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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:30 PM   #3421
geometarkv
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Pre-revolutionary history of Oryol Tram (1898-1919)

In 1895, under leadership of French entrepreneur Fernand Guillaune, company "Societe Lyonnaise des Eaux et de l'Eclairage" (now part of "GDF Suez S.A.") built first power station in Oryol. Some homes and main streets in Oryol were lit up by electric light for the first time. In late-1890s, under leadership of Fernand Guillaune, the same company - under the name "Compagnie mutuelle de tramways" (Belgium) - began construction of an electric tram. The contract with city authorities was signed on December 11, 1895. Guillaune was also author of project of Vitebsk Tram (Belarus), construction of which took place at the same years. The first construction works in Oryol were started in 1897. In May 1898 there began construction of tram tracks. The first testing trip was been made in October 1898.

The electric tramlines (1 meter wide) were put into operation on November 15, 1898. The official ceremony of opening (with moleben and consecration of tramcars) was held at Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street), near tram depot (#39 Pushkin Street). The tramcars began to operate for passengers on the next day. The first two routes were as follows:

1) Rail Terminal - Cadet corps

November 1898 - May 1899:
Barracks of the Chernihiv Dragoon Regiment - Podolsk-Kharkiv Highway or Moscow Highway (now Moscow Street) - Moscow Street - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Resurrection Lane - Alexander Bridge across Orlik River - Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street) - Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) - Sverbeevsky Lane (now Pioneer Street) - Cadet Corps and Charitable institutions.

May 1899 - June 1919 (on May 19, 1899 the line was slightly extended to the Rail Terminal):
Rail Terminal - Podolsk-Kharkiv Highway or Moscow Highway (now Moscow Street) - Moscow Street - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Resurrection Lane - Alexander Bridge across Orlik River - Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street) - Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) - Sverbeevsky Lane (now Pioneer Street) - Cadet Corps and Charitable Institution.

2) Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street)

November 1898 - June 1899:
Avdeyeva's warehouse (near present-day Lyashko Street) - Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Kromy Square (now Komsomol Square). The tramline at Novosil Street was single-track with siding.

June 1899 - June 1919 (on June 11, 1899 the line at Novosil Street was slightly extended to the rail freight station):
Rail freight station at Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Kromy Square (now Komsomol Square).

The total length of tramlines was 10.8 km by axis of streets. In beginning of 1899 there began construction of the first pavilion for tram stop at St. Elijah Square (now Peace Square). Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles for the trip by one route and 8 kopecks or 0.08 rubles - by two routes. The discount prices for students were 4 and 6 kopecks respectively. During first day of operation tramcars carried 12000 passengers, and daily profit was 600 rubles. During first week of operation (from November 16 till November 22), the profit from operation of tram was 3500 rubles. The tram system was operated from 7:00am till 11:00pm. The daily salary of tram drivers and conductors was 90 kopecks or 0.9 rubles.

The first Oryol two-axle wooden tramcars were made at "Electricite et Hudraulique" plant in Charleroi, Belgium. In 1898 were 22 Belgian motor tramcars and 14 trailers in Oryol (the latter were used in summer period). In 1914 four more motor tramcars from Antwerp (Belgium) were delivered into Oryol.

On December 24, 1907 there was opened third tramline - from Convent to 2nd Kursk Street. This single-track line was built along whole 2nd Kursk Street, from its crossing with Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) to the railroad. The total length of tramlines increased to 11.8 km by axis of streets. During first half of 1910, the revenue from tram operation was 425 thousand francs (39 thousand francs more comparing with first half of 1909).

There were projects for construction of two more tramlines in Oryol:
1) the project of 1912 - to built tramline from Cadet corps along the Sts. Boris & Gleb' Street (now Saltykov-Shchedrin Street) to the St. George Church at Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street);
2) the project of 1918 - to built tramline from Guest Street along Resurrection Street (now Gagarin Street) to the "Kromskaya" rail station.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was in communist hands, except for a brief period between October 13 and October 20 of 1919 when it was controlled by Anton Denikin's White Army. In June 1919, due to Russian Civil War, tram operation in the city was stopped.

THE FIRST TWO TRAM ROUTES AT THE PLAN OF ORYOL (1905)

Red line A - first tram route: "Rail Terminal - Cadet corps";
Green line Б - second tram route: "Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street)";
X - tram depot at Novosil Street (now #39 Pushkin Street);
Blue line - service branch tramline.



