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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:16 PM   #3601
geometarkv
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Horse-drawn tram in Kazan (1875-1900)

In the mid-19th century Kazan was one of the largest cities in Volga Region. But city was located in few kilometers from Volga Embankment. In 19th century there were built piers of the first steamship companies, and transport communication with city became relevant - every year during the spring freshets connection with Kazan was ceased for some weeks. The first step for changing the situation was the construction of Admiralty Dam (now Kirov Dam) in 1842-1849. The second step was the opening of stagecoach (omnibus) route between Kazan (Tolchok Market) and Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement on February 5, 1854. It was date of opening of the first public transport in Kazan. However, it turned out to be unprofitable for the owners and has been closed. The first attempt to built street railway in Kazan was been in 1867. Then, between entrepreneur Sergey Shipov and government of Kazan Governorate was signed an agreement for the construction of 7.5 kilometers of streetcar railway from Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) to the Volga piers. However, later Shipov refused to implement the contract.

Historian Nikolay Zagoskin (1851-1912) attributes construction of horse-drawn tram railroads to the first half of 1870s. On January 13, 1870 Ministry of Railways has approved the project of engineer Pyotr Panayev. On February 21, 1873 municipal authorities concluded the contract for the construction of the lines of horse-drawn tram with Mr. Panayev. But due to a number of reasons the contract was not fulfilled - the construction works were started only on October 14, 1873. It was only after three years and a half, on October 20, 1873, that City Council reviewed the issue and recognized entrepreneurs Tahlqvist and Etolin as new owners of the enterprise, and adopted tight fixed time-limits for construction of the lines of horse-drawn tram and for putting it into operation.

On October 14, 1875, at 2:00pm, horse-drawn tram was put into operation. It became fourth horse-drawn tram system in the Russian Empire (after St. Petersburg, Warsaw and Moscow) and third - in present-day Russia. Two lines were put into operation at the same time:
1) Volga Line - from Tolchok Market in the centre of city to the Nearest Mouth and Far Mouth settlements (piers of Volga River);
2) Prolomnaya Line - from Tolchok Market along Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) via the Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) to the Church of Pentecost at Cloth Settlement.

The citizens liked the horse-drawn tram as the fare was much lower than that of a cab driven by a drunken cabman. During first year of operation horsecars carried 1.164.809 passengers, the revenue was 59.367 rubles and 69 kopecks. It's interesting that only on September 23, 1876, one year after opening, horse-drawn tram started to operate by timetable. Horsed small box tramcars operated along the lines. The first tramcars were supplied from Moscow. There operated 12 tramcars with capacity of 40 persons each. Due to its popularity, the Kazan horse-drawn tram was further developed same as horse-drawn tram systems in other cities.

It is interesting that the name of the old tram stop "Petrushkin Turnout", that appeared in the city in the times of the horse-drawn tram, lived on until now. The longest Volga Line of the horse-drawn tram ran from the city centre to the Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement which was situated at the then confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers (approximately in three kilometers from the present-day Kazan Helicopter Plant). There the horses had to climb over a rather steep slope and a curve with a small radius. During the navigation period the tramcars were overcrowded, the two horses could not manage. That is why, there always was an outrunner ready. The outrunner was harnessed at the foot of the slope and was unharnessed uphill. People called the additional horse "Petrushka" ("Punch"), and the stop got the name of "Petrushkin Turnout" ("Punch Turnout").

Besides, poor Tatars created a peculiar type of transport in Kazan. It was called "barabus" (derived from the old Tatar word "barabız" - "let's go"). They were operated by private carriers, that were poor Tatar commoners from surrounding villages. It was probably the first public transport in Kazan, after cabs. The horse was harnessed to low wide sledge, across which there was a sackcloth or burlap mattress filled with hay or straw. Passengers sat on the mattress and "barabus" transported passengers across the city for a scanty fare, thus competing successfully with trams and cabs. Until 1930s, when trams were installed at the suburbs and any private enterprise was prohibited, barabuses were the only transport to connect quarters of poor mill-hands with other parts of the city.

In 1877 partnership "Sivkov, Toropchaninov, Tahlqvist and Co" became the owner of horse-drawn tram. Gustav Tahlqvist was the merchant from St. Petersburg (Finn by nationality) who created the glory for the Kazan horse-drawn tram. He created garden entertainment "Tivoli" near Admiralteyskoye (Admiralty) horsecar depot and organized a private industrial and agricultural exhibitions at this garden. The building of horsecar depot become the place of public entertainment, performances of orchestras, artists, etc. In 1878 the rules for the horse-drawn tram started to exist.

In 1885 "Partnership of the Volga-Kazan railway and commercial warehouses" became the owner of horse-drawn tram. In 1892 State Councillor N. Markov became new owner of tram network. He together with Ivan Likhachov (Moscow Engineer of Railways) signed new contract with City Council on the further extension of the lines of horse-drawn tram. But in 1893 Markov and Likhachov handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to Belgian "Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Kazan".

In mid-1890s were built three other lines:
3) Georgian Line - from Nicholas Square (now Lenin Garden) near Kazan Kremlin to Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street), which in 19th century has been built up with housing, and there was held trade fair. The route was: Ressurection Street (now Kremlin Street) - Left Black Lake Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street) - Nicholas Square (now Lenin Garden) - Intercession Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Arsk cemetery;
4) Central Line: Upper St. Theodore Street (now Pushkin Street) - 1st Theatrical Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street);
5) St. Catherine Line: Tolchok Market - Vladimir Street (now Moscow Street) - Moscow Street - Hay Square - Evangelists street (now Tatarstan Street) - Tikhvin Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - St. Catherine Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - factory of Krestovnikov brothers (now "Nefis" Holding).

