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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:48 PM   #3581
geometarkv
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April 1985. Track measuring KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 of the Rusakov tram depot:

Павел В. Кашин

April 19, 1987. Tram Repair Plant, KM tramcar in the process of restoration:

Владимир Валдин

September 27, 1987. KM tramcar №2170 at the terminus stop "Cheryomushki" with old pavilion:

Александр Шанин

September 27, 1987. KM tramcar №2170 at the terminus stop "Cheryomushki" with old pavilion:

Александр Шанин

September 27, 1987. Saloon of the KM tramcar №2170. During restoration, the number of passenger seats was increased for the convenience of the holding of excursions:

Александр Шанин
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:48 PM   #3582
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September 27, 1987. KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) and Tatra T3SU tramcar №5397 (constructed in 1983) at the terminus stop "Cheryomushki" with old pavilion:

Александр Шанин

September 27, 1987. KM tramcar №2170 at the terminus stop "Cheryomushki" with old pavilion:

Александр Шанин

September 27, 1987. Clean Ponds Boulevard. Tram excursion from Metro station "Kirovskaya" ("Sergey Kirov"), now "Chistye Prudy" ("Clean Ponds"), to the Cheryomushki District:

Александр Шанин

September 27, 1987. KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) and Tatra T3SU tramcar №3487 (constructed in 1983) at the Apakov tram depot:

Александр Шанин
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:49 PM   #3583
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May 7, 1988. KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) and Tatra T3SU tramcar №2141 (constructed in 1976) at the Apakov tram depot:

Владимир Валдин

May 1989. KM tramcar №2170 at the Apakov tram depot:

Владимир Валдин

May 1989. KM tramcar №2170 at the Apakov tram depot:

Владимир Валдин

June 1992. Greater Poluyaroslavtsev Lane:

Павел В. Кашин

June 1992. Hospital Rampart Street near Lutheran funeral home at the west entrance to the German Cemetery:

Павел В. Кашин
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:50 PM   #3584
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June 1992. KM tramcar №2170 on the Pavelets Square:

Павел В. Кашин

June 1992. KM tramcar №2170 at the Apakov tram depot:

Павел В. Кашин

September 1999. KP trailer №2556 at the Bauman tram depot:

ИванИванов

July 28, 2000. Museum site at the Bauman tram depot, KM/KP tram train №2170-2556:

Vladislav Prudnikov

July 28, 2000. Museum site at the Bauman tram depot, KM/KP tram train №2170-2556:

Vladislav Prudnikov

September 22, 2000. Museum site at the Bauman tram depot, KM/KP tram train №2170-2556:

саша птмз
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:50 PM   #3585
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MAY 24, 2003. THE FILMING OF MOVIE "DADDY" (2004, DIRECTOR - VLADIMIR MASHKOV) BASED ON THE PLAY "MATROSSKAYA TISHINA" ("SEAMAN'S SILENCE STREET") BY ALEXANDER GALICH (WRITTEN IN 1958, SET IN 1988).

May 24, 2003. Yauza Boulevard:

Vladislav Prudnikov

May 24, 2003. Yauza Boulevard, Kotelnicheskaya Embankment Building on the background:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Yauza Boulevard:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Yauza Boulevard:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Yauza Boulevard:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Yauza Boulevard:

Артём Светлов
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:51 PM   #3586
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May 24, 2003. Metro station "Chistye Prudy" ("Clean Ponds"):

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Metro station "Chistye Prudy" ("Clean Ponds"):

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Metro station "Chistye Prudy" ("Clean Ponds"):

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Metro station "Chistye Prudy" ("Clean Ponds"):

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. The bogie of the KM tramcar №2170:

Артём Светлов
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:51 PM   #3587
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May 24, 2003. Dubinin Street, view from the opened window:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. The control post of the KM tramcar №2170:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. The control post of the KM tramcar №2170:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Saloon of the KM tramcar №2170:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. The lamp in the saloon:

Артём Светлов
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:52 PM   #3588
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May 24, 2003. Volochayevka Street:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Volochayevka Street:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Volochayevka Street:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Volochayevka Street:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Volochayevka Street:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Volochayevka Street:

Артём Светлов
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:52 PM   #3589
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May 24, 2003. Tram Repair Plant:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Tram Repair Plant:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2003. Tram Repair Plant:

Артём Светлов

June 7, 2003. Tram Repair Plant:

Борис Дуденков
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:53 PM   #3590
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SEPTEMBER 7, 2003. TRAM TRIP DURING CELEBRATIONS OF CITY DAY IN MOSCOW.