Андрей Киреев
CLICKABLE


THE HISTORY OF NARROW-GAUGE TRAM IN ORYOL (1898-1941)

The thick lines - double-track tramlines;
The thin lines - single-track tramlines;
The dashed lines - project tramlines;
Blue site - tram depot at Novosil Street (now #39 Pushkin Street);
Yellow ring - dispatcher's office at St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square);
Yellow marks - tram stops;
Black lines - Railroads;
Red line A - initial first route (double-track tramline); opened on November 15, 1898;
Orange line - eastern extension of first route to the Rail Terminal; extended on May 19, 1899;
Red line B - initial second route (partially at single-track tramline); opened on November 15, 1898;
Yellow line - eastern extension of second route to the rail freight station; extended on June 11, 1899;
Purple line - third route (single-track tramline); opened on December 24, 1907;
Dashed turquoise line - project of 1912;
Dashed brown line - project of 1918;
Green line - tramline to the Road Maintenance Management (single-track tramline); opened in July 1925;
Light-green line - tramline to the Brickyard №8 (single-track tramline); opened in October 1925;
Pink line - second track of the tramline to the Road Maintenance Management; built in October 1936.

Note: At this scheme, all dates before 1918 are written according to Julian calendar, which was used in Russian Empire before the Revolution.


Павел Зюзин
CLICKABLE


1900s. Belgian two-axle motor tramcar:

Киреев Андрей

1900s. Belgian two-axle motor tramcars and trailers in the tram depot at Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street):

Киреев Андрей
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:33 PM   #3422
geometarkv
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1900s. Terminal station of first tram route near Oryol Rail Terminal:

Киреев Андрей

1900s. Oryol Rail Terminal (opened in 1868):

Wikipedia

1900s. Podolsk-Kharkiv Highway or Moscow Highway (now Moscow Street):

Илья Шпаков

1900s. Tramline near Moscow Gate (erected in 1786 for the visit of Russian Empress Catherine the Great):

russiahistory

1900s. Tramline near Moscow Gate:

NovSer

1900s. Tramline near Moscow Gate:

orelvkartinkax
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:34 PM   #3423
geometarkv
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1900s, Moscow Street. Exaltation of the Cross Church:

Link

1910s, Exaltation of the Cross Church at Moscow Street. Moscow Gate on the background:

pastvu

1900s. Moscow Street:

Link

1900s, Moscow Street. St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square):

NovSer

1900s, St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square). Alexander Nevsky Chapel (built in 1867) at the intersection of Moscow Street and Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street):

NovSer

1900s, Alexander Nevsky Chapel at the St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square). The intersection of two tram routes:

Илья Шпаков

1900s, Alexander Nevsky Chapel at the St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square). The intersection of two tram routes:

Link

1900s. Convent of the Entry of the Theotokos into the Temple near single-track tramline at 2nd Kursk Street:

pastvu
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:34 PM   #3424
geometarkv
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1900s, Alexander Nevsky Chapel at the St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square):

daria-iz-orla

1900s. The wooden pavilion of tram stop at the St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square):

NovSer

1900s. Intercession Church at the St. Elijah Square (now Peace Square):

Orel-churches

1900s. Intercession Church:

pastvu

1900s, St. Elijah Square (now Peace Square). Transfiguration Church (left) and Intercession Church (right):

Orel-churches
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:37 PM   #3425
geometarkv
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1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River was built in 1877-1879 by engineer A. Lebedinsky and opened on March 1, 1879:

etoretro

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River:

orelvkartinkax

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River:

godlevskaya-oksana

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) and pedestrian bridge across Oka River:

orelvkartinkax

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) and pedestrian bridge across Oka River:

orelvkartinkax

1908-1910. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River, the view from belltower of the Transfiguration Church. The construction of belltower of Epiphany Cathedral on the background:

pastvu
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:38 PM   #3426
geometarkv
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1898 (?). Laying of the tramline at the Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River (unconfirmed information):

orel-transport

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River:

pastvu

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River:

pastvu

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River:

Юрий MTA-LRTA
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:38 PM   #3427
geometarkv
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1900s. Trade rows (Guest Court; right) near Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River:

NovSer

1900s. Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River:

Link

1900s. Guest Street:

pastvu

1910s. "Mercedes" car at Guest Street:

russiahistory
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:39 PM   #3428
geometarkv
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1900s. Trade rows (Guest Court; right) at Guest Street:

russiahistory

1900s. City Council (now Oryol State Theatre for Children and Youth "Free Space") at Guest Street:

eye-k

1900s. City Council (left; now Oryol State Theatre for Children and Youth "Free Space") at Guest Street:

eye-k

1900s. City Council (left; now Oryol State Theatre for Children and Youth "Free Space") at Guest Street:

etoretro

1900s. City Council (left; now Oryol State Theatre for Children and Youth "Free Space") and Oryol Commercial Bank (right; now Chief Directorate of the Bank of Russia in Oryol Region) at Guest Street:

Илья Шпаков

1900s. Guest Street:

dubich-22

1900s. Guest Street:

Киреев Андрей

1900s, the intersection of Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) and Resurrection Lane. The view from the building of City Council (now Oryol State Theatre for Children and Youth "Free Space"):

Сергей Сергеев из Орла

1900s. Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street):