By the end of 19th century there were five lines of horse-drawn tram (43 stops) with total length of 18.3 km and two horsecar depots - Admiralteyskoye (which included two sheds for horsecars and stabling for 200 horses) and Arskoye (one shed for horsecars and stabling for 130 horses). The lines of horse-drawn tram were improved - along the routes were installed the telegraph and telephone lines, some paths were lighted at night. Tramcars were drawn by two horses and were operated with average speed that was no higher than 7.5 km per hour. In summer, the horse-drawn tram operated from 7am to 9pm. In winter the traffic was not so regular, and some tramlines did not operate and traffic was renewed only in spring. Passengers could enjoy two classes of service at four of five tramlines of the horse-drawn tram: the first class, where the seats were located in the front part of the tramcar, and the second class with the seats in the back part of the tramcar. The fare for the whole length of any of the lines was the same. At each of four urban tramlines, first-class passengers paid up to 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles per a person, second-class passengers paid an 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles, kids under five years of age could travel free of charge if they did not occupy a separate seat. For the trip from city to the Volga piers, passengers paid up to 15 kopecks or 0.15 rubles per a person (first-class) and 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (second-class). Those who so desired were given special transfer tickets, which gave the opportunity to change the tram at the intersection of two tramlines and travel along the other line at the same fare, but it could only be done within the bounds of one of the two districts where the horse-drawn tram operated. The two districts were separated by the Central Line running across the whole city of Kazan.

October 14, 1875. Admiralteyskoye (Admiralty) horsecar depot, the day of opening of horse-drawn tram:

rustik68

Horse-drawn tram in Kazan:

rustik68

1890s, horse-drawn tram on the Theatre Square (now Freedom Square). City Theatre (left) and building of Gentry Assembly (now City Hall, right):

lext-2009

The double-decked horsecar with "imperial" (from catalog of "Nivelles" Plant):

Ааре Оландер

"Barabuses" at Transverse Ascension Street (now Kavi Najmi Street):

mamonino

Volga Line, horse-drawn tram near Volga piers:

Link

Map of the horse-drawn tramlines in Kazan (1875-1900):
I - Volga Line;
II - Prolomnaya Line;
III - Georgian Line;
IV - Central Line;
V - St. Catherine Line;

X – Admiralteyskoye (Admiralty) horsecar depot;
X – Arskoye (Arsk) horsecar depot:


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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:17 PM   #3602
geometarkv
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Electric tram in Kazan (1899-1920)

Thus, at the turn of the 19th century, there were two basic means of transport in the city - horse cabs and the horse-drawn tram. The horse-drawn tram was the predecessor of the tram traffic in Kazan. Those were small wagons drawn along the rails with the help of two horses. Some tramcars were double-decked, on the top deck called "imperial" there were seats for commoners.

However, scientific progress continued to advance. The horse-drawn tram in Kazan was converted to electric traction. The reconstruction of tram network in order "to substitute traction" was performed by Belgian "Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Kazan". On June 22, 1897 "Belgians" concluded the contract with City Council, which included obligations to convert all urban railroads to electric traction by 1917. It should be noted that the citizens of Kazan were familiar with the use of electric power, for in 1895 Belgian joint-stock company "Gas and Electricity" put into operation the first power station in Kazan with the voltage of 175 V DC. There was demand for the use of electric energy and by 1914 the capacity of the said power station, known later as "Red Sunrise", amounted to 1800 kW. This power station operated till 1926.

But engines of electric tramcars required a higher level of voltage. In 1898 there began construction of the Central tram power station for electrically driven trams. It was built specially for tram demands on the bank of Lake Nizhny Kaban, at the intersection of Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) and Left Embankment of Kaban (now Şihabetdin Märcani Street). Its bulk, which remained intact until 1970s, was situated on the bank of the Lake Nizhny Kaban, approximately on the spot where the service entrance to the Tatar Academic Theatre named after Ğäliäsğar Kamal is situated now. On October 27, 1899 this oil-fired steam power station was put into operation. The belt-driven steam engine rotated three dynamos that generated direct current with the voltage of 550 Volt. And so, on November 30, 1899, the first electrically driven tram appeared in the city.

It is interesting that Kazan was among the first Russian cities that started to use the new electrically driven transport. Kyiv was pioneer of the electric tram traffic in the Russian Empire, for tram traffic was started there on June 13, 1892, and on May 20, 1896 the tram traffic was started in Nizhny Novgorod. The electric tram operation in Kazan was started in the same year as in Moscow, which is a momentous event. On December 2, 1899, the formal ceremony of putting into operation the first Kazan electric tram was held. The ceremony was attended by a large number of people, the Vice-Governor, representatives of local governmental and public authorities, members of the City Council and Zemstvo (elective district council in pre-revolutionary Russia). The festive event took place at the Central tram power station specially built a year in advance on the bank of Lake Nizhny Kaban. Archbishop of Kazan and Sviyazhsk Arseny held a religious moleben (supplicatory prayer service), and after that the tram traffic was started. People were invited to go for a ride. There was no end of volunteers, because, according to a local newspaper, "the tramcars proceeded from the Central tram power station to Arsk Field and then to Greater Prolomnaya Street, where a marvelous dinner-party was given for the guests". At that time the city had 26 tramcars and 15 kilometers of tramlines. Tramcars were naturally of Belgian make. It were two-axle bilateral tramcars with length of 9 meters equipped with roller-rod current collectors and hand-driven rim-block mechanical brakes. Admiralteyskoye (Admiralty) depot became used only for electric tramlines (capacity - 20 tramcars). In addition, the very word "tram" became common only after the horse traction was substituted for the electric traction.

Initially traffic occurred along three electrified tramlines of five:
1) Prolomnaya Line: Tolchok Market - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) - Cloth Settlement;
2) Georgian Line: Nicholas Square (now Lenin Garden) - Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Arsk cemetery;
3) Fish Row Line, former Central Line: Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street).