September 7, 2003. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at the terminus stop "Ostankino":

Артём Светлов

September 7, 2003. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at the terminus stop "Ostankino":

Артём Светлов

September 7, 2003. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at the terminus stop "Ostankino":

Артём Светлов

September 7, 2003. Terminus stop "Ostankino", bogie of the KP trailer №2556:

Артём Светлов

September 7, 2003. Longitudinal Driveway, construction of the Moscow Monorail:

Артём Светлов

September 7, 2003. Longitudinal Driveway:

Артём Светлов

September 7, 2003. Terminus stop "Ostankino", saloon of the KP trailer №2556:

Артём Светлов
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:54 PM   #3591
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November 11, 2005. Shabolovka Street:

andzis

May 19, 2006. Saloon of the KM tramcar №2170 at the Bauman tram depot:

Pal_Andrei4

May 20, 2006. Bauman tram depot:

Сергей Орлов

May 20, 2006. Bauman tram depot:

Алексей

May 20, 2006. Bauman tram depot:

Александр Конов

May 20, 2006. Bauman tram depot:

Александр Конов

May 20, 2006. The control post of the KM tramcar №2170:

Михаил Смирнов

May 20, 2006. Bauman tram depot:

Александр Конов
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:54 PM   #3592
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September 17, 2006. Tatra T3SU service tug tramcar №0231 (constructed in 1987) and KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) at Volochayevka Street:

Александр Конов

September 17, 2006. Tatra T3SU service tug tramcar №0231 (constructed in 1987) and KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) near ZIL rail station:

Александр Конов

September 17, 2006. KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) and Tatra T3SU service tug tramcar №0231 (constructed in 1987) at the turnover ring "Bogorodskoe":

Артём Cветлов

September 17, 2006. Refrigerant Lane:

Артём Cветлов

October 6, 2007. Tram Repair Plant, saloon of the KM motor tramcar №2170:

Карданный Вал

October 6, 2007. Tram Repair Plant, saloon of the KP trailer №2556:

Карданный Вал

October 6, 2007. Tram Repair Plant, control post of the KM motor tramcar №2170:

Карданный Вал

October 6, 2007. Tram Repair Plant, museum site:

Карданный Вал
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:55 PM   #3593
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May 24, 2008. Bauman tram depot, renovation of the KM tramcar №2170:

Артём Светлов

May 24, 2008. Bauman tram depot:

ИванИванов

SEPTEMBER 7, 2008. TRAM TRIP DURING CELEBRATIONS OF CITY DAY IN MOSCOW.

September 7, 2008. Agricultural Street:

Сергей Орлов

September 7, 2008. 1st Agricultural Driveway:

Карданный Вал

September 7, 2008. 1st Agricultural Driveway:

Карданный Вал

September 7, 2008. 1st Agricultural Driveway, museum tramcars near Monorail depot:

Александр Конов

May 6, 2009. KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant), Tatra T3SU service training tramcar №0201 (constructed in 1982), Tatra T3SU tramcar №2930 (constructed in 1986) and BF tramcar №932 (constructed in 1927 at Kolomna Plant) at the Bauman tram depot:

Баумановец
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:55 PM   #3594
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MAY 21, 2009. THE REHEARSAL OF TRAM PARADE DEDICATED TO THE 110TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOSCOW ELECTRIC TRAM.

May 21, 2009. Turnover ring "Kaluga Square":

Сергей Орлов

May 21, 2009. Turnover ring "Kaluga Square":

Сергей Орлов

May 21, 2009. Turnover ring "Kaluga Square":

Артём Светлов

May 23, 2009. KM trailer №2556 at the Bauman tram depot near Monorail depot:

Шпекавыг
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:56 PM   #3595
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JUNE 13, 2009. HISTORICAL PARADE DEDICATED TO 110TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOSCOW ELECTRIC TRAM.

