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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:36 PM   #3621
geometarkv
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1915-1925, Lake Nizhny Kaban. Central tram power station (left) and new traction substation named after the third anniversary of the Tatar ASSR (its construction was started in 1915, but it was finished only in 1925 because of WWI and Russian Civil War):

lext-2009

1915-1925, Lake Nizhny Kaban. Church of Four Evangelists and chimney of the Central tram power station (left); the construction of the new traction substation named after the third anniversary of the Tatar ASSR (right):

lext-2009

1920-1927. The chimney of the Central tram power station and Church of Four Evangelists at Tatarstan Street:

Fidel-Kzn

Late 1920s. The petrol station at the intersection of Moscow Street and Fuchs Street (now Ğäliäsğar Kamal Street):

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:36 PM   #3622
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The one of old "F" tramcars that were delivered from Moscow (constructed at Mytishchi Plant):

Link

Tramcar of Mykolaiv Plant:

Link

1910s-1920s. Tramline near the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius at Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street):

rustik68

1920s. Old tramcar near the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius at Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street):

rustik68

1920-1927. 1st Kazan Special Purpose Battalion:

inkazan
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:37 PM   #3623
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New routes (1930-1941)

Prior to 1930s, there were only four tram routes in Kazan:
№1: Cloth Settlement - Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Admiralty Settlement - Far Mouth settlement (Volga piers).
The first, and the longest one, ran from Cloth Settlement along Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street) and Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) and further on through the old Admiralty Dam (now Kirov Dam) to the Far Mouth settlement.
№2: Kremlin - Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street) - University Street - Labor Unions Street - Butlerov Street - Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) - Volkov Street.
The second route ran from the Kremlin along Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street), University Street, Labor Unions Street, Butlerov Street and Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) - to the Volkov Street.
№3: Nikolay Yershov Street - Karl Marx Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Tatarstan Street - Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - State Soap, Candle and Chemical Plant №1 named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding).
The third route ran from Nikolay Yershov Street to the State Soap, Candle and Chemical Plant №1 named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding) - along Karl Marx Street, Pushkin Street, Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street), Tatarstan Street and Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street).
№4: Rail Terminal - Moscow Street - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Kasatkin Street.
And, finally, the fourth route ran from the Rail Terminal to Kasatkin Street - along Moscow Street, through the "Ring", along Fish Row Street that is now part of Pushkin Street, through Freedom Square.

Three routes ran through Fish Row Square that in 1930s was renamed into Cooperative Square and some years later - into Kuybyshev Square (now Tuqay Square). However, this square was been known simply as "Ring" for local residents since pre-revolutionary times. Approximately until 1940, there was a small public garden with dusted wilted shrubs in the centre of the square, there were two pavilions for passengers and a monument to Russian Revolutionary, native of Kazan Nikolay Bauman (1873-1905) in the centre. This monument was opened in 1934. Trams went round the public garden, the rails formed a ring. In 1937 the monument was transferred to the garden of the Kazan Veterinary Institute at Nikolay Yershov Street, where Nikolay Bauman studied at the end of the last century.

On November 5, 1930 started to operate tram route №5: Cloth Settlement - Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Tatarstan Street - Narimanov Street - Rail Terminal - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Berry Settlement. It was first tramline in Kazan that was built in Soviet years. The length of route №5 was 7.7 km. The part of this tramline between "Ring" and Tatarstan Street was laid at the six-span wooden bridge across Bolaq Canal (length - 35 m). The part of same tramline between Admiralty Settlement and Berry Settlement was laid on the Brokeback Bridge across Kazanka River. This arch single-span bridge (length - 65.6 m, width - 11.5 m) was built in 1929 and was very unreliable. Very often, Brokeback Bridge turned to be unusable for tram operation and was needed for repairment. Then there was organized transfer - passengers crossed by this bridge on foots and later sat down in the other tramcar (during these periods, two tramcars operated at the Berry Settlement independently from rest tramlines). In October 1935 tram traffic through Brokeback Bridge was restored in last time, and in May 1937 this bridge was finally closed for tram operation.

The total length of tramlines increased to 42.9 km. In 1931 there was opened tram route №6: from Nikolay Yershov Street to the Fur Plant. The length of this tram route was some less than 6 km. As a result, tram service embraced New Tatar Settlement. The construction of new sections was carried with difficulty: there was necessary to dismantle non-existing tramlines the operation of which was ceased as a result of the Civil War. In early-1920s there were dismantled tram tracks at the 1st Academic Street (now Vishnevsky Street). Later were removed tram tracks at Dzerzhinsky Street, Lobachevsky Street, Kasatkin Street, Fedoseev Street, Krasin Street (now Yapeev Street) and Mislavsky Street.