Илья Шпаков

1900s. Oryol Male Gymnasium (now Faculty of History of the Oryol State University) at Resurrection Lane, the intersection of two tram routes:

pastvu

1900s. Guest Street:

pastvu
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:43 PM   #3429
geometarkv
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1912-1917. Alexander Bridge across Orlik River was built in 1877-1880 by engineer A. Lebedinsky and opened on March 2, 1880:

pastvu

1908-1917. The view from Epiphany Cathedral to Orlik River and Alexander Bridge:

pastvu

1900s. Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

orelvkartinkax

1900s. Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

godlevskaya-oksana

1900s. Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

Илья Шпаков

1900s. Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

Киреев Андрей
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:44 PM   #3430
geometarkv
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1900s, Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street). The view from the Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

russiahistory

1900s, Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street). The view from the Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

Киреев Андрей

1900s, Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street). The view to the Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

Юрий MTA-LRTA

1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

NovSer

1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

godlevskaya-oksana

1900s. Belgian two-axle motor tramcar №6 (constructed in 1898) at Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street), tram route "Rail Terminal - Cadet corps":

Павел Зюзин

1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

epochtimes

1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

epochtimes

1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

Илья Шпаков
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:44 PM   #3431
geometarkv
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1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

pastvu

1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

NovSer

1908. Northern Bank (now Telephone exchange) at Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street), view from the side of Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

NovSer

1910s. Northern Bank (now Telephone exchange) at Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street), view from the side of Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

russiahistory

1900s. Tramline at Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

Юрий MTA-LRTA
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:45 PM   #3432
geometarkv
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1908-1917. The view at City Boulevard from Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street):

pastvu

1900s. Tramcar at Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) near City Boulevard:

pastvu

1900s. Nicholas Female Gymnasium at Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

Link

1900s. Nicholas Female Gymnasium at Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

orelvkartinkax

1900s. The government offices at Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

pastvu

1900s. The government offices at Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

Юрий MTA-LRTA

1900s. Tram train near Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral and City Theatre:

pastvu

1900s. Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral at the intersection of Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) and Sverbeevsky Lane (also known as Cathedral Street; now Pioneer Street):

godlevskaya-oksana

1910s. Tramcar near the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral at Yermolov Street (now Pioneer Street):

Илья Шпаков
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:46 PM   #3433
geometarkv
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The discount ticket for students within one route (price - 4 kopecks or 0.04 rubles):

mosfont

The tram ticket at the route "Rail Terminal - Cadet corps":

mosfont

October 20, 1919. "Entrance of Red Army to Oryol" (picture of unknown artist from the Oryol Museum of Local History):

Wikipedia
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:47 PM   #3434
geometarkv
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The revival of tram network (1922-1937)

After the end of military actions in the European Russia, there began restoration of the tram operation in Oryol. There were restored almost all pre-revolutionary tramlines, except the line along 2nd Kursk Street (the latter was restored only in 1930s). In May 1922 tram network in Oryol was launched again. There were still operated narrow-gauge tram tracks and obsolete Belgian tramcars that were used to open the electric tram traffic in 1898. According to the data presented at the All-Russia Tram Conference 1922, there were 26 motor tramcars and 18 trailers in Oryol. However, only 7 of 26 motor tramcars were serviceable, and there were no serviceable trailers in the city. Nevertheless, almost all rolling stock was restored in 1920s. There operated 25 motor tramcars and 16 trailers in 1927/1928 (financial year or fiscal year). The average speed of tramcars was 11.4 km/h.

In 1925 the line of second tram route was extended on south. In July 1925 there was launched single-track tramline (1 meter wide) from Karl Liebknecht Square (now Komsomol Square) to the Road Maintenance Management, in October 1925 it was extended to the Brickyard №8 (Outpost). The annual ridership in 1927/1928 (financial year) was 3.031 million passengers. The total length of tramlines was 19.64 km (11.15 km by axis of streets). There worked 173 tram employees. The total profit from tram operation was 279 thousand rubles while total expenses – 438 thousand rubles. In October 1936 was laid second narrow-gauge track at the part from Karl Liebknecht Square (now Komsomol Square) to the Road Maintenance Management.

However, over time, a tram system began to come into disrepair. The main reason for such sad situation has been using of narrow gauge. The production of the Soviet narrow-gauge tramcars was almost ceased in early 1930s. For this reason, in Oryol continued to operate obsolete Belgian tramcars. By 1938, lifetime of rolling stock has been about 40 years. Local residents nicknamed those rattling tramcars "mousetraps".

The annual ridership in 1932 was 7.474 million passengers. On the average, in 1932 each Oryol resident did 85 trips in the tramcar. There operated 29 motor tramcars and 9 trailers. The average speed of tramcars was 11.5 km/h. The total length of tramlines was 11.5 km by axis of streets. There worked 200 tram employees in 1932. In 1932, the total profit from tram operation was 697 thousand rubles while total expenses – 626 thousand rubles.