June 12, 2009. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at Serpukhov Rampart Street:

Артём Светлов

June 13, 2009. KP trailer №2556 at the turnover ring "Kaluga Square":

Сергей Орлов

June 13, 2009. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at Volochayevka Street:

Сергей Орлов

June 13, 2009. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 on the Serpukhov Outpost Square:

Сергей Орлов

June 13, 2009. Shabolovka Street:

Сергей Орлов

June 13, 2009. Shabolovka Street:

Шпекавыг

June 13, 2009. Shabolovka Street:

Niemand

June 13, 2009. New Blacksmith Street:

Niemand

June 13, 2009. New Blacksmith Street:

Niemand

June 13, 2009. Yauza Boulevard:

Шпекавыг
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:56 PM   #3596
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June 13, 2009. Greater Mouth Bridge, Military Academy of Strategic Rocket Forces named after Peter the Great on the background:

Сергей Орлов

June 13, 2009. Intercession Boulevard:

Сергей Орлов

June 13, 2009. Clean Ponds Boulevard:

andzis

June 13, 2009. Clean Ponds Boulevard:

Сокол

June 13, 2009. Saloon of the KP trailer №2556:

Александр Конов

June 13, 2009. Saloon of the KP trailer №2556:

Александр Конов

June 13, 2009. Red Settlement overpass across railways:

Шпекавыг
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:57 PM   #3597
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July 26, 2009. New Blacksmith Street:

Сергей Орлов

July 26, 2009. Danilov Rampart Street:

Сергей Орлов

May 22, 2010. Ukrainian LT-5 tramcar №0234 (constructed at Luhansk Locomotive Works in 2003) and KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at the Bauman tram depot:

Сергей Орлов

JUNE 12, 2010. THE EXHIBITION OF MUSEUM TRAMCARS DURING CELEBRATIONS OF RUSSIA DAY IN MOSCOW.

June 12, 2010. 1st Agricultural Driveway, KM/KP tram train №2170-2556:

Лайонел

June 12, 2010. Saloon of the KP trailer №2556:

Лайонел

June 12, 2010. 1st Agricultural Driveway, museum tramcars near Monorail depot:

Лайонел
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:58 PM   #3598
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September 18, 2010. St. Andronik Square, St. Sergius Church on the background:

Сергей Орлов

September 18, 2010. Red Settlement overpass:

Сергей Орлов

September 18, 2010. Terminus stop "New Horse Square":

Сергей Орлов

September 18, 2010. Turnover ring "Bogorodskoe":

Niemand

September 18, 2010. Turnover ring "Bogorodskoe":

Cипугин Кирилл

September 18, 2010. Turnover ring "Bogorodskoe":

Сергей Орлов

September 18, 2010. KM tramcar №2170 (constructed in 1930 at Kolomna Plant) and 71-619A (KTM-19A) tramcar №2163 (constructed in 2008 at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant named after Sergey Kirov) at Rostokino Driveway:

Niemand

NOVEMBER 26, 2011. TRAM PARADE DEDICATED TO THE CENTENARY OF TRAM ROUTE "A" ("ANNIE").

November 26, 2011. Danilov Rampart Street, Danilov Monastery on the background:

Ааре Оландер

November 26, 2011. Serpukhov Outpost Square:

Коляныч

November 26, 2011. Greater Mouth Bridge:

Сергей Орлов

November 26, 2011. Greater Mouth Bridge:

Никита Осипов

November 26, 2011. Mouth Driveway, Trinity Church on the background:

Никита Осипов

April 3, 2012. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at the Bauman tram depot:

Алекс (ТатраТ3)
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Old May 2nd, 2014, 04:59 PM   #3599
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JUNE 12, 2012. THE EXHIBITION OF MUSEUM TRAMCARS DURING CELEBRATIONS OF RUSSIA DAY IN MOSCOW.

June 12, 2012. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at Agricultural Street:

Эльвира Фаткуллина

June 12, 2012. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at the turnover ring "Rostokino":

Yosheek

June 12, 2012. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at Peace Avenue:

Михаил Смирнов

June 12, 2012. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 near Monorail road:

Yosheek

June 12, 2012. Saloon of the KM motor tramcar №2170:

Эльвира Фаткуллина

June 12, 2012. Saloon of the KP trailer №2556:

ЭР200

September 2, 2012. 1st Agricultural Driveway during celebrations of City Day in Moscow:

ЭР200

September 7, 2013. KP trailer №2556 at the turnover ring "Rostokino" during celebrations of City Day in Moscow:

makfan

September 7, 2013. 1st Agricultural Driveway during celebrations of City Day in Moscow:

Александр Сологубов

2014. THE REHEARSAL OF TRAM PARADE DEDICATED TO THE 115TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOSCOW ELECTRIC TRAM.

March 29, 2014. KM motor tramcar №2170 at Aviamotor Driveway:

Иван Карташов

March 29, 2014. KM motor tramcar №2170 at Peace Avenue:

Иван Карташов

March 29, 2014. KM motor tramcar №2170 at the turnover ring "Kaluga Square":

Наталья Демина

April 6, 2014. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at Abelman Street:

Сергей Орлов

APRIL 12, 2014. HISTORICAL PARADE DEDICATED TO THE 115TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOSCOW ELECTRIC TRAM.