On March 10, 1932 tram route №5 was shortened: Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Narimanov Street - Rail Terminal - Admiralty Settlement - Berry Settlement. According to decision of Kazan City Council (City Soviet), Management of Kazan Urban Railways was renamed into "Kazan Tram under jurisdiction of the Municipal Communal Services Department". That year last obsolete Belgian tramcars ceased to operate. The total length of tramlines reached 45.6 km (24.5 km by axis of streets). In 1932 mercury-arc traction substation №2 was put into operation at the Admiralty Settlement. There were installed two RV-5 mercury-arc rectifiers (capacity of 320 kW each) which were manufactured at the Leningrad Plant "Elektrosila" ("Electric power"). Due to design flaws, RV-5 mercury-arc rectifiers were operated less than one year. As a result, it were replaced with RV-10 mercury-arc rectifiers manufactured at same Leningrad Plant "Elektrosila".

The annual ridership increased to 51.637 million passengers in 1932. On the average, in 1932 each Kazan resident did 220 trips in the tramcar. On the average (considering new and written-off tramcars), there operated 62 motor tramcars and 30.4 trailers in 1932. The average speed of tramcars was 11.6 km/h. The number of tram employees increased to 1027 people. Since September 1, 1932, the cost of tram ticket increased from 10 kopecks (0.10 rubles) to 15 kopecks (0.15 rubles). In 1932, the total profit from tram operation was 5.604 million rubles while total expenses – 2.796 million rubles.

In 1930s there began to operate Sergo Ordzhonikidze Plant №124 (now Kazan Aircraft Production Association named after Sergey Gorbunov) in the remote settlement of Karavayevo north of the centre of Kazan. This plant was established in 1932. In 1934 it got name the Plant №124 named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze. It produced Tupolev ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky" eight-engine aircraft (the largest aircraft of the 1930s) and Petlyakov Pe-8 heavy bombers (that were used for the first Soviet air strikes on Berlin in August 1941). In 1932 in Kazan began construction of the aviation combine "Kazmash". In 1935-1939 there was formed the Motor Plant №27 at the territory of the Kazan Aviation Plant №124 named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze. In 1936-1937 there were mainly repaired engines. In 1938 there began production of the centrifugal type superchargers for Klimov M-103s (V12 liquid-cooled piston aircraft engines) and repairment of the Mikulin M-17, Shvetsov M-25 and Mikulin AM-34 (M-34) aicraft engines. In 1940 the Kazan Motor Plant №27 began production of the Klimov M-105s (V12 liquid-cooled piston aircraft engine for the Petlyakov Pe-2 dive bomber aircraft).

Thus, there appeared large industrial district at the northern outskirt of city. Of course, such large-scale construction works could be impossible without attraction of the large number of workers. Some workers lived in the barracks near construction sites, but majority of them lived in the "city" (i.e. in rest of Kazan). That's why problem of their transportation became actual. In 1933 was opened new unnumbered tram route (future tram route №9): from 9th Union Street (now Uprising Street) to the Fair Square (now Millenium Square). Initially, this route was unnumbered because for few years staff and all facilities of this route - tramline, rolling stock, etc - operated under jurisdiction of the Kazan Aviation Plant. Travel time by this line was 10-12 minutes. Thus, tram service appeared in the area of Kazmashstroy (aircraft manufacturing) as well as in Goat Settlement, Cyzicus Settlement and in Grivka Settlement. This tramline was double-track except single-track segment on the old wooden bridge across Kazanka River.

In 1933 the segments of tram routes №4 and №5 were transferred from dismantled tramline at Narimanov Street to the new lines at Right Bolaq Street and Left Bolaq Street. In 1933 the first "M" trailers were delivered into Kazan, and there began to operate tram trains which consisted of "Kh" motor tramcars and "M" trailers. Until 1933 a so-called post-station tariff existed in the Kazan tram. The conductor sold tickets of different price depending on the length of the passengers' travel. It was confusing. On the proposal of the Rationalization Bureau of the Kazan Tram Management a single tariff was introduced. It's interesting to write about some traditions that were preserved in tramcars of those years since the pre-revolutionary times (1870s-1880s). Every year in the beginning of spring modest posters appeared in tramcars - "The first movement of ice on Volga River!". After few days, these posters increased in size and sounded more calling - "The ice was broken on the Volga!". And, finally, posters cried - "Full floating of ice on the Volga!". Then people rode to the Far Mouth settlement to admire the raging nature. As a result, conductors returned to the tram depot with tightly packed bags: during those days, revenue increased and plan was overfulfiled. These lovely holidays ended in 1957 after the creation of the Kuybyshev Reservoir (so-called Kuybyshev Sea) because spring floating of ice on the Volga River became more silently, without noise and crackling.

In 1934 there was built mercury traction substation №4. There were installed RMIV-1000 mercury-arc rectifiers (capacity of 600 kW each). The part of the tram route №5 was transferred from Right Bolaq Street and Left Bolaq Street to the new tramlines at Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) and Ukhtomsky Street (now Burhan Shahidi Street). The annual ridership increased to 51.854 million passengers.

