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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:14 PM   #3441
geometarkv
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The electrification of urban tram network was realized within four stages.

The first stage (1903-1905) included construction of the four electric tramlines. Half of them were former lines of horse-drawn tram. The works were mainly held during August 1903 - February 1905. During construction, there were built Miusy traction substation (1904) and Red Pond traction substation (1905). There were three electric lines - Maryinskaya, Petrovskaya and Terminal tramlines. There were 77 tramcars at the Miusy tram depot: 20 four-axle, 37 two-axle motor tramcars and 20 trailers. The tramcars were constructed at Russo-Baltic wagon-building plant in Riga and at MAN machine-building plant in Augsburg, Germany. The equipment for tramcars was made by Russian electric society "Union". Since September 22, 1904 till January 14, 1905 tramcars carried 2.257.693 passengers.

The second stage of construction (1905-1907) was suspended because of economic crisis and the deteriorating political situation due to defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Tram employees were active participants of the famous Moscow Uprising in December 1905. Within two years, in 1905-1907, there were 11 long-term strikes of tram employees in Moscow. The construction of second stage was started in 1905. By the end of 1906, there were 7 electric tramlines in Moscow. In addition, there operated Dolgorukovskaya Line and 10 horse-drawn tramlines (which belonged to "Belgian company"), as well as 13 horse-drawn tramlines (which belonged to the city authorities). For the second stage, there were built: Falconers tram depot (1905), Central tram power station (1906) near Little Stone Bridge and Lubyanka traction substation (1906). After completion of second stage, passenger traffic of electric tram became in three times more than traffic of horse-drawn tram. There operated 181 tramcars at electric lines every day. In 1907 there were produced 40 tramcars for Moscow Tram at Mytishchi and Kolomna Plants (these plants are located in the eponymous cities of Moscow Region). By the end of 1907, Miusy tram depot became fully electrical. By 1908, there were 20 four-axle, 192 two-axle motor tramcars and 66 trailers. There worked 247 tram drivers and 506 conductors at electric tramlines, while at horse-drawn tramlines - 284 coachmen and 258 conductors.

The construction of third stage (1908-1909) began in the spring 1908. According to plan, all horse-drawn tramlines must be electrified and few new lines must be built. In July 1908 there were 13 electric tramlines and 10 horse-drawn lines (which belonged to the city authorities) as well as Dolgorukovskaya Line and few horse-drawn lines (which belonged to the "Belgian society"). In 1908 there were built 44.8 km of electric tramlines. By 1909, there were 115.2 km of electric tramlines and 19 routes, at which operated 330 tramcars. There was finished construction of the three traction substations and enlargement of the Central tram power station. In 1909 there were put into operation 60 km of electric tramlines as well as 250 electric tramcars and 150 trailers, which were made at Mytishchi Plant near Moscow, Kolomna Plant, Baltic Plant in Riga and Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod. By the end of 1909, there were 22 routes of electric tram, which exploited by the city authorities and 2 routes, which belonged to the "Belgian company". In 1909 there was launched tramline through Red Square.

By 1910, there was only one horse-drawn tramline, which belonged to the city authorities and horse-drawn tram network, which belonged to "Belgian company". There were 6 tram depots, the electric tramcars exploited in 5 of them. Therefore, own tram network of the city authorities was almost fully electrified.

During fourth stage (1910-1912) there were purchased and electrified tramlines of "Belgian company". By this time tram network of the "Belgian company" gradually fell into decay, the rolling stock on these lines has not been updated, and passenger traffic greatly decreased due to construction of electric tramlines at parallel streets. In 1910 "Belgian company" had 2 electric tramlines and 10 horse-drawn tramlines. After completion of third stage, city authorities decided to purchase profitable Dolgorukovskaya Line and horse-drawn tramlines along Garden Ring. This decision was made on April 17, 1911. In June 1911 city authorities signed contract with "Belgian company" about municipalization of second tram network since November 14, 1911. City authorities ordered 200 electric tramcars and 100 trailers. The official ceremony devoted to beginning of electrification of second tram network was held on July 8, 1911.

The pace of electrification was very high even according by modern standarts. In 1911 there were opened two historical tram routes. On November 11, 1911 (or January 9, 1912 according to other sources) there was opened tram route "A" (which became known as "Annushka" - "Annie") along the Boulevard Ring (also known as "A" Ring, hence the name of route). On October 23, 1911 there was opened tram route "B" (which became known as "Bukashka" ~ "Beetle" or "Bug") along the Garden Ring (also known as "B" Ring, hence the name of route). By 1912, there were 267.7 km of tramlines, 24 tram routes and two steam-driven tramlines. There operated 587 tramcars per day. During 1910-1912 there were built or reconstructed three tram depots. In 1912 there were 7 tram depots, Central tram power station and 9 traction substations in Moscow. Prior to WWI, there were 38 tram routes in Moscow, including circular routes "A" and "B". There was also one steam-driven tramline from Butyrskaya Outpost to Petrovskaya Agricultural Academy (now Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural Academy named after Kliment Timiryazev). By 1914, there were 821 electric tramcars and 435 trailers in Moscow.

The municipalized tramlines in August 1904. Red arrows - lines of electric tram, Blue arrows - common lines of horse-drawn tram, other lines - municipalized lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of all tramlines in February 1905. Bold lines - municipalized lines of electric tram, Blue arrows - Dolgorukovskaya Line of electric tram ("Belgian company"), Red arrows - uncompleted electric lines of the first stage, dashed lines - lines of horse-drawn tram and steam-driven tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of municipalized tramlines in December 1906. Bold lines - lines of electric tram, dashed lines - lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of municipalized tramlines in March 1908. Bold lines - lines of electric tram, dashed lines - lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of municipalized electric tramlines in December 1909. Blue arrows - line of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of electric tramlines in January 1914. Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-driven tram:

Click to enlarge

Moscow Uprising of December 1905. Barricade of horsecars at Dolgorukov Street:

oldmos

Moscow Uprising of December 1905. Barricade of horsecars at Dolgorukov Street:

oldmos

Moscow Uprising of December 1905. Barricade of horsecars at Dolgorukov Street:

Ysh

Moscow Uprising of December 1905. Barricade of horsecars at Forest Street:

oldmos

Moscow Uprising of December 1905. Barricade of tramcars at Forest Street near Miusy tram depot:

Link

1905-1907. Barricade of tramcars at Forest Street:

Dissident

1900s. Tramcar near Moscow City Hall:

Ysh

1900s. Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Leningrad Rail Terminal) on the Fire Watchtower Square (now Komsomol Square):

oldmos

1914. Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Leningrad Rail Terminal) and Yaroslavl Rail Terminal:

oldmos

1900s. Mounting works at Cannon Street:

Книга Мосгортранс - 50 лет

1907-1910. Kursk Rail Terminal:

oldmos

1911. Tramcars near Brest Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal):

Wikipedia

1911. Two-axle trailer №1112 (constructed in 1909 at Mytishchi Plant) at Greater Tsarina Street (now Greater Pirogov Street), tram route №7:

Aviateur
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:15 PM   #3442
geometarkv
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1900s, tramcar at 1st Tver-Yam Street. Church of St. Basil of Caesarea (left) and Triumphal Gate on the background:

bibliophagus

1904. Hotel "Metropol" on the Theatre Square:

Домиан

1900s. Tramcar on the Lubyanka Square:

Izus67

1908-1914, Lubyanka Square. House of insurance company "Russia" (now FSB headquarters) on the background:

Вячеслав Кудинов

1910s. "F" tramcar №485 (constructed in 1909 at Baltic Plant in Riga) on the Passions Square (now Pushkin Square):

Книга Мосгортранс - 50 лет

1910s. Tram route "Б" ("B" or "Beetle") on the Kudrino Square:

oldmos

1914. Kudrino Square, view to the Greater St. Nicetas Street:

oldmos

1914. Kudrino Square, view to the driveway of Novinsky Boulevard:

oldmos
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:16 PM   #3443
geometarkv
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1910s. Saratov Rail Terminal (now Pavelets Rail Terminal):

oldmos

1910-1917. Tramline near St. Tatiana Church of Moscow University at Moss Street:

oldmos

1910s. Tramline at Greater St. Nicetas Street:

oldmos

1912-1917. The tramline near Library of Moscow University at Moss Street:

oldmos

1913, Greater Tsarina Street (now Greater Pirogov Street). New Maidens Convent on the background:

ej3tkl

1913. Prechistenskie Gate Square:

Артём Светлов

1911-1916. Double-track tramline is changing on single-track near Crimean Bridge:

Aviateur

1911-1916. Single-track tramline on Crimean Bridge:

Aviateur
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:16 PM   #3444
geometarkv
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PRE-WWI TRACTION SUBSTATIONS

Before beginning of WWI, in Moscow were built 11 traction substations for serving tram network. The first traction substation was located in Butyrsky tram depot since 1899 and, presumably, operated until 1912. In addition, power station of the "Society of Electric Lighting" was used for the supplying of two first electric tramlines of 1899. This station at Greater Dmitrov Street factually was traction substation, but in 1904-1907 it supplied traction substations №1 and №2 as power station.

Since 1903-1904 there begins the history of a normal stationary power supplying of tram network. Before 1907, as it was written above, two traction substation supplied from the power station of the "Society of Electric Lighting". Since 1907 whole Moscow tram network depended from the Central tram power station at the Swamp Embankment. In general, prior to beginning of WWI, there were built 9 traction substations in the different districts of Moscow.

These purely utilitarian buildings erected in so-called "industrial style" stand out for its architecture. The next traction substation №10 was opened only in 1928 near present-day Metro station "Aeroport" ("Airport"). Nowadays there are hundreds of traction substations in Moscow. However, that's another story....

Almost all of 9 traction substations survived in its original view to this day. Only a semi-belowground Lubyanka traction substation was eliminated in 1934, and substation №4 near Central tram power station was reconstructed for better operation.

1913. Red Pond traction substation №1 (built in 1904) at Red Pond Street:

Aviateur

1910, Miusy traction substation №2 (built in 1903-1904) at 2nd Miusy Street. Agrippina Abrikosova's maternity hospital (built in 1903-1906) on the background:

Aviateur

1913. Semi-belowground Lubyanka traction substation №3 (built in 1906) on the Lubyanka Square near the Kitay-gorod wall:

Aviateur

1907-1917. Semi-belowground Lubyanka traction substation №3 (built in 1906) on the Lubyanka Square:

Ysh

1928, the semi-belowground Lubyanka traction substation №3 (built in 1906) on the Dzerzhinsky Square (now Lubyanka Square) near the Kitay-gorod wall. In 1934, during construction of Metro line and demolition of Kitay-gorod wall, this substation was removed to Greater Cherkassky Lane and got number №30. This substation operates to this day, supplying energy for trolleybus lines:

Aviateur

1913, Central tram power station (№4; built in 1906) near the Little Stone Bridge. Cathedral of Christ the Saviour on the background:

energymuseum

1907-1917. The boiler room of the Central tram power station (№4; built in 1906) at Swamp Embankment:

Aviateur

1910. Rogozhskaya traction substation №5 (built in 1908) at Greater St. Andronik Street:

Aviateur

1910-1914. Rogozhskaya traction substation №5 (built in 1908) at Greater St. Andronik Street:

Aviateur

1910s. Falconers traction substation №6 (built in 1905) at 2nd Boevskaya Street:

Aviateur

1913-1914. Falconers traction substation №6 (built in 1905) at 2nd Boevskaya Street:

Aviateur

1913. Novinskaya traction substation №7 (built in 1908) at Greater Tolstov Lane (now Karmanitsky Lane):

Aviateur

1913. Philistine traction substation №8 (built in 1907) at 1st Philistine Street (now Peace Avenue):

Aviateur

1913. Zamoskvoretskaya traction substation №9 (built in 1909) at Tax Street:

Aviateur

1914. Zamoskvoretskaya traction substation №9 (built in 1909) at Tax Street:

Aviateur
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:17 PM   #3445
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1914, view of Moscow from Sukharev Tower. Sheremetyev's Hospital (now Scientific-Research Institute of Emergency Aid named after Nikolay Sklifosovsky) and Sukharev Market on the Greater Sukharev Square:

retromoscow

1914, view of Moscow from Sukharev Tower. Sretenka Street:

retromoscow

1914, view of Moscow from Sukharev Tower. 1st Philistine Street (now Peace Avenue), Cross water towers on the background:

Link

1914, tramline on the Red Square. Imperial Russian Historical Museum named after Emperor Alexander III (now State Historical Museum) on the background:

Артём Светлов

1914, tramline on the Red Square. Middle Trading Rows, Intercession Cathedral (St. Basil Cathedral) and Saviour Tower of Moscow Kremlin on the background:

Артём Светлов

1912, tramline near the Kremlin wall. From left to right - Saviour Tower, St. Nicholas Tower and Arsenal Tower of Moscow Kremlin:

Артём Светлов
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:17 PM   #3446
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Hard years of the WWI (1914-1916)

The Moscow tram was sharing life with its city and nation. The war demanded that the tram employees called "city employees" at that time were called up for the military service. About two thousand tram employees were mobilized during the first month of the war. It had caused almost a one third decrease in the number of tramcars employed for the work by the end of July. Only six hundred tramcars ran daily instead of nine hundred.

Yet, it took a long while for the city authorities, and mostly for the top managers of the Moscow tram ones, to start employing women (even as conductors). This is what Mikhail Polivanov, Director of City Tram enterprise, said: "That is out of the question to replace a tram driver with a woman. As for conductors, a woman will make mistakes and fail to manage the work". The positive decision to employ wives and sisters of the mobilized tram workers as conductors and switchers was not made until it became clear that the tram service would just stop due to insufficiency of employable and trained personnel. This is what was noted in a newspaper of that time: "The most developed and intelligent persons are chosen and employed among these women". About five hundred conductors had been employed by the Moscow tram company by March of 1915.

Running trams were crowded due to a considerable decrease in the tramcar output. The persons, who were hanging and holding themselves on footboards, buffers, protective grids and other protruding parts, were a sign of the hard time. Such "hangmen" were a Moscow visiting card until 1922 when the tram service had restored again.

There was no doubt that the tram enterprise had lost its revenues becoming less profitable. Additionally, the persons called up for military service and the militaries, the personnel of medical units and mobile hospitals were made free passengers by the decision made by the City Council at the beginning of the war. The city authorities of that time however showed us an example how to settle a complicated problem related to free passengers. No soldier or military could ride tram free unless provided a special written certificate. On October 13, Head of the Moscow Administration issued the decree to provide that "a free railway ride for the militaries and the person related to different military organizations except those related to care of the wounded should be completely terminated and no tickets or cheques for that end would be issued from now onward".

The city authorities issued special free tickets to all hospital employees and the funds for the tickets were assigned from the city budget. This is a good historical example for our contemporaries on how the issues related to free tickets were settled in Imperial Russia.

The war required to mobilize almost 14 million of agricultural population. The agricultural output of the country was undermined by requisition of horses, vehicles, harness, cattle for military needs. The trains full of the wounded and ill soldiers began to come back from the front shortly after. Moscow encountered breakdowns in food supplies. An urgent need for converting passenger tramcars into freight cars to carry more firewood arose and some cars were converted to carry the ill and wounded soldiers whose numbers were growing day by day.

Many hospitals were arranged in converted buildings. Thus, the City Administration decided to use the reserve Presnensky tram depot building as a municipal military and evacuation hospital for the wounded persons who had arrived from the front at the end of July. An approach road was laid to the building from Alexander Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal) and a special railway platform was built on the territory to unload the wounded. The evacuation hospital was solemnly opened by accepting a special train from the Alexander Rail Terminal on October 14, 1914. The production building was converted into patient's rooms. To ensure that, the pits designed to examine and repair tram cars were covered by floor boards. There were beds, bedding and other items requisite for a hospital there. The building held 1200 beds including 300 beds for the total-care patients and 900 beds for the temporary patients subject to transfer to other city hospitals.

The administration office and other service areas were converted into medical stations, operating room, dressing room, infectious disease ward, kitchen, operating office and store rooms for food and maintenance equipment. "Presnensky Military and Evacuation Station" sign appeared on the entrance gates.

The wounded brought by a hospital train were being sorted by doctors on the platform and distributed to different rooms or hospitals. Doctor Ivan Troyanovsky was responsible for medical work and the City Railways Department was in charge of maintenance work. The daily list of wounded soldiers and officers brought to Presnensky Evacuation Station were being published in newspapers since October 17, 1914. The tramline for medical trains running from Presnenskaya Outpost Square (now Krasnopresnenskaya Outpost Square) to Presnensky Evacuation Station was launched in a fortnight. The line was also used to run passenger cars to Vagankovo Cemetery.

The tramlines from Cadet Platz (now Red Cadet Square) to Annengof Distribution Station (now area of Aviamotor Street) to transport the wounded soldiers were built and opened in the second half of 1914 and the branch railway line from Kursk Rail Terminal, from the Soldatenkov (now Botkin) Hospital to Niсholas Barracks on Khodynka Field were laid to get there.

The tram workers also converted 30 passenger cars into special medical trains. Mikhail Polivanov, Manager of the City Railways, was in charge of the conversion. He also designed the medical tramcar. Another hospital for wounded soldiers was opened in the Miusy tram depot building in January of 1915.

The Moscow tram employees were busy with solving many military problems. Thus, the Remizov tram depot, a former horsecar depot, arranged a bakery equipped with 20 three-floor stoves capable to product up to three tons of dried crusts daily. The new specialization of the tram building is still in demand. There is a bakery and confectionary plant at Bovine Rampart Street. The plant manufactures both dried crusts and excellent cakes and pastry.

The war demanded a lot of things. And Moscow tram workshops began to manufacture machines to cut bandages and prosthetic appliances. The Central Wagon-Repair workshops in the district of Sokolniki (Falconers) was converted into a shell plant. That was a response to the military needs and an adjustment to operation under the new conditions. Despite all problems, Moscow opened the new tramline via New Saviour Bridge and Holy Forty Street (now Dynamo Street) in 1914.

New persons became a feature of the new time. They were underqualified compared to those who left for the front and that immediately affected the quality of servicing. It was pointed not only by insufficient skills of tram drivers, but also by a poor maintenance quality of rolling stock, tracks and power supply devices. Vladimir Lenin's classic phrase that "the cadres are all-important" is quite suitable in that case. To be fair, we should say that "not all-important, but very important". This thesis was always vital and the World War I was a perfect example. "The Moscow News" ("Moskovskie Vedomosti") newspaper published five reports on major tram accidents in Moscow for the period from August 1914 till February 1915. It was an evidence of underqualification of the Moscow tram workers.

This is one of the reports: «An unprecedented tram accident causing considerable injury of the passengers took place on February 27 near 7:00 am. Moving fast from Monastery of Christ's Passions to Alexander Rail Terminal, the electrical tramcar №683 (route №6) ran into another tramcar №10726 (route "B") which also moved from Smolensk Market to the Sukharev Tower rather fast but failed to clear the way on the corner of Tver Street and Garden-Triumphal Street.

The tram driver of the first tramcar is reportedly expected that the car that crossed his way would have some time to pass and was miles from any thought of an accident. The tramcars overlapped each other, a crack of iron and wood and a sound of broken glass that flied at a long range and screams of the passengers were audible. The trailer №10726 turned on one side across the rails towards the Monastery of Christ's Passions down Tver Street. The screams of injured passengers were audible from the tramcar. The tramcar №683 with broken body and front platform was also thrown aside.

The policeman, who had seen the accident, rushed to the telephone apparatus in the Khomyakov's House and reported to the nearby police station of the accident and asked for emergency. The site was overcrowded. The rumour was raised that two killed passengers were in the tramcar. V. Model, Assistant of the Moscow Administration Head, came. The employees of the tram depots were called immediately. Fortunately, the rumour about killed passengers was not confirmed. Said passengers turned out to be badly injured and unconscious…

The public had barely come to itself when a new tram accident took place at the same place on the corner of Tver Street and Greater Garden Street at 1:32 pm. Fortunately, the accident was victimless. Fast moving tramcar №353 (route №1) headed to Alexander Rail Terminal ran into the tramcar №10 (route "B") heading to the Sukharev Tower. Both tramcars had their platforms broken and bodies spoilt. Frightened passengers got away with slight injuries and contusions. The broken tramcars were sent to the tram depots. The tram traffic was interrupted for three quarters of an hour».
("The Moscow News", February 28, 1915).