In December 1935 representatives of Voronezh Tram examined the Oryol tram enterprise. They summarized: "Workforce productivity of the Oryol Tram is one of the lowest compared to the other tram enterprises of Soviet Union. There is no schedule of operation... Oryol Tram gives the impression of complete neglect. All equipment, especially rolling stock, is very worn-out. The equipment of workshops consist of machine tools, which turned to be a completely unusable... There are no skilled workers... There is no engineering and technical personnel..."

Regauging and modernization of tram network (1938-1941)

On May 14, 1928 territory of Oryol Governorate became a part of Central Black Earth Region. The Black Earth Region is famous for its very good soil, called "Black Earth", or "Chernozyom", hence the name. As Central Black Earth Region was very large its administration was very difficult, on June 13, 1934 it was divided into two parts: Voronezh Region and Kursk Region, the latter included city of Oryol and surrounding territories. On September 27, 1937 was created Oryol Region out of three other regions: Kursk Region, Western Region and Voronezh Region. Thus, Oryol became administrative centre of Oryol Region. As a result, funding for development of city greatly increased. In 1938 there was prepared new plan of City Development, the second in the history of Oryol. The city began to revive and prepare for great changes.

As the political status of city was raised, Oryol officials received new impetus and opportunities for modernization of own tram network. Since 1934, production of Soviet narrow-gauge and short tramcars was ceased. This decision was made for unification of tramlines and railways in order to have possibility for using railroad trains at urban tramlines (near factories, plants and other enterprises) in the case of war. Therefore, it became clear that narrow-gauge tram systems have no chances of survival in the future – without regauging on the broad gauge, it will be outdated sooner or later and there will be necessary to replace tram by other kinds of transport.

The main purposes were regauging from 1000 mm to 1520 mm and replacing of obsolete rolling stock in Oryol. The reconstruction works were started in spring of 1938. In April 1938 in Oryol were delivered 11 new "Kh" tramcars and 10 "M" trailers from Ust-Katav Plant. The first route of broad-gauge tram in Oryol ("Rail Terminal - Volodarsky Lane"; along Moscow Street and Cooperative Street, now Guest Street) was opened on July 24, 1938. On November 7, 1939 there was launched regauged tramline along Lenin Street and Maxim Gorky Street. Three days later part of old narrow-gauge tramline along Pioneer Street was closed and dismantled.

Speaking in general, during 20 years of Soviet rule, there happened great changes in the city. By early 1930s, there were operated large machine-building plants - "Tekmash" textile machinery plant, machine-building plant named after Mikhail Medvedev, "Glavpishchemash" food processing plant, garment factory, shoe factory, twine factory, brickyards, creamery and many other industrial enterprises. In addition, there was reconstructed Oryol Railway.

The big successes have been made in the residential construction and cultural development. There appeared multistorey residential buildings. In 1931-1932 in Oryol were made works on laying of street sewerage collectors, installation of drainage and clearing of streams. There became much more green spaces in the centre of city after construction of the new large squares. At same years in Oryol were drama theatre, regional philharmonia, House of Folk Arts, three museums, four movie theatres, nine libraries and ten clubs.

Even in 1918 in Oryol opened Lenin Oryol Proletarian University, which includes 5 departments: Department of Natural Sciences, Department of Health, Department of Humanities, Mathematical and Agronomical Departments. In 1931 there was opened Oryol Industrial-Pedagogical Institute, in 1932 it was renamed to Oryol State Pedagogical Institute. Currently it known as Oryol State University. In addition, in October 1922 there was establshed Oryol Railway College, on August 6, 1930 - Financial and Economic College of Central Black Earth Region (now Oryol Bank College).

The population of Oryol significantly increased - from 76 thousand people in 1926 to the 87.6 thousand people in 1932 and 111 thousand people in 1939.

THE CHRONOLOGY OF CHANGES IN THE COST OF TRAM TICKET IN 1898-1941:
1898: 0.05 rubles * / 0.08 rubles **
September 1916: 0.05 rubles * / 0.10 rubles **
February 1918: 0.15 rubles * / 0.30 rubles **
June 1918: 0.25 rubles * / 0.40 rubles **
October 1918: 0.50 rubles * / 0.80 rubles **
1924: 0.08 rubles * / 0.12 rubles ** (as a result of denomination of the ruble)
October 1930: 0.10 rubles * / 0.12 rubles ** (the cost of tram ticket became the same for the trips within one route)
1933: 0.20 rubles (transfer tickets were cancelled).

* - Earlier tram network in Oryol was X-shaped. There were two tram routes with four terminal stations and one intermediate station in the center, where two routes intersected.

The two routes were as follows:
№1: "Rail Terminal - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Cadet Corps";
№2: "Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street)".

For example, in 1899 the cost of trip by part of tram route №1 from Rail Terminal to St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) was 0.05 rubles while cost of trip by whole route №1 from Rail Terminal to Cadet Corps was 0.08 rubles. The cost of ticket for the transfer between two routes was 0.08 kopecks.

