymore, women began to work by tram drivers. At those time the level of unemployment among women was bigger, so work by tram driver has become an attractive for young Kursk women. One of the first female tram drivers in Kursk was Mariya Yakovleva, who got driving licence on July 24, 1931. She was awarded the title of Excellent of Public Utilities of RSFSR.

The passenger traffic increased every year. In 1927/1928 (financial year) annual passenger traffic was 2.935 million people, in 1931 - 6.363 mln. people, in 1932 - 7.203 million people. Tram was main kind of transportation of people (and occasionally cargo). In 1932 there lived 92 thousand residents in Kursk, in 1933 the population of city exceeded 100 thousand residents. On the average, in 1932 each Kursk resident did 78 trips in the tramcar. There operated 11 "Kh" motor tramcars in 1932. The average speed of tramcars was 11.6 km/h. The number of tram employees was 140 people in 1932 and 193 people in 1933. The total length of tramline was 9.5 km (4.7 km by axis of streets). The cost of tram ticket was 20 kopecks or 0.20 rubles. In 1932, the total profit from tram operation was 645 thousand rubles while total expenses – 451 thousand rubles.

In 1928 territory of Kursk Governorate became a part of Central Black Earth Region. The Black Earth Region is famous for its very good soil, called "Black Earth", or "Chernozyom", hence the name. As Central Black Earth Region was very large its administration was very difficult, on June 13, 1934 it was divided into two parts: Kursk Region and Voronezh Region. Therefore, city of Kursk became administrative center of Kursk Region. Thanks to it, Ministry of Public Utilities of RSFSR gave 8 new tramcars to the Kursk: 4 "Kh" motor tramcars and 4 "M" trailers. As a result, in Kursk again started to operate tram trains consisting of motor tramcar and a trailer. In the end of 1934, there were 15 "Kh" motor tramcars and 4 "M' trailers. In addition, for the first time in Kursk were delivered four buses, which in November 1934 began to operate at the first Kursk urban route "Red Square - Yamskoy Rail Terminal".

From the point of view of its structure, delivered tramcars differed from the tramcars of first batches: crosswise single seats were installed in the saloon (16 seats in the motor tramcar and 19 seats in the trailer), and internal partitions and doors separating the saloon from the platforms were dismantled. For that reason the tramcars were chilled through and in winter temperature in the saloon was practically same as from inside.

In 1934, when Kursk became administrative center of Kursk Region, City Rail Terminal in the central part of the city was closed for passengers and became to operate only for freight transportation. Yamskoy Rail Terminal, which located at the intersection of the railway magistrals Kharkiv-Moscow and Voronezh-Kyiv and was connected by branch railway line with the former City Rail Terminal, was renamed into Main Rail Terminal. It was located more than 3 km long from the centre of Kursk.

The economy of Kursk increased every year, so the necessary in construction of new tramlines (primarily to the Yamskoy Rail Terminal) became more actual. In August 1927 Regional Executive Committee took decision to make research works in this area. As equipment of the old tram power station was worn-out and uneconomical, in 1933-1934 was built new thermoelectric plant. On February 20, 1934 there was launched traction substation at the territory of Labour Unions Garden (now May Day Garden) near Red Square. As a result, the possibility to construct new tramlines became realistic.

In 1934-1935 there was laid 3.5-km long tramline from Moscow Gate Square (now Perekalsky Square) to the Main Rail Terminal (simultaneously there was built new bridge across Tuskar River specially for installation of this line). This tramline was opened on July 12, 1935. The necessary in this tramline was so large that originally it was built single-track for acceleration of works. In September 1935 there began laying of the second track of this tramline (this work was finished in 1936). In September-October 1935 was built new single-track tramline from Central Market (old power station) to the Barnyshev Square (now Dobrolyubov Square), along Dobrolyubov Street. In 1935 Ministry of Public Utilities of RSFSR gave 7 new "Kh" tramcars for serving of new tramlines.