The growth of tram accidents made the city authorities to take some measures that underlain the Rules of Technical Operation of Tram. The rules mainly provided the safe distances between moving tramcars for tram drivers limiting a speed of tram traffic at intersections and providing for a mandatory sanding downhill tram tracks. It was planned to mount warning lights at the most important tram intersections.

The City Council requested from the Government to release the conductors and tram drivers, who had a work experience and high qualification, from the military service. The decision on the privileges had facilitated the personnel insufficiency but it was impossible to ensure a stable operation of the tram fleet. It was mainly caused by terminating capital repair of tramcars previously ensured by the Central Sokolniki Wagon-Repair workshops, by stopped renewal of rolling stock and converting many tramcars into medical ones resulted in decreased number of operated tramcars. Additionally, a lot of fugitives came to the city and became tram passengers. The result was the quality deterioration. "The Moscow News" anxiously wrote on December 17, 1915: «The things that take place on Moscow trams pass all understanding. The passengers hang on the tramcars and the policemen pull them by tugging their falls. The rows in tramcars are frequent and heated. Direct fights for seats happen. There are crushes, swearing and outrage. The insolence of pickpockets has reached its climax. They pull out lady's purses and cut watches away. The technical innovation has changed into a penalty and brings a nervous disorder. It is an utter confusion to see the overcrowded tramcar platform… The tram service is falling into decay. We can see loosen tramways, the track requiring urgent relaying, the tramcars creaking at seams, frequent accidents, terrible rudeness of tram servicemen and the strikes encouraged by a good increase of salaries».

The article was a response to two strikes of the tram workers. The war prices reached the sky and the tram workers, unsatisfied with their salaries, decided to strike. The strike was started by the workers of the Central tram power station and all traction substations on September 17. The tramcars stopped running throughout the city. The trams had been standing till the evening of September 20.

In October the workers made a request to the city administration for increasing their salaries by twenty five percent. However, as is always the case, the city administration failed to make a clear decision. Representatives of all tram depots met in the tea house at St. Poemen Street (now Red Proletarian Street) and decided to start the strike on October 29 after discussing the ambiguous answer received from the city administration.

On the next day, only the Miusy and Ryazan tram depots sent their tramcars to the line. The strike was supported by employees of the Central tram power station. The tram engineers and soldiers of the Moscow Garrison were engaged to start it again. They had released about 300 tramcars to work on the line by November 2. Over 3000 employees from 9000 tram workers of the Moscow tram enterprise were involved in the strike. The switchmen and sweepers also did not show up for work.

The tram enterprise stopped working, plants and factories did not work too. The enterprises that fulfilled orders for the front came to stop. It was a ground for the city authorities to arrest some strike instigators. Fifty workers were arrested in those days and 28 strikers were subjected to criminal prosecution and court-martialled. Many strikers were exiled or sentenced to imprisonment from 4 to 12 months.

The strike however came to the victory of the tram workers. The city administration was forced to yield. The strike was practically terminated after Mikhail Chelnokov, the Head of City, met with the strikers in the Miusy tram depot on November 5. He promised to decide on increasing salaries and retaining periodical war salary rises. 720 tramcars resumed their work in the morning of the next day. All trams were working in the noon and over 900 tramcars were on the line by the evening.

The rise of salaries required some increase in the revenues gained by the tram enterprise. The city administration did not accept the fare increase by one kopeck (0.01 rubles) that had being discussed since 1914. The yield increase should be ensured in other ways.

In spring of 1915, the testing freight carriage was started. The first freight tramline was opened in May 1915 from the railway station of the Ryazan-Ural Railway (now Pavelets Rail Terminal) via Gardeners Street to the "Business Yard" on the St. Barbara Square (now Slavic Square). The freight carriage began in June and the fare was established amounting to 2 kopecks (0.02 rubles) per sixteen kilos for one way. In addition to goods to be carried for Ryazan-Ural Railway Company, the city tram enterprise began to transport goods for the quartermaster service, flour and food from storehouses to shops, bread from bakeries to bread shops. The goods were carried at night without disturbing the daily passenger traffic. The tramcars had begun to carry firewood from railway stations to firewood storehouses since August of 1915. The old trailers and horsecars were converted into open trucks to carry firewood.

Some decisions made under complicated conditions seemed to be wrong long after but actually the decisions were the only possible way to survive. You can judge yourself. The city administration offered to improve the financial standing of both tram and all municipal enterprises by increasing tram fare by one kopeck (one ticket for one section cost five kopecks) starting from October of 1914. It was planned to take 6 kopecks for one section and 10 kopecks for long distances. The fare increase would gain one million rubles at once.

The City Council however refused to increase the fare believing that it was an untimely and burdensome measure. The issue of the fare increase was being decided for long and even the increase of tram workers' salaries in autumn of 1915 and the inflation did not cause any change. The City Council had not decided on changing the fare till January 1, 1917. Thus, the interests of the city population were a priority for the City Council despite all complications related to operation of trams during the war time.

The season tickets or so-called tram cheques were introduced in Moscow at that time. The war inflation resulted in disappearing small coins from circulation. That is why the city administration decided to introduce tram cheques equal to five kopecks since September 4, 1915. The cheques (tickets) were made as a small book consisting of twenty cheques. One such book cost one ruble. The manner of payment turned out to be convenient and the conductors did not puzzle over exchange of large-denomination banknotes anymore although the tram did not stop to be a change maker. This is what Konstantin Paustovsky (famous Russian writer who worked as a tram conductor in his early years) wrote about it:

«The old man usually took his tramcar immediately after we left the tram depot early in the morning and had our bags with 60 kopecks (0.60 rubles) inside to give a change. That was a standard amount.

Getting on the tram and smiling courteously, the old man gave the conductor 100-rubles banknote. Of course, the conductor did not have enough change. But the old man did not demand it. He obediently left the tram on the next stop and waited for the next tram.

The story repeated there. Changing tramcars this way, the old man had been going to his work daily and monthly. We could not catch him.

The 100-ruble banknote was always the same. We, conductors of the route №8, knew its number by memory. It was #123715… The old man was the most persistent stowaway. The most fierce ticket conductors were powerless against him.

The conductors of route №8 dreamed to catch the old man. Everyone had his own suggestions. I had my own plan. When I had told the depot director about it, he grinned.

Next morning I received one hundred roubles for change against the receipt. I have been waiting the old man for three days. And I caught him on the fourth day. Suspecting nothing and looking quiet and cordial, he got on the tramcar and gave me his banknote. I took it, turned it round, check it and put into my bag. The old man's jaw dropped with surprise

I slowly took 99 roubles and 95 kopecks out, counted the change twice and gave it to the old man. His face looked awful. It turned black. The eyes were so furious that I would not like to meet him in an empty lane The old man took his change, put it in his coat pocket without counting and moved toward the exit.

"Where are you going?" - I said politely, "You have your ticket finally. You can ride as much as you like".

"Son of the bitch!" - the old man said, opened the door to the front platform and left on the first stop»


The story about the passenger caught by Konstantin Paustovsky would be incomplete if we forget to quote his brilliant and sincere words about Moscow trams given by him in his autobiography "Story of a Life". This is what he wrote:

«The Miusy tram depot was located at Forest Street. The memories about it are connected with gritting of tramcars that crawled out the depot gate at dawn, a heavy conductor's bag that sore my shoulder and an acidic smell of copper. We, conductors, always had our hands green from copper coins. They were ones who worked on "the copper line".

The line of route "B" was called a "copper line". It was laid along the Garden Ring. Conductors did not like the line although the Muscovites gently called it "Bukashka"
(it can be roughly translated as "Beetle" or "Little Bug"). We preferred to work on "the silver line A" servicing the Boulevard Ring. This route was called "Annushka" ("Annie"). No one could object this name but it was just nonsense to call the "B" route "Bukashka". This route was laid through busiest squares near railway stations, the dusty roadsides of Moscow. The tramcars at this route were with trailers. In the trailers were allowed to sit with the heavy stuff. The passengers on this route were mostly from outskirts - artisans, gardeners, milkmaids. These passengers were paid by copper coins, they stashed silver coins and were not very willing to pull out silver money of their wallets and pockets. That's why this line was called "copper".

The route "A" was elegant and theatrical. Only motor tramcars (without trailers) operated at this route and passengers were other than at route "B" - an intellectual and bureaucratic. Usually these passengers were paid by silver coins and banknotes. That's why this line was called "silver".

The boulevards rustled by leaves beyond the opened windows of tramcar at "A" route. Tramcar slowly circled around Moscow - past the monuments of tired Gogol and quiet Pushkin; past the Pipe Market where never fall silent bird whistle; past the Kremlin towers; past the huge gold-domed Cathedral of Christ the Saviour and humpback bridges across the shallowed Moscow-River....

I owe the tram service because I learned Moscow, a random city of many faces and names such as Zatsepa, Stromynka, taverns, Knife line, Bozhedomkas, hospitals, Lenivka, Annengof grove, Yauza River, widows' houses, suburbs and the Cross Towers.

We had to pass exams to prove our knowledge of Moscow. The caustic old man was our examiner. He was drinking his cold tea from glass and asked us blandly:

- Please tell me the shortest way from Mary's Grove to Khamovniki District? Can you tell me? Why do not you know? By the way, Khamovniki, can you tell me the name origin? Why so rude name? Moscow is not famous for louts ("khamy"), it was always a polite city.

The old man was too captious... Half of the conductors failed his exam and went to complain to Engineer Polivanov, a clean-shaven and very courteous man. Bending his head with a neat hair parting, Polivanov answered that the knowledge of Moscow should be considered a fundamental of the conductor's work.

He said: "A conductor is not only an animate object to issue tickets but also a Moscow guide. The city is big. No old resident knows all parts of the city. Imagine the confusion that can take place if the passengers, especially those from province could find their place in a tangle of dead-ends, gates and churches". And I got the evidence that Polivanov was right».


It was both a big honour and responsibility to serve people at all times. The war broke many plans for developing the city tram network accepted in 1914, 1915 and 1916. Nevertheless, the Muscovites could enjoy a new tramline connecting Saviour Outpost Square (now Peasant Outpost Square) and Simon Settlement (now the area of the "Dynamo" plant, the corner of Lenin Settlement Street and Eastern Street); through Krutitsy Kamer Collegium Rampart Street (now Krutitsy Rampart Street) and Simon Kamer Collegium Rampart Street (now Simon Rampart Street), past Simonov Monastery.

At the same time, an attempt to acquire a new rolling stock was made as the number of tramcars and spare parts was insufficient. In February of 1916, up to 150 tramcars stood idle daily! But the plans had not been realized. Moscow had not got new tramcars till 1925 when the domestic tram production was established.

The life conditions became unbearable in the country before the Revolution. Although the tram workers had rises in salary, they did not compensate the working conditions. Many Moscow tram depots were on strike. In October of 1916, all workers of the Sokolniki Tram Workshops suspended their work and made economic demands to the City Railways Department. Having left their shops, they went out to the yard and the street. The demonstration was broken up by the police. The arrests were made and four workers were sentenced and exiled.

The strike arranged by the New Falconers (Sokolniki) tram depot (now Rusakov tram depot) in December of 1916 is an example of the unity and good organization of tram workers. It was caused by a discharge of conductor Mariya Yermakova, a participant of the October Revolution afterwards. Working on the tramcar, Yermakova demanded payment from one lady who was a good friend of influential official of the City Railways Department. The lady mentioned her friend and stated that her relations enable her to use tram for free and that the conductor should know her place. Mariya Yermakova reasonably advised her that she should have forgotten about her friends as all passengers had to be subjected to the general rules.

The discharge caused a general indignation. The representatives selected by the Sokolniki workers in "the conciliatory chamber" established after the strikes taken place in 1915 went to the Department to demand for annulment of the discharge. Bakin, one of the conductors chosen to be representatives told later: "The Department refused to discuss our demand. Then we stated that no tramcar would go out the gates of the New Falconers tram depot to work in the city tomorrow if Yermakova had not been reinstated in her job".

The New Falconers tram depot started its strike on December 29. In spite of all remonstrations of the City Railways Department, the workers held together and insisted on their demand to reinstate Yermakova. In the evening, representatives of all tram depots decided to support the strike started by the New Falconers tram depot. But it was unnecessary because the Department induced the conflict analysis and reinstated Yermakova for her job on December 30. This is how Bakin finishes his story: "We won again due to our solidarity and fortitude".

One cannot help noting that the city administration realized the necessity to find the ways for improving the tram workers' working and living conditions and tried to solve the problems to the extent possible. Suffice it to say that it started establishing canteens for all tram depots to make the food for the workers cheaper in January of 1917. It was assigned 183 thousand rubles for the purpose. The persons elected by the tram workers should be in charge of the canteens. The card system was introduced in the capital at that time. It was applied to the bread and flour and the city faced with delays in food supplies.

In the beginning of 1917, the tram traffic was limited to 11:00 pm due to missing of fuel supply to the electric power station. The last tramcars were back to the depots at midnight.

The city administration tried to fight with tramcar overloading and hanging passengers. It was decided to apply strict measures to the persons who breach the tram use rules. Iosif Mrozovsky, Commander-in-Chief of the Moscow Military District, issued the order on March 2 to forbid "riding on steps, buffers and frames (safety grids) of the tramcars and to enter and leave the tramcars before the car stops completely. The persons who breach this mandatory provision should be imprisoned up to three months or subjected to the penalty amounting up to 3000 rubles by administrative means".

May 15, 1914. Theatre Square, fire in the Small (Maly) Theatre:

Link

The scheme of electric tramlines in 1916. Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-driven tram:

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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:18 PM   #3447
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Two Revolutions and Moscow tram (1917)

The Revolutions were cause by military failures and economic dislocation. All Moscow plants and factories were stopped and indignant and exhausted crowds went out to streets on the next day after the revolutionary events in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg). The Council of Workers' Deputies was established in Moscow. It worked in the building of the City Council. The police did nothing. The Council formed the committee to settle the popular movement and the militia. The tram traffic stopped in the morning of March 13 (Old Style: February 28). The columns of demonstrators were going to the Red Square and to the building of the City Council, which was located nearby. Some conflicts between the demonstrators and the army took place on March 14. The troops that were loyal to the Government surrendered that afternoon and all troops of the Moscow Garrison went across to the rebels.

The rebellious workers and soldiers occupied the Guard Department, arrested Governor and Command-in-Chief of the Military District. The Muscovites supported the February Revolution this way. Workers of the Moscow Tram were busy with these events. Russian Emperor Nicholas II abdicated on March 15 and the Provisional Government was established in Petrograd.

The Moscow manifestations were lasting on March 16. The tram traffic had not resumed up to March 19, as the tram tracks were covered by snow during the revolutionary events. The burial of the revolutionary victims took place at All-Saints Cemetery on March 17 and the deputations from the Miusy and Uvarov tram depots took place in them. Many tramcars that started to work on March 19 were decorated with posters: "Long Live the Democratic Republic!" instead of advertisement.

No tram fleet was working during the revolutionary events and the break had some negative results. Only one fifth of available tramcars were engaged in the work during the first days of the February Revolution. This is how "The Russian News" newspaper described the situation from the lips of the Head of City Railways on March 31: «A general disorder in the traffic lasting from the beginning of the war was caused by the primary factors: first, as many of the experience workers, tram drivers and metalworkers were called up for the military service then currently the number of old workers does not exceed 30 percent; in spite of all attempts and requests, the repair is difficult due to insufficiency and untimely delivery of requisite materials or, sometimes, complete unavailability thereof in the market; there are no bandages; for example, the tramcar output has considerably decreased in January and February of this year; the tramcar repair volumes have increased considerably due to extreme overcrowding as the same rolling stock has to transport the number of the passengers increased by 50 percent.

Additionally, the movement along the tracks covered by thin ice layer that formed during the days when the traffic was stopped is extremely destructive for the engines. The ice resists any cleaners and melts only after repeated contact with tramcar wheels or due to the warming that takes place lately. The tramcars are subject to massive deterioration each spring during the snow melting but this spring the number of spoilt cars is especially large due to absence of street cleaning.

It goes without saying that the tram traffic could not be full-scaled immediately after the Revolution, but currently the workers have organized their right representation and are establishing a proper ratio with the administration and a proper work is being arranged. We hope that coordinated efforts of all employees will overcome any unfavourable conditions that currently exist and the traffic will be gradually restored to a proper extent».


The Revolution unfortunately failed to determine the tasks and ways of development for the Moscow municipal economy including its tram enterprise. The dual power that took place in the country affected the transport. Many decisions made by the Soviets and the City Administration were not coordinated or even contradictory. The issue of free tram tickets for soldiers as an example of the decision evoked an acute discussion not only in the Administration and the City Council but also among the Muscovites.

Without any consultations with the authorities, the Executive Committee of the Council of Soldiers' Deputies at its discretion provided in the beginning of July that all soldiers could use free tram both inside and on the back platform. The Administration was instructed to contact with Chairman of the Council of Soldiers' Deputies in respect of the issue. However, this Council ignored all appeals of the city authorities and presented its decision as one of the revolutionary achievements and liberties. Meanwhile Moscow was full of logistics troops and soldiers who were back from the front. Free passengers overcrowded tramcars. At the same time, the tram workers kept on demanding some rise in their salaries. The problem could be solved only if tram fare is increased. The contradiction caused strikes.

The strikes took place in August. In addition to pure economic demands, the strikers set some political ones, especially after the July Days in Petrograd. The authorities managed to satisfy the strikers for a short period by increasing the fare since September 4 but the life conditions were becoming worse dramatically and the rise of salary for tram workers became a pressing problem again. The strike of tram workers failed in October as the October Revolution that took place in Petrograd on November 7 (Old Style: October 25) interfered the plans. The Military and Revolutionary Committee of the Moscow Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, the Red Guard that admitted many tram workers were established in Moscow.

The tram traffic was stopped on November 10. All tram tramcars were gathered in their depots on the night of November 9 to 10. The confrontation of the old and the new power started and caused real fights between the government troops and the Red Guard that were taking place from November 10 to November 16. The military squad of the Zamoskvoretsky tram depot took part in the fights. Tram driver Pyotr Apakov was a head of the squad. The Zamoskvoretsky tram depot composed a tram train to dig trenches and build barricades at Prechistenka Street on the night of November 10. A lot of people were killed on both sides during the fights between the Red Guard and the Junkers. Using heavy artillery against the government troops, the Red Guard established the power of the Moscow Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. The City Council and the Administration were dissolved.

Besides, the workers of the Zamoskvoretsky tram depot, the tram drivers, conductors and workers of the Uvarov tram depot and New Falconers tram depot took part in October and November fights. The workers' squads were headed up by locksmith Ivan Artamonov and doctor-pediatrician Ivan Rusakov. Later, Pyotr Apakov, Ivan Artamonov and Ivan Rusakov were killed during fulfilling assignments of the party. The names of these participants of the November fights will be used to call the Zamoskvoretsky, Uvarov and New Falconers tram depots.

The fighting and the artillery fire damaged the tram masts or, using the modern language, the contact network pylons, wiring and even tram tracks (in some places). The restoration was completed on November 20 and some testing trams started running. The regular traffic on all lines was resumed on November 22.

Unfortunately, the Council of Commissars for Municipal Services and Self-Government designated by the Military and Revolutionary Committee to restore operation of the municipal organizations and enterprises failed to fulfil its tasks of maintaining the municipal economy in a working condition. We can see that the new tram department called "Working Collective of Municipal Railways" could not properly manage a diversified tram economy due to the strike of tram engineers and technicians that took place on November 29.