By the beginning of 1935, the total length of the tramlines reached 56.8 km. In addition, all tramlines, except only for parts of tram routes №2 and №6, were double-track. There operated 121 tramcars (71 motor tramcars and 50 trailers). By 1935, Kazan tram depot had 53 new motor tramcars of Mytishchi and Mykolaiv plants, 10 old tramcars from Moscow and 8 serviceable motor tramcars left over by Belgian "Joint stock company of urban railways in Kazan", one of which was the true veteran as it had been used since the very commencement of tram traffic in Kazan. The said tramcar could have been used as an operating exhibit while celebrating the 35th anniversary of the Kazan tram in 1934. At that time there were 50 trailers, including 22 new "M" trailers constructed by Mytishchi Plant and 28 tramcars constructed by the Kazan Tram Management.

The system of repairment and laying of tram tracks was modernized. Instead of expensive thermit welding electric welding was used. In 1929-1934, all primitive switches and frogs were substituted for modern ones. Electric welding was used for all types of track work. In 1935, the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic celebrated the 15th anniversary of its establishment, consequently, it is no wonder that the achieved progress in different industries was assessed in terms of 1935. The local printed media published a comparison table for passenger traffic amounts as of 1935, proving eloquently the benefits and progress of socialism. However, such analytics is equal to the comparison of the number of TV sets owned by peasants in 1896 and in 1996. In fact, that is the impact of the technological progress all over the world on the whole. For in 1896, no one had a TV set, even the Russian Emperor. As for the surface transport, the progress appeared in the following showing: the average operating speed of the tram, by 1934, achieved 12.4 km/hour instead of the previous 9 km/hour. In 1934 there was established dispatch service with telephone connection between dispatching stations.

Celebration of its 15th anniversary by the Tatar ASSR must have evoked the wind of change in tram traffic management. In February 1935, the Management of Kazan Urban Tram run by the Municipal Communal Services Department was reorganized into the Urban Railways Trust. Besides, by the May Day (May 1) in the same year, two tramcars were prepared and painted to put to test, one was painted olive, the other was painted blue. The issue of making the appearance of the Kazan tramcars more attractive had been addressed before. It was acknowledged that the Kazan tramcars were extremely dirty both on the outside and inside. The initial decision was to paint the bottom of the tramcars olive, to paint the top pale-yellow, and to introduce new uniform for tram conductors. To give trial runs to the idea it was planned to put into operation two newly colored trial tram trains. May Day holiday became the trial day for the said idea. Besides, it was decided to increase the number of tram cleaners by 20 persons and, by March 1935, 10 thousand rubles were allocated for disinfection of tramcars.

However, republican newspapers of 1930s are full of critical articles towards tram management. There was critics towards low level of repairment works, very high percentage of returning of tramcars to the tram depot, frequent cases of derailment (569 accidents in 1934) and even collision of tramcars (88 accidents in 1934). There were problems with regularity of tram traffic. There were complaints about cultural level of tram employees among duties of whom was communication with passengers - conductors, controllers, drivers. In general, there was something to strive for in order to improve culture of the transport service for passengers.

Careless driving occurred on the roads adjacent to the tram track. For example, at 1:00pm, on January 9, 1935, there was a crash on the Admiralty Dam (now Kirov Dam) - a Tatartorg's truck ran into a tramcar of route №5, because the driver of the truck Samarin failed to observe traffic rules. The driver, who was going in the direction of the city from Admiralty Settlement was driving on the left side of the road, irrespective of the traffic rules, and when the tram approached it, the driver of the lorry tried to cross the tram track right before the tramcar. Two people suffered in the accident: tram driver Cherepanova and militia (police) agent Ivanov. Both of them were slightly wounded. A great number of accidents occurred due to passengers' inattentiveness. Children and visitors from the rural places were often injured. Due to a number of reasons, including the foregoing, in February 1935, the Management of Kazan Urban Tram run by the Municipal Communal Services Department, as it was mentioned before, was reorganized into the Urban Railway Trust, which was directly subordinate to the Presidium of the City Council (City Soviet). A. Petrov was appointed Director of the Trust. However, the name "Tram Management" lived on.

"Cadres decide everything" – that is one of the most famous sayings of the Stalin era. Personnel training was one of the most important tasks for the Kazan Tram Management. As the tram branches were extended and the intervals of tram routes became tighter in the 1930s, additional staff was required. In order to train personnel for the work as tram drivers and conductors of the tram routes, the Management arranged two-month training courses. As the party directive set forth the task of training nationals, preference was given to the Tatars. Social background was taken into account as well. It should be noted that it was easier for conductors who spoke not only Russian but Tatar as well to communicate with passengers, especially with those who came to visit Kazan from rural hinterland. The basic level for those who attended tram training courses was the curriculum of a 4-year school. Persons not younger than 20 years of age were admitted to tram driving training courses, and persons not younger than 19 years of age were admitted to training courses for conductors. In addition, the said students were paid allowance. In 1935, those who studied to be tram drivers received from 45 to 55 rubles, and future conductors received from 35 to 45 rubles. In 1932-1937 in the Kazan tram depot worked driver Ivan Kabushkin (1915-1943), future Hero of Soviet Union (1965).