Unfortunately, during the construction of new tramlines have been demolished such city sights as Kherson Gate (in 1934), Moscow Gate (in 1935) and Kherson Spires (in 1935-1936). Spires near Moscow Gate were preserved until 1968.

During five years (1930-1935) tramcars carried 31 mln. passengers. The average daily passenger traffic was about 17 thousand people. The total length of tramlines increased from 9.5 km in 1932 to 15 km in 1935, the annual passenger traffic - from 6.363 mln. people in 1931 to 11.443 mln. people in 1935. In 1931 in Kursk were 23 tramcars (including 12 obsolete Belgian tramcars), in the end of 1935 - 22 "Kh" motor tramcars and 4 "M" trailers. The total mileage of tramcars for this period was more than 3 million km. The tram network didn't operated in weekends.

In November 1936 in Kursk were three tram routes:
1) Northern tram depot - Center - Hippodrome (length - 8.9 km);
2) Main Rail Terminal - Center - Hippodrome (length - 14.2 km);
3) Main Rail Terminal - Center - Barnyshev Square, now Dobrolyubov Square (length - 12.3 km).

In the second half of 1930s left-bank area of Tuskar River began rapidly develop. There were plans to place all industrial enterprises of city in this area. For this reason, construction of new tramlines for transportation of workers to this area has become an urgent task.

In the beginning of 1937 in Kursk was drafted new project of the expanding tram network. According to this plan, during 1938-1942 there were supposed to be built 17 km of new tramlines to Ryshkovo industrial district, Murynovka village and Cossack Settlement:
1) From Barnyshev Square (now Dobrolyubov Square) to the rail station "Ryshkovo"; along Lithuanian Street and Engels Street;
2) to Greater Sorokovaya Street (now Fighters of 9th Division' Street) along Upper Meadow Street;
3) from International Street to the twine factory; along Young Pioneers Street (now Rail Terminal Street), Tsiurupa Street, Paris Commune Street and Herzen Street.

Before beginning of Great Patriotic War, in Kursk was partially built only first of planned three tramlines - from Barnyshev Square (now Dobrolyubov Square) to the Tannery near Dobrynin Street (now Kutuzov Street); along the bank of Tuskar River. This tramline was opened on August 29, 1939 (tram route №4: "Moscow Spires - Tannery"). On December 1, 1939 this route was extended from the Tannery to the Meat-Packing Plant along Lithuanian Street. It was planned to extend this tramline to the Ryshkovo settlement. In 1940 tramline was extended to Nightingale Grove along Engels Street. However, due to funding cuts, it wasn't extended to the Ryshkovo prior to Nazi invasion.

The demand for tramcars in Soviet Union continually increased, but Mytishchi Plant, which also produced commuter electric trains, Metro trains for Moscow, newest tramcars of M-38 series and was engaged in military production, could not increase considerably the production volume. That is why in 1937 production of standard tramcars was transferred to the Urals at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant named after Sergey Kirov.

In the 4th quarter of 1940 the collective of the Kursk Tram won first place at the republican competition of the tram enterprises of the RSFSR. Thanks to it, in October they received new Kh/M tram train from Ust-Katav Plant. In November 1940 there was completed construction of the turnover ring at the end of Dzerzhinsky Street. As a result, it became possible to use tramcars with trailers at the line "Rail Terminal - Hippodrome". During 1940, in Kursk were delivered eight more "Kh" tramcars from Ust-Katav Plant.

Therefore, in the beginning of 1941 in Kursk were 33 "Kh" motor tramcars (24 from Mytishchi Plant and 9 from Ust-Katav Plant), 4 "M" trailers and 6 freight platforms. The total length of tram network was 29.5 km.