In fact, the tram traffic had started reducing since December 4. The traffic was random as the engineers who were in charge of the traffic service stopped working. All tram revenues stopped to be received by the city treasury and were distributed between the depot and workshop workers. Oil and coal were not supplied to the Central tram power station. All the factors affected the general technical and financial standing of the tram enterprise.

The English and American tramcar builders annulled the orders for Moscow Tram due to changing the economic environment. The most notorious organizers of the strike that involved tram engineers and technicians, who were called saboteurs afterwards, were arrested on December 19 and subjected to revolutionary tribunal in January of 1918.

The two revolutions that took place in 1917 and subsequent events were a threshold of the general economic decline that became apparent as early as in 1918. The Moscow Tram had entered into a new phase. Together with its country, it faced with the Civil War and economic devastation.

1917. The parade of the revolutionary troops at the Red Square after February Revolution:

litistina

1917. 1st Tver-Yam Street near Triumphal Gate:

Ysh

November 1917. Zamoskvoretsky tram depot (now Apakov tram depot) during Revolutionary fights:

СПЕКТР-1

1918. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) delivers a speech at Red Square at the first anniversary of the October Revolution:

litistina

1921. People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs of the Soviet Union Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) inspects military parade at the Red Square in the honour of the Third World Congress of the Comintern (Communist International):

litistina
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:19 PM   #3448
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Civil War and economic devastation (1918-1920)

The new 1918 was a turning point for the Moscow Tram. The number of tram routes began to decrease. Unsettled workshops, insufficiency of components, spare parts and materials, withdrawal of some engineering and technical employees were the factors contributing to the extremely difficult situation. The tramcar output had decreased up to 200 in January. The advancing German army was threatening to occupy Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) as early as in the beginning of 1918. So the Government of new Soviet Russia was evacuated to Moscow which since March 1918 became the capital of Russia again. But it was the capital of a new state, the Russian Republic.

Naturally, the Soviet Russia enveloped in the Civil War used all its efforts and means to withstand and could not properly manage the tram sector. At the same time, the new power needed trams not only to carry passengers but also to solve other economic tasks such are transportation of fuel, firewood, food, post and other strategic items. The city needed a transport.

The strike of executive employees stopped in March 1918 and the city economy management reorganization that took place in June enabled the city to begin expanding the freight tram traffic and assign additional funds to repair the contact network and railway equipment. Unfortunately, no capital tramcar repair was made as the Sokolniki Wagon-Repair workshops were converted into the Sokolniki Shell Plant as early as in the years of the World War I. The passenger traffic in the city decreased even more due to insufficiency of good tramcars, difficulties with fuel supply to power stations and engagement in a carriage of strategic cargos.

"The Evening News of the Moscow Council" of August 24, 1918, reported: «Having considered the decrease in the tram traffic due to delays of mineral fuel supply to Moscow and the temporary suspension of tramcar output by the Ryazan tram depot and Golden Horn tram depot, the Managing Board of the Central Union of the Committees for Employees of the Municipal Institutions and Enterprises resolved to deem the measures assumed by the Managing Board of the Municipal Railways proper and fit. At the same time, the Central Union has called the workers of the Moscow City Tram to take the situation calmly and to resist any provocation carried out by the enemies of the Revolution who try to blow up the most absurd and deceitful rumours and disorganize the working masses».

Having admitted "the measures that are proper and fit", the same newspaper emotionally wrote in another day (on August 26): «The tram overcrowding never threatened so seriously to throw the city passenger traffic into a complete confusion as nowadays when the traffic is considerably reduced due to temporary insufficiency of fuel. Some measures to order the traffic were assumed shortly before it. The tram crisis has rumpled everything. The platforms, buffers, protective grids bend again and more under pressure of human bodies crowded into and hanging on the cars».

The situation was critical. The industrial production in Moscow had decreased dramatically. 212 enterprises were stopped due to insufficiency of fuel, electric power supply, raw materials and "saboteurs". Unemployment and high prices were growing. Under the conditions, the Moscow Council of Workers' and Red Army Deputies established a special department for management of all municipal service enterprises (the Department of Soviet Enterprises). The municipal water supply enterprise, electric power plants, sewerage systems, gas plant, telegraph, telephone and post offices etc. were headed by new directors. G. Piskarev, a deputy of the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, became a Head of the City Railways Department.

The situation was reflected by the organizational measures assumed by the Department for Ordering Tram Traffic. The first measure was an introduction of queues for taking tramcars on tram stops. Then the class approach to using trams was applied. Only workers and state employees who were members of trade unions could use trams under special permissions of the organizations. One can recall the words written by Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov: «Beer can be sold to members of the trade union only».

The first year of the Civil War produced a new principle in the tram work. The passenger traffic took place only in warm seasons, in autumn it was closed to deliver firewood and food for winter and spring to the city storehouses. After completion of the delivery and provided the stock was sufficient, the passenger traffic was resumed to a limited extent up to beginning of spring warnings that disabled available good tramcars. A small cosmetic repair of tracks and tramcars was performed and the passenger traffic was resumed from mid-April to early September. This schedule was being applied in 1919, 1920 and 1921. The freight traffic never stopped and had its seasonal peaks (to deliver fuel in autumn and to withdraw snow and garbage in winter and spring).

And still tram transport was in an increasing demand during the complicated period of economic devastation. Working under the hard conditions, the Moscow tram workers did their best to provide the city with fuel and food. The average number of working freight tramcars was continuously growing. Thus, if it was 51 tramcars in 1916 and 63 in 1917 then the number had grown up to 118 in 1918 and 167 in 1919. Passenger tramcars were annually converted into cargo ones. In 1918, 15 motor tramcars and 24 trailers were converted.

Presidium of the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) headed by Lev Kamenev adopted a special provision "On Tram State of Affairs" on October 30, 1918. The provision emphasized the oil supplies required for the Central tram power station. The provision also provided for the traffic operation and management under the wartime conditions. Also, the traffic volume was determined causing thereby a considerable decrease in the tram personnel. The personnel number was decreased from 16.475 in January of 1917 to 7.960 in January of 1919.

The tram traffic was suspended in the city from February 12 to April 16 and from November 12 to December 1, 1919, due to insufficiency of fuel. The traffic was stopped again at the end of December of 1919. The workers, who were free from the work, were assigned to clean tracks and roads and "to lay fuel in within the 8.5-km long belt".

At the same time, the Moscow Tram started to be used for culture and enlightenment events and agitation for the first time in history. On May 1, 1919, the tram routes "A", "B" and №4 were run with "flying" circus shows on opened trailers. "The Evening News of the Moscow Council" newspaper noted with an interest: «The tram circus that was running across the city all day long was very popular. The motor tramcar was converted into the area for brass band; and the circus performers, acrobats, jugglers and athletes, who were giving the performance on stops, occupied the trailing loading platform. The crowds of people met the performers enthusiastically».

Under the direction of the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet), the City Railways Department had started to provide trams for countryside excursions to be organized by institutions and organizations for workers since June 1, 1919. The excursion trams were provided for the payment amounting to 300 rubles. The tram had become a principal carrier of firewood, food and other goods for most municipal institutions since autumn of 1919. To ensure new functions, the approach tram tracks were laid to all goods stations, firewood and food storehouses in Moscow. Up to 300 tram trucks were assigned to fulfil orders made by enterprises and organizations. About 18.1 km of new tracks were laid to ensure the freight traffic in 1919.

To ensure a proper management of the freight traffic, the city authorities dministration had to establish a special truck fleet. Thus, the Presnensky tram depot, that was previously suspended, started to restore freight tramcars. The first freight tramcars started operating in May 1919. The Presnensky tram depot started to be used for its designated purpose.

Order №14 of May 3, 1919, providing for the basic relations in the municipal service department and the system of the city railways at that hard time should be cited in full:

«Order № 14 on City Railways of May 3, 1919

Under the Agreement made between the City Railways Department and the Central Union of Workers of Municipal Institutions and Enterprises of the Moscow Council of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies and the Department of Soviet Enterprises, the following amendment to the in-site management of the Tram sector shall be introduced: the name of "Chairman of Technical Board" shall be removed and the name "Head of Tram Depot" shall be introduced; all "Servicemen", former "members of the Technical Boards" shall be considered "Servicemen".

To settle a local technical or economical issue requiring a principal decision, the Head of Tram Depot shall convene a technical meeting consisting of servicemen and representatives of the Local Committee.

Any current decisions on the issues that are not principal shall be implemented directly at the discretion of the Head of Tram Depot.

All Servicemen should be directly accountable to the Heads of Tram Depot and should not be released from the responsibility to the City Railways Department for the work assigned by the Heads of Tram Depot.

The City Railways Department should approve designation of any "Serviceman" from the list of the persons who wish to pass the relevant examination for the aforesaid position of "Serviceman" to be presented by the Head of Tram Depot.

The Local Committees shall take part in the life of the enterprise as a supervising body subject to the work control provisions and instructions.

The Office Heads of the Deport Traffic Service should be accountable to the Heads of Tram Depot related to the economic issues.

The City Railways Department hereby approves the following persons as the Heads of Tram Depot:
Ilya Bykov – Zamoskvoretsky tram depot;
Alexander Antipov – Miusy tram depot;
Vasily Malyshev – Bukharin tram depot;
Alexander Timmerman – Uvarov tram depot;
Vladimir Lebedev – New Falconers tram depot;
Ivan Vasin – Presnensky tram depot;
…………… – Ryazan tram depot;
…………… – Butyrsky freight depot.

G. Piskarev, Head of the Tram Subdivision
P. Zadornov, Member of the Board
S. Kozmin, Rolling Stock Service Head».


The Order shows that an effective management of a diversified transport enterprise was very pressing issue at that time. The life shows that the issue is still urgent.

There were seven tram depots in Moscow in 1919. The Zolotorozhsky (Golden Horn) tram depot was called the Bukharin tram depot to commemorate Nikolay Bukharin, an native Muscovite, an editor of "Pravda" newspaper, one of the RKP(b) and the Comintern leaders. The tram routes embraced 37.5 percent of all pre-war network. The passenger traffic was suspended by the end of 1919.

The next 1920 was the hardest year in the life of the Moscow tram enterprise. The city had just some freight and medical tramcars that were repaired using disassembled "faulty" passenger tramcars by the beginning of the year.

Most disassembled cars were removed from the city to Khodynka Field (between Petrograd Highway (now Leningrad Avenue) and the Soldatenkov Hospital (now Botkin Hospital) along the Soldatenkov tramline). A huge tram graveyard and the resting place for destroyed tramcars called "Soldatenkov tram graveyard" emerged there. Such resting places also emerged on distant and side tracks of most depots. The Ryazan tram depot and Bukharin tram depot had completely shifted into the graveyards by 1919. Only 66 motor tramcars and 110 trailers were in a proper order from 778 motor cars and 362 trailers.

The first months of 1920 were the most critical in the history of the Moscow Tram. The traffic practically stopped. Passenger tramcars were produced under special orders of the enterprises and the output of freight tramcars did not exceed 40 tramcars.

If the economic situation in the city was still deteriorating then the fuel situation was critical. In February of 1920, the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) decided to build some freight branch tramlines approaching to all freight houses to discharge goods directly from the railway trains. 20 branch lines were built stretching up to 10 kilometres in length during the building season of 1920. They led to the "Goznak" Plant; to the Radio Plant at Khavsky Street; to the Radio workshops at the Transfiguration Outpost Square (now Transfiguration Square); to the MPO storehouses near Smolensk Market and at Shabolovka Street and Bakhmetyev Street (now Obraztsov Street); to the elevator of the Kazan Railway; to the Main Post Office at Butcher Street; to the wholesale freight houses at the Savyolovo Rail Terminal and Windawa Rail Terminal (now Riga Rail Terminal); to the sugar plant at Silver Lane; to the 4th Mill, etc.

The Moscow Tram had delivered 169.08 million kg of freight in the first half of 1920 and fuel (firewood, coal, peat and fuel oil) constituted 70 percent of total weight. 110 freight trains were working in the spring of 1920 and the conversion of passenger tramcars into freight ones kept on going all the year. The intense use of tram for freight carriage made trams indispensable vehicle under the wartime conditions.

In spite of the wartime, the opening of spring and summer passenger traffic in March 1920 has been prepared. About 200 tramcars had been repaired by April 10 and the tram passenger traffic for seven routes was opened on April 20.

Moscow began to live under the new laws. The Moscow tram depots tried to comply with the laws. Starting from the May holidays of 1920, the tram trains had started to be used as agitation ones. It was one of the most important activities for young Soviet Russia. Agitation and propaganda were the essential state tasks. The agitation concerts in tramcars were given on all major squares of the city such as that near Alexander Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal), on the Presnenskaya Outpost Square (now Krasnopresnenskaya Outpost Square), near Bryansk Rail Terminal (now Kyiv Rail Terminal), on the Karl Liebknecht Square (now Serpukhov Square), near Monastery of Christ's Passions, on the Fire Watchtower Square (now Komsomol Square) and Taganka Square, etc.

The agitation tram trains began to run at the weekends. "The Communist Labour" ("Kommunistichesky Trud") newspaper wrote about the benefits from using municipal tram that way: «The first experience of using tram platforms to conduct movable agitation has underlined a great significance produced by a combination of oral political agitation and theatre performance with revolutionary agitation and political content.

Yesterday we saw that it was an excellent undertaking of the Art Subdivision supported by the Agitation Subdivision of the Moscow Committee of the Russian Communist Party that took the matter of artistic and political agitation into its hands which should be promoted using more "agitation trams" and involving notable party figures, performers and musicians into the movable agitation. The agitation trams gather a lot of spectators on the squares. A party propagandist on the tram platform is surrounded by many thousands of workers and city paupers. The huge audience is carefully listening to speakers under open skies and following their words. The actors who give their shows on "movable stage" meet grateful and attentive spectators.

The actors from the Revolutionary Satire Theatre under the direction of Comrade Razumny who gave their performance on the platforms of the agitation tram had experienced that yesterday.

The dressed sketches dedicated to the Polish invasion, attacks of Yudenich, Kolchak, Denikin, Revolutionary verses, the duet of Poland and Petliura, the humorous rhymes dedicated to the war and the latest news were a great success and the audience rewarded the actors with a storm of applause».


The prominent party and government figures such as Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, Lev Sosnovsky, Bakinsky etc. spoke from the agitation trams.

Many Muscovites considered the tram as a feature of live in their city. Vasily Lebedev-Kumach, the revolutionary poet, gave a nice epithet to tram: "It was flashing in blue". In fact many Muscovites remember a beautiful blue tramcar as a part of that disturbed time.

The agitation trams worked from time to time during the subsequent years of the Civil War. The last tour of the agitation trams included all major squares of the city and was conducted on May 1, 1922. The tradition was supported in the subsequent years. It was recollected whenever the city celebrated any remarkable events such as the First City Day in 1988, the 50th Anniversary of Victory in the Second World War etc.

Some recovery in the tram economy took place in spring and summer of 1920. Over 100 trams trains ran in the mid summer. However the number was highly insufficient. The overcrowding of the working tramcars reached 185% but no capital repair was possible till the end of the Civil War.

The Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) could not begin to solve the transport problems till 1921 when the situation both in the country and the city started to show some signs of improvement due to the NEP (New Economic Policy). But the military communism was reigning the country till late 1920. The tram payment for workers and office employees was abolished in September of 1920. Despite the passenger tram traffic was suspended in the city, the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) was forced to arrange the special passenger fixed route trains to deliver workers to/from their work during morning and evening peak hours.

The route tram traffic had become regular on weekdays since December 1, 1920. The workers and office employees, who submitted special certificates with visas of the City Railways Department issued under the list of the enterprises and institutions submitted to the Department Traffic Service, were entitled to use trams for free. There were eight lettered tram routes. The trams were mostly used by workers of major plants.

777 passenger motor tramcars and 309 trailers were in the inventory in December of 1920. 571 motor tramcars and 298 trailers were idle. The tram services were in a sad state. No restoration of the city tram was possible without taking some drastic measures. The basic decision made by the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) was to start capital and other periodic maintenance of the tramcars at the Sokolniki Wagon-Repair Plant. It started working in December of 1920.

1910s. Presnensky tram depot (now Krasnopresnenskoe tram depot):

oldmos

1919. Monument to the First Soviet Constitution (Statue of Liberty) on the Soviet Square (now Tver Square):

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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:19 PM   #3449
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From devastation to a new benchmark (1921-1922)

The Civil War had not finished yet, when the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) took the decision to start recovery work for the Moscow Tram. In the mid-February 1921, the conference of tram network employees was held in Moscow. More than 150 representatives of tram enterprise were chosen to attend the conference. The conference declared and enthusiastically adopted the guidelines for the restoration of the tram sector. The appeal adopted by the conference ran as follows:

«Rise to fight against tram devastation!
To all Moscow tram workers and employees!
Dear Comrades!

We, who you elected representatives of local committees, tariffs-and-rates commissions, and other technical staff, communist cells and the trade union, convened by the Moscow Council Presidium to discuss all the necessary measures to be taken for the most rapid restoration of the tram, have stated that the situation is rather grave. Of the total amount of 802 motor tramcars, 320 trailers, on the go there are: 180 motor tramcars, 45 trailers and 110 cargo platforms. However, the said negligibly small amount of tramcars fails to be in satisfactory condition: it was long ago that they underwent complete overhaul, and they are kept operational owing to insignificant day-to-day repairs. Meanwhile, extremely hard transport circumstances in Moscow compel us to pay more and more attention to the use of tramcars to transport fuel, foodstuffs and other cargoes.

Having started to transport firewood for power stations in small amounts last year, trams now transport up to 49 million kg of cargo per month. We appreciate that under the present hard conditions we have been able to perform such a great amount of work, having facilitated fuel and foodstuffs delivery from railway stations and warehouses to working areas of consumption.

On the other hand, we should mention that Moscow workers find themselves in tough conditions as there is no passenger traffic. Hard housing conditions prevent plants and factories from lodging their workers in living quarters nearby. In addition to that, the best houses are situated in the centre of the city far from plants and factories. Our Comrades, Moscow workers, have to travel a long way round the city every day, and thus they weaken their strength and energy that should be aimed at manufacturing.

The small amount of tramcars we have produced fails to meet the demands. We must transport up to 300.000 workers and for that purpose we should manufacture up to 200 tramcars per a tram route.

We have thoroughly discussed the aforesaid matters and resolved unanimously that the said amount of tramcars, with some effort, could be produced by the summer, along with the development of freight traffic. We have adopted a number of steps aimed at tramcar restoration, and in the first place they include the necessity to immediately start capital repairs of tramcars. For that purpose, we plan to expand capital repairs at the Sokolniki Plant to the amount of 50 tramcars; orders for tramcar repairs amounting to 100 tramcars have been given to the Mytishchi, Kolomna, Tver and other plants.

At the same time we have stated the necessity to repair electrical equipment and air brakes. Part of the aforesaid equipment has been transferred to "Dynamo" Plant. Having adopted the production programme for 1921, our meeting have put forward a number of measures to improve materials and fuel supply of stocks and repair shops and to improve workers' living conditions.

Regrettable phenomena in this sphere should be noted as well. Cases of electric bulbs loss in the tramcars, cutting off straps and wires, etc. are frequent with us. Such attitude to national property should not be allowed. We believe that workers themselves will take measures against those irresponsible people who discredit the revolutionary environment of tram network employees.

We call on You to do your best to fulfill the scheduled programme. Our work is important for all workers, the whole population of Moscow. We must restore transport within the shortest period of time under the circumstances of serious devastation».


The aforesaid appeal was published in the newspaper "The Communist Labour" ("Kommunistichesky Trud") on February 19, 1921.

Constructive labour was initiated and Moscow tram network workers started to actively work at the restoration of their disrupted industry. There is no doubt that the "New Economic Policy" (NEP) implemented by the state facilitated the process.