On May 31, 1935 there was ceased tram operation at the central Bauman Street. For that reason, the part of tram route №1 was transferred to Right Bolaq Street and Left Bolaq Street. That year in Kazan began publishing newspaper "Trammer" with big circulation.

In 1937 unnumbered tram route (future tram route №9) was extended up to the Aviation Plant and Karavayevo settlement. It was most important of the new tramlines because it connected the city centre with its northern outskirts. The length of this route was more than 12 kilometers. Next year there was built tram depot (capacity - 45 tramcars) at the present-day Kopylov Street for serving of this route. Initially it was warehouse of construction trust. During first years, tram depot operated under jurisdiction of the Kazan Aviation Plant. However, this depot was very primitive, dead-end type: there were no shunting tracks. The repairment of tramcars and other equipment for serving of future route №9 was carried at the old depot at Nikolay Yershov Street. There operated about 10 tram trains (consisting of "Kh" motor tramcars and "M" trailers) by this route. In 1938 silicate brick plant in the Lenin District launched traction substation №3 at own territory. There were installed three RV-5 mercury-arc rectifiers (capacity of 300 kW each). The number of passengers transported during the year amounted, according to the data of 1938, to 65.5 million people.

Since 1930s, in Kazan began construction of the tram depot №2 at Pavlyukhin Street in the Cloth Settlement. By 1941, its construction was almost finished. However, at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, defense plant started to work at the territory of tram depot. As a result, tram depot №2 was put into operation only in late 1960s.

In 1936 there was held statistical survey of traffic by tickets, for first time in Kazan. As a result, in 1938-1939 there were introduced timetables for routes and tramcars. In 1940 length of tram network was 70.6 km. That year 10 "Kh" motor tramcars and 20 "M" trailers were delivered to Kazan. It were first Kazan tramcars constructed at the Ust-Katav Plant (in 1937 production of these models of tramcars was transferred from Mytishchi Plant near Moscow to the Urals at Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant). In general, there were 159 tramcars in Kazan. The annual passenger traffic increased to 76.1 million passengers.

In 1940 there was eliminated famous tram ring at the Kuybyshev Square (now Tuqay Square). Due to the traffic growth the ring was dismantled, but the name "Ring" lives till our days. The tramcars became to pass through this square by the direct tramlines. Also, there was ceased tram operation at Right Bolaq Street and Left Bolaq Street. In the 1930s, there was a surge in the development of the Kazan tram traffic. By the end of the decade there were 9 routes in the city. On May 26, 1940 there was opened tram route №7 (Rail Terminal - Far Mouth settlement); on June 2, 1940 - tram route №8 (Rail Terminal - Nikolay Yershov Street). Both new routes were opened at the existing tramlines.

On January 18, 1940 unnumbered tram route to Karavayevo settlement (including staff and all its facilities) was transferred from jurisdiction of the Kazan Aviation Plant to the jurisdiction of the Kazan Tram Management. This route got number №9 while its tram depot got number №3. This route linked not only two districts, but also two different "worlds" - modern, fast-paced Lenin District (now Aviastroitelny District) and so-called "city", i.e. rest of Kazan - dusty in summer and muddy in spring and autumn.

In 1941 Kazan got 18 tramcars that formerly operated in Moscow, including 9 "Kh" tramcars and 9 KM motor tramcars - the latter were constructed at Kolomna Plant in the city of Kolomna, Moscow Region. They were first four-axle motor tramcars in Kazan. The publishing of newspaper "Trammer" was stopped in 1941.

1930s. Tram depot №1 at Nikolay Yershov Street:

kazantransport

1930s. "Kh" tramcar №26 near tram depot №1 at Nikolay Yershov Street, tram route №3:

Димар Сагдеев

1930s. The light track and tramcar in Kazan:

lext-2009

1930s. The overhaul of tramline near beginning of Tatarstan Street:

inkazan

1930. Tramline at Tatarstan Street (photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

Ramiln

November 25, 1931. The delairment of "Kh" tramcar №45 at Tatarstan Street, tram route №6:

lext-2009

1935, Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street). The workers of the Urban Railways Trust clears the trench for laying of the new 1-km long track in order to extend tram route №3 from Kazan State Fat Combine named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding) to the hostel of the construction workers of the Kazan Synthetic Rubber Plant №4 named after Sergey Kirov:

rustik68

1935. The painting of "Kh" tramcar to the May Day celebrations:

Rustik68
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:38 PM   #3624
geometarkv
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THE HISTORY OF KAZAN TRAM ROUTES (1899-1940)

The first electric tram routes were opened in Kazan on December 2, 1899. Before Revolution, it had no numbers - only names of the terminus stops on information tables. These tables were located on the roof from the both sides of tramcar.

Tram route №1:

September 13, 1900 - 19??:
Unnumbered Volga Line: Tolchok Market - Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement.