During 23 years of Soviet power, great changes have taken place in Kursk. There were built new large enterprises, equipped with advanced technology, among them are iron foundry, shoe factory and garment factory. There were reconstructed or rebuilt: motor-repairment plant, tannery, distillery, yeast factory, agricultural machinery plant, knitting factory, tobacco factory, mill, tractor-repairment plant, fruit and berry plant, fruit-water plant, two power stations, printing house and other enterprises. In 1930s there were founded Kursk State Pedagogical Institute (now Kursk State University, 1934) and Kursk State Medical Institute (now Kursk State Medical University, 1935). The population of Kursk greatly increased - 48.8 thousand residents in 1920, 82.4 thousand residents in 1926 and 120 thousand residents in 1939. The number of workers increased to 6 thousand people in 1935. In 1940 there were 85 enterprises of state and cooperative industry, at which worked 11 thousand people. Gross industrial production was in 60 times more than the pre-revolutionary level (1913).

The passenger traffic was 18.368 million passengers in 1937. On the average, prior to the Great Patriotic War, each Kursk resident did 186 trips in the tramcar per year. It speaks about high activity of Kursk and its residents. In 1941 began Great Patriotic War, which made Kursk a world-famous city.

THE EXTENSION OF KURSK TRAM NETWORK IN 1898-1941:
April 30, 1898: Moscow Spires - Kherson Spires (glowing lights);
July 12, 1935: Moscow Gate Square (now Perekalsky Square) - Main Rail Terminal;
Autumn of 1935: Central Market - Barnyshev Square (now Dobrolyubov Square);
August 29, 1939: Barnyshev Square (now Dobrolyubov Square) - Tannery;
December 1, 1939: Tannery - Meat-Packing Plant;
1940: Engels Street - Nightingale Grove.


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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:44 PM   #3415
geometarkv
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1930s. Tramline at the Red Square:

kurskcity

1934, Lenin Street. Cathedral of the Sign on the background:

Илья Шпаков

November 7, 1934. City Executive Committee at the Red Square. Celebrations dedicated to the 17th anniversary of Great October Socialist Revolution:

kurskcity

1930s. Red Square before beginning of celebrations:

kurskcity

1934. "Kh" tramcar at the Red Square:

Илья Шпаков

1930s. Former tram power station at Dzerzhinsky Street. After the launching of the traction substation near Red Square in 1934, this building was rebuilt into public bathhouse:

kurskcity
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:46 PM   #3416
geometarkv
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1930s. Shops at Dzerzhinsky Street:

kurskcity

1934. "Kh" tramcar at Dzerzhinsky Street:

Илья Шпаков

1930s. Club of tanners at the intersection of Dzerzhinsky Street and Upper Meadow Street:

kurskcity

1934. Movie theatre "1st Sovkino" (now movie theatre named after Mikhail Shchepkin) at Dzerzhinsky Street:

kurskcity

1934. Dzerzhinsky Street:

tkursk

1934. "Kh" tramcar near Kherson Gate in the end of Dzerzhinsky Street:

Илья Шпаков

1934. The construction of the new tramline to the Yamskoy (Main) Rail Terminal:

kursktrans
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:47 PM   #3417
geometarkv
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Interior of "Kh" motor tramcar:

tkursk

Mariya Yakovleva, the one of first female tram drivers in Kursk:

tkursk

1940. The work of energy service:

tkursk
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:48 PM   #3418
geometarkv
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November 1939. Circus at the Red Square. Opened in 1939, it was completely destroyed in the first months of Great Patriotic War:

kurskcity

End of 1930s. Kursk State Medical Institute (now Kursk State Medical University) at the University Square (now Perekalsky Square):

kurskcity

1940. Aerial view of Kursk:

bulat2105
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Old April 4th, 2014, 04:49 PM   #3419
geometarkv
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2011. Kursk Museum of Urban Electric Transport at the Eastern tram depot:

kursk-museum

Brake mechanism of tramcar. It was very hard for tram drivers to twist it a hundred times during the working day:

kursk-museum


kursk-museum

Entrance to the Kursk Museum of Urban Electric Transport:

Sensi
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:27 PM   #3420
geometarkv
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6) Vitebsk, Belarus (opened on June 30, 1898);
7) Sevastopol (opened on September 24, 1898);
8) Oryol (opened on November 15, 1898):


Oryol or Orel is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Region, located on the Oka River, approximately 360 kilometers (220 miles) south-southwest of Moscow.