In the spring of 1921, the Sokolniki Wagon-Repair Plant and workshops of Miusy tram depot started to perform complete overhaul of tramcars. The current repairs of tramcars were carried out in the workshops of Miusy, Presnensky, Zamoskvoretsky, New Falconers and Bukharin tram depots.

In 1921, manufacture of switches and frogs was set up on the basis of Kropotovsky track maintenance service repair shops (the former Andreyevsky horsecar depot), which further on started to produce thermite for welding of rail joints. As the tram development progressed, these repair shops were transformed to Thermite-and-Switch Plant that serviced not only the Moscow Tram. Mytishchi Plant near Moscow, Kolomna Plant and the Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod ("Gomza" group of plants) started to completely overhaul tram cars according to the order of Moscow. Electrical equipment was sent as a package for overhaul repairs to "Dynamo" Plant in Moscow.

In April 1921, tramcars started to operate along 9 routes in the city. There was still no tram fare for workers and employees. But the time of NEP (New Economic Policy) arrived and all over Moscow people started to discuss commercialization of tram traffic. Workers and employees could use the tram free of charge during the rush hours only, from 7:00 am to 10:00 am. and from 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm. At other times tram fare had to be paid. Other Moscow citizens had to pay fare to use the tram.

The transfer from the age of "military communism" and rationing system resulted in recovery of the city economy, plants and factories started to work; trams became an indispensable part of the city life. Proceeds from tram fare charged from a small part of the citizens who did not enjoy free pass were used to increase salaries of the main categories of workers. Efficiency salaries were introduced in tram depots. The said measures created incentives for tram network regular workers to return to tram enterprises and facilitated the recovery of tram traffic in the city at the pre-war level.

This is how vividly one of the regular workers of the Moscow tram network E. Eismond, who worked in the electrical transport network in Moscow from 1909 to 1946, describes those times in his reminiscences: «Having returned after the war, I faced total devastation in my New Falconers tram depot: the whole depot looked as a graveyard of tramcars, and only 30-32 tramcars were used along the lines, but those were not suitable for operation from the point of view of their operating conditions as the tramcars had no safety nets, had only one buffer, had broken windows, broken steps, etc.; the staff of employees was so numerous but all of them did nothing. The Chiefs were afraid to say that work must be performed, for they would be immediately dismissed as exploiters. Middle staff (foremen) behaved as loudmouths as well, etc.

So I presented myself before the management, they were glad: a fresh person arrived and might be helpful. I went to the workers department that is local labour committee, which, as it turned out, admitted front-line soldiers at the general meeting of workers. So the meeting started and the candidacies of front-line soldiers and mine as well were discussed. After I have told them about myself, and having listened to my detailed story about my work in Miusy tram depot, in Uvarov tram depot, and in New Falconers tram depot as a foreman, they asked me to go out of the hall. The discussion started. They voted for or against my being a foreman. I heard many people say that they were for that. But there were those who were against. They said: "He is very strict, he won't suit us". But the majority of people voted for. That is how I was hired for the second time during the revolutionary period.

I started to work; I got acquainted with the state of affairs and the workers. I noticed that a team of workers did not do anything except sitting and telling fairy tales and other teams did the same. I walked around to inspect what faults the tramcars had. By the end of the day, the team leaders handed in papers to specify what had been done during the day. Much had been written, but the inspection revealed that almost nothing had been done, and if something had been done, it had been done carelessly, with flaws.

I watched the situation during a week and came to a conclusion that the style of work should be changed, for what existed was total nonsense. However, every evening there was a discussion: Bolsheviks proved their point of view, Mensheviks and Socialists-Revolutionaries proved their point of view, and nobody worked. Some measures should be undertaken: there are fewer and fewer tramcars operating along the lines, and the tram graveyard in the tram depot was getting larger and larger.

Then I met the former electrician of the Uvarov tram depot Timofey Kamenkov. He became a prominent employee and said that only piece-rate system could be helpful under the circumstances. After the conversation I thought: neck or nothing. We would introduce the piece-rate system at our depot ourselves. I had previously talked to some clever people (foremen and team leaders), and mentioned the harmfulness of the situation. After the Revolution we became the owners but ruined production. Of all 500 tramcars only 30 or 40 operated along the lines and those were "cripple".

So we decided to make a job list for all idle tramcars, and in the course of repair to preliminary estimate every part of work; and what cannot be immediately assessed should be estimated according to the agreement after the work is completed. The procedure to accept the tramcars after repairs was changed as well: now the repaired tramcar was accepted as a package by the acceptance committee and only after the acceptance procedure the documents for payment of the work were executed.

In this way we introduced piecework pay in relation to all the jobs, and in a year or two the Tram Department realized that piecework pay facilitated the growth and established a group of rate-setters. They inspected the commonest types of work and fixed the rates. It should be noted that there occurred a number of unpleasant things, but as they say, the time had its effect. So it happened this way. Those who had shouted at the meetings that it was important for them that the Revolution should exist, and production was a minor question had gradually become cleverer, for among the workers there were those who took a sober view of things, that is those who understood that if production stagnated, the Revolution would not benefit, as the revolution itself would not give anything without production.

As the piecework pay was introduced in relation to all types of work, the output of operating tramcars started to grow at a very quick rate, and the quality improved».


Nowadays, after many years had passed, after Muscovites had lived through "perestroika" and "transition to new economy", the aforesaid words seem to be most up-to-date.

The process that had started in October 1921, when all the divisions of the Moscow tram network were transferred to commercial self-repayment system, made it possible to significantly increase the number of employees in the Moscow Tram, in 1922 there were already more than 10.000 employees.

The output of passenger tramcars was rapidly growing. In March 1922, the output of passenger tramcars to operate along the lines amounted 61, and in December it was already 265 tramcars.

Starting from January 1, 1922, free tickets were no longer given to workers and employees. The amounts allocated by the enterprises for free transportation of workers and employees were included in their salaries, and since that time all passengers started to pay fees for the use of the city transport, if we do not take into consideration the present situation when there are more than 50 categories of persons entitled to a benefit and using the city transport free of charge.

In February 1922, tram passenger traffic existed along 13 tram routes, and it was already regular and of constant nature. Starting from the mid-1921, the freight traffic lessened as tram freight rates were rather high and the reviving industry started to actively use the emerging independent automobile transport. The sign of reviving trams was their permanent work along the tramlines, there was need for tram traffic at night. Starting from April 1922, night tram traffic was resumed. For the first time after a few years of standing idle, in the autumn of 1921, the repairs of the tram track was started; and in the spring and summer of 1922, rails along more than 9.6 km of the tram track were replaced.

In the spring of 1922, traffic at pre-war networks was actively revived: to Mary's Grove, to Kaluga Outpost Square (now Gagarin Square), to Sparrow Hills, along the whole Garden Ring, to Dorogomilovo outskirt. The transport situation in the city was tense owing to the growth of industry and revitalization of enterprise construction. For the first time during so many hard years, the city found strength and resources to start construction and electrification of the number of tramlines. In the summer of 1922, the line of steam-driven tram from Butyrskaya Outpost to area of Petrovsko-Razumovskoe was electrified, the line from Petrovsky Palace to Vsekhsvyatskoye village (modern Sokol cooperative settlement) was built. Those were the first passenger tramlines built after the Revolution and the Civil War. They marked a new stage in the life of the Moscow Tram – a new benchmark: the stage of formation and transformation of trams to the main passenger transport in the capital.

Recurrent repairs of tramcars was organized in tram depots, during 1922, Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) carried out complete overhaul of 40 motor tramcars and 4 trailers. The general atmosphere in the country facilitated development of the tram network in the city. The city economy started to be managed by experts.

Engineers returned to their posts. In September 1922, engineer Alexander Gerbko, who graduated from St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, was appointed to the post of the City Railway Manager, in pre-Revolutionary times he was the head of New Falconers tram depot and Zamoskvoretsky tram depot. After the war, skilled experts returned to tram depots, to SVARZ plant to the Traffic and Current Service. It helped a lot to solve the emerging tasks.

Undoubtedly, one of the crucial factors making it possible to improve the transport situation was the decision of the city authorities to increase 1.5 times the salary of the tram employees. The importance of tram employees' work for solution of the city social problems was appreciated by new city authorities.

New names of tram depots appeared during the aforesaid post-war times.

Starting from August 1921, New Falconers (Sokolniki) tram depot got the name of doctor-pediatrician Ivan Rusakov (1877-1921) – participant in the October Revolution of 1917 and one of the leaders of Sokolniki organization of the Bolshevik Party. He was killed on March 18, 1921 during suppression of the Kronstadt Rebellion and was buried on the Red Square in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.

In November 1922, Uvarov tram depot got the name of the former locksmith of this tram depot Ivan Artamonov (1899-1918) – participant of October fights of 1917 in Moscow. He was killed in action during Civil War.

Starting from September 1923, Zamoskvoretsky tram depot was named after Pyotr Apakov (1887-1919), the former tram driver of this tram depot, the one who arranged a famous strike of tram network employees in 1915, participant of October fights of 1917 in Moscow, who perished during implementation of surplus-appropriation system in the Saratov Governorate.

In November 1925, Miusy tram depot was named after Pyotr Shchepetilnikov (1880-1909), the former locksmith of this tram depot, participant of Moscow Uprising of December 1905, organizer of tram network strikes.

In Moscow, the year when the Civil War was over marked almost complete restoration of the Moscow tram network, passenger and freight traffic occurred almost along the whole pre-war network, the length of the tram network increased. However, the output of tramcars had not yet achieved the pre-war level; passenger traffic showing was a little more than half of the pre-war one.

At the same time, the quality of service left much to be desired. At that time, the newspapers continued to stress: «The tram traffic emerged along with tram scandals... overloaded tramcars languish, tramcars are battered, the railway bed, rails, switches are being destroyed; "Hanging men" spoil buffers, break off grids, the tramcars are crowded, people jam into the tram while boarding, there are lots of rowdies and thieves.

And what is important - our tramcars are a kind of exhibition displaying how national property should be destroyed, how thriftless we are in the fourth year of the Soviet government and how the economy should not be managed. Red Moscow demonstrates extreme outrage to every visitor and to its citizens...»
("The Communist Labour" newspaper of May 28, 1921).

Therefore, there were a lot of problems to be faced by the capital tram network, and the numerous Moscow tram network personnel had to solve them.

During the long five years, which comprised the whole historical era - two Revolutions, the Civil War, post-war devastation, commencement of the NEP - Moscow Tram lived through hard times and withstood the test of time, they proved to be demanded by the people, and they helped the people to overcome hardships in their own way.

Moscow tramcars in the episodes from Soviet comedy film "The House at Pipe Street" (1928, director - Boris Barnet). The song "Moscow" (1995) performed by Russian rock band "Mongol Shuudan". Its music was written by lead singer of band Valery Skoroded on the lyrics of great Russian poet Sergey Yesenin (1895-1925):


Sergey Yesenin - "Yes! It's settled!" (1922)

Yes! It's settled! Now and for ever
I have left my dear old plain.
And the winged leaves of poplars will never
Ring and rustle above me again.

Our house will sag in my absence,
And my dog died a long time ago.
Me, I'll die without compassions
In the crooked streets of Moscow, I know.

I admire this city of elm-trees
With decrepit buildings and homes.
Golden somnolent Asian entities
Are reposing on temple domes.

When the moonlight at night, dissipated,
Shines like hell in the dark sky of blue!
I walk down the alley, dejected,
To the pub for a drink, maybe, two.

It's a sinister den, а harsh and roaring,
But in spite of it, all through the night
I read poems for girls that go whoring
And carouse with thieves with delight.

Though I talk, all I say is quite а pointless,
With my heart pulsating so fast:
Just like you, I am totally worthless,
And I cannot re-enter the past.

Our house will sag in my absence,
And my dog died a long time ago.
I am fated to die with a compassions
In the crooked streets of Moscow, I know.


June 1922. Last trip of the steam-driven tram in Moscow. Solemn farewell near 5th Corps ("Farm") of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Petrovskaya Line of steam-driven tram was fully electrified on July 1, 1922. It was last non-electrified tramline in Moscow:

msk-timiriaz

The scheme of tram network in February 1922. Bold lines - operating tramlines; dashed lines - tramlines, operation on which was not resumed; blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-driven tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of tram network on December 1, 1922. Bold lines - operating tramlines; dashed lines - tramlines, operation on which was not resumed:

Click to enlarge
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:20 PM   #3450
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Main transport in the Soviet capital (1923-1934)

Termination of the Civil War, implementation of the "New Economic Policy" (NEP), other stabilization measures undertaken by the new authorities required solution of the tasks related to the public transport in Moscow. "Golden loan" shares were issued by the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) to develop the city economy. The shares were acquired by almost all the employees of the Moscow Tram. It was decided to use the funds received from the sale of shares to extend the tramlines, to repair idle tramcars, to buy new tramcars, to purchase equipment for tramcars, overhead contact system and substations.

The programme of construction of new tramlines was adopted at the plenary session of the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) on February 20, 1923. It mostly included laying of tramlines in the direction of Moscow suburbs: Rostokino, Chesmenka (present-day Tekstilshchiki District), Vladykino, Lefortovo, Vladmirsky community. The adopted programme of construction was meant for several years. Construction of new tramlines started in the spring of 1923. The work started from the construction of the tramline in Ostankino and the second track of the tramline to area of Petrovsko-Razumovskoe. In the summer of the same year, construction of Rogozhskaya tramline was started (from the Kursk Rail Terminal through Rogozhskaya Outpost Square to Humpbacked Bridge at Enthusiasts Highway).

In July 1923, inauguration ceremony for the new tramline leading to Ostankino settlement was held. It was very significant for the new Soviet government, as for the first time after a long break a new passenger tramline was put to operation. It was the evidence of government's strength and its efficient activity. It was at that time that the famous phrase was pronounced by "All-Russian headman" Mikhail Kalinin: "If trams operate in the city, it means that there is Soviet government in the city". That was why the inauguration of the aforesaid tramline was attended by Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Moscow Council Lev Kamenev and Chairman of the Moscow Communal Services Fyodor Lavrov.

The building season that started in 1923, resulted in putting into operation, during 1923, of 6 new tramlines with the total length of 37.2 km. Those included: Ostankino tramline, Rogozhskaya tramline, second tracks of tramlines to the areas of Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo and Petrovsko-Razumovskoe, Khamovniki tramline (from "Goznak" Plant to Khamovniki Embankment, now Frunze Embankment), Lefortovo tramline (from Razgulyay Square to Sinichka Pond), October tramline (from Petrovsko-Razumovskoe to Mikhalkovo), Cherkizovskaya tramline (from Transfiguration Outpost Square, now Transfiguration Square to Progonnaya Street). Moscow has not seen such expansion of tram network since 1912.

Meanwhile, Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) and "Gomza" group of plants enlarged the scope of overall reconditioning for the tramcars. And though "tram graveyard" had not been eliminated yet and some tram depots were idle, 75 motor tramcars underwent such repairs in 1923. Besides, SVARZ carried out recurrent repairs of tramcars. But it was still insufficient, and for that reason the Executive Committee of the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) decided to reconstruct SVARZ Plant and thus to provide for annual repairs of 1300 units of the rolling stock.

New tramlines were being built, and for that reason old tramcars had to be replaced and the number of rolling stock had to be increased. In the spring of 1924, the City Railways Department placed orders with "Gomza" plants to manufacture 60 BF two-axle motor tramcars and 15 four-axle motor tramcars for suburban lines. BF two-axle tramcars started to arrive in Moscow at the end of 1925, and KM four-axle tramcars appeared at the end of 1926.

Revival of all the spheres of diversified tram network is characteristic of the first post-war year 1923. During the year, rails were changed along the tracks of 30.3 km long; thermit welding of rail joints was mastered: 2325 joints were industrially thermit-welded; 196 pairs of tram switches and 362 frogs were laid again.

New station-pavilions were built near the Smolensk Market, on the Taganka Square and Fire Watchtower Square (now Komsomol Square), near Peasant Outpost Square and Ilyich Outpost Square, that was now the name of Rogozhskaya Outpost Square. Such term as "hostel" for workers appeared for the first time in the system of the city railways, two hostels were built: in Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo and Petrovsko-Razumovskoe. As the tram network developed, it became necessary to design a network of turnover rings. Thus, in 1924, turnover rings were constructed in Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo, on the Lenin Hills (now Sparrow Hills), at Lenin Settlement Street (former Simon Settlement Street).

During the building season in 1925, 4 tramlines were layed and tram traffic was started along them: Izmaylovo tramline (from Semyonovskaya Square to Izmaylovo menagerie); Lenin tramline (from Saratov Square, now Pavelets Square to AMO plant, now ZIL automotive plant); Vladimir tramline (from Humpbacked Bridge along Enthusiasts Highway to Dangauer settlement); Danilovskaya tramline (from Danilovskaya textile manufacture along Warsaw Highway through village of Lower Kotly to Upper Kotly village).

In November 1925, Kolomna Plant completed the Moscow order and delivered 10 BF two-axle motor tramcars. Their structure differed little from pre-Revolutionary tramcars of "F"-series. They also had uniaxial bogies of Becker system. However, the tramcar saloon did not have a roof "lantern" (small superstructure with low window glass on both sides) and was equipped with two roof fans. That's why it was called "BF" ("Besfonarny", what means "Without lantern").

Moscow, as well as the whole of Russia, started life afresh. And so did the tram employees. By the next anniversary of the October Revolution in November 1925, restoration of Ryazan tram depot at New Ryazan Street was completed. This tram depot was abandoned in 1918, and after 7 years, on November 7, 1925, tramcar "graveyard" was eliminated, tramcars were repaired and started to operate along the tramlines.

Presents on the occasion of the anniversary of October Revolution will become a good tradition. For that reason another present should be noted: in the Apakov tram depot (the former Zamoskvoretsky tram depot) - locker-rooms with showers and bath, recreation rooms were opened for workers.

A developed network of tramlines operated in Moscow. During financial year of 1924/1925, Moscow trams transported 393.7 million passengers, having thus achieved the highest pre-Revolutionary level (1916). The hardest years could have been reckoned past, but the city had considerably grown, and service could not have been further improved without increasing the rolling stock and putting it into operation. Venomous "tram" true stories by Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov, Mikhail Zoshchenko refer to that period of time.

The following is the description by Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov of a tram ride in Moscow at those times: «...There are, 28 seats in the tramcar, six seats are at the back platform, speaking to the driver is prohibited, go ahead, it is spacious there - that is, consequently, 245 people in various fanciful positions...»

The people are totally different: «...Look at this one in a smart sweatshirt, the one, who is reading "Rabis" magazine. Or here is a house-painter with a brush wrapped in a newspaper? And here are 2 girls frightened by pushing and elbowing men and women? And men and women, who have already started their usual quarrel about who wears a hat, who is a "fool" and who is "a fool himself/herself"?...»

A tram quarrels is a usual topic of satiric stories of those times. In the famous satirical novel "The Little Golden Calf" (1931) Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov write: «An old woman eager for revenge started quarrel early in the morning when people went in crowded tramcars to their places of work.

All the passengers of the tramcar were gradually involved in the quarrel, including those who appeared there half an hour after it had all started. The wicked old lady had left the tram long time ago, and nobody could say what the reason for the quarrel was, but people were still shouting and exchanged abuse, and more new people got involved in the quarrel. It continued like this till late at night».


At those times tramcars were overcrowded, especially during the rush hours. Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov describe the situation as follows: «Tramcars are fiercely attacked. People waiting in a queue for the tram are on the warpath. And the only reason for the tramcars to remain intact is the miracle. Moscow Tram cannot provide service for all who need it, but it still operate. Tramcars are overloaded to the utmost, so that windows get broken; producing enormous noise tramcars drop off passengers near huge buildings..., institutions which directing the work and life of the country». And more: «...300 people forced to embrace one another go by tram on business. For sure, they exchange remarks, shout something from their places; moans and groans are heard everywhere, and, finally, you can hear the desperate voice of the conductor, who suddenly started to produce poems: "Go, citizens, ahead, stand between the benches».