On September 13, 1900, the 11 electric tramcars started to operate along the Volga Line in the direction to the Volga piers (Tolchok Market - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement). The total length increased till 17 km. Converting to a new traction type occurred gradually, but on December 26, 1900, the Kazan horse-drawn tram ceased to exist - all tramlines were converted to electric traction. That day was electrified last St. Catherine Line: Tolchok Market - Vladimir Street (now Moscow Street) - Krestovnikovs factory (now "Nefis" Holding). The annual ridership was 6.9 million passengers in 1902.

However altruistic good Samaritans "Belgians", who performed tireless activity in many cities of the Russian Empire, might have been, their first and major goal was to draw profit from the enterprise. "Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Kazan" received new "Nivelles" tramcars equipped with electric engines from Belgium. In 1899, 36 motor tramcars were received (№№101-136, constructed in 1898), in 1905 – 18 items (№№137-154), in 1912 - last 6 tramcars (№№155-160). Obviously, the cost thereof was rather high, and taking into account the cost of long-distance transportation - the total amount was a pretty penny. It was decided to save money by using engineless trailers. Reequipped horse-drawn tramcars were used for that purpose. Horse-drawn tramcars were double-decked, the top deck was called "imperial". That is why Kazan happened to be the only city in the Russian Empire with a double-decked electrically-driven tramcars.

There were other difficulties as well. Those were of technical nature. Wire section in many segments failed to be consistent with the transmitted load, therefore the voltage of the trolley line was much lower than the required one, in some segments the voltage was as low as 40% of the nominal one, which affected the tractive ability of tram electric motors. Production of high-quality equipment requires feedback of operation experience and improvement of technologies. That is why, though the Central tram power station burned expensive fuel oil, huge automatic controllers installed at the marble distribution panel of the power station were extremely imperfect. Particularly, they had a bad arc quenching system and every time in case of short-circuit of the line, and that occurred quite often, the automatic controllers triggered roaring as a cannon shot and emitting a fireball. Three "Sulzer" steam engines equipped with huge flywheels functioned at the Central tram power station. The steam engine flywheel was connected to the dynamo pulley with a belt made of camel leather and being more than a meter wide. There was a one-storey boiler house situated nearby. Steam boilers installed there were heated using the fuel oil. Sometimes the belt was torn and in that case its edges were tossed up with great force almost to the ceiling. Flying belt scraps going round with the velocity of helicopter rotor blades destroyed everything on their way. That is why, persons on duty were not allowed to approach the automatic controllers.

However, the capacity of the then electric tram motors was quite enough to move upward over a very steep ascent, whereas in case of the horse-drawn tram additional horses had been used for that purpose, they had been called "petrushki" since the times of horse-drawn tram operation at Petrushkin Turnout. Even in the times of the Soviet Union there existed a tram route going down, same as former tram route №2 along Butlerov Street, but it did not turn further in the direction of Bolaq Canal, and proceeded along Labor Unions Street rounding the sharp bend upwards in the direction of University Street. Further on, the tram passed by the building of the Kazan State University along Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street). Besides, the downhill slope near the building of Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute was much steeper before the Great Patriotic War. Later on, the steepness was more or less flattened with additional fill-up soil. The trouble was that sometimes the tramcar gained excess speed moving downhill and derailed. It happened while moving downhill along Butlerov Street and while moving downhill from the University. That is why, the check station for the tram route №2 was established right at the foot of the slope. The tram that derailed moving along University Street failed to turn to Labor Unions Street and rolled downgrade to Bauman Street.

Let's, however, come back to Kazan at the turn of 19th century. In 1904 the rolling stock consisted of 36 motor tramcars and 45 trailers, capacity of Arskoye (Arsk) depot was increased till 36 tramcars. In 1905 the total length of the five lines amounted to more than 26 kilometers, including about 16 kilometers of double-track lines.

In 1906 there was put into operation tramline along Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) near Kazan Kremlin, and Georgian Line was extended from Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) to the Academic Settlement, along the 1st Academic Street (now Vishnevsky Street). In 1909 there were introduced free tram tickets for students. In 1912 for military persons were introduced free tram tickets for the trip at second-class seats and at "imperial" (top deck) of trailers. During first half of 1910, the revenue from tram operation was 805 thousand francs (on 41 thousand francs more comparing with first half of 1909).

In 1914 there were five tram routes in the city. They had no numbers and were called according to the names of the lines. Its detailed routes were:
1) combined Volga-Prolomnaya Line: Far Mouth settlement (Volga piers) - Admiralty Settlement - Tolchok Market - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) - St. George Street (now Petersburg Street) - Cloth Settlement.
The first line was called Volgo-Prolomnaya. It ran from the Volga piers through Admiralty Settlement to the city, crossed Tolchok Market at the corner of Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street), and then along Greater Prolomnaya Street, through Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square), St. George Street (now Petersburg Street) and 2nd Prolomnaya Street (2nd Breach Street, now Petersburg Street) to the end of Cloth Settlement.
2) new Resurrection Line: St. John Square (now May Day Square) near Kazan Kremlin - Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) - University Street - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) - Shcherbakov Lane - New Potter Street (now Butlerov Street) - Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) - Transverse Street of 2nd and 3rd Hills (now Aivazovsky Street) - 2nd Hill Street (now Volkov Street).
The second line - Resurrection Line - ran from the monument to Russian Emperor Alexander II on the St. John Square (now May Day Square) along Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street), University Street, Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street), Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square), Shcherbakov Lane, New Potter Street (now Butlerov Street), along Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) and Transverse Street of 2nd and 3rd Hills (now Aivazovsky Street) and further on along the 2nd Hill Street (now Volkov Street) up to Teachers' Female School.
3) Georgian Line: St. John Square (now May Day Square) near Kazan Kremlin - Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) - Left Black Lake Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street) - Lobachevsky Street - Intercession Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Theatre Square (now Freedom Square) - Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Academic Settlement (by 1st Academic Street, now Vishnevsky Street) and "Russian Switzerland" Garden (now Central Park of Culture and Leisure named after Maxim Gorky).
The third line - Georgian Line - also started from the monument to Russian Emperor Alexander II on the St. John Square (now May Day Square) and ran along Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street), but then turned to Left Black Lake Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street), Lobachevsky Street and Intercession Street (now Karl Marx Street) and ran further through Theatre Square (now Freedom Square), along Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) and Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) to the Academic Settlement (by 1st Academic Street, now Vishnevsky Street) and "Russian Switzerland" Garden (now Central Park of Culture and Leisure named after Maxim Gorky).
4) Circular Line, extended former Central Line: Rail Terminal - Transverse Vladimir Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - St. John Square (now May Day Square) - Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) - Kazan Street (now Mislavsky Street) - Exaltation Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Transverse Kazan Street (now Yapeev Street) - Lower St. Theodore Street (now Fedoseev Street) - Kasatkin Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) - Greater Philistine Street (now Narimanov Street) - Rail Terminal.
As for the fourth line - Circular Line - the tramcars operated from Rail Terminal along Transverse Vladimir Street (now Chernyshevsky Street), Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street), Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street), through St. John Square (now May Day Square), along Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street), Kazan Street (now Mislavsky Street), Exaltation Street (now Karl Marx Street), Transverse Kazan Street (now Yapeev Street), went past the St. Eudokia Church, along Lower St. Theodore Street (now Fedoseev Street), Kasatkin Street, Pushkin Street, Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street), through Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square), Bolaq Canal, the steamship pier of Lake Nizhny Kaban and returned along Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) and Greater Philistine Street (now Narimanov Street) to the Rail Terminal.
5) St. Catherine Line: St. John Square (now May Day Square) near Kazan Kremlin - Tolchok Market - Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Transverse Vladimir Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Hay Square - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) - St. Catherine Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - Krestovnikovs factory (now "Nefis" Holding).
And finally, the fifth line - St. Catherine Line - ran from the St. John Square (now May Day Square), along Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street), Transverse Vladimir Street (now Chernyshevsky Street), Moscow Street, Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) and St. Catherine Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) to the factory of Krestovnikov brothers.