** - The cost of the tram ticket for the trip by whole route (cancelled in October 1930), which was same as cost of transfer ticket (cancelled in 1933).

THE FIRST TWO ROUTES OF ORYOL BUS WERE LAUNCHED ON NOVEMBER 18, 1934. THE COST OF BUS TICKETS:
November 1934: 0.30/0.45/0.60 rubles (depending on the distance).
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:50 PM   #3435
geometarkv
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HISTORY OF ORYOL TRAM ROUTES (1899-1941)

The first two tram routes are most oldest in Oryol. Prior to Revolution of 1917, it had no numbers - only names of the terminus stops on information tables. These tables were located on the roof from the both sides of tramcar. During night time, they lit buffer lights of different colors for identification of routes.

Tram route №1:

November 1898 - May 1899:
Unnumbered "Rail Terminal - Cadet corps": Barracks of the Chernihiv Dragoon Regiment - Podolsk-Kharkiv Highway or Moscow Highway (now Moscow Street) - Moscow Street - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Resurrection Lane - Alexander Bridge across Orlik River - Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street) - Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) - Sverbeevsky Lane (now Pioneer Street) - Cadet Corps and Charitable institutions.

May 1899 - June 1919:
On May 19, 1899 the line was slightly extended to the Rail Terminal:
Unnumbered "Rail Terminal - Cadet corps": Rail Terminal - Podolsk-Kharkiv Highway or Moscow Highway (now Moscow Street) - Moscow Street - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Resurrection Lane - Alexander Bridge across Orlik River - Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street) - Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) - Sverbeevsky Lane (now Pioneer Street) - Cadet Corps and Charitable Institution.

June 1919 - May 1922:
The route did not operate.

May 1922 - 1933:
№1 "Rail Terminal - Provincial Hospital": Rail Terminal - Rail Terminal Street - Moscow Highway (now Moscow Street) - Moscow Street - Red Bridge across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Resurrection Lane - Lenin Bridge (now Alexander Bridge) across Orlik River - Lenin Street - Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) - Yermolov Street (now Pioneer Street) - Provincial Hospital.

1933 - July 1938:
№1 "Rail Terminal - County Hospital": Rail Terminal - Rail Terminal Street - Moscow Street - Red Bridge across Oka River - Cooperative Street (now Guest Street) - Karl Marx Square (Komsomol Street) - Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) - Lenin Bridge (now Alexander Bridge) across Orlik River - Lenin Street - Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) - Pioneer Street - County Hospital.

July 1938 - November 1939:
This first route of broad-gauge tram in Oryol was opened on July 24, 1938:
№1 "Rail Terminal - Volodarsky Lane": Rail Terminal - Rail Terminal Street - Moscow Street - Red Bridge across Oka River - Cooperative Street (now Guest Street) - Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane).

November 1939 - October 1941:
The turnover ring "Monastyrka" has been located near right wing of the present-day house #43 at Maxim Gorky Street. It was launched on November 7, 1939:
№1 "Rail Terminal - Monastyrka": Rail Terminal - Rail Terminal Street - Moscow Street - Red Bridge across Oka River - Cooperative Street (now Guest Street) - Karl Marx Square (Komsomol Street) - Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) - Lenin Bridge (now Alexander Bridge) across Orlik River - Lenin Street - Maxim Gorky Street.

Tram route №2:

November 1898 - June 1899:
The tramline at Novosil Street was single-track with siding:
Unnumbered "Novosil Street - Kromy Square": Avdeyeva's warehouse (near present-day Lyashko Street) - Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Kromy Square (now Komsomol Square).

June 1899 - June 1919:
On June 11, 1899 the line at Novosil Street was slightly extended to the rail freight station:
Unnumbered "Novosil Street - Kromy Square": Rail freight station at Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) - St. Elijah Square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Mary Bridge (now Red Bridge) across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Kromy Square (now Komsomol Square).

June 1919 - May 1922:
The route did not operate.

May 1922 - October 1925:
№2 "Novosil Street - Kromy Square": Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) - Red Bridge across Oka River - Guest Street - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Kromy Square (now Komsomol Square).

October 1925 - summer of 1933:
The route was extended on south by the new single-track tramline via Marksmen Settlement to the Outpost. The tramline was built on hard shoulder of the highway. From the other end, the route was extended to the Rail Terminal. As a result, there was formed separate route at Novosil Street:
№2 "Rail Terminal - Marksmen Settlement": Rail Terminal - Rail Terminal Street - Moscow Highway (now Moscow Street) - Moscow Street - Red Bridge across Oka River - Cooperative Street (now Guest Street) - Komsomol Street - Karl Liebknecht Square (now Komsomol Square) - Kromy Highway (now Komsomol Street) - Outpost.

Summer of 1933 - 1938:
The route was slightly extended on south a some further from brickyard. In contrast, from the other end it was shortened to Volodarsky Lane:
№2 "Volodarsky Lane - Brickyard": Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) - Komsomol Street - Karl Liebknecht Square (now Komsomol Square) - Komsomol Street - Brickyard.