The formidable tram conductor is the character of lots of satiric stories of those times, for example Seryoga (Sergey) Vlasov – conductor from the story by Mikhail Zoshchenko "You should have no relatives", he forces his own uncle Timofey Vasilyevich pay the tram fare of 10 kopecks (0.10 rubles) for travelling two stations. Instead of saying goodbye Timofey Vasilyevich promises to shoot Serega for "forcing his relative pay 10 earned kopecks".

Trams became an indispensable part of Moscow life. Mikhail Bulgakov, who wrote serious books, could not pass without depicting peculiarities of Moscow at those times. In his greatest mystical novel "Master and Margarita" (1929-1940), he describes the conductor, when cat Behemoth tries to enter a tramcar, a famous Moscow "Annushka" ("Annie"):«...Ivan focused his attention on the cat and saw this strange cat go up to the footboard of an "A" tram waiting at a stop, brazenly elbow aside a woman, who screamed, grab hold of the handrail, and even make an attempt to shove a 10-kopecks coin into the conductress's hand through the window, opened on account of the stuffiness. Ivan was so struck by the cat's behavior that he froze motionless by the grocery store on the corner, and here he was struck for a second time, but much more strongly, by the woman-conductor's behavior. As soon as the woman-conductor has seen the cat trying to get on the tramcar, she started to shout, being in a frenzy of rage: "Cats are not allowed! Passengers with cats are not allowed!! Shoo! Get out, or I'll call the police!!!" Neither the woman-conductor nor the passengers were surprised by the heart of the matter: not just the cat trying to get on the tramcar, but the fact that he was going to pay!»

The vast digression was required to show that Moscow Tram could not survive further without new tramcars. And such a decision was taken. In the spring 1926, it was decided that new tramlines could be built only after there would be a sufficient amount of tramcars. Industry started to complete the orders of 1924-1925, and within three years, by November 1927, Moscow received 165 BF tramcars and 2 KM four-axle tramcars delivered by Kolomna Plant.

The first KM (Kolomna Motor Tramcar) experimental tramcars arrived in December 1926 and in March 1927. They had 4 engines with the capacity of 30 kW each, which made it possible to pick up the maximum speed of 45 km/hour at the straight flat parts of the route. There were 38 seats; entrance platforms could hold 12 standing passengers. The platforms were glazed on all sides, and the saloon had 12 side windows. Double-wing doors of the tramcar were shut by the driver or by the conductor. The engines of the said tramcars were made at "Dynamo" Plant in Moscow.

As the task to increase the amount of tramcars in the tram depots had been fulfilled, the tram network could be further developed. Perhaps, for the first time during the Soviet years, in April 1927, the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) adopted a task plan for the development of the tram network in the city according to the following order: at first it was planned to build 55.1 km of new tramlines before 1930, secondly it was planned to build 133.4 km of new tramlines before 1938. More than half of the tramlines planned at those times was built.

The first built planned line was the tramline from Abelman Outpost Square to New Horse Square along Greater Kalitniki Street. Tram traffic along the said route was started on the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917. The first stage of construction of new tram depot at Greater Kalitniki Street was completed at the same time, and it got the name of the October tram depot. Now there were 8 tram depots in Moscow, they provided passenger traffic, and among them there was a freight tram depot.

The inauguration ceremony of the new tram depot was attended by Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) Konstantin Ukhanov, Head of the Communal Services Department Fyodor Lavrov, Director of the Moscow Tram A. Butusov.

In 1927, the reconstruction of the Rusakov tram depot and Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) were started as well, Kropotovsky repair shops of the track maintenance service were converted to Thermite-and-Switch Plant, and second stage of the construction of the October tram depot was continued. Consequently, production basis of the Moscow Tram was improved and extended. The tram was the main kind of the urban public transport.

The average speed of tramcars was 13.6 km/h. In the summer and in the autumn of 1928, the Rusakov tram depot started to receive new four-axle tramcars. Starting from October 1928, there were 5 new high-capacity snowplows manufactured in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) at the "Red Putilovite" Plant (now Kirov Plant) by order of Moscow. In the autumn 1928, work was conducted to enhance the capacity of the existing substations: Philistine, Lubyanka, Red Pond and Falconers traction substations. A new substation was built in Vsekhsvyatskoye village (near present-day Metro station "Aeroport"), and for the first time two mercury-arc rectifiers were purchased abroad for the substation. At the beginning of 1929, there were 10 traction substations in Moscow.

By the commencement of 1929, along with the development of production and revival of the city life, the working time of the Moscow Tram were prolonged up to 1:30 am. That norm is used until now and is the sign of the active city life.

The city growth, the development of production and transport set unusual tasks for the city authorities. On the one hand, the problem of transporting citizens had to be solved, and on the other hand it was necessary to solve the problems related to rational arrangement of traffic along the city routes. The striking example of difficulty in talking consistent decisions is that the tram traffic along Tver Street from Passions Square (now Pushkin Square) to Triumphal Square was ceased. In the summer of 1929, there was a need in complete overhaul of the tram track along the said route, but in the course of the repairs it was resolved to cease the tram traffic along the route.

The traffic was ceased along the route due to the problem of the city traffic arrangement at Tver Street. The problem revealed another problem: the developing city needed other kinds of the urban public transport. Instead of trams, a great number of buses started to move along Tver Street; buses could not completely solve the problem of passenger traffic at the route, but they did not hinder street traffic. Tver Street was the first occasion of the implementation of the new policy by the city authorities to solve the problem of the public transport in Moscow and to replace the tram by other kinds of transport.

At the same time, to improve the conditions of the automobile traffic, the tram tracks and the tram traffic were shifted in the centre of the city at Kitay Driveway (now Kitay-Gorod Driveway), at the Sukharev Square.

Another reason for removal of the tram track in the city was the desire to preserve the historical centre of the city or to change the function of the central squares and streets. Moscow was the capital of the state, and Red Square became its symbol. In 1924-1930 Lenin's Mausoleum was built there. For that reason, the tramline was removed from the Red Square; the tram tracks were preserved only from the side of St. Barbara Street. It was the second "tram sacrifice" in the centre of Moscow, and simultaneously the tram traffic started to penetrate further on, to the suburbs of the city, where it was required.

Reconstruction of the central tramlines required railing along parallel directions. Thus, at the end of 1929 and at the beginning of 1930, tram tracks appeared at St. Barbara Street, Salt Street, Vorontsovo Field Street, Podkolokolny Lane, Vagankovo overpass, Grokholsky Lane and in other places. At the same time, there appeared tramline leading to Vladimirsky community along Enthusiasts Highway, Fili tramline, tramlines to Lower Kotly village and to "Ugreshskaya" railway station.

Thus, the history stipulated the development of the tram network for a long time: removal of tramlines from some places, and simultaneous construction of tramlines at other places in new directions.

As the tramlines grew and the traffic volume enlarged, it became necessary to expand the basis and increase the rolling stock. At last, the industry completed the orders of the Moscow tram employees. BF and KM tramcars arrived in Moscow. Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) and Mytishchi Plant near Moscow started to manufacture trailers of "S" ("Sokolniki type") and "М" ("Moscow type") series. It was required to produce the aforesaid trailers as passenger traffic had considerably grown. At the beginning of 1931, three-car tram trains started to operate in Moscow.

By the beginning of 1931, there were more than 355 new BF two-axle tramcars and 95 KM four-axle tramcars in Moscow.

As the output of tramcars had grown and the network of tram routes had been developed, it was necessary to extend the network of traction substations. October and Lenin traction substations were launched to provide service to the districts along Leningrad Highway (now Leningrad Avenue); to the districts of Mikhalkovo, Mary's Grove, Lenin Settlement (the former Rogozhskaya Settlement) and in the district of АМО plant (now ZIL automotive plant). Other traction substations were reconstructed. During that period, work was conducted to enlarge and reconstruct the existing tram depots. Two tram sheds, workshops, storerooms and service premises were added to the main building, the range of tram tracks was extended in the Rusakov tram depot; reconstruction of the Apakov tram depot was started, workshops and other sites were put into operation in the October tram depot. The bricks that remained from the destroyed Cathedral of Christ the Saviour were intensely supplied to Krasnopresnensky tram depot and were used to build workshops that were added to the main building and included tool shop, joiner's shop, blacksmith shop, turnery, workshop for babbiting of outer thrust bearing, body shop.

Transport enterprise structure was improved. In 1927, the post of Director was introduced instead of the post of the Head of Tram Depot. Tram depots became independent enterprises.

In 1930, an experiment was conducted to combine the performance effort of two tram depots: the Shchepetilnikov and Krasnoprsnensky. It turned out that combining effort was not efficient; it resulted in the decline in the work quality and decrease in the main showing. In a year, merging of tram depots was recognized inefficient and was not applied any longer.

By 1930, mass unemployment was eliminated in Moscow; there was a need in qualified employees in tram enterprises, the employees who were able to operate complicated equipment of tramcars, tram tracks and energy supplying devices. To meet the demands, Technical School for Workers (RTSh) and Industrial-and-Technical Courses (PTK) were arranged within the system of Moscow City Railways Trust, which was now the name of the Moscow Tram.

The Technical School for Workers envisaged the improvement of general education and technical education in the sphere of tramcar structure, devices and equipment. Industrial-and-Technical Courses provided only advanced technical training. Engineering and technical personnel of the Moscow Tram was involved in the work of the Technical School for Workers and Industrial-and-Technical Courses as teachers.

Thus, the prototype of the Production and Training Center was created. The improved repairs technology of tramcars and equipment, the required provision of traffic and safety and accident prevention in the course of work performance resulted in the necessity to raise the level and skills of technical management, and in 1931, posts of Chief Engineers were established in the tram depots and Trust Services of MGZhD (Moscow City Railways).

The year 1931 is one of the most dramatic in the history of the Moscow Tram. Firstly, due to the fact that during that year the issue of the work of capital tram was considered thrice at the highest level: on February 23 at the meeting of the Moscow City Soviet and the Moscow Regional Soviet, in May and November at the meetings of the State Committee VKP (b) (All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks). Secondly, just during one year two enactments were adopted to eliminate the "break" of the Moscow Tram. Unfortunately, not all of the measures that had been planned were implemented, but the very fact that the performance of the Moscow Tram was discussed at the Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) in 1931 is very important.

Here is the assessment of the Moscow Tram performance given in the report made by Lazar Kaganovitch, who was the First Secretary of the MC VCP (b) (Moscow Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks)) at that time: «The work of the Moscow tram network is extremely intense... Until recently, tramcars were depersonalized: there could be up to 10 drivers operating one and the same tramcar. Nobody was in charge of the tramcar... Tram depots failed to work satisfactory. There was no self-financing scheme there... The Moscow Tram faced the task of reconstruction of its material and technical basis. The issue of making the tramcars more spacious and the issue of constructing two-storey tramcars should be considered right now.

This year we should start to resolutely extend the tram network in the suburbs. We adopted a resolution to expand tram tracks by 150 km within two years and to construct a new, third, ring road round Kamer Collegium Rampart. For that purpose three new bridges should be built over the Moscow-River... The tram and the bus cannot solve the transport problem, so the main solution to the present difficult situation shall be construction of the Metropolitan and insertion of railways running from the suburbs into the structure of the city».
("The Working Moscow" newspaper of June 4, 1931).

In accordance with the adopted resolutions, three-car tram trains operated along the most crowded routes of the tram network; centralized automatic switches were installed; tram road junctions were reconstructed at large squares: on the Dobrynin Square (now Serpukhov Square), Pipe Square, Peasant Outpost Square, Dzerzhinsky Square (now Lubyanka Square), Arbat Square; tram rails were changed on the most intense routes: Flower Boulevard, Gardeners Street, Vorontsov Street, Taganka Street, Bukharin Street (now Volochayevka Street) and Forest Street. In 1931, trams started to operate along the new tramlines: Shabolovka Street and Serpukhov Rampart Street; from Presnenskaya Outpost Square (now Krasnopresnenskaya Outpost Square) to Testov settlement; from Intercession Bridge (now Electricity Factory Bridge) through Popov Driveway and Rubtsov Lane to Falconers Outpost Square; along Fili Street and Red Barracks Street. That year the Moscow Tram received 350 new tramcars, all of them, except four, were trailers, as trailers helped to efficiently solve lots of city transport problems existing at that stage.

Resolutions of 1931 envisaged as well extension of the Apakov, Artamonov, Bukharin and October tram depots; construction of the new tram depot in the northern part of the city; construction of new traction substations near the Kursk Rail Terminal, at Kalyayev Street (now Dolgorukov Street), in the districts of Kolomenskoye and Fili. Part of the aforesaid work was fulfilled in 1931, in particular, reequipment of the Bukharin tram depot was completed, and it was enlarged to include 112 tramcars.

In November 1931, another tram depot was named after Bolshevik-revolutionary Nikolay Bauman (1873-1905) - Ryazan tram depot. Nikolay Bauman was a professional Russian revolutionary of the Bolshevik party. On October 31, 1905 he was beaten to death by the member of the reactionary Tsarist organization the "Black Hundred," a pogromist organization that specifically targeted, beat, and murdered Jews, during a revolutionary demonstration.

During the same year it was decided to expand freight transport. Even in November 1930, an independent group consisting of 22 freight cars was established, they were intensely used in summer to transport vegetables, firewood and construction materials. In the autumn 1931, 50 freight tram trains were made of 80 freight cars registered with different tram depots, and in March 1932, the specialized freight depot was established on the basis of the old electrical tram depot at Bashilov Street, where the majority of tram trains were placed. At the end of 1931, the inventory freight tram depot included 139 tramcars. Thus, it was possible to use freight tramcars to transport fuel, flour and bread, construction materials and soil. Tramcars were used in construction of the Metro, the Palace of the Soviets. Freight tramlines were constructed to lead to the objects: to bakery shops at Rampart Street and at Bovine Rampart Street: to the mill in Sokolniki District; to Gortop's warehouses; to "Svoboda" ("Freedom") and "Krasny Oktyabr" ("Red October") factories.

In 1931, the important arrangement to improve the Moscow Tram performance included qualification checks in respect of all tram drivers. Every tram driver got one of the three grades, or classes, as they are called now. The each grade corresponded to the level of the difficulty of route. The peculiarities of the route were taken into account: track profile, street traffic intensity, line capacity, etc. For the first time, strict internal rules for tram employees had been worked out and penalty time card was established for every driver. Having received three penalties, the tram driver was dismissed. The said rules were the prototype of the Railways Charter.

The tram network kept intensely growing during the aforesaid years and further on, during 1931-1934 about 100 km of tracks were put into operation: thus, in 1932 traffic was started along Ostapov Highway (now Volgograd Avenue) to the city slaughters, along Aviamotor Street, along St. Tryphon Street, from Sokol cooperative settlement to the Voykov Plant, along Rostokino line, along Izmaylov Rampart Street and Transfiguration Rampart Street, along Berezhkovskaya Embankment, along Rawhide locality, from Vorobyevka to "Mosfilm" studio; in 1933 – through Danilov Bridge along Lenin-Danilov line, along Koptevo line, along Lefort-Semyonovskaya line, along Sushchovsky Rampart Street to Butyrskaya Outpost, along 1st New Tikhvin Street (now Dvintsy Street), two-lane tram traffic was started over Crimean Bridge and Red Hills Bridge, from Lower Kotly to the settlement of the ZIS automobile plant (now ZIL automobile plant).

In 1932, after another structural reform, so-called "tram parks" in Moscow were called tram depots. Both terms were used for a long time as the tram employees got used to the new name for quite a long time. In St. Petersburg, for instance, "tram depots" were still called "tram parks". But it is not significant from the point of view of history. There was a demand in tram depots in Moscow. In 1933-1934, a new tram depot was built in Rostokino District. It was opened in August 1934 as a freight tram depot. The inventory of the freight tram depot at Bashilov Street was transferred there. At the end of 1933, reconstruction of the Apakov tram depot was completed.

According to the previous plans of 1933-1934, to supply electric energy to new tramlines and to increase the intensity of traffic, new traction substations were put into operation, they were equipped with modern mercury-arc rectifiers: Dangauer substation, Kolomenskoye substation, Kursk substation, Izmaylovo substation, Kalyayev substation, Ostankino substation, Timiryazev substation, Fili substation. It allowed an almost 2.5 times increase in the capacity of all traction substations in Moscow, but in some districts of Moscow there still was deficit of electric supply for trams.

Plan of Moscow (1925). Bold double lines - tramlines:

Link
CLICKABLE

The scheme of lines of the urban transport in 1925. Red lines - tramlines, blue lines - bus routes; black lines - railways:

Link

The scheme of tram network in 1928 (including tramlines in the Central part of Moscow in details). Bold lines - passenger tramlines; llllllllllllllllllll - tramlines for cargo transportation:

Link
CLICKABLE

Plan of Moscow (second half of 1929). Red lines - tramlines, black lines - bus routes:

Link
CLICKABLE

The scheme of tram network on October 16, 1931:

Link
CLICKABLE
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:21 PM   #3451
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Moscow tramcars in the episodes from the Soviet documentary film "Moscow" (1927, directors - Mikhail Kaufman and Ilya Kopalin). The musical suite "Time, Forward!" (1965) was written by great Russian composer Georgy Sviridov (1915-1998).
00:44 - 01:12. Moscow Ring Railway (now Moscow Little Ring Railway);
01:13 - 02:11. Fire Watchtower Square (now Komsomol Square) with Three Rail Terminals;
02:12 - 02:30. Red Gate Square;
02:31 - 02:52. Butcher Street;
02:53 - 03:01. Lubyanka Square;
03:02 - 03:21. Tver Outpost Square with Triumphal Gate;
03:22 - 03:38. Tver Street;
03:39 - 03:55. Passions Square (now Pushkin Square);
03:56 - 04:05. Old Crimean Bridge before total reconstruction of 1936-1938;
04:06 - 04:09. Moscow-River Bridge (now Greater Moscow-River Bridge) before total reconstruction of 1936-1937;
04:37 - 04:58. Red Square;
05:03 - 06:01. Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square) with Grand Theatre;
06:25 - 06:40. New tramlines in the Moscow suburbs;
06:50 - 06:58. Moss Street with Moscow State University:



1920s. F/N tram train in Moscow:

Руслан Измайлов

Two-axle trailer №1359 (constructed in 1914 at Bryansk Plant), tram route №34:

leha71

1922-1925. Tramline at Greater Tula Street:

oldmos

1925, Enthusiasts Highway. The mounting works at new tramline to Dangauer settlement:

oldmos

1925, Enthusiasts Highway. The straightening of track at new tramline to Dangauer settlement:

oldmos

1925, Enthusiasts Highway. The construction of new tramline to Dangauer settlement:

oldmos

1925, Enthusiasts Highway. The construction of new tramline to Dangauer settlement:

oldmos

1925-1935. New tramline in Dangauer settlement:

Книга Мосгортранс - 50 лет
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:22 PM   #3452
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1925, Izmaylov Highway. The construction of turnover ring of new Izmaylovo tramline:

oldmos

1925. The construction of tram switch at new Izmaylovo tramline:

oldmos

1925. The construction of new Izmaylovo tramline:

oldmos

1925, Izmaylov Highway. The installation of contact network of new Izmaylovo tramline:

oldmos

1925, Izmaylov Highway. The mounting of overhead line for new Izmaylovo tramline:

oldmos

August 16, 1925. The opening of new Izmaylovo tramline. "F" tramcars of Kolomna Plant - №320 (constructed in 1909) and №767 (constructed in 1912):

Книга Мосгортранс - 50 лет

1925, village of Lower Kotly near Catoire Highway (now Upland Street). The construction of new Danilovskaya tramline through village:

oldmos

1925, village of Lower Kotly. The laying of rails at Danilovskaya tramline:

oldmos

1925-1935, village of Lower Kotly. Danilovskaya tramline beyond Catoire Highway (now Upland Street):

oldmos

1925. The construction of new tramline:

Книга Мосгортранс - 50 лет

1925. "F" tramcar №334 (constructed in 1909 at Kolomna Plant) at Shcherbakov Street, tram route №14:

Книга Мосгортранс - 50 лет

1925, tramline at St. Lazarus Rampart Street (now Sushchovsky Rampart Street). The pavilion of tram stop "Mary's Grove":

oldmos
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:22 PM   #3453
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Moscow tramcars in the episodes from the Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929). The great director of this film Dziga Vertov (born David Kaufman) was the elder brother of filmmaker Mikhail Kaufman - the director of documentary film "Moscow" (1927) and chief operator of documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929). The song "Moskau" (2004) performed by German industrial metal band "Rammstein". In October 2010 US magazine "Entertainment Weekly" included "Man with a Movie Camera" into list of 12 Documentaries That Changed the World:


1924, "F" tramcar №237 (constructed in 1908 at Kolomna Plant), tram route "A" ("Annie"). The frame from Soviet comedy film "The Cigarette Girl of Mosselprom" (1924, director - Yuri Zhelyabuzhsky):

leha71

1926, "F" tramcar №639 (constructed in 1910 at Kolomna Plant), tram route №5. The frame from Soviet drama film "The Prostitute" also known as "Killed by Life" (1926, director - Oleg (Osip) Frelikh):

leha71

1926, "F" tramcar №231 (constructed in 1908 at Kolomna Plant) at Apakov tram depot, tram route "A" ("Annie"). The frame from Soviet documentary film "Forward, Soviet!" (1926, director - Dziga Vertov) which shows the work to restore economy and cultural institutions of Soviet capital in the postwar years:

leha71

1926, "F" tramcar №414 (constructed in 1909 at Mytishchi Plant) in Dangauer settlement, tram route №27. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Forward, Soviet!" (1926, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1926, "From the overturned tramcars - to new tramlines!". "F" tramcar №493 (constructed in 1909 at Baltic Plant in Riga) on Kremlin Embankment. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Forward, Soviet!" (1926, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1926, "From the overturned tramcars - to new tramlines!". "F" tramcar №493 (constructed in 1909 at Baltic Plant in Riga) on Kremlin Embankment. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Forward, Soviet!" (1926, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, BF tramcar №33 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant), tram route №13. The frame from Soviet comedy film "The House at Pipe Street" (1928, director - Boris Barnet):

Geka…

1928, BF tramcar №26 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant), tram route №15. The frame from Soviet comedy film "The House at Pipe Street" (1928, director - Boris Barnet):

Geka…

1928, BF tramcar №943 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant). The frame from Soviet comedy film "The House at Pipe Street" (1928, director - Boris Barnet):

Geka…

1928, BF tramcar №942 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant) at Theatre Driveway. Mikhail Kaufman in the frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "N" trailer №1321 (constructed in 1913) at Theatre Driveway. Mikhail Kaufman in the frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "F" tramcar №520 (constructed in 1911 at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod) at Theatre Driveway, tram route №4. Mikhail Kaufman in the frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, BF tramcar №811 (constructed in 1925 at Kolomna Plant) at Theatre Driveway, tram route №34. Mikhail Kaufman in the frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "F" tramcar №620 (constructed in 1911 at Mytishchi Plant) and BF tramcar №875 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant) at Theatre Driveway. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, BF tramcar №997 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant) at Theatre Driveway, tram route №34. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, BF tramcar №7 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant) and "N" trailer №1321 (constructed in 1913) at Theatre Driveway. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, BF tramcar №890 (constructed in 1926 at Kolomna Plant) on the Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square). The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "N" trailer №1354 (constructed in 1913) on the Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square). The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "N" trailer №1006 (constructed in 1906 at Mytishchi Plant) on the Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square), tram route №11. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "F" tramcar №504 (constructed in 1911 at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod) on the Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square), tram route №10. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "N" trailer №1256 (constructed in 1912 at Baltic Plant in Riga) on the Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square), tram route №10. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928. "F" tramcar №766 (constructed in 1912 at Kolomna Plant) on the Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square), tram route №11. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, BF tramcars - №937 (constructed in 1928 at Kolomna Plant) and №963 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant), tram route №4. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, two-axle trailer №1429 on the Sverdlov Square (now Theatre Square). The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "F" tramcar №596 (constructed in 1911 at Mytishchi Plant) at Eugène Pottier Street (now Greater Dmitrov Street), tram route №25. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, "F" tramcar №502 (constructed in 1909 at Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod) at Eugène Pottier Street (now Greater Dmitrov Street), tram route №18. The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1928, BF tramcar №897 (constructed in 1926 at Kolomna Plant) on the Passions Square (now Pushkin Square), tram route "A" ("Annie"). The frame from Soviet documentary film "Man with a Movie Camera" (1929, director - Dziga Vertov):

leha71

1929. Derailment of "F" tramcar №390 (constructed in 1909 at Mytischi Plant), tram route №12:

AlexSan
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:24 PM   #3454
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1928. The prototype KM tramcar №2001 with pantograph (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant) near Kazan Rail Terminal. It was delivered from plant into Bukharin tram depot where in 1927-1928 was held a trial operation of this tramcar:

Aviateur

1928. "N" trailer №1008 (constructed in 1906 at Mytishchi Plant) in Shchepetilnikov tram depot (now Shchepetilnikov trolleybus depot №4) at Forest Street:

Aviateur

1929. The first serial KM tramcars at Rusakov tram depot:

Aviateur

1929. BF tramcar and KM tramcar №2139 (constructed in 1929 at Kolomna Plant) on the Red Square, tram route №11. The construction of Lenin's Mausoleum (1924-1930, architect - Alexey Shchusev) at left side. This tramline was dismantled one year later:

Aviateur

Late 1920s. Great Russian architect Konstantin Melnikov (1890-1974) in front of his "Kauchuk" Factory Club at Plyushchev Street (built in 1927-1929):

Wikipedia
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:25 PM   #3455
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The end of monopoly and transfer to the outskirts (1935-1941)

At the beginning of 1930s, there were about 3.0 million citizens in Moscow. The overcrowded capital transcended its borders. The city was crowded. On October 21, 1930, Muscovites who hurried to the workplace saw a great number of counters on the crossroads of the most crowded line: Sokolniki (Falconers) District - Butcher Street - Arbat Street - Smolensk Square. Worried by the hardships of passenger traffic the city authorities carried on their survey of passenger flows.

The survey showed that the tram stopped 114 times that day. The reasons for the delay were different: narrow and curved streets, delays in traffic due to technical reasons and tramcar faults, etc. The tram moved slowly along narrow lanes, waited for hours in turns and got stuck in numerous traffic jams. Muscovites stood waiting at the stops, but they often had to go on foot.

Old indigenous inhabitants of Moscow were at a loss: during the latest years hundreds of tramcars appeared in the city streets additionally to those that had operated there in pre-war times, dozens of kilometers of new tramlines had been constructed and trams operated in places, where there used to be no traffic, and still the tramcars on their routes were overcrowded.

The conducted survey of passenger flows showed that tramcars now transported new passengers. It was not long ago that those passengers lived near Moscow outposts and knew only his or her street and court, where they lived for a long time. Now, when people became literate, industry started to work, real industrial giants appeared in the city, the Moscow citizen wanted to travel along the entire city: to concerts and conservatoires, libraries and theatres, and parks. Moscow citizens attended workers' courses and technical institutes, courses and schools. And the city transport in the capital, irrespective of its rapid development, could not satisfy the growing demand of the Moscow population.

In early 1930s, the tram was no longer the only kind of passenger transport in Moscow. On August 8, 1924, bus traffic started to operate in Moscow at the route from Fire Watchtower Square (now Komsomol Square) to Tver Outpost Square near Belarus-Baltic Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal). On November 6, 1933, the first trolleybus went from Tver Outpost Square near Belarus-Baltic Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal) to district of Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo - it was opened for passengers on November 15. However, new types of public city transport did not play an important role as yet. Thus, at the beginning of 1933, 364 buses went in Moscow along 24 routes, but passenger traffic by bus amounted to about 5.0 %, as buses provided service mostly to suburban passengers.

The city passenger transport in the capital failed to fully meet the demands of the growing Moscow population. It became clear that radical changes in the development of the public transport were required in the capital.

On October 3, 1931, "Mosmetrostroy" Trust was established in Moscow. The construction of the Moscow Metropolitan was declared a top-priority Komsomol project. "The Metro in the capital should be built by the whole country!" - That was the motto of the Moscow Metro builders. The motto was supported by the people, and though the country was at the peak of industrialization, the Moscow top-priority project was a prestigious one. People, whose profession was not connected with construction, worked as builders of the Metro, and they had to be taught how to do it. There were lots of those: textile workers, tailors, photographers and many others. Dozens of thousands put on tarpaulin dungarees and rubber boots, took spades and sledge hammers and started to build: "The best in the world Metro!"

The enthusiasm seemed to be made-up nowadays, but it was really so! The Moscow Metro was built in the hard circumstances and rather quickly. Much had been overcome. Labour in shafts and faces is very hard. Metro builders showered by water jets often worked up to their knees in water, they had no experience in this kind of construction. It was a really nationwide construction. Personnel of 540 industrial enterprises of the country participated in it including the workers from Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), Ukraine, Volga Region and other regions of the country. Among the volunteers who participated in the construction of the capital Metro were the employees of the Moscow Tram.

On May 15, 1935, the first Metro line was put into operation in Moscow. The regular traffic along the main line from Sokolniki District to Smolensk Square and along the line from Hunting Row Street to Crimean Square was a relief for tramlines along Butcher Street and Komsomol Square (the former Fire Watchtower Square). Muscovites were happy with the underground trains. It was really "the best in the world" kind of transport, that made it possible for the Muscovite living at those times say: "I will be there where it is required!".

Further destiny of Moscow Tram was finally specified in the summer of 1935 after the Metro was put into operation subject to the Enactment of the Sovnarkom (Council of People's Commissars) of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) "About the General Layout of the Moscow City Reconstruction". The Enactment envisaged the short-term development plan up to 1938 for the city passenger transport in the capital and the long-term one up to 1945. It was planned: «By the end of 1938, to increase the number of tramcars up to 2650, trolleybuses – up to 1000, buses - 1500, taxies - 2500. To built new passenger tramlines during 10 years - 400 km, including by the end of 1938 - 100 km.

Owing to the development of Metro, bus and trolleybus traffic in the centre of the city, to consider necessary to remove tram traffic from the most crowded streets and transfer it to the outskirts of the city. To put all the tram tracks within the city on a firm base: concrete and crushed-rock.

By the beginning of 1938, to built four new bridges over the Moscow-River to replace the old ones: Greater Stone Bridge, Crimean Bridge, Moscow-River Bridge, Red Hills Bridge. To raise the bridges: Mouth Bridge, New Saviour Bridge, the bridge of Belarus-Baltic Rail Terminal Railway».
("The Working Moscow" newspaper of June 11, 1935).

Having considered the matters related to the implementation of the general layout for Moscow development, the plenary meeting of the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) pointed out the following in its resolution: «The main drawbacks in the performance of the tram network are believed to be as follows: unsatisfactory quality of tramcar repairs carried out by SVARZ Plant and tram depots; putting into operation tramcars in bad repairs and untidy in their appearance; unsatisfactory condition of tramlines; irregular traffic; existing case of rude behavior of tram teams in relation to passengers; existing methods of tram switches manual operation; a very low level of track work mechanization (railing and track repairs), and work for tramcar repairs... The plenary meeting resolved...

...to implement the resolution of the Central Committee to relieve the intense traffic streets, this year, to start the removal of certain tramlines; to oblige the Tram Trust to remove tramlines from Kirov Street and 1st Philistine Street, from Gorky Street between Triumphal Square and Belarus-Baltic Rail Terminal during the third quarter, having previously prepared parallel tramlines to replace the removed ones along 2nd Philistine Street and along 2nd Brest Street and having changed the routes on the other lines so that there was no damage to the passenger service.

The plenary meeting resolved: by the 1st of January of 1936, to introduce strict timetable for the traffic, to review the payment scheme for tram drivers and conductors, to replace the existing tramcars by technically advanced ones; to improve the appearance thereof: to remove the rope alarm and to replace it with the electric one; to display under the glass, in all tramcars, the rules for the use of trams; to replace the sand basis under the rails with an improved one; to use electric welding of the worn parts of joints, frogs and switches».


Many of the arrangements planned by the Plenary Meeting had not been implemented, the thoroughness of the document can be argued, but it is obvious that new Moscow and Russian government had a strong desire to take into account all the details of passenger service. Even now, many years later, we are facing the same tasks of high-quality services: to display the rules for the use of the tram; to eliminate irregularity of the traffic; to tidy up the tramcars, and so on and so forth. Native inhabitants of Moscow remember that tram trains had rope alarm for a long time, up to the end of the 1950s, though engineer Dorin first implemented electrical alarm in the tram train instead of dragging the rope by the conductor to show that the tramcar starts moving or is going to stop, in 1931 at Krasnopresnensky tram depot.

In spite of all the hardships they faced, the Moscow tram employees worked courageously to provide quick, comfortable and safe service to passengers. But to try to work better and to work well are different things. That is why the Moscow tram employees are proud of their labour assessment by Muscovites during rather hard and dangerous times. In March 1935, Moscow Tram were recognized the best among 35 tram employees' teams in the Russian Federation. The jury of the competition awarded a prize to Director of the Moscow Tram Trust Z. Samoshkin, his Deputy N. Khlopyev, Director of the Artamonov tram depot Gusev, Director and Chief Engineer of SVARZ Plant Ya. Yeger and A. Litvinenko, tram driver of Krasnopresnensky tram depot Bendelovsky, conductor of the Artamonov tram depot Smirnova, switchwoman of the 8th line of the Track Service Medvedeva.

In June 1935, all line workers of the Moscow Tram started to wear new uniform, which was worn by all conductors, ticket-collectors and tram drivers. Personnel problems became urgent owing to the city growth and the necessity to use skilled labour force. The Moscow Tram could no longer be satisfied with the Technical School for Workers (RTSh). At the end of 1934, it was converted to the Production-and-Training Centre, which existed until now and still performs training of personnel for the whole system of the Moscow city passenger transport.

There was a demand for middle-ranking personnel. During the period of growing prosperity of the tram in the city, in September 1930, municipal technical secondary school was opened and after a few reforms in 1943 it was located in the historical centre of Moscow, at the territory of the former Khitrovo Market. The school still provides training of personnel for the city transport system in Moscow and numerous departments of "Moslift" system.

Along with the construction of the Moscow Metro and putting into operation new kinds of transport to help the tram such as: the bus and the trolleybus, tram traffic was actively removed during the same yeas. Thus, during three years, from 1935 to 1937, 116 km of tram tracks were removed in the central part of the city; new tramlines were simultaneously built to replace the old ones along bypass routes to the suburbs.

Tram traffic was ceased: at Arbat Street, 1st Philistine Street (now Peace Avenue), 3rd Philistine Street (now Shchepkin street), Kremlin Embankment and Moscow-River Embankment, Manege Street near the Bolshoi (Grand) Theatre, along Kitay-gorod, Greater Kaluga Street (now Lenin Avenue), Cannon Street and Dzerzhinsky Street (now Greater Lubyanka Street), Kalyayev Street (now Dolgorukov Street) and New Settlement Street, Sretenka Street, Orlik Lane and Dyakov Lane, Garden Ring, Greater Dorogomilovo Street and others.

New bypass routes appeared at that time along 2nd Philistine Street (now Gilyarovsky Street), Godless Lane (now Protopopov Lane), St. Nicholas Street, Swamp Embankment, Don Street and Exhibition Lane (now Academician Petrovsky Street), along Tikhvin Street, Sushchovskaya Street, Red Proletarian Street, 3rd Tver-Yam Street and Armourer Lane. Trams still ran to the suburbs: from Electricity Factory Bridge to Apothecary Lane, at 1st Red Cadet Driveway, from Transfiguration Outpost Square (now Transfiguration Square) through 1st Bogatyr Street (now Red Bogatyr Street) to Bogorodskoye settlement, from State Ball-Bearing Plant to "Kleituk" glue plant, from Upper Kotly village to work settlement of ZIS automobile plant (at present a district near Simferopol Boulevard).

It was a new era in the life of the Moscow Tram. The further history of the Moscow Tram also included intense removal of tracks and replacement of the tram with other kinds of transport. But the rapidity of such decisions taken by city authorities was not always justified. And the life experience proved that there was no actual benefit from the rapid replacement of the tram.

For example, trams removed from Garden Ring were replaced by a great number of "B" route buses. But at that time buses were not spacious enough and could not carry the great amount of passengers. Trolleybuses that appeared further on possessed the same qualities and could not equally replace a great number of three-car tram trains, which operated along Garden Ring with the interval of 40 seconds. Unreasonable removal of trams, and incapability of other kinds of ground passenger transport to carry the same huge number of passengers, resulted in a transport collapse in the central part of the city and in the northern part of Garden Ring and in the slump in the tram traffic volume. The city planning mistake was acknowledged by the city government, but it did not dare to restore the tram traffic in this part of the city because it was opposite to the general layout of the city reconstruction.

The reconstruction layout was used for quite a long time when a complicated problem had to be solved, and the solution was not always in favour of the transport.

Even the official media which mentioned the crisis of the Moscow Tram said it had occurred due to the mass removal of tram tracks. "The Evening Moscow" newspaper of September 27, 1936: «During the last few days there were tram traffic jams on the Sverdlov Square, near St. Elijah Gate, on Komsomol Square and Armourer Lane at the intersection with Kalyayev Street».

"The Working Moscow" newspaper of September 21, 1936: «Due to the reconstruction of Garden Ring, Gorky Street, Dzerzhinsky Street, Cannon Street and other streets, tram tracks were removed and transferred to other streets. In the last few days the tram traffic in a number of streets is rather intense. It happens due to the decrease in the length of the tram network by 30-35 km, and the number of running trams remained the same - 2200 tramcars. Besides, in September, as the school year begins, the number of passengers usually increases. It is noticeable now as the reduction of traffic in a number of streets made the traffic in adjacent roads more intense. Partial termination of traffic along some parts of Garden Ring resulted in the movement of passenger flows along the routes going through the center».

Removal of tram tracks from central streets resulted in the route rearrangement of the rolling stock operating along the tramlines. Consequently, the frequency of traffic in some transport nodal points became critical and failed to comply with the capacity of the nodal points. For example, 96 pairs of tram trains moved through St. Elijah Gate Square every hour, through Nogin Square (now Slavic Square) - 84 tram train pairs per hour, through Peasant Outpost Square - 102 tram train pairs per hour.

At the same time, those years included the intense mechanization of repair works, implementation of the modern technology in maintenance and repairs of rolling stock and track facilities, electricity supply system. With the lapse of time, traditional jobs of the tram network such as switchman, sweeper, etc. gradually disappeared. In 1936, 135 switch pairs were mechanized, automatic block systems were installed on 45 pairs, 21916 joints underwent thermite welding. Snowplow-tramcars started to be used to clean the track.

The whole country, and the Moscow tram employees as well, took an active part in the "Stakhanovite movement". The importance of the said movement can be argued but the spirit of competitiveness, having the formal character as it was, facilitated the achievement of positive results and promoted establishment of an industrious labour team. In May 1936, the tram employees arranged the "Stakhanovite decade", in June there was an All-Moscow meeting of tram employees – members of the "Stakhanovite movement", in November the "Stakhanovite half-month" was held. The aforesaid measures were aimed at the exact adherence to the timetable, struggle against accidents. Undoubtedly, the said measures enhanced employees' discipline and had positive effects.

In 1935, Moscow received last tramcars from Kolomna Plant and Mytishchi Plant near Moscow. These plants switched to production of more profitable items for the Metro and started to produce main track locomotives. Under such circumstances it became clear that tram network should manufacture its own tramcars. That is why Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) started to design and manufacture two first prototype four-axle motor tramcars of streamlined shape. The said tramcars were called "blue tramcars". It was called "blue" by poet Vasily Lebedev-Kumach and was implemented in practice.