19?? - 1918:
Unnumbered Volga-Prolomnaya Line: Cloth Settlement - 2nd Prolomnaya Street (2nd Breach Street, now Petersburg Street) - St. George Street (now Petersburg Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Tolchok Market - Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement.

February 1919 - December 1921:
The route did not operate.

December 1921 - April 1922:
Unnumbered Prolomnaya Line: Cloth Settlement - 2nd Prolomnaya Street (2nd Breach Street, now Petersburg Street) - St. George Street (now Petersburg Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Tolchok Market.

April 1922 - 1925:
Unnumbered Volga-Prolomnaya Line: Cloth Settlement - 2nd Prolomnaya Street (2nd Breach Street, now Petersburg Street) - St. George Street (now Petersburg Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Tolchok Market - Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement.

1925 - 1935:
№1: Cloth Settlement - Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement.

1935 - 1940:
№1: Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Kuybyshev Street (now Pushkin Street) - Right Bolaq Street & Left Bolaq Street - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Kirov Street (now Moscow Street) - Admiralty Settlement - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement.

Tram route №2:

1906 - 1918:
Unnumbered Resurrection Line: St. John Square (now May Day Square) near Kazan Kremlin - Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) - University Street - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Shcherbakov Lane - New Potter Street (now Butlerov Street) - Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) - Transverse Street of 2nd and 3rd Hills (now Aivazovsky Street) - 2nd Hill Street (now Volkov Street).

February 1919 - 192?:
The route did not operate.

192? - 1925:
Unnumbered Resurrection Line: May Day Square near Kazan Kremlin - Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street) - University Street – Little Prolomnaya Street (Little Breach Street, now Labor Unions Street) - New Potter Street (now Butlerov Street) - Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) - 2nd Hill Street (now Volkov Street).

1925 - 1940:
№2: Kremlin - Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street) - University Street - Little Prolomnaya Street (Little Breach Street, now Labor Unions Street) - New Potter Street (now Butlerov Street) - Likhachov Street (now Aivazovsky Street) - 2nd Hill Street (now Volkov Street).

Tram route №3:

December 26, 1900 - 1918:
Unnumbered St. Catherine Line: St. John Square (now May Day Square) near Kazan Kremlin - Tolchok Market - Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Transverse Vladimir Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Hay Square - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) - St. Catherine Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - Krestovnikovs factory (now "Nefis" Holding).

February 1919 - 1922:
The route did not operate.

1922 - 1925:
Unnumbered Georgian-St. Catherine Line: Academic Settlement - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Karl Marx Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) - Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - former Krestovnikovs factory (now "Nefis" Holding).

1925 - 1940:
№3: Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Karl Marx Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Tatarstan Street - Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - State Soap, Candle and Chemical Plant №1 named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding).

Georgian Line:

December 2, 1899 - 1906:
Unnumbered Georgian Line: Nicholas Square (now Lenin Garden) - Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Arsk cemetery.

1906 - 1918:
Unnumbered Georgian Line: St. John Square (now May Day Square) near Kazan Kremlin - Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) - Left Black Lake Street (now Dzerzhinsky Street) - Lobachevsky Street - Intercession Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Theatre Square (now Freedom Square) - Georgian Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Academic Settlement (by 1st Academic Street, now Vishnevsky Street) and "Russian Switzerland" Garden (now Central Park of Culture and Leisure named after Maxim Gorky).

February 1919 - December 1921:
The route did not operate.

December 1921 - 1922:
Unnumbered Georgian Line: Lenin Garden - Karl Marx Street - Arsk Field's Street (now Nikolay Yershov Street) - Academic Settlement.

Tram route №4:

December 2, 1899 - 19??:
Unnumbered Prolomnaya Line: Tolchok Market - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - St. George Street (now Petersburg Street) - 2nd Prolomnaya Street (2nd Breach Street, now Petersburg Street) - Cloth Settlement.

1925 - 1933:
№4: Rail Terminal - Moscow Street (through Narimanov Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Pushkin Street - Kasatkin Street.

1933 - 1940:
№4: Rail Terminal - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Right Bolaq Street & Left Bolaq Street - Cooperative Street (now Pushkin Street) - Cooperative Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street) - Esperanto Street at the Cloth Settlement.

Tram route №5:

December 2, 1899 - 19??:
Unnumbered Fish Row Line: Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street).

19?? - 1918:
Unnumbered Circular Line: Rail Terminal - Transverse Vladimir Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Guest Court Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) - St. John Square (now May Day Square) - Resurrection Street (now Kremlin Street) - Kazan Street (now Mislavsky Street) - Exaltation Street (now Karl Marx Street) - Transverse Kazan Street (now Yapeev Street) - Lower St. Theodore Street (now Fedoseev Street) - Kasatkin Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Evangelists Street (now Tatarstan Street) - Greater Philistine Street (now Narimanov Street) - Rail Terminal.

November 5, 1930 - March 10, 1932:
№5: Cloth Settlement - Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Tatarstan Street - Narimanov Street - Rail Terminal - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Berry Settlement.

March 10, 1932 - 1933:
№5: Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Tatarstan Street - Narimanov Street - Rail Terminal - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Berry Settlement.