The three of five tram routes passed through Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square). In early 1900s there was built rail ring for turning of tramcars. As a result, whole square became known as "Ring" among Kazan residents. This nickname is preserved till our days.

In course of time, Kazan tram has been improved slowly but steadily. There were laid grooved rails at the central streets and some single-track tramlines were reconstructed into double-track. As a result, in 1914 total length of electric tramlines increased till 50.4 km. There were 275 tram workers and 105 tramcars (60 motor tramcars and 45 trailers). The annual ridership was 15.6 million passengers in 1914 (in 1913 - 14.238 million passengers).

There were 22 seats in the each motor tramcar. The average speed that the tramcar gained, including stopovers, did not exceed 11-13 kilometers per hour, and the maximum speed was 25 km per hour. Tramcars were of two types - closed and open. Besides, each tramcar was separated according two service classes - first-class and second-class. In closed tramcars the first class included the back half of the tramcar and the back platform, and in open tramcars the first class included all benches, except the front one. The second class of the closed tramcars included, accordingly, the front half and the front platform as well as the top deck ("imperial"), and the second class of the open tramcars included the front bench and both platforms. The first-class ticket was almost two times more expensive than the second-class ticket. Thus, for instance, the first-class fare at the Resurrection Line was 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles, and the second-class fare was 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles. For the trip by most longest Volga-Prolomnaya Line passengers paid an 20 kopecks and 11 kopecks respectively. But as compared to the cab fare - from 20 to 80 kopecks - the tram was extremely cheap and for that reason popular among the citizens. Travel time by whole Volga-Prolomnaya Line was 45-55 minutes. Every day, in Kazan operated up to 50 tramcars at which worked 25 tram drivers and 50 conductors. Each tramcar rode about 25.67 km per day, daily revenue was about 500 rubles.

Tram service became an indispensible part of the city. The existence of a tram station near an institution or a market stall created an advantage making the commercial enterprise attractive for clients and, consequently, more profitable. For example, hotel rooms with a tram station situated nearby were more popular both among the city visitors and the citizens living there. Thus, the reference to the tram station situated nearby was printed in capital letters in the advertisement of hotel rooms in the well-known "Kazan Podvorye". It is obvious that location of tram stops in close vicinity was also considered advantageous in the times of the horse-drawn tram. Some pre-revolutionary postcards depicting Kazan include the tramcars, which became an indispensible part of the city life. Even though sometimes there are no tramcars, one can see tramlines patronized by ever-present good Samaritans "Belgians". In such way the Kazan tram functioned until 1917. The term of concession for tramlines that were built and operated by Belgian "Joint stock company of urban railways in Kazan" was coming to an end according to the contract with the City Council and Zemstvo (elective district council in pre-revolutionary Russia) in October 1942. However, the Revolution of 1917 frustrated all plans.

In 1915 annual ridership amounted to 18.7 mln, in 1916 - till 21.7 mln. In 1916 Belgian "Joint stock company of urban railways in Kazan" was transformed into Russian partnership. After beginning of WWI, there was stopped tramcar repairs due to price increase on necessary materials. As a result, by the end of 1917, there operated only 24-26 motor tramcars and 8-10 trailers per day. In 1917, due to difficulties of military times, they became use firewoods as fuel for Central tram power station instead of fuel-oil.

The population of Kazan also greatly grew during 20 years - 130 thousand residents in 1897, 161 thousand residents in 1907, 194.2 thousand residents in 1914, 206.562 thousand residents in 1917.

In 1917 Kazan became one of the revolution centers. In August 1917 large-scale Gunpowder Plant fire occurred in the city. It began on August 27, destroying the plant and spreading panic in the city on August 27-29, and it lasted at least until September 6. Fire resulted in minor detonations of the shells in depots, scattered over the industrial part of the city. However, most of the explosives were flooded by water from emergency reservoirs; that prevented a major explosion. Thirteen were killed by the blast and fire, 8 died of wounds, and 172, including 30 children were injured. The fire destroyed 12000 machine guns and one million shells in depots (1285.83 tonnes), and 542 buildings were destroyed, 152 of them totally. In addition, 1.8 million poods (29500 tonnes) of oil were lost to the fire.