October 1936:
The was build second track of the tramline at Marksmen Settlement.

April 1938 - November 1939:
The route was changed due to beginning of the regauging on the broad gauge:
№2 "1st Soviet Hospital - Brickyard": 1st Soviet Hospital - Pioneer Street - Maxim Gorky Street - Lenin Street - Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) - Komsomol Street.

November 1939 - October 1941:
The regauging on broad gauge was continued:
№2 "Volodarsky Lane - Brickyard": Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) - Komsomol Street.

Tram route №3:

June 1903 - November 1904:
There was built way for turnover of tramcars at Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) before turn on Sverbeevsky Lane (now Pioneer Street):
Unnumbered "Kromy Square - Municipal Garden": Kromy Square (now Komsomol Square) - Kromy Street (now Komsomol Street) - Resurrection Lane - Alexander Bridge across Orlik River - Bolkhov Street (now Lenin Street) - Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street).

December 1907 - June 1919:
The tramcars (more often only one tramcar) rode on the single-track tramline from Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) to the railroad:
Without number "2nd Kursk Street - Convent": 2nd Kursk Street along its whole length.

September 1925 - October 1941:
Previously this line was the part of longer route №2, but later it was formed in the short route №3:
№3 "May Day garden square - Novosil Street": Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) along its whole length.

1938:
Due to regauging of tram network on broad gauge and changes of routes, tram route №3 was extended to Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) for a short time.

Tram route №4:

November 1937 - October 1941:
In 1931 there was restored tramline along the 2nd Kursk Street, which was closed in the revolutionary years. There rode tramcars of the route №3. By the opening of tramline in 1937, there were already 3 tram routes in the city, so new tram route should to be fourth. However, it's unknown - whether they appropriated this number officially or not:
№4 (?) "May Day garden square - Workers settlement": Pushkin Street - 2nd Kursk Street.

1938:
Due to regauging of tram network on broad gauge and changes of routes, route №4 (?) was extended to Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) for a short time.
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:52 PM   #3436
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Therefore, by October 1, 1941 there were four tram routes in Oryol:
1) Oryol Rail Terminal - "Monastyrka" (Maxim Gorky Street);
2) Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) - Brickyard №8;
3) May Day garden square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Pushkin Street;
4) May Day garden square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square) - Workers' settlement (2nd Kursk Street).

Except tram route №1, all tram routes were narrow-gauge. It was planned to regauge three other tram routes (№№2-4) in the near future. However, all reconstruction works were interrupted as a result of beginning of the Great Patriotic War. On October 3, 1941 Heinz Guderian's 2nd Panzer Group captured city. Therefore, history of narrow-gauge tram in Oryol ended.

THE ROUTES OF ORYOL PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN NOVEMBER 1934

Red lines - tramlines (1000-mm gauge);
Thick red lines - double-track tramlines;
Thin red lines - single-track tramlines;
X - tram depot at Novosil Street (now #39 Pushkin Street);
Tram routes:
№1: "Rail Terminal - County Hospital";
№2: "Rail Terminal - Brickyard №8" (this route was shortened to Volodarsky Lane (now Resurrection Lane) in summer of 1933);
№3: "May Day garden square - Novosil Street".

Brown lines - bus routes;
Bus routes:
№1: "Rail Terminal - Monastyrka";
№2: "Rail Terminal - Sacco & Vanzetti Street".


Андрей Киреев
CLICKABLE


THE ROUTES OF ORYOL PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN APRIL 1941

Red line - 1520-mm tramline (double-track);
Thick purple line - 1000-mm tramline (double-track);
Thin purple lines - 1000-mm tramlines (single-track);
X - tram depot at Pushkin Street (capacity - 16 tramcars);
Yellow circles - tram stops;
Tram routes:
№1: "Rail Terminal - Monastyrka";
№2: "Volodarsky Lane - Brickyard";
№3: "May Day garden square - Pushkin Street";
№4: "May Day garden square - Workers settlement".

Brown lines - bus routes;
Bus routes:
№1: "Rail Terminal - Hospital named after MOPR (International Red Aid)";
№2: "Rail Terminal - Military town";
№3: "May Day garden square - Pushkin Street".