1933 - 1934:
№5: Cooperative Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Cooperative Street (now Pushkin Street) - Right Bolaq Street & Left Bolaq Street - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Berry Settlement.

1934 - 1940:
№5: Cooperative Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Cooperative Street (now Pushkin Street) - Tatarstan Street - Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - Ukhtomsky Street (now Burhan Shahidi Street) - Rail Terminal - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Moscow Street - Admiralty Settlement - Berry Settlement.

Tram route №6:

1931 - 1940:
№6: Nikolay Yershov Street - Karl Marx Street - Pushkin Street - Fish Row Street (now Pushkin Street) - Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Tatarstan Street - Yamaşev Street (now Furriers Street) - Fur Plant at the New Tatar Settlement.

Tram route №7:

May 26, 1940:
№7: Rail Terminal - Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street) - Kirov Street (now Moscow Street) - Admiralty Settlement - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement.

Tram route №8:

June 2, 1940:
№8: Rail Terminal - Ukhtomsky Street (now Burhan Shahidi Street) - Tuqay Street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Street) - Tatarstan Street - Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Kuybyshev Street (now Pushkin Street) - Pushkin Street - Karl Marx Street - Nikolay Yershov Street.

Tram route №9:

1933 - 1937:
Unnumbered: Fair Square (now Millenium Square) - Greater Road (now Decembrists Street) - 9th Union Street (now Uprising Street).

1937 - 1940:
Unnumbered: Fair Square (now Millenium Square) - Greater Road (now Decembrists Street) - Aviation Plant and Karavayevo settlement.

1940:
№9: Fair Square (now Millenium Square) - Greater Road (now Decembrists Street) - Aviation Plant and Karavayevo settlement.

1935, THE SCHEME OF KAZAN TRAM ROUTES
№1: Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Volga piers at the Far Mouth settlement;
№2: Kremlin - Volkov Street;
№3: Nikolay Yershov Street - State Fat Combine named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding);
№4: Rail Terminal - Esperanto Street;
№5: Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Berry Settlement;
№6: Nikolay Yershov Street - Fur Plant at the New Tatar Settlement;
Unnumbered (future №9): Fair Square (now Millenium Square) - 9th Union Street (now Uprising Street):


tat-map

THE SCHEME OF KAZAN TRAM ROUTES IN 1917-1941 (DIFFERENT YEARS):
№1 (in 1935): Far Mouth settlement - Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square);
№2 (in 1940): Kremlin - Chekhov Street;
№3 (in 1940): Nikolay Yershov Street - State Fat Combine named after Mullanur Waxitov (now "Nefis" Holding);
№4 (in 1940): Rail Terminal - Esperanto Street at the Cloth Settlement;
№5 (in 1940): Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square) - Berry Settlement;
№6 (in 1940): Nikolay Yershov Street - Fur Plant at the New Tatar Settlement;
№7 (in 1940): Rail Terminal - Far Mouth settlement;
№8 (in 1940): Rail Terminal - Nikolay Yershov Street;
№9 (in 1940): Aviation Plant - Fair Square (now Millenium Square):


kazantransport

1926-1927. The coupon for 2-kopecks discount per station:

a-orlov

KAZAN TRAM TICKETS 1920s-1940s:
№1 - tram ticket of 1920s (cost - 10 kopecks or 0.10 rubles);
№№2-10 - tram tickets of 1930s (cost - 15 kopecks or 0.15 rubles);
№№11-14 - tram tickets of 1940s (cost - 15 kopecks or 0.15 rubles):


a-orlov
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:40 PM   #3625
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The language reforms and general development of city in the interwar period (1920-1941)

By 1923, some faubourgs were included into city boundaries (Kalugina Hill, Podametyevo, Zhirovka, Krylovka and Savinovskaya stroyka). By 1926, Udelnaya and Ivanovskaya Settlements became part of city. In 1930s, territory of city was extended again. After devastation in early 1920s, the city was significally changed in 1930s. There was restored sewerage. The old gardens were landscaped and new parks appeared in the city. In addition, there were opened new industrial enterprises. The most important of new enterprises was Kazan Aviation Plant №124 named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze that was established in 1932 (now KAPO - Kazan Aircraft Production Association). As a result, Kazan became one of the main center of the aircraft industry of USSR.

Before 1928, the Tatar language was usually written using the Arabic alphabet. The writing system was inherited from Bolgar. Until 1905 all literature was in Old Tatar, which was evolved from the Bolgar, which differed from modern Tatar. Since 1905 newspapers came to use modern Tatar in publishing. In 1918 the alphabet was revised (some letters for Tatar sounds were added, some Arabic letters were deleted). In 1920-1927, Yaña imlâ (Tatar: "new orphography") - modified variant of Arabic script was in use for the Tatar language. As early as in 1924 the first projects of Latin script were introduced. Since July 3, 1927, Tatarstan officials have declared Latin alphabet (Yañalif - "new alphabet") as the official script of the Tatar language, replacing the Yaña imlâ script. A Latin alphabet (Yañalif) was used from 1928. But in 1930s Turkey became one of the numerous potential enemies of the Soviet Union. Even though Atatürk's alphabet was different from Yañalif, for Soviet officials the Latin script was a symbol of the outer, bourgeois world. In 1939 Cyrillization of USSR was initiated and Yañalif was prohibited, although it remained in use until January 1940. As was said, alphabet was switched to Cyrillic "by labor's request". On May 5, 1939 this project was established as official by the Supreme Soviet of TASSR. Surprisingly, "Tatar society disagreed to this project" and during 1940 July conference a Cyrillic alphabet was finally standardized. On January 10, 1941 this project was passed. The Cyrillic alphabet has been used ever since.