On October 18, 1917 tram workers took part in the general strike. On November 8, 1917 Bolsheviks took power in Kazan. In December 1917 in the tram depot was created party Bolshevik unit. In early 1918, due to a sharp increase in prices for products, the workers were forced to demand wage increases. Administration of partnership has refused to comply with those demands by threatening dismissal and closure of the tram network. On April 9, 1918 administration was removed from the control over Kazan tram. Management of tram network was transferred to the board and an internal committee of employees. The emergence of new authorities resulted in the elimination of private ownership of at least somewhat significant production facilities. The whole of the most important infrastructure became the ownership of the state, including horse-drawn tram railroad that were nationalized by virtue of the Decree of All-Russian Central Executive Committee and The Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR as of June 28, 1918.

In 1918, Kazan was the capital of the Idel-Ural State (short-lived Tatar republic that united Tatars, Bashkirs and the Chuvash in the turmoil of the Russian Civil War), which was suppressed by the Bolshevist government. In the Kazan Operation of August 1918, city was briefly occupied by Czechoslovak Legions. The most important result was the capturing of the Gold Reserves of Russian Empire, moved to Kazan during First World War for better safety (prior to WWI, it were largest world's gold reserves). Bolsheviks lost control over the Volga Region and access to Middle Asia and Siberia. During one month, from August 6 till September 8, Czechoslovaks used tram system only for military purposes. On September 10, after storming the city from three directions, Red Army troops took control of Kazan. As a result of military actions, Kazan Tram was almost completely devastated.

On December 7, 1918 tram network passed under the jurisdiction of municipal department of the Kazan Board of Deputies. By winter of 1919, there operated only 13 tramcars per day. In 1919 there were only 20 motor cars and 10 trailers in Kazan. Confusion and devastation in the times of the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War caused the stop of operation of the most popular kind of city transport. In addition to all troubles, many tramcars were destroyed as a result of large fire that occurred in the Arskoye (Arsk) tram depot. Since February 1919 till December 1921 tramcars served mainly for cargo transportation, passenger tramcars were rebuilt into cargo platforms, tramlines were extended to the railroad and in the industrial areas. There was no passenger traffic in this period, mostly due to the lack of power supply. It's needs to mention that were few attempts to restore passenger traffic. However, as a result of economic difficulties, many Kazan residents were not able to pay for tickets, and passenger traffic was ceased after short periods of operation.

"Nivelles" two-axle motor tramcar №158 (constructed in 1912):

Ааре Оландер

1900s. Central tram power station (traction substation №1) on Lake Nizhny Kaban:

Rustik68

The obligation of the Belgian "Joint stock company of urban railways in Kazan":

Rustik68

1913, THE SCHEME OF KAZAN TRAMLINES
1) Red line – Volga-Prolomnaya Line;
2) Blue line – Circular Line;
3) Orange line – St. Catherine Line;
4) Green line – Resurrection Line;
5) Yellow line – Georgian Line;
X – Admiralteyskoye (Admiralty) tram depot;
X – Arskoye (Arsk) tram depot;


Рома
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:18 PM   #3603
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1914, THE SCHEME OF KAZAN TRAMLINES
1) Red line – Volga-Prolomnaya Line;
2) Blue line – Resurrection Line;
3) Brown line – Georgian Line;
4) Green line – Circular Line;
5) Orange line –- St. Catherine Line:


Link
CLICKABLE

1917, THE SCHEME OF KAZAN TRAMLINES
I) Volga-Prolomnaya Line;
II) Resurrection Line;
III) Georgian Line;
IV) Circular Line;
V) St. Catherine Line;
X – Admiralteyskoye (Admiralty) tram depot;
X – Arskoye (Arsk) tram depot:


Link
CLICKABLE
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:20 PM   #3604
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1900s. Volga piers:

lext-2009

1900s. Tramcars near the Far Mouth settlement:

lext-2009

1900s. Volga piers:

lext-2009

1900s. Tramline at the Far Mouth settlement:

lext-2009

1900s. Tramline at the Far Mouth settlement:

lext-2009

1900s. Tramcar at the Nearest Mouth settlement:

lext-2009

1900s, Admiralty Dam (now Kirov Dam). The view to Kazan Kremlin:

russiahistory

1900s. Volga piers:

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:21 PM   #3605
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1900s, Kazan. The view from St. John Hill:

Rustik68

1900s. Tramcar near St. John Monastery:

kazan-history

1910s. Tramline near Kazan Kremlin (left) and St. John Monastery (right):

Teamsky
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:21 PM   #3606
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1900s, St. John Square (now May Day Square). Monument to Russian Emperor Alexander II (opened on September 11, 1895):

Rustik68

1910s. St. John Square (now May Day Square) near entrance to Kazan Kremlin:

Link

1910s, St. John Square (now May Day Square). St. John Monastery (left):

Rustik68

1910s. Belgian two-axle motor tramcar №148 (constructed in 1905) on the St. John Square (now May Day Square):

Андрей В.
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:22 PM   #3607
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1910s. St. John Square (now May Day Square) near entrance to Kazan Kremlin:

Link

1900s. Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) and St. John Square (now May Day Square):

Dimar Sagdeev

1900s. Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) and St. John Square (now May Day Square):

Андрей В.