On June 30, 1935, "The Working Moscow" newspaper wrote: «It will be an unusual two-car tram train. It is being built at SVARZ plant and should be completed by 18th anniversary of October Revolution. The tramcar body is of a streamlined form. Steps and handrails are in special recesses that are closed by mechanical doors.

So you are on the tramcar. At the back there are soft lengthwise seats, at the front part the seats are transverse. The aim of the construction is that passengers going on short distances should not stand in the front, but should leave the tramcar through the middle doors.

The tram stops. All passengers embarked. The conductor presses the button to signal that the tramcar is starting. But the tram train will start to move only after the tram driver receives the same signal from the trailer.

Rubber pads between the tramcar body and the bogie are used to reduce the level of noise. The working plan for the tram train has almost been completed. The working plan has been partially given to the workshops, which have already started to manufacture certain parts. On June 1, the plant starts to manufacture the hull frame. Electrical equipment is manufactured at the "Dynamo" Plant named after Sergey Kirov».


New "blue tramcars" were more spacious - 125 people in a motor tramcar and 129 in the trailer, the tramcar length was - 15000 mm, width - 2600 mm. The maximum speed was 55 km/h. Both the head tramcar and the trailer were equipped with 4 traction engines of 50 kW capacity. The tram train was designed in SVARZ construction department directed by engineers Stroganov, Malinin, Belkin. Two prototype tramcars were manufactured by November holidays in 1935.

On November 11, 1935, "The Working Moscow" newspaper wrote: «Two glittering with paint tramcars stood near the gate of the tramcar workshop of SVARZ Plant. It was a new sample tram train built at the plant. Final preparations for the first trial ride are made. Both tramcars of the tram train are motor and the hulls are streamlined. Big windows, soft seats, electric furnaces to warm up the tramcars, elegant electric lighting are meant for passengers' convenience.

There are 4 doors in every tramcar, one of those is the entrance door (double-wing), and other doors are exit doors. All the doors are automatically closed. It is done by the conductor, who turns the handle on a special control panel. The signal buttons for departure and emergency braking are on the same control panel.

The top of the tramcar is painted light grey, and the lower part is painted blue. The tramcar length is 15 m (instead 12 m of the existing four-axle motor tramcar). There are 53 seats in the tramcar. On November 4, Comrades Khrushchev and Bulganin visited SVARZ Plant. They examined the tramcars of the new sample tram train».


These tramcars were put into trial operation. Many structural drawbacks of electrical equipment and running gear were revealed in the course of the trial operation. Electrical equipment was soon forwarded to "Dynamo" Plant for improvement, and the bogie was improved by SVARZ Plant. Prototype "blue tramcars" facilitated the development of M-38 series tramcars manufactured by Mytishchi Plant before the Great Patriotic War.

Tram monopoly ceased when the Moscow Metropolitan, the main rival of the tram, was put into operation, but nevertheless the tram was a key transport means in the capital. Moreover, one of the largest tram enterprises in the world was situated in Moscow: 2712 tramcars operated in Berlin, 2610 – in New York City, 2473 – in London, 2472 – in Moscow. Tram network continued to develop. There was a demand in tram depots for the city.

On January 16, 1937, the Bauman tram depot (the former Ryazan tram depot) was transferred to Rostokino tram depot that had been built in 1934 and had been used as a freight depot. Now it was passenger and freight depot, and Ryazan tram depot was reconstructed and the 2nd trolleybus depot was established there. I. Ardonov was appointed Director of the Bauman depot, and B. Sobolev was appointed Chief Engineer.

In March 1937, the Bukharin tram depot (the former Golden Horn tram depot) was named after Sergey Kirov (1886-1934), a prominent early Bolshevik leader who was shot and killed by a gunman on December 1, 1934 at his offices in the Smolny Institute in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). His death was used by Joseph Stalin as a pretext to launch the Great Purge, in which about a million people were to perish as Stalin eliminated all past and potential opposition to his authority. As a result, Nikolay Bukharin (1888-1938), other prominent early Bolshevik leader, was arrested on February 27, 1937 following a plenum of the Central Committee and was charged with conspiring to overthrow the Soviet state. Bukharin was tried in the Trial of the Twenty One on March 2-13, 1938 during the Great Purges and was executed on March 15, 1938.

Anti-tram campaign of the mid-1930s that took place in Moscow and resulted in termination of many tramlines also included purges of staff. Many tram employees, who received awards for their good work two years ago, were strongly criticized, all drawbacks in the work of tram network were imputed to them, and their entire activity was acknowledged subversive. The era of unexampled persecution in the country influenced the Moscow Tram.

In the middle of 1937, Moscow printed media included articles of persecution related to the management of the Moscow Tram Trust. It was provoked by the open letter written by steelmaker of Moscow Metallurgical Plant "Serp i Molot" ("Sickle and Hammer") A. Rychagov to Chairman of the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) Nikolay Bulganin. At that time NKVD (People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs) discovered "subversives and public enemies" at many enterprises and in all cities and districts of the country. The basis for the accusation was inability, incapacity of the local authorities to solve many economic tasks; blunders and mistakes made by the aforesaid authorities to solve the issues of the city economy.

In particular, in 1935, the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) demanded that the Moscow Tram Trust should start mass write-off of the old two-axle trailers of Nuremberg type without simultaneous change of the rejected rolling stock. In May 1937, the said unreasonable requirement became one of the main charges against the management of the Moscow Tram Trust: Head F. Rosenplatt and Chief Engineer N. Khlopyev.

They were charged with an intentional write-off of old, but useful for operation, tramcars of the said type, wrong methods of track repairs, disorganization of tram traffic. Lack of skill in solution of vital issues, changeable, unreasonable and inconsistent instructions adopted at the highest level, desire for shoving aside responsibility were the real cause of persecution. On May 20, 1937, the Plenary Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Moscow Council (Moscow Sovier) acknowledged the work of the Moscow Tram Trust managers F. Rosenplatt and N. Khlopyev unsatisfactory. The reply letter of Nikolay Bulganin to steelmaker Rychagov said: «...Persons in charge of the tracks in the Moscow Tram were most strongly criticized. Bad condition of the tram tracks caused accidents during this year, which were extremely numerous in spring. The managers of the Moscow Tram Trust remained calm, irrespective of the fact that such infamous and inadmissible events took place; it is impossible to understand.

The Moscow Tram management failed to carry out plan-prophylactic repairs well and in organized way, it allowed oversimplification of new tram track construction (weak base; laying of sleepers without impregnation, etc). It is natural that due to such actions the track economy deteriorated.

Another large drawback in the tram performance is the failure to stick to the timetable. Traffic according to fixed timetables is not provided mostly through the fault of tram employees. The network of tram tracks in the central part of the city was reduced, but it was planned to preserve all the previously existing direct lines going through the centre, and it required well-defined arrangement of tram traffic... To improve the performance of the Moscow Tram, the following has been planned and partly implemented: to provide for precise observance of the timetable from March 1, 1937, new system of payment was introduced for tram drivers; their performance is not only checked at the terminus stations, but in intermediate points as well.

To avoid accidents caused by bad condition of tram tracks, this year it is planned to perform large-scale repair works to essentially improve the track network. To provide for proper condition of the tram tracks, this year, tracks after capital repairs will be railed on solid concrete base. Such bases are to be made at Herzen Street, Maroseyka Street, Moss Street, Sverdlov Square. Besides, this summer, restoring repair of other lines 40 km long will be carried out».
("The Working Moscow" newspaper of May 24, 1937).

In June 1937, managers of the Moscow Tram Trust F. Rosenplatt, N. Khlopyev, N. Fomin, and also numerous employees of tram depots and the Track Service were repressed by NKVD authorities "for breakdown of tram economy".

On July 23, 1937 "The Moscow Transportnik" newspaper wrote: «Enemies of the people acting in the Moscow Tram Trust have been unmasked. The black hand caused serious damage to our city transport. They destroyed electrical-and-track economy, rolling stock, caused accidents and incidents. They hindered implementation of advanced technologies in the city transport system.

It could only have happened due to the fact that a number of party and professional organizations of the city transport relaxed their Bolshevik's vigilance. Brain-dead disease – carelessness, lack of consideration, lack of attention to workers' warnings, lack of connections with people facilitated unpunished work of wreckers, that is why the district council of Tram Employees' Union overlooked the work of the enemies operating in the Moscow Tram Trust... The Head of the Trust - enemy of the people - has been dismissed».


The authorities failed to possess necessary knowledge, neglected the necessity to undertake emergency measures to improve the public transport performance and undertook awful anti-tram actions, and explained their omission by farfetched reasons. Here is a striking example. "The Moscow Transportnik" newspaper on August 3 explained to its readers: «Koptevo substation that is frozen at present is a striking example of the work performed by Japanese-German spies, sworn enemies of the people unmasked in the Moscow Tram Trust».

For a long time in future, drawbacks in the tram performance will be explained as enemy's acts committed by German-Polish-Japanese spies working in the Moscow Tram Trust. This tragic episode in the history of the Moscow Tram proves the previous statement: the Moscow Tram is the brainchild of the city and whole country.

However, life went on, irrespective of many sad events in history. Tram tracks were removed from main roads and were laid along the lanes and narrow streets parallel to the main ones. Such work was obligatory performed when tram tracks were removed. There was no other way out, as neglecting the interests of the huge number of citizens provoked negative reaction, and it was impossible to unmask spies every year! The justified city building policy of "soft" removal of tram tracks and further replacement thereof by parallel directions will exist for a long time in the course of city transport development.

In this way, tram tracks parallel to Garden Ring were laid from Uprising Square (now Kudrino Square) to Crimean Bridge (through Druzhinnik Street, New Sand Lane, Ductal Lane, 1st Smolensk Lane, Plyushchev Street, Driveway of Maiden's Field, Leo Tolstoy Street and Miracle Street, now part of Komsomol Avenue). Traffic in new directions along roundabouts of Garden Ring was started at the beginning of October 1937.

Tram traffic was removed at Mozhaysk Highway from Dorogomilovo Outpost Square to the intersection with the ring railway. Tram tracks were as well laid parallel to the highway, and in August 1937 traffic was started there.

Those were two examples of right solutions of transport problems that frequently arise in the life of such big cities as Moscow.

Arrangements made to improve traffic flows played an important part in tram development. Thus, in 1937, additional passing tram tracks were constructed on 10 turnover rings: "Kaluga Outpost", "Young Pioneers' Stadium", "Bogorodskoye", "Central Park of Culture and Leisure", "Bauman Square", "Dangauerovka", "Izmaylovo", "Testov settlement", "Ball-bearing", "Maiden's Field".

In 1937, 26.0 km of new tram tracks were laid. Reconstruction of track network was widely implemented; it included the use of concrete base. Unfortunately, further on, different types of concrete base proved to be inexpedient for railing, as concrete base resulted in higher level of noise, and the failure to adhere to the technology of concrete base laying, which frequently occurred, resulted in premature wear of tram tracks.

In 1937, Moscow industry started to provide active support to the Moscow Tram. It occurred due to the fact that party authorities that had unmasked "the spies of Japanese and German imperialism" set forth the directions for the improvement of the tram network performance. In the autumn of 1937, Moscow Metallurgical Plant "Serp i Molot" ("Sickle and Hammer") started to manufacture cast switches and spare parts for tram tracks by order of the Moscow Tram Trust. The tradition lived on until the late 1970s.

Moscow continued to search for ways to improve passenger service. Moscow became the city of visitors, the number of transit passengers dramatically increased. The night tram trains to provide transportation of the aforesaid passengers and their luggage appeared in Moscow. These tram trains ran between Komsomol Square (near Three Rail Terminals) and Square of Belarus Rail Terminal (now Tver Outpost Square). Night tram traffic was started along Boulevard Ring and Rail Terminal Ring.

The late 1930s in Moscow were marked by the active fulfillment of the capital reconstruction plan. New bridges were built over the Moscow-River and Yauza River. Tram tracks were laid over the said bridges. Tram traffic was temporarily suspended over the said bridges. New tram tracks were laid on the Greater Mouth Bridge, Greater Stone Bridge and Little Stone Bridge, Greater Red Hills Bridge and Crimean Bridge.

New tramlines were constructed in pre-war years, they lead to Novogireyevo settlement, from Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo to Shchukino village, from present-day "Izmaylovskaya" Metro station to 6th Park Street, from Koptevo District to the Voykov Plant, from Lower Kotly village to Nagatino village, from Danilov Bridge along the embankment of Moscow-River to Lenin Settlement, from Podkolokolny Lane along Astakhov Lane (now Сhorister Lane) to Salt Street. Tram tracks were transferred from the right side of Yaroslavl Highway to the left side. During 1938-1939, 60.4 km of new tram tracks were built.

Moscow attached great importance to establishing and opening of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VSKhV), that now is All-Russia Exhibition Centre (VVTs). It was opened on August 1, 1939. To provide service to passengers during the working days of the exhibition, measures were taken to timely build a new tram passage and station near the main entrance (now the North entrance) to the territory of the exhibition. All the ways to the Exhibition were built and put into operation in the middle of July 1939, and tram traffic along the new tramline to the main entrance (now the North entrance) started on the opening day – on August 1, 1939. Every hour 100 tramcars arrived to the entrance.

The beginning of 1940 was severe. Bitter frost and snowfalls resulted in hard working conditions in tram depots. During Epiphany frost, lots of tramcars could not operate along the tramlines. Windscreens were covered with thick ice, lubricant was frozen. In February, blizzard raged for three days without stopping. Snowplow-tramcars operated on the tramlines but they could not cope with snowdrifts. 500 workers were involved in cleanup task.

On April 19, 1940, the 40th anniversary of the Moscow Tram was celebrated, though the anniversary itself occurred in April 1939. On April 20, 1940, the Moscow tram employees' newspaper of those times "The Moscow Transportnik" wrote: «Yesterday in Pillar Hall of the House of the Unions, the capital public celebrated 40th anniversary of the Moscow Tram... About 2000 tram employees, representative of party and Soviet organizations of Moscow, attended the ceremonial meeting.

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Moscow Soviet Comrade Pronin opened the meeting and spoke about the great attention paid by the party and the government to the development of the tram in the capital. Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Mikhail Kalinin spoke at the meeting; he was cordially welcomed by the audience. The meeting sent a message of greetings to Joseph Stalin and Vyacheslav Molotov».


On the occasion of the tram network anniversary, the best employees of the Moscow Tram Trust were decorated with orders: traffic controller from the Artamonov tram depot D. Terekhov, tram driver of the Bauman tram depot T. Babichev, head of the track service I. Yerokhin, head of the traffic service S. Blinov.

In July 1940, the entire country started to work 8 hours a day and 7 days a week. It stipulated forever the working hours of the tram trains in the capital. The first tramcars started to operate along the route at 5:30 am and finished work at 02:00 am. The said schedule had been preserved until now. However, there were certain special tram routes that operated at night (routes "G" and "N").

During 1935-1940, the network of terminus tram stations extended significantly. During these years were built such end-stations as: "Dangauerovka" (now "Enthusiasts Highway"), "Fighter Plant", "Fili", "Voykov Plant", "Kaluga Outpost", "Vladimirsky community", "Ball-Bearing Plant", "Kursk Rail Terminal", "Testov settlement", "Ugreshskaya", "All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VSKhV)", "Novogireyevo", "Maiden's Field", "New Horse Square", "Nagatino", "Lenin Settlement". Many of the aforesaid constructions exist now as terminus stations of public transport.

By the end of 1930s, there was a necessity to change the rolling stock. Half of the tramcars were not only worn, but obsolescent. Development of tramcar construction in the world included the rise in the level of comfort and safety of transportation. PCC (Presidents' Conference Committee) streetcar appeared in the USA; it was of superior comfort, with a ride control, and provided for the high velocity of transportation. This streetcar had automatic control system. Meanwhile, tramcars built in 1907-1909 with essential structure drawbacks still operated in Moscow.

In the middle of 1930s, Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) designed and manufactured 4 prototype "blue" tramcars. They had to be improved after the trial and serial production thereof had to be started. However, SVARZ Plant, which was overloaded with production of trolleybuses for Moscow and complete overhaul of tramcars, could not fulfill that important task.

In the spring of 1938, Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant, that used to manufacture "M"-series two-axle trailers for Moscow, was entrusted with the task of the tramcar serial production.

It was decided that the new model would be based on "blue tramcars" manufactured by SVARZ Plant in 1935-1936. Unlike prototype "blue tramcars" the new tramcar of М-38 series was designed as a single tramcar. It was planned that Mytishchi Plant would manufacture 100 such tramcars in 1938. However, the plans were not implemented because the plant had many subcontractors. Quick launching of new models in production was not their aim. The main difficulties were experienced by Moscow "Dynamo" Plant as electrical equipment of the "blue" tramcars failed to comply with the requirements of the operatives and was not accepted by them. The plant had to launch production of new traction engines.

Engineering design of М-38 tramcar was adopted only in May 1938. Overall dimensions of the new tramcar differed from the existing tramcars. That is why it was resolved to check the dimensions along the routes where the new tramcars would operate. Such maintenance check of track dimensions was performed in May 1938.

Two "blue" tramcars were run in along parallel neighboring tracks in one direction. Thus oversized places were revealed on some curves along the tram routes. Those were tram nodal point at the intersection of Kapelsky Lane and 2nd Philistine Street (now Gilyarovsky Street), Kropotkin Street (now Prechistenka Street), Lubyanka Driveway, St. Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Street. It was the first precedent when it was necessary to decide what was more important for the city: a good tram or essential one-time costs of the construction and reconstruction of streets, lanes, squares and embankments. It should be mentioned, that in many cases the tram didn't became the priority.

The first sample of М-38 tramcar arrived from Mytishchi Plant in November 1938 to the Bauman tram depot and underwent trial along route №17 from Rostokino District to Pipe Square. On 17 and 27 November 1938, the Moscow Soviet's newspaper "The Moscow Transportnik" wrote about the event: «The first soundless tramcar of a streamlined shape and with pantograph has been received in Moscow from Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant. The tramcar is well-equipped. There are 53 soft seats in it, three doors - two exit doors and one entrance door. The doors open automatically by compressed air. The average operating speed is 22 km/h, maximum speed is 55 km/h. At present, the new tramcar is under engineering checkup, and then the trial will start».

«The first soundless blue tramcar appeared in the streets of the capital. It is of streamlined shape and has been built by Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant. Every night a group of experts of the Moscow Tram Trust operates it in the course of trial runs in order to reveal road performance of the new tramcar. The blue tramcar has already operated during several runs to Ostankino. Soon it will run in the daytime along tram route №17».


Running tests of М-38 tramcar revealed a number of structural and technological drawbacks and Mytishchi Plant proceeded working to eliminate the said drawbacks.

By the end of 1939, the Bauman tram depot included 43 М-38 tramcars, which were still called "blue tramcars". The plant continued work to improve the structure thereof, and at the beginning of 1941, the tram depot received 17 more М-38 tramcars of the enhanced design. Unfortunately, the war suspended the output of the tramcars. They will not be produced any longer. Muscovites could see a lot of such tramcars along the tram routes of the Bauman depot for quite a long time.

In 1938-1941, the Bauman tram depot was reconstructed due to the arrival of the new tramcars. A special section for "blue" tramcars was made.

New developments and innovations appeared in enterprises. Starting from 1937, electric alarm was gradually installed on the tram trains to substitute the old rope one; the tramcars were equipped with heater-frames to prevent freezing of windscreens; tram trains were equipped with mechanical windscreen wipers. Design department of SVARZ Plant headed by V. Stroganov developed the project for modernization of tramcars of F, BF, KM, S, KP series in the course of complete overhaul at the plant. It included: equipping the tramcars with pneumatic door drive, reequipping of entrance platforms and steps, mounting of high-power headlights, dismantling doors and platforms on the left side, etc. Modernization of tramcars started in 1940.