Kazan became important industrial center of the Soviet Union. In 1929-1933 there operated Kama tank school - the secret training school for tank commanders operated by the German Reichswehr. The Treaty of Versailles, signed on June 28, 1919, prohibited Germany from operating any form of tank or air force after the country had lost the WWI. Germany had normalised its relations with the Soviet Union in 1922, with the signing of the Treaty of Rapallo. At the time, both countries were outcasts in the world community. Initially, Germany was unwilling to break the Treaty of Versailles. This attitude changed however in 1923, when French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr area after Germany defaulted on its reparations. On October 3, 1926, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a contract to establish a tank school on Soviet territory. The school was eventually opened in 1929 on the bank of Kaban Lake and served to train approximately 30 German tanks specialists. After its opening, the school accommodated up to a dozen German officers at a time, training there for up to two years. As its equipment, the school had six heavy and three light tanks brought in and a number of light British tanks supplied by the Soviets. Apart from training officers, the school also served German companies like "Krupp", "Daimler" and "Rheinmetall" as a development ground for new tank designs. Technicians worked on the designs that would later become the Panzerkampfwagen I and II. Many of the officers training, instructing or visiting Kama would later become high ranking commanders in the Wehrmacht or its Panzerwaffe, among them Ernst Volckheim (1898-1962), Werner von Blomberg (1878-1946), Walter Model (1891-1945), Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma (1891-1948). Heinz Guderian (1888-1954) visited Kama school with inspection in summer of 1932. While at Kama, the German military personal was not allowed to wear German uniforms, usually civilian cloth were worn, occasionally also borrowed Soviet uniforms. In the early 1930s, the political situation for the tank school began to change. The Soviet Union opened itself to the West while Germany attempted a closer approach to France. In December 1932, Germany achieved being viewed as an equal at the Geneva Conference, making the secret schools somewhat unnecessary. With the rise of the Nazis to power in January 1933, the ideological gap between fascist Germany and the communist Soviet Union became too large and the tank school at Kazan was closed in late 1933. In Kama school studied many future outstanding Soviet commanders such as Semyon Krivoshein (1899-1978). The German tanks served as prototypes for designing of new models of Soviet tanks.

After Civil War, the population of Kazan greatly increased - 146.495 thousand residents in 1920 (21.9% of whom were Tatars), 158.4 thousand residents in 1923, 179 thousand residents in 1926 (25.7% - Tatars), 184 thousand residents in 1927, 200.9 thousand residents in 1931, 234.9 thousand residents in 1932, 406 thousand residents in 1939 (30% - Tatars). There were established Kazan Agricultural Institute (now Kazan State Agrarian University, 1922), Kazan Power Institute (now Kazan State Power Engineering University, 1930), Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute (1931), Kazan Aviation Institute (now Kazan State Technical University named after Andrey Tupolev, 1932), dozens of schools, clubs and hospitals. Also, in 1930s in Kazan were opened Theatre for Young Spectators (1932), Theatre of Drama and Comedy (1933) and Puppet Theatre (1934).

The historical video frames of the Soviet Kazan during the period from Civil War to 1930s:
Some frames with Kazan tramlines:
00:10 - 00:15. Central City Library named after Vladimir Lenin (now National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan) at the end of Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street);
00:19 - 00:22. Kazan Agricultural Institute (now Kazan State Agrarian University) at Karl Marx Street;
00:23 - 00:28. Kazan State University named after Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin (now Kazan [Volga Region] Federal University) at Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street);
00:29 - 00:32. Kazan Chemical-Technological Institute named after Alexander Butlerov (now Kazan National Research Technological University) at Karl Marx Street;
00:55 - 00:59. Bauman Street;
01:03 - 01:11. Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street):



KAZAN LIFE IN 1930

In spring-summer of 1930, Frank Whitson Fetter (1899-1991), an American economist, university professor, and government advisor, visited Moscow and Volga Region during his trip in USSR. He left excellent collection of photos depicting life of Soviet people. Unfortunately, his photos were not systematized. That's why it's difficult to recognize place of photoshooting at many photos. Nethertheless, Fetter's photographs of daily life in the Soviet provinces represent an untapped resource to scholars working on a variety of topics, including Russian visual culture, the history of Soviet childhood and everyday life, as well as Russian-American cultural relations in the 20th century.