1900s. Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) and St. John Square (now May Day Square):

rustik68

1900s, Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street). Saviour Tower of Kazan Kremlin on the background:

Dimar Sagdeev

1910s, the intersection of Resurrection Line and Georgian Line. Alexandrov Passage (left) at Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) was built in 1880-1883 by architect Genrich Rusch according to project of Vladimir Suslov and Nikolay Pozdeyev:

Link
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:23 PM   #3608
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1910s. Zinaida Ushkova's House (now National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan) at the end of Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street):

Link

1910s. Zinaida Ushkova's House (now National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan; left) at the end of Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street):

Link

1912. Zinaida Ushkova's House (now National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan) at the end of Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street):

Link
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:24 PM   #3609
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1900s. Pavel Shchetinkin's Hotel (now Hotel "Kazan"; right) at the intersection of Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and Sts. Peter & Paul Street (now Musa Cälil Street):

rukazan

1900s. Pavel Shchetinkin's Hotel (now Hotel "Kazan"; left) at the intersection of Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

insros

1900s. The intersection of Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

Link

1900s. Exchange building at Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street):

Rustik68
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:27 PM   #3610
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1900s. Belgian two-axle motor tramcar №116 (constructed in 1898) at Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street):

lext-2009

1900s, electric tramcar №116 with two trailers (the first double-deck trailer is redone horsecar) at Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street). The belltower of Epiphany Church on the background:

Rustik68
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:28 PM   #3611
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1900s. Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) was named for the two breaches of the Kremlin wall, which were made as the result of the explosions of the tower Nur-Ali and Lower Nogai Gate during the siege of the Kazan Kremlin by the troops of Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible in 1552:

Rukazan

1900s, the intersection of Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and University Street. Old Prolomnaya Pharmacy before reconstruction of 1913:

lext-2009

1913, the intersection of Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and University Street. Old Prolomnaya Pharmacy during reconstruction:

lext-2009

1910s, the intersection of Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and University Street. Old Prolomnaya Pharmacy after reconstruction of 1913:

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:28 PM   #3612
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1900s. Tramline near St. Eudokia Church at Lower St. Theodore Street (now Fedoseev Street):

Rustik68

1900s. 1st Imperial Gymnasium (now State Technical University named after Andrey Tupolev) at Exaltation Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Link

1900s. 1st Imperial Gymnasium (now State Technical University named after Andrey Tupolev) at Exaltation Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Inkazan

1900s. Left Black Lake Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street), the view at the "Black Lake" Garden and Kremlin:

Андрей В.

1900s. The intersection of Left Black Lake Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street) and Lobachevsky Street:

rukazan

1900s. Tramline at Pushkin Street:

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:29 PM   #3613
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1900s. City Theatre on the Theatre Square (now Freedom Square), the intersection of Pushkin Street and Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Андрей В.

1900s. City Theatre and Gentry Assembly (now City Hall) on the Theatre Square (now Freedom Square), the intersection of Pushkin Street and Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Link

1900s, Belgian two-axle motor tramcar №130 (constructed in 1898) near the monument to the Russian poet and statesman Gavrila Derzhavin (a native of Kazan Governorate) at the Derzhavin Garden. The view from the Theatre Square (now Freedom Square):

Dimar Sagdeev

1900s. Monument to Gavrila Derzhavin (1743-1816) at the Derzhavin Garden:

lext-2009

1900s. Derzhavin Garden:

Rustik68

1912. Theatre Square (now Freedom Square) during the celebrations dedicated to the centenary of Russian Victory over Napoléon's Grande Armée. The plaster monument to Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov (1745-1813) near City Theatre:

lext-2009

1910s. "Nivelles" two-axle motor tramcar №157 (constructed in 1912) on the Theatre Square (now Freedom Square) near building of Gentry Assembly (now City Hall, right):

Boris Dudenkov

1900s, City Theatre on the Theatre Square (now Freedom Square). The power station "Red Sunrise" on the background:

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:30 PM   #3614
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1900s. Gentry Assembly, now City Hall (left) and Georgian Church (right) at Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

kanneljarvi2006

1900s. Gentry Assembly, now City Hall (left) and Georgian Church (right) at Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Rustik68

1900s. Gentry Assembly, now City Hall (left) and Georgian Church (right) at Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

kanneljarvi2006

1900s. Telegraph building at Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Rustik68

1900s. Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Link

1900s. Pedagogical Institute (now "Energobank" head-office) at the intersection of Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) and Zhukovsky Street:

lext-2009

1900s. Pedagogical Institute (now "Energobank" head-office) at the intersection of Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) and Zhukovsky Street:

Link

1910s. Commercial College (now Kazan State Agrarian University) at Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Link
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:31 PM   #3615
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1900s. Art School at the end of Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Link

1900s. Art School at the end of Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street):

Link

1910s. 1st Academic Street (now Vishnevsky Street):

Link
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:31 PM   #3616
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1900s. The electric tramcar with open-type trailer on the bridge across Bolaq Canal near Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

Rustik68

1900s. The electric tramcar on the bridge across Bolaq Canal:

Abdulla Dubin

1910s. Bolaq Canal:

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:32 PM   #3617
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1900s. The intersection of Moscow Street and Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street):

Dimar Sagdeev

1900s. The intersection of Moscow Street and Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street):

Андрей В.

1900s, tramcar at Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street). The chimney of Central tram power station and Church of Four Evangelists on the background:

lext-2009

1900s. Hay Market on the Hay Square:

Teamsky

1910s. Hay Market Mosque (now Nurulla Mosque) at Moscow Street:

Link

1910s. Hay Market Mosque (now Nurulla Mosque) at Moscow Street:

mamonino
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:33 PM   #3618
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Kazan Rail Terminal was built in 1893-1896 by Genrich Rusch and was opened on January 23, 1896:

humus

1900s. Tramline near Kazan Rail Terminal:

Link

1900s. Chapel of Alexander II, the view in direction to Assumption Street (now Moscow Street):

Андрей В.

1900s, aerial view of Kazan. Volga-Prolomnaya Line at Assumption Street (now Moscow Street), Vladimir Street (now Moscow Street) and Moscow Street:

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:34 PM   #3619
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Kazan in 1918. 22nd episode of "Kinonedelya", the Moscow Cinema Committee's weekly film series, and the first newsreel series in Russia (director – Dziga Vertov):


May 19, 1916. The snow in Kazan:

lext-2009

1917. The meeting on the St. John Square (now May Day Square):

kazan

September 1918. Red Army enters into Kazan after the victory:

Link

September 1918. Red Army enters into Kazan after the victory:

Wikipedia
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:35 PM   #3620
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The revival of transport in the capital of the Tatar ASSR (1920-1929)

After the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917, Kazan Governorate ceased to exist. On May 27, 1920 within Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR) was established Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tatar ASSR) with its capital in Kazan. In the 1920s and 1930s, most of the city's mosques and churches were destroyed, as occurred elsewhere in the USSR.