Андрей Киреев
CLICKABLE


THE SCHEME OF ORYOL TRAMLINES DURING REGAUGING ON 1520-mm GAUGE

The first line of broad-gauge tram ("Rail Terminal - Volodarsky Lane") was opened on July 24, 1938.
The condition of Oryol tramlines on October 1, 1941:

Red line - 1520-mm tramline (double-track);
Thick yellow lines - 1000-mm tramlines (double-track);
Thin yellow lines - 1000-mm tramlines (single-track);
Dashed yellow line - dismantled 1000-mm tramline along Pioneer Street;
Pink square - tram depot at Pushkin Street (capacity - 16 tramcars);
Numbers №№1-4 - numbers of tram routes;
Dates - dates of the launching of regauged tramlines;
Black marks - tram stops;
The right way of 1000-mm gauge on the Red Bridge across Oka River was combined with 1520-mm gauge:

Павел Зюзин
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:53 PM   #3437
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1920-1940. The floating of ice at Oka River near Red Bridge:

pastvu

May 1, 1920. The first all-Russian subbotnik at Novosil Street (now Pushkin Street) near the St. Elijah Square - the intersection of two tram routes (Intercession Church on the background). In 1920 at this square were demolished small shops and were planted trees. After renovation, it was renamed into May Day garden square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square):

BrotherPilot

1924. Belgian two-axle motor tramcar near Oryol Rail Terminal:

pastvu

November 6, 1927. The modernized Belgian two-axle motor tramcar №10 (constructed in 1898) at the old tram depot №1 during celebrations dedicated to the 10th anniversary of Great October Socialist Revolution (tram route №1). It was first modernized tramcar in Oryol. As a result of modernization, the front and rear door platforms became closed. Later all other Belgian motor tramcars were modernized same way:

Павел Зюзин

1920s. Belgian tramcars during celebrations dedicated to the anniversary of Great October Socialist Revolution (November 7):

orel-transport

1925-1930. Tram train near the intersection of Lenin Street and Garden Street (now Maxim Gorky Street):

pastvu

1927. The demolition of Moscow Gate:

daria-iz-orla
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Old April 11th, 2014, 02:54 PM   #3438
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1930s. Belgian two-axle motor tramcar at Cooperative Street (now Guest Street), tram route №1:

Киреев Андрей

1930s. May Day garden square (now Tankmen garden square at the Peace Square):

pastvu

1930. Belgian two-axle motor tramcar №16 at Moscow Street, tram route №2:

Павел Зюзин

1938. Kh/M tram train at Moscow Street during asphalting:

orel-transport

1938, "F" tramcar at Moscow Street. This is a very valuable photo - previously it was considered that first batch of old "F" tramcars was delivered from Moscow to Oryol only on July 25, 1949:

Киреев Андрей

2009. The model of "F" tramcar №106 (made by Andrey Kireev from Oryol):

Андрей Киреев
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:13 PM   #3439
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del
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:14 PM   #3440
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9) Moscow (opened on April 6, 1899):

Moscow is the capital and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural and scientific center of Russia and the continent. Moscow is situated on the Moscow-River in the Central Federal District of European Russia. In the course of its history the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Soviet Union.

Pre-WWI history of Moscow Tram (1899-1914)

The first horse-drawn tramline in Moscow was put into operation on June 22, 1872, to the All-Russian Technical Exhibition. It was built between Brest Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal) and Iberian Gate (near which were located temporary pavilions of exposition) along Tver Street, the main and probably best-known radial street of Moscow. In 1874 "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow" (founded by Count Uvarov) began construction of horse-drawn tram network at main radial urban streets. In 1891 there were 11 lines of this network with total length of 48 km and five horsecar depots. On January 17, 1885 Councilor of State, engineer Andrey Gorchakov founded in Brussel joint stock company "Main company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow and Russia", which became known as "Belgian company" or "Second company of horse-drawn railways". During 1885-1891, "Belgian company" built second horse-drawn tram network at minor radial urban streets, at Boulevard Ring and Garden Ring, as well at some suburban districts. In addition, they built two lines of steam-driven tram - Petrovskaya Line (opened in 1886; length - 7.5 km) and Sparrow Line (opened in 1887; length - 2.5 km). In 1891 the total length of the second tram network was 46 km (13 lines, including two lines of steam-driven tram; three horsecar depots).

In 1890-1891 two companies agreed with city authorities to merge two networks into one and to exploit it together. "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow" was responsible for the exploitation of all network, while "Belgian company" received 1/3 of total proceeds for the year. Such common exploitation was started since November 13, 1891. All pre-existing routes of horse-drawn trams were revised and from that day began to operate 25 new lines. The common tram network had length of 94 km, 9 horsecar depots, serviced by 2000 horses and 400 tramcars.

Despite of big popularity of horse-drawn tram, its shortcomings were evident. That's why there appeared plans for construction of electric tramlines. It's need to mention that first concept of electric tram was presented in Moscow at All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition that was held from June 1 till September 27, 1882 at Khodynka Field. Prior to opening of this exhibition, electric tram operated only in one world city - Berlin. The first electric tramway in Berlin was built by German company "Siemens & Halske AG" and was opened on May 16, 1881. In 1882 "Siemens & Halske AG" built an electrically powered railroad (0.3-km long) specifically for All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition held at Moscow, which was designed to demonstrate "the use of electricity for operating trains". The train consisted of small locomotive and four carts with benches for passengers. The maximal ridership of this electric mini-train was 800 passengers per day. At this train, Russian Emperor Alexander III and his family rode two times. For this achievement, the company was awarded a high distinction: the right to bear the imperial double eagle in its letterhead. But unlike Nizhny Novgorod, All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition didn't lead to appearance of electric tram at Moscow streets - the plans for electrification of horse-drawn tramlines began to discussed only ten years later.