Pre-revolutionary history

While there are no historical records, archaeological evidence proves that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Grand Principality of Chernihiv. The name of the fortress is unknown; it may not have been called Oryol (lit. Eagle) at the time. In the 13th century the fortress became a part of the Zvenigorod District of the Karachev Principality. In the early 15th century, the territory was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The town was soon abandoned by its population, after being captured either by Lithuanians or the Crimean Tatars. The territory became a part of Russian state since March 25, 1503, after ending of Russo-Lithuanian War of 1500-1503.

Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible decreed that a new fortress be built on the spot in 1566, for the purpose of defending the southern borders of Russia. The fortress was built very speedily, work starting in the summer of 1566 and ending in the spring of 1567. The location chosen was less than ideal strategically, as the fortress was located on a seasonally flooded low ground easily targeted from the neighboring high ground. Both the speed and location are of course due to the new fortress built upon the ruins of the old one.

False Dmitry I and his army passed through town in 1605; Ivan Bolotnikov did it in 1606; False Dmitry II camped in Oryol for the winter of 1607–1608. Hordes of Polish aggressors captured and destroyed the town in 1611 and 1615; the population abandoned the town after the second sacking and moved to Mtsensk town. Oryol District nonetheless continued to exist on paper. Oryol was rebuilt in 1636. The question of moving the fortress to the more advantageous high ground was in the air up until the 1670s, but the move was never made. The fortress was deemed unnecessary and taken apart in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century Oryol became one of the major centers of grain production, with the Oka River being the major trade route until 1860s when it was replaced by a railroad.

Oryol was granted town status in 1702. On December 29, 1708, Oryol was included as a part of Kyiv Governorate; in 1719, Oryol Province was created within Kyiv Governorate. The Province was transferred to the newly-created Belgorod Governorate in 1727. On March 11, 1778 Oryol Viceroyalty was created from parts of Voronezh and Belgorod Governorates. In 1779, the city was almost entirely rebuilt based on a new plan; and the Oryol River was renamed Orlik (lit: "little eagle"). In 1796 Oryol became centre of Oryol Governorate.

In 1859 in Oryol was built telegraph station, which connected city with St. Petersburg in Moscow. In 1860s through Oryol were built Moscow-Kursk railway and Vitebsk-Oryol railway (which later became part of the Riga-Oryol railway). Both railways were opened in 1868. In 1881 in Oryol was built first telephone line that connected police department with apartment of Police Chief. In 1892 there was built telephone station, which originally served to 35 subscribers. By 1897 number of subscribers increased till 86. In 1911 Oryol telephone lines were connected with Moscow and other cities. By 1913 there were 400 telephone subscribers in Oryol.

In Oryol Governorate were born or lived many famous Russian people - writers Fyodor Tyutchev (1803-1873), Ivan Turgenev (1818-1883), Afanasy Fet (1820-1892), Nikolay Leskov (1831-1895), Marko Vovchok (1833-1907), Ivan Bunin (1870-1953), Leonid Andreyev (1871-1919), Mikhail Prishvin (1873-1954); general Alexey Yermolov (1777-1861); memoirist Anna Kern (1800-1879); architect Ivan Fomin (1872-1936); radio engineer Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich (1888-1940) and others.

According to the Russian Imperial Census, in 1897 there lived 70 thousand residents in Oryol.

The view from Municipal Garden at the southern part of the city:

godlevskaya-oksana

1910s. The view of city from fire watchtower:

pastvu
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