The period of 1919-1921 brought decline and fall to the tram system of the city, as well as for other branches. There was almost no tram traffic, except occasional transportation of cargo and redeployment of regiments. In 1921, several tramcars were repaired. In December 1921 there was restored passenger tram operation at the Prolomnaya Line (Tolchok Market - Greater Prolomnaya Street, now Bauman Street - Fish Row Square, now Tuqay Square - St. George Street, now Petersburg Street - Cloth Settlement) and Georgian Line (Lenin Garden - Karl Marx Street - Arsk Field's Street, now Nikolay Yershov Street - Academic Settlement). The tram network consisted of tramlines with length of 20 km (comparing with former 55 km). There operated 18 motor tramcars and 2 trailers for passengers as well as 6 motor tramcars and 10 trailers for cargo operation. In April 1922 there was restored tram operation at the Volga-Prolomnaya Line to the Volga piers.

Thus, in 1922 in Kazan operated only two (but relatively long) tramlines:
1) Volga-Prolomnaya Line: Far Mouth settlement (Volga piers) - Admiralty Settlement - Tolchok Market - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) - St. George Street (now Petersburg Street) - Cloth Settlement;
2) combined Georgian-St. Catherine Line: Academic Settlement - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Karl Marx Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square (now Tuqay Square) - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) - Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - former Krestovnikovs factory (now "Nefis" Holding).

According to the data provided at the All-Russian Tram Conference of 1922, in Kazan were 17 serviceable motor tramcars, 3 serviceable trailers and 1 motor tramcar for cargo operation. But no more than 10-12 tramcars operated along the lines. They transported only 1.12 million passengers during the year (1922). There were cases that all tramcars were out of service and there was nothing to remove it from the tramlines - there was no even service tramcar in the depot. During winter of 1922/1923, tram operation was ceased again due to snow drifts and lack of resources to solve this problem. By mid-1923 tram operation started to be renewed. In May 1923 tram operation was restored and it was never interrupted since then. All in all, in the tram depot there were 18 motor tramcars and 2 trailers fit for service, and the total length of the useable street railway did not exceed 24 km of the previously constructed 55 km. The main part of the track facilities was faulty, including 42 motor tramcars and 43 trailers. In 1923 there were already 22 tramcars operating along the lines; they travelled 850.000 km and transported 6.4 million people, in 1924/1925 - 24 tramcars (7.1 million people).

In the 1920s, rails and sleepers were in bad condition. Squeaking and jumping at every rail joint, tramcars crawled slowly along the tram tracks. Accidents were quite common. Tramcars operating along single-track lines often had to wait at the passing tracks for the oncoming tram to pass by. The journey from the city centre to the Volga piers took about an hour or an hour and a half. Unsatisfactory performance occurred due to the wear and tear and obsolescence of tram tracks. Sleepers in many sections had not been changed for thirty years. The rails were worn out, switchers and frogs were loose, materials were required to repair wires, and those were not available. The tramcars were also in bad condition. Rails were often substituted for railway rails. Due to the wear and tear of the track facilities tramcars often derailed, and processions of passengers walking past the lines of motionless trams could be seen in many streets.

Power supply of trams was a problem. Due to the lack of oil products, the Central tram power station burned. The station was worn out to a great extent, it was obsolescent and could not "support" trams. It often happened that damp wood was delivered to the power station, which resulted in the drop of pressure in boiler houses and the voltage drop. Immediately tramcars stopped not only in remote districts such as Admiralty Settlement, but also in more nearest areas. Passengers had to wait or to walk.

The only basis of the tram operation was the tram depot at the Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street), existing since the time of the horse-drawn tram. There was also a small depot in Admiralty Settlement - a long shed used as a parking lot for cargo and written off tramcars, it was the Petrov tram depot. Tramcars operating in the city were mostly of pre-revolutionary Belgian make, and they were rather worn out. It often happened that the tramcar started to operate on the line in the morning, but was towed back because of some fault. Tram drivers were all men at first. But in 1930s a few women expressed the desire to become tram drivers. The first non-numerous group of female tram drivers have successfully coped with new responsibilities, denying the opinion of that time that "the work of tram driver is not for women".

Working conditions of tram drivers were extremely severe: the front platform, where the driver's workplace was located, was not at all protected from the wind. The front platform was often crowded mostly with people from the tram depot. Sometimes people travelled on the roof. Handbrakes required much strength, it was difficult to turn the steering wheel, and it was allowed to use electric brakes only in exceptional cases, for fear of spoiling the engine or other equipment. The work was even harder in autumn and winter when the observation glass was covered with ice as there was no electric heating, the driver used a rag with salt to clean the window an endless number of times, but in vain.

To improve the tram traffic, overhaul of the tram track and wires was required, there was a need for new tramcars. It became possible to get down to it only at the end of the reconstruction period. There was no opportunity to receive new tramcars at those times. That is why the Tram Management decided to purchase old Moscow tramcars. In 1924, 20 old tramcars were bought and 14 motor tramcars and 2 trailers were assembled on the basis thereof.

In 1925, the City Council (City Soviet) decided to thoroughly get down to restoration and development of tram traffic. Receiving in 1925 ten motor tramcars from Moscow was a great event. At that time the Kazan tram depot had 48 motor tramcars, let alone the trailers.