However, the owners of horse-drawn tram network strenuously objected to the process of electrification of tramlines, because it required large financial investments and in fact did not bring any additional profit. Despite of this, the first sentence of the transition to electric traction in Moscow was made by the concessionaires of the horse-drawn tram. In early-1890s passenger traffic increased, it was necessary to replace equipment (tram tracks and tramcars). Fearing that it would lead to municipalization of tram, in 1895 "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow" appealed to the City Council with a proposal to start "experimental" electrification of one of 25 existing tramlines.

Having obtained the required permit, in July 1898 "First company" started electrification of Dolgorukovskaya horse-drawn tramline from Passions Square (now Pushkin Square) along Little Dmitrov Street to the Butyrskaya Outpost. Also, there began electrification of Petrovskaya Line (from Tver Outpost to the Petrovsky Palace) and Butyrskaya Line (from Butyrskaya Outpost to the Petrovsky Palace). For the transportation of tramcars from Miusy tram depot, there was built single-track tramline along Forest Street.

In summer of 1898, "First company" ordered electric equipment to the Moscow plants of "Siemens & Halske AG". The tramcars were constructed in Germany at "Falkenried" Plant. In the end of January 1899 were finished construction works at Butyrskaya Line. The official ceremony of opening was held at "electric" tram depot near Bashilov Street on April 6, 1899, at 4:00 pm. After the religious ceremony, the first electric tramline was put into operation from Butyrskaya Outpost to the Petrovsky Palace, along Butyrsky Driveway (now Lower Maslovka Street and Upper Maslovska Street). Its length was 2.35 by axis of streets. Next day tramcars were opened for passengers.

In June-July 1899 all construction works at Dolgorukovskaya Line, Petrovskaya Line and service tramline along Forest Street were completed. On August 8, 1899, at 12:00 noon, was held official ceremony of opening of Dolgorukovskaya Line (length - 5.6 km by axis of streets) and Petrovskaya Line (length - 2.38 km by axis of streets).

The exploitation of the first electric tramlines was successful. Within one year, the profit from its exploitation increased in 2.17 times comparing with horse-drawn tram. Thus, the benefits of electrification became evident. On March 20, 1900 City Council decided to municipalize tram network. There was done great work on the inventory and valuation of assets of the "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow". On September 26, 1901 city authorities municipalized tram network of the "First company", including electric Petrovskaya and Forest tramlines. However, other horse-drawn tramlines, electric Dolgorukovskaya Line, "electric" tram depot and traction substation became belong to Belgian "Second company".

1882, Khodynka Field. The horse-drawn tram near All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition (lithography):

Wikipedia

1882, Khodynka Field. The horse-drawn tram near All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition (lithography):

Wikipedia

1882. The electrically powered railroad near the pavilion of "Siemens & Halske AG" at the All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition:

Aviateur

1882. The electrically powered railroad near the pavilion of "Siemens & Halske AG" at the All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition:

Aviateur

1882. The electrically powered railroad (0.3-km long) at the plan of All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition:

Wikipedia

1899, Butyrsky tram depot at Butyrsky Driveway (now Lower Maslovka Street). The photo from "Siemens Corporate Archives":

Aviateur

1899, "Falkenried Type A" tramcar №19 (constructed in 1898 at Hamburg Plant, Germany) at Butyrsky tram depot at Butyrsky Driveway (now Lower Maslovka Street). The photo from "Siemens Corporate Archives":

Aviateur

1900. Terminus stop of first electric tramline - "Petrovsky Park" (present-day Upper Maslovka Street):

Aviateur

1899-1901, tramcar at Little Dmitrov Street near Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos at Putinki. The photo from "Siemens Corporate Archives":

oldmos

1900s. Moscow Tram:

Aviateur

1913-1914. "Siemens & Halske" tramcar №1 (constructed in 1899) near Central Sokolniki Wagon-Repair workshops (now SVARZ Plant) at Matrosskaya Tishina Street (Seaman's Silence Street):

oldmos

The scheme of the horse-drawn tram network during common exploitation (1891-1901). Red arrows - Sparrow Line of steam-driven tram, Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-driven tram:

Click to enlarge

The first "experimental" electric tramlines (1899). Red arrows - Petrovskaya Line of electric tram, Green arrows - Dolgorukovskaya Line of electric tram, Purple arrows - service Forest line of electric tram; Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-driven tram:

Click to enlarge

The lines of the "Belgian company" in the end of 1901. Green arrows - Dolgorukovskaya Line of electric line, Red arrows - Sparrow Line of steam-driven tram, Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-driven tram, other lines - lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge
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