April 12, 2014. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at Shabolovka Street:

ЭР200

April 12, 2014. Shabolovka Street:

Никита Осипов

April 12, 2014. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 at New Blacksmith Street:

ЭР200

April 12, 2014. Mouth Driveway:

MasterBoY 89

April 12, 2014. Greater Mouth Bridge:

Никита Осипов

April 12, 2014. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 on the Greater Mouth Bridge:

Андрей Рябицев

April 12, 2014. Gardeners Driveway:

Кузнецов Григорий

April 12, 2014. Dubinin Street:

Дамир Абдуллин

April 12, 2014. KM/KP tram train №2170-2556 (constructed in 1930/1932 at Kolomna Plant) and 71-619K (KTM-19) tramcar №2049 (constructed in September 2002 at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant named after Sergey Kirov) at the intersection of Boris Galushkin Street and Peace Avenue:

Vosskuez
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:14 PM   #3600
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10) Zhytomyr, Ukraine (opened on September 3, 1899);
11) Kazan (opened on December 2, 1899):


Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia. The Kazan Kremlin is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Pre-revolutionary history

There is a long-running dispute as to whether Kazan was founded by the Muslim Volga Bulgars in the early Middle Ages or by the Tatars of the Golden Horde in the mid-15th century, as written records before the latter period are sparse. If there was a Bulgar city on the site, estimates of the date of its foundation range from the early 11th century to the late 13th century. It was a border post between Volga Bulgaria and two Finnic tribes, the Mari and the Udmurt. Another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. Archaeological explorations have produced evidence of urban settlement in three parts of the modern city: in the Kremlin; in Bişbalta at the site of the modern Zilant Monastery; and near the Lake Kaban (Tatar: Qaban). The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin.

If Kazan existed in the 11th and 12th centuries, it could have been a stop on a Volga trade route from Scandinavia to Baghdad. It was a trade center, and possibly a major city for Bulgar settlers in the Kazan region, although their capital was further south at the city of Bolğar. After the Mongols devastated the Bolğar and Bilär areas in the 13th century, migrants resettled Kazan. Kazan became a center of a duchy which was a dependency of the Golden Horde. Two centuries later, in the 1430s, Hordian Tatars (such as Ghiasetdin of Kazan) usurped power from its Bolghar dynasty. Some Tatars also went to Lithuania, brought by Vytautas the Great.

In 1402 Kazan started to mint own coins. In 1438, after the destruction of the Golden Horde, Kazan became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Kazan. The city bazaar, Taş Ayaq (Stone Leg)' became the most important trade center in the region, especially for furniture. The citadel and Bolaq Canal were reconstructed, giving the city a strong defensive capacity. The armies of Kazan Khanate had repeatedly devastated the northeast of Russia. Russian chronicles record about forty attacks of Kazan Khans on Russian territories (mainly the regions of Nizhniy Novgorod, Murom, Vyatka, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Galich) in the first half of the 16th century. In 1521, the combined forces of Khan Mehmed Giray and his Crimean allies attacked Russia, captured more than 150.000 slaves. In response, Russians managed to occupy the city briefly several times.

As a result of the Siege of Kazan (1552) Russia under Ivan the Terrible conquered the city for good and the majority of the population was massacred. In the end of the 16th century, the central street in Kazan was named Prolomnaya (Breach Street) and later is was renamed Greater Prolomnaya (Greater Breach Street, since 1930 - Bauman Street) - for the two breaches of the Kremlin wall, which were made as the result of the explosions of the tower Nur-Ali and Lower Nogai Gate during the siege of the Kazan Kremlin in 1552. Kazan Khanate was transformed into formally independent Tsardom of Kazan in the union with Russia. During the governorship of Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky, most of the khanates's Tatar residents were killed or forcibly Christianized. Mosques and palaces were ruined. In 1556 there began construction of the new stone Kazan Kremlin at the site of ruined citadel. The surviving Tatar population was moved to a place 50 kilometers (31 miles) away from the city and this place was forcibly settled by Russian farmers and soldiers. Tatars in the Russian service were settled in the Tatar Bistäse (present-day Old Tatar Settlement) near the city's wall. Later Tatar merchants and handicraft masters also settled there. During this period, Kazan was largely destroyed as a result of several great fires. After one of them in 1579, the famous icon "Our Lady of Kazan" was discovered in the city. In the early 17th century, at the beginning of the Time of Troubles in Russia, the Tsardom of Kazan declared independence with the help of the Russian population, but this independence was suppressed by Kuzma Minin in 1612. In 17th century the city experienced economic growth - there appeared first printing houses and manufactories.