Three tramlines of pre-revolutionary times started to function. In 1925 those tramlines got numbers instead of former names. At every line there were not only stops, but stations to specify the scope of fare.
№1 (former Volga-Prolomnaya Line; 6 stations and 23 stops): Cloth Settlement - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Admiralty Settlement - Far Mouth settlement (Volga piers).
Line №1 comprised 6 stations with 23 stops, including request stops. The line ran along the 2nd Prolomnaya Street (2nd Breach Street, now Petersburg Street), Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street), Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street), Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street), Moscow Street, Admiralty Settlement and Dam of the Far Mouth settlement.
№2 (former Resurrection Line; 3 stations and 14 stops): May Day Square near Kazan Kremlin - Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street) - University Street - Little Prolomnaya Street (Little Breach Street, now Labor Unions Street) - New Potter Street (now Butlerov Street) - Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) - 2nd Hill Street (now Volkov Street).
Line №2 comprised three stations and 14 stops, including one request stop. It ran along the following streets: Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street), University Street, Little Prolomnaya Street (Little Breach Street, now Labor Unions Street), New Potter Street (now Butlerov Street), Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street), 2nd Hill Street (now Volkov Street). Tramcars of this route operated since 7:00am till 1:00am.
№3 (former Georgian-St. Catherine Line; 3 stations and 20 stops): Academic Settlement - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Karl Marx Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Tatarstan Street - Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - State Soap, Candle and Chemical Plant №1 named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding).
Line №3 (also comprised three stations and 20 stops, including two request stops. It ran along the following streets: from Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street), along Karl Marx Street, Pushkin Street, Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street), Tatarstan Street and Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street), to the State Soap, Candle and Chemical Plant №1 named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding).

In 1925-1927 the Director of tram depot was I. Derunov who did a lot for restoring of normal tram operation in Kazan. In 1926, 4 new tramcars were bought. In 1927, the tram tracks were completely overhauled and new double tracks were railed, first of all along the longest route №1 - to the Far Mouth settlement. In 1927-1928, siding track was added at all remained single-track tramlines and the tramcars started to operate along double-track lines. At that time, rail joints on all tramlines were thermit-welded. Tramcars started to move smoothly and to operate trouble-free, they travelled faster and the turnround improved. Every year the amount of transported passengers increased. In 1924/1925 (i.e. in "financial year" or "fiscal year") it was 7.1 million people, in "financial year" of 1925/1926 - 8.5 million, in 1926/1927 - 11.1 million, and in 1927/1928 – 12.275 million people. There operated 53 motor tramcars and 7 trailers in 1927/1928. The average speed of tramcars was 9.6 km/h. The total length of tramlines increased to 39.43 km (20.99 km by axis of streets). There worked 497 tram employees in 1928. The total profit from tram operation was 1.149 million rubles while total expenses – 1.170 million rubles.

In 1926 there was started replacement of the overhead contact system. Its repair was a complicated task. A huge wooden tower was used for that purpose. Two horses from the own stable of the depot were harnessed to the tower. Almost half of the day was spent to transport the tower somewhere to the Far Mouth settlement, to the Admiralty Settlement and back. It took long to swivel the tower on the track to make way for passing tramcars. One of the service men turned out to be an innovator, so at his proposal a light rubber-based tower was constructed - with one horse in the harness. In 1930, it was substituted for elevated work platform mounted on an outworn "Bedford" car. Later on, in Kazan were delivered old "Fiat", "Renault" and AMO cars that were used for such purpose. By 1930, there was replaced 40 km of the overhead contact system, during next decade (1930-1940) - almost 28 km.

By the end of 1927, tram traffic operation was at the pre-war level, but it, certainly, could not meet the demand due to the rapid population growth and enlargement of the city territory. There was acute want of tram traffic on the outskirts of the city. The said drawback was partly eliminated through arrangement of bus traffic. The first bus route in Kazan started to operate on the September 1, 1926 from the beginning of the Old Dam along Transverse Cyzicus Street (now Decembrists Street) to the present-day Uprising Settlement; there were two FIAT-BL-18 buses, they transported up to 180.000 passengers a year. In same year bus traffic started to operate in the direction of Goat Settlement and New Tatar Settlement.

The development of the tram would have been unthinkable without the improving of its power facilities. Rollers mounted on long rods, similar to trolleybus ones, were moving along the wires. Rollers often went off the wire - it sometimes caused injury to the conductor or tram driver. In 1928 roller-rod current collectors were replaced with bows and other current collectors of higher quality. The old Central tram power station (launched in 1899) was unable to provide necessary energy for tramlines. In 1928 mercury-arc rectifiers (capacity of 425 kW each) were installed at the new traction substation named after the third anniversary of the Tatar ASSR. The new traction substation was built next to the old one. Both traction substations operated together till 1929 when old tram power station was closed after 30 years of operation. Mercury-arc rectifiers were installed almost for the first time in the Soviet Union. In 1938 it were replaced with two powerful RV-20 mercury-arc rectifiers (capacity of 2400 kW each) equipped with system of water cooling. Mercury-arc rectifiers functioned up to the late 1960s. Then they were substituted for hard semiconductors.

In 1928 Management of Kazan Tram was renamed into Management of Kazan Urban Railways. The first domestically manufactured tramcars appeared that year. They were produced by Mykolaiv Plant in Ukraine. Starting from 1929, Mytishchi Plant near Moscow began to deliver tramcars to many cities of the country, including Kazan. In 1929 the first "Kh" tramcars were delivered into Kazan. They turned out to be a little bit better: closed platforms, comfortable seats, more spacious cabin and, what is more important, they were equipped with air brakes. But they were not equipped with pneumatic door drive yet. The was a safety net in front of the tramcar. The brake valve caused the safety net to immediately fall on the rails to catch up the passenger who had fallen by accident on the rails. The annual ridership increased to 17.2 million people.

May 1, 1920. The celebrations of May Day holiday on the May Day Square:

lext-2009

The plaster monument "Liberated Labour" (right) was opened on the May Day Square on May 1, 1920 at the place of the demolished Monument to Russian Emperor Alexander II (opened in 1895, demolished in 1918):

lext-2009

May 1, 1920. The celebrations of May Day holiday on the May Day Square:

lext-2009
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