From 1935 to 1941 the number of traction substations increased from 22 to 28, the rated capacity increased from 82.0 thousand kW to 97.4 thousand kW. The substations that were put into operation during the said years included: Krasnopresnenskaya substation, Cherkizovo substation, Butyrskaya substation, Kotlovskaya substation, Exhibition substation, Rzhev substation. Motor-generator sets were gradually replaced by new mercury-arc rectifiers.

In 1936, Bogorodskaya traction substation was completely automated for the first time in history of the Moscow Tram, personnel of the substation was reduced; it was operated from the central control located on Komsomol Square. In 1940, construction of three more traction substations started - Saratov substation, Dzerzhinsky substation, Vladimirskaya substation - but with the onset of war they were frozen and built only in the end of the 1940s.

The Moscow Tram continued to perform the orders of the city to transport cargoes, which were traditional: grain, flour to mills and bread-baking plants, compacted soil and waste from city construction sites, sand from sandpits. But different tasks arose in the course of freight transportation. The city was under active construction: Moscow Metropolitan was being built, Palace of the Soviets, All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VSKhV), new bridges were under construction. There was a need in transportation of special metal structures. SVARZ Plant built 8 special-purpose trains consisting of trailers with cargo capacity of 50t. Using them "Gormost" could transport metal girders of Crimean Bridge, Red Hills Bridge and Greater Mouth Bridge. Metal structures were delivered from the "Gormost" base to the construction site of the Palace of the Soviets.

Industrial giants were growing, machine-tool industry developed. Freight tramlines connected "Stankolit" ironworks with machine-tool plants "Red Proletarian" and the Ordzhonikidze Plant. In 1938, the freight tram started to fulfill the orders of confectionery factories "Bolshevik" and "Red October". During the same year, brickworks involved the freight tram in transporting the production thereof. Though the freight tram depot was gradually reduced in number, it continued to provide service to the city; it was still needed.

During the five years from 1935-1940, freight service increased by more than 2 times and in 1940 amounted to 897 thousand tons. By the beginning of 1940, the freight tram depot in Moscow included 67 motor tramcars and 86 trailers.

However, the development of freight transport ran against certain organizational obstacles. At the same time, taking into account a relative inexpensive cost of cargo tram transportation, at the beginning of 1941, the Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet) adopted a special resolution to considerably extend freight tram service. For that purpose, it was decided to restore Butyrsky freight depot, modernize and renovate the rolling stock, mechanize loading and unloading operations. It was planned to build in 1941 10.5 km of new freight tramlines, including those leading to the South Freight Port railway station, to freight railway station "Moscow-Paveletskaya", to alcohol and vodka distillery, tube-casting plant, to bread-baking plants at Rampart Street and Golden Horn Street, to metallurgical plant "Serp i Molot" ("Sickle and Hammer"), Cheryomushki brickworks. The onset of war accelerated the development of freight transport. Unfortunately, material and technical basis of the freight tram was not changed in any significant way. And the development occurred mostly due to the enthusiasm of Moscow tram employees.

At the end of 1940, there were 53 tram routes in Moscow, of all 540.7 km of tram tracks - 456.8 km were used for passenger traffic: 67% of all tracks were laid on a sleeper-and-sand and sleeper-and-bar bases. 143 (of 1419) automated switches were in operation, 259 equipped with automatic block system.

In November 1938, Vladimir Khimakov became the Head of the Moscow Tram Trust; he worked in this capacity until 1943. Then for a long time he worked in the system of the Moscow Passenger Traffic Department, and retired in 1971, having left the post of the Deputy Director of the Department. It was he who directed the work of the Moscow tram network during the hard times of the Great Patriotic War, and then solved complicated problems related to the arrangement of traffic of the ground passenger transport in the capital.

The last article about work of Moscow Tram in peacetime was published in the "The Moscow Bolshevik" newspaper on June 17, 1941. There have been written: «The Moscow Tram is the veteran of the city transport in the capital; it is still very important, it transports the bulk of passengers amounting to 70%. The workload of the tram network is 7.5 million passengers per a kilometer in two-lane traffic terms. Right arrangement of tram traffic is of great importance under the circumstances. However, the Moscow tram employees lack work culture. The tram traffic schedule in 1940 was fulfilled by 64.5%, and in the first quarter of 1941 by 76%. The percentage of tram trains return to the depot and late arrival on the line due to technical faults is rather high. The aforesaid things impair passenger service.

Unsatisfactory performance of the Moscow Tram occurs in first place due to the absence of the firm technical policy of the Moscow Tram Trust in the sphere of traffic management. The traffic controllers are actually those who fix and watch, but fail to manage the traffic. In Moscow there is actually no unified tram traffic management: it is scattered among different sheds and tram depots».


Moscow tramcar in the episodes from the Soviet drama film "Volunteers" dedicated to the first Metro builders (1958, director - Yuri Yegorov). It clearly shows why the construction of the Metro has become important goal in 1930s


1932, demonstration at Butcher Street dedicated to beginning of Metro construction in Moscow. The portrait of Lazar Kaganovich (1893-1991), the supervisor of Metro construction:

cocomera

1932. The agitation banner at Hunting Row:

oldmos

1932. The agitation banner in the nighttime:

opera78

1932. Moses Square (now Manege Square):

oldmos

1933-1934. The construction of the first Metro line at Red Pond Street:

Link

1933. The construction of Moscow Metro at the Dzerzhinsky Square (now Lubyanka Square):

Izus67
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:26 PM   #3456
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May 14, 1935. The speech of Soviet leader at the solemn meeting dedicated to the end of first stage of Moscow Metro construction:



May 15, 1935. The opening of Moscow Metro named after Lazar Kaganovich:


The scheme of first Moscow Metro stations (built in 1931-1935):

cocomera

May 14, 1935. The frame from newsreel - demonstration of workers at Gorky Street (now Tver Street) one day before opening of Moscow Metro. The building of Moscow Council (Moscow Soviet, now Mayority of Moscow) at right side:

oldmos

May 14, 1935. The demonstration of workers at Gorky Street (now Tver Street) one day before opening of Moscow Metro. The inscription on the poster - "Yes, we have Metro!":

metrostroy

May 14, 1935. The demonstration of workers on the Soviet Square (now Tver Square) one day before opening of Moscow Metro. Hotel "Dresden" on the background:

oldmos

Late-1930s. Tramline near entrance pavilion of Metro station "Sokolniki" ("Falconers"), which is considered the first Metro station in Soviet capital:

cocomera
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:28 PM   #3457
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"The Song About Metro" (1950) performed by Mariya Mironova (music - Arkady Ostrovsky, lyrics - Naum Lobkovsky):


The scheme of lines of the urban transport in 1935. Red lines - tramlines, blue lines - bus routes, green lines - trolleybus routes, black lines - railways:

Link

The scheme of tram network on September 1, 1935 (including tramlines in the North-Eastern and Central parts of Moscow in details). Bold lines in the Central part - double-track tramlines, thin lines in the Central part - single-track tramlines:

Link
CLICKABLE

The scheme of tram network and Metro lines on December 15, 1936. Bold lines - Metro lines, thin lines - tramlines:

Link
CLICKABLE

The scheme of tram network on December 15, 1936 (including tramlines in the North-Eastern and Central parts of Moscow in details). Bold lines in the Central part - double-track tramlines, thin lines in the Central part - single-track tramlines:

Link
CLICKABLE
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:29 PM   #3458
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The scheme of tram network in January 1938:

Link

The scheme of bus and trolleybus routes on December 1, 1938. Bold lines - bus routes, dashed lines - trolleybus routes:

Link
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The scheme of tram network and Metro lines on December 1, 1938. Bold lines - Metro lines, thin lines - tramlines:

Link
CLICKABLE

The scheme of tram and trolleybus routes in March 1940. Red lines - tramlines, green lines - trolleybus routes:

Link
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:30 PM   #3459
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Brief summary of the development of Moscow Tram in the interwar period (1923-1941)

Interwar period became the golden time for the development of Moscow tram network In 1918 quiet provincial Moscow returned its capital status, which formerly belonged to St. Petersburg during more than 200 years. During 23 years (1918-1941), its population grew in few times. There were two reasons for this. The first reason was process of mass migration from the lands devastated as a result of Civil War. In addition, Collectivization of agriculture started in the villages in 1928. As a result, many people were forced to leave native villages and move to the cities for finding work and food. The second reason was enlarging of Moscow after neighboring territories were included into capital area. It was happened in 1917, 1930, 1935 and 1939. The population of Soviet capital was 1.028 million residents in 1920, 2.020 mln. - in 1926, 3.642 mln. - in 1936, 4.137 mln. - in 1939. Thus, the population increased on two million people (in two times) just during 13 years (1926-1939).

For this reason, there was big demand for transportation of this people. There began active living construction and opening of the new plants and factories, the former Moscow outskirts and suburban village turned into workers' settlements. In addition, as a result of Soviet reforms, social activity of Muscovites also increased dramatically. Before Revolution, majority of passengers lived near Moscow outposts and knew only his or her street and court, where they lived for a long time. In Soviet times, when people became literate, industry started to work, real industrial giants appeared in the city, the Moscow citizen wanted to travel along the entire city: to concerts and conservatoires, libraries and theatres, and parks. Moscow citizens attended workers' courses and technical institutes, courses and schools.

After long period of stagnation caused by poor economic situation in the country during WWI and subsequent Civil War, active development of tram network began in 1923. There were put into operation hundreds of kilometres of new tramlines. Since 1928 began construction of new traction substations for tram network. From 1928 to 1941 the number of traction substations increased from 9 to 28, the rated capacity increased to 97.4 thousand kW. At same time, Soviet plants began production of the new models of tramcars to replace old ones. BF was first series of two-axle tramcars which began to produce in Soviet Union. Unlike pre-Revolutionary "F" tramcars, the tramcar saloon did not have a roof "lantern" (small superstructure with low window glass on both sides). That's why it was called BF ("Besfonarny", what means "Without lantern"). BF tramcars started to arrive in Moscow at the end of 1925. These tramcars were manufactured at Mytishchi Plant near Moscow, Kolomna Plant in Moscow Region and "Red Sormovo" Plant in Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky). Next year in Moscow appeared KM (Kolomna Motor Tramcar) four-axle tramcars manufactured by Kolomna Plant. In Moscow BF tramcars were written off only in late-1960s, KM tramcars - only in early 1970s.

To solve problem of insufficient capacity, motor tramcars operated with new types of trailers. In 1930 Kolomna Plant started to produce KP four-axle trailers for own KM motor tramcars. Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) in Moscow and Mytishchi Plant near Moscow started to manufacture trailers of S ("Sokolniki type") and М ("Moscow type") series. It was required to produce the aforesaid trailers as passenger traffic had considerably grown. At the beginning of 1931, three-car tram trains started to operate in Moscow. M-38 series of four-axle motor tramcars of streamlined shape (so-called "blue tramcars") was the last pre-WWII series of Soviet tramcars. The first four prototype tramcars were constructed by Sokolniki Repair and Wagon-Building Plant (SVARZ) in 1935-1936 and were later classified as M-36 tramcars. The serial production of M-38 tramcars was started at Mytishchi Plant, in 1938-1941 60 such tramcars were built for Moscow. Unfortunately, the output of "blue tramcars" was ceased due to beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The last M-38 tramcar was written off on July 19, 1979 and no one of "blue tramcars" was preserved till our days.

Despite of all efforts and significant extension of tram network, tramcars were not able to solve problem of transportation of passengers in the rapidly growing city as capacity of tramcars was limited. In 1927 it has been estimated that to solve this problem in 1930 time intervals between tramcars should to be 12 seconds in summer and 20 seconds in winter what was practically impossible. The passengers were forced to literally fight for the place in tramcar. The overcrowded tramcars as well as jostling, swearing and loutishness of passengers became signs of Moscow in the interwar period.

To solve this problems, city authorities tried to develop other kinds of urban ground transport. On August 8, 1924, bus traffic started to operate in the Soviet capital. On November 15, 1933, the first trolleybus route was opened in Moscow - it was first trolleybus system on the territory of Soviet Union. However, new types of public city transport did not play an important role as yet. The capacity of first models of Soviet buses and trolleybuses was not enough to replace tram routes. For comparison, capacity of first Moscow buses manufactured by British company "Leyland Motors" was just 28 passengers and first Soviet trolleybus LK-1 ("Lazar Kaganovich - 1") could carry only 55 passengers. At same times, nominal capacity of KM tramcar alone (without trailer) was 86 passengers. Thus, at the beginning of 1933, 364 buses went in Moscow along 24 routes, but passenger traffic by bus amounted to about 5.0 %, as buses provided service mostly to suburban passengers.

With time, problem of transportation of passengers became more actual. The first major transport collapse was happened in Moscow on January 6, 1931. In average, each passenger did 152 tram rides in 1914. This number greatly increased in Soviet times - 167 tram rides in 1924, 309 tram rides - in 1928 and 520 tram rides - in 1932. In 1934 annual passenger traffic reached maximum for whole 113-year history of Moscow Tram - 1.9193 billion passenger rides (5.26 mln. per day) - while population of Moscow was around 3.5 million residents. In average, each tramcar carried more than 700 thousand passengers per year.

To solve this problem, Soviet authorities started to realize another great project - Moscow Metro. Moscow Metro was built in 1931-1935 under supervision of prominent Soviet politician Lazar Kaganovich (1893-1991) and was named after him. It was opened on May 15, 1935. Comparing to tramcars, first Metro trains of "A"-type produced at Mytishchi Plant in 1934-1937 had greater capacity and were more comfortable for passengers. After opening of Moscow Metro there was started intense removal of tram tracks from the central streets and replacement of the tram with other kinds of transport. In particular, the famous tram route "B" along the Garden Ring, which was known among Muscovites as "Bukashka" (it can be roughly translated as "Beetle" or "Little Bug"), was replaced with trolleybus route "B" in 1936-1937. Trolleybus route "B" ("Bukashka") exist till today.

The reconstruction of Garden Ring and other transport magistrals was part of the General plan of the reconstruction of Moscow, which was made under leadership of Lazar Kaganovich and approved on July 10, 1935. During reconstruction of city in the interwar period, city authorities demolished such great landmarks and symbols of Moscow like Red Gate (in 1927), Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (1931), Kitay-gorod wall (1927-1934), Sukharev Tower (1934), Triumphal Gate (1936), Monastery of Christ's Passions (1937), Cross water towers (1940), etc. However, in that period there was built Moscow Metro, all the bridges in downtown Moscow were replaced with high capacity bridges, there were extended central streets and magistrals.

New tramlines were simultaneously built to replace the old ones along bypass routes to the Moscow suburbs. In early-1941, prior to beginning of Great Patriotic War, Moscow Tram remained the main kind of urban transport in Soviet capital. It transported the bulk of passengers amounting to 70%. At that time buses were not spacious enough and could not carry the great amount of passengers. Trolleybuses that appeared further on possessed the same qualities and could not equally replace a great number of three-car tram trains. Opened in 1935, Moscow Metro network had only 3 lines with 22 stations (total length - 23.4 km) prior to beginning of WWII and thus didn't cover large territory of city. That's why Moscow Tram continued to play major role for the transportation of people in Soviet capital.

Historical data (Year - Total length of tramlines - Average output of passenger tramcars - Annual passenger traffic):
1913 - 301.0 km - 782 tramcars - 290.823 mln. passenger rides;
1914 - 305.0 km - 835 tramcars - 319.179 mln. passenger rides;
1915 - 311.0 km - 923 tramcars - 382.230 mln. passenger rides;
1916 - 320.1 km - 877 tramcars - 395.741 mln. passenger rides;
1917 - 320.1 km - 670 tramcars - 288.903 mln. passenger rides;
1918 - 323.0 km - 593 tramcars - 236.491 mln. passenger rides;
1919 - 325.0 km - 330 tramcars - 71.148 mln. passenger rides;
1920 - 335.0 km - 202 tramcars - 23.640 mln. passenger rides.
1921 - 337.2 km - 282 tramcars - 27.597 mln. passenger rides;
1922 - 349.5 km - 434 tramcars - 160.513 mln. passenger rides.

Historical data (Year - Total length of tramlines - Total number of passenger tramcars - Annual passenger traffic):
1923/24 * - 383.1 km - 913 tramcars - 281.437 mln. passenger rides;
1924/25 * - 388.1 km - 954 tramcars - 393.729 mln. passenger rides;
1925/26 * - 394.2 km - 1052 tramcars - 467.681 mln. passenger rides;
1926/27 * - 395.1 km - 1209 tramcars - 523.278 mln. passenger rides;
1927/28 * - 408.1 km* - 1349 tramcars - 616.277 mln. passenger rides;
1928/29 * - 413.7 km - 1471 tramcars - 728.241 mln. passenger rides;
1929/30 * - 410.1 km - 1564 tramcars - 865.731 mln. passenger rides;
1930 - 423.2 km - 1610 tramcars - 278.241 mln. passenger rides **;
1931 - 441.4 km - 1871 tramcars - 1327.336 mln. passenger rides.

* 174.5 km by axis of streets;
* During 1923-1930, the annual financial statements of Moscow Tram were calculated for the so-called "financial year" or "fiscal year", which wasn't identical to the calendar year. Financial year became identical to the calendar year since 1931;
** Passenger traffic for the remaining months of calendar year 1930.

Historical data (Year - Total length of tramlines - Total number (Average output) of passenger tramcars - Annual passenger traffic):
1932 - 503.3 km* - 2234 (1918) tramcars - 1776.026 mln. passenger rides;
1933 - 529.5 km - 2549 (2187) tramcars - 1888.253 mln. passenger rides;
1934 - 538.0 km - 2475 (2175) tramcars - 1919.300 mln. passenger rides;
1935 - 535.0 km - 2472 (2235) tramcars - 1877.600 mln. passenger rides;
1936 - 514.9 km - 2440 (2212) tramcars - 1852.600 mln. passenger rides;
1937 - 514.9 km - 2362 (2166) tramcars - 1780.981 mln. passenger rides.

* 219.6 km by axis of streets;
* Record numbers in the whole history of Moscow Tram (1899-2014).

Historical data (Year - Total length of tramlines - Total number (Average output) of passenger tramcars - Annual passenger traffic):
1938 - 525.9 km - 2370 tramcars - 1778.468 mln. passenger rides;
1939 - 537.4 km - 2405 tramcars - 1840.691 mln. passenger rides;
1940 - 540.7 km - 2403 (2169) tramcars - 1841.564 mln. passenger rides.

THE REMOVAL OF THE TRAM TRACKS IN THE CENTRE OF CITY IN 1928-1940:
Thin dashed lines - tram tracks which were removed in 1928-1940;
Thin lines - old tramlines, which operated in 1940;
Bold lines - tramlines which were built in 1934-1940;
Bold dashed lines - tramlines which were built in 1934 and were later removed;
15.IX.36 - dates of the opening of tramlines;
l 15.IX.37 - dates of the closing of tramlines.

Link
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The scheme of tram network on June 20, 1941 (including tramlines in the North-Eastern and Central parts of Moscow in details):

Link
CLICKABLE
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Old April 25th, 2014, 05:30 PM   #3460
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1926. "Million people read it every day. Advertising on the tram is cheap and rational". Bureau of advertisements (author - Dmitry Bulanov):

Link

1925. "Books on all branches of knowledge". The famous promotional poster of "Lengiz" (Leningrad branch of the State Publishing House). Author - Alexander Rodchenko:

Link

1924. "The muse of Russian avant-garde" Lilya Brik (1891-1978), famous photo for advertising poster (photographer - Alexander Rodchenko):

rosphoto

Alexander Rodchenko in 1926 (photographer - Vitaly Zhemchuzhny):

Link

1926, tramcar at Butcher Street. The one of famous unusual shots of the great Soviet photographer Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956):

oldmos

1926. Demonstration. The one of famous unusual shots of the great Soviet photographer Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956):

Ysh

1927, Sukharev Tower. The one of famous unusual shots of the great Soviet photographer Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956):

oldmos
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