According to the edict of Russian Tsar Peter the Great on December 29, 1708, the Tsardom of Kazan was abolished, and Kazan became the centre of the large Kazan Governorate. After Peter the Great's visit, the city became a center of shipbuilding for the Caspian fleet. In 18th century Kazan became educational and cultural center of Volga Region. The major Russian poet Gavrila Derzhavin (1743-1816) was born in Kazan Governorate in 1743, the son of a poor country squire of Tatar ancestry though himself having a thoroughly Russian identity. On July 2, 1758 the first Russian provincial gymnasium opened in Kazan. In 1771 two madrasahs (Muslim schools) were opened (Akhun and Apanay). Kazan was largely destroyed in 1774 as a result of the Pugachev revolt, a revolt by border troops and peasants led by the Don Cossack ataman (captain) Yemelyan Pugachev (1742-1775), but was rebuilt soon afterwards, during the reign of Catherine the Great (1729-1796). Catherine also decreed that mosques could again be built in Kazan, the first being Märcani Mosque (1766-1770). But discrimination against the Tatars continued. In 1791 there was opened first theatre in Kazan.

On November 17, 1804 Kazan Imperial University was founded by Russian Emperor Alexander I. It became third university in present-day Russia and fifth - in the Russian Empire after Imperial University of Dorpat in Tartu (founded in 1632), St. Petersburg Imperial University (1724), Moscow Imperial University (1755) and Kharkiv Imperial University (1804). It became an important center for Oriental Studies in Russia. The Qur'an was first printed in Kazan in 1801. In 1811 was printed first Kazan newspaper. Kazan formed a big number of scientific areas and schools (mathematical, chemical, medical, linguistic, geological, geobotanical, etc.). It is subject of special pride: the creation of non-Euclidean geometry (Nikolai Lobachevsky, 1826); the discovery of the chemical element Ruthenium (44 Ru) that was named after Ruthenia, the Latin word for Russia - the only chemical element which was discovered in Russian Empire (Karl Ernst Claus, 1844); the theory about the structure of organic compounds (Alexander Butlerov, 1861); the discovery of the electron paramagnetic resonance (Yevgeny Zavoisky, 1944) and acoustic paramagnetic resonance (Semen Altshuler, 1952) and many others. In 1901 was opened Kazan Astronomical Observatory which was named after Russian astronomer Vasily Engelhardt (1828-1915) two years later. Among the students of Kazan Imperial University who not graduated it due to various reasons were Leo Tolstoy and Vladimir Lenin. The great Russian opera singer Fyodor Shalyapin (1873-1938) was born in Kazan.

Kazan became an industrial center and peasants migrated there to join its industrial workforce. By 1890, there operated 84 plants and factories (tanneries, soap factories, candle factories, cotton mills, etc). In the second half of 19th century, in Kazan appeared telegraph (1859), gas lighting (1874), telephone (1881) and electric lighting (1897). In 1896 Kazan was directly connected to Moscow by railroad. In 1902, territory of Kazan included 11 Settlements. In the beginning of 20th century, in Kazan were 237 streets and lanes with total length of 129.3 km as well as 17 squares with total area of more than 250.000 square meters. The biggest square was Arsk Field's Square (113.806 square meters). Also, there were 9 public gardens and boulevards with total area of 117.575 square meters. The most popular of them were Botanical Garden, Derzhavin Garden, "Black Lake" Garden, etc.

After the Russian Revolution of 1905, Tatars were allowed to revive Kazan as a Tatar cultural center. The first Tatar theater and the first Tatar newspaper appeared. Kazan Governorate is the birthplace of the great Tatar poet Ğabdulla Tuqay (1886-1913) who is often referred as the founder of the modern Tatar literature and the modern Tatar literary language, which replaced Old Tatar language in literature. According to Russian Imperial Census of 1897, the population of Kazan was 130 thousand people, about 22% of them were Tatars.

Old Kazan:


Kazan Kremlin, view from Kazanka River:

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Kazan Imperial University, now Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University:

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Kazan Kremlin. Söyembikä Tower (left) and Governor's Palace, now Palace of the President of Tatarstan (right):

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The belltower of Epiphany Church at Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street):

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