Frank Whitson Fetter traveled extensively throughout his lifetime, primarily on matters of business. In 1930, he visited two major cities in the USSR. His first stop was Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, from which the Communist Party launched its First Five-Year Plan to industrialize the country and collectivize agriculture, irrespective of the massive social dislocation and organized state violence required to achieve its over-ambitious goals. However, after only two days in Moscow, "turning over stones <…> to no avail," Fetter decided to ditch his "Intourist" guides and venture beyond the usual cities and towns on the official itinerary for foreign visitors. Instead, Fetter spent the bulk of his two-month trip in and around the city of Kazan, which was then the capitol of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and is today the capital city of the Russian Republic of Tatarstan.

William Henry Chamberlin (1897-1969), a prominent historian of Russia, had warned Fetter in 1930 "that with the increasing severity of the Stalin regime, the Russians, even Communists in good standing, fearful for their own safety, were beginning to avoid social contacts with foreigners". Undaunted, the thirty-one-year-old American economist persevered and appears to have had little trouble befriending ordinary Soviet citizens. During his stay in the Soviet Union, he spent "six weeks with a Russian family in Kazan on the Upper Volga," as he wrote, "in a very livable, although not pretentious room all to myself <…>, and with arrangements to take my meals at a boarding house next door and to take Russian lessons <…>. Of course there isn't a radio in every room, or hot or cold running water by the bedside, but the place has electric lights, I can see the Volga from the drawing room of the boarding house, and Kazan is a quiet, and at the same time an almost interesting place". He noted that "the days in Kazan fly by rapidly and far from suffering from boredom in a place where I am the only American within several hundred miles, I find that when these long summer evenings come there are many things I meant to do that I didn't do".

Although Fetter arrived in Kazan precisely ten years after the official establishment of a Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, he appears to have had no firm itinerary or discernible purpose, besides a desire to record everything he could about his stay in first Socialist country in the world. An accomplished amateur photographer, Fetter eagerly documented his surroundings. He toured a veneer factory, a worker's sanatorium, and the recently-organized "Sunrise" collective farm; visited parks, walked in the woods, swam in the Volga, and studied Russian with a private tutor. He was even able to take "a week's trip down the Volga sharing a stateroom with a young Ukrainian journalist and his wife, who later made me one of the three principal characters in a somewhat fictionalized book about the trip". Fetter also wrote many letters and saved notebooks and clippings. Like a good economist, he noted the prices and availability of goods such as strawberries and candy in the market lines for sugar and cigarettes, as well as the fact that Chinese women made paper toys for children in Kazan.

But it was photography that really excited Fetter. He fretted over his photos and told his wife that he would only feel he had reached his destination "when I and my photographic material get safely across the frontier". It is these amateur photos -- taken by an American economist in Kazan in 1930 and preserved at the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Duke University - that can be seen in this digital collection of images from the papers of Frank Whitson Fetter.

1930. Kazan Kremlin, view from Kazanka River:

humus

1930. Kazan Monastery of Our Lady on the spot where miraculous icon of "Our Lady of Kazan" was discovered:

humus

1930. St. John Monastery and Guest Court on the background:

humus

1930, Tolchok Market in Kazan. Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral on the background:

Link

1930, Tolchok Market in Kazan. Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral on the background:

Link

1930. The delivering of bread to the department of Kazan Central Workers' Cooperative:

humus

1930. The repair shop and barbershop in Kazan:

humus

1930. The department of Kazan Central Workers' Cooperative at the intersection of Upland Street and Gorky Street (now Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya Street):

humus

1930. Fedoseev Street:

humus

1930. Pioneers Street (now Chernyshevsky Street), between its intersection with Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street) and "Black Lake" Garden. Kazan State Circus named after 8th anniversary of Tatar ASSR and Kazan Monastery of Our Lady on the background:

humus

1930. Ulyanovs Street (now Ulyanov-Lenin Street):

Link

1930. Tramline in Kazan:

Link

1930. The tomb of pilot N. Bychkov who was killed in the plane crash near Kazan on July 21, 1924:

Inkazan
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:41 PM   #3626
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1920s. Monument to Vladimir Lenin on the May Day Square that was erected at the place of the plaster monument "Liberated Labour":

lext-2009

1930. Saviour Tower of Kazan Kremlin with portrait of Vladimir Lenin at the May Day Square during celebrations dedicated to the tenth anniversary of the Tatar ASSR (photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

Wikipedia

1930. Saviour Tower of Kazan Kremlin with portrait of Vladimir Lenin at the May Day Square during celebrations dedicated to the tenth anniversary of the Tatar ASSR (photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

humus
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:41 PM   #3627
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1928. Kazan State University named after Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin (now Kazan [Volga Region] Federal University) at Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street):

oldsamara

1928. Kazan State University named after Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin (now Kazan [Volga Region] Federal University) at Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street):

oldsamara

1930s. Tramcar near Kazan State University named after Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin (now Kazan [Volga Region] Federal University) at Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street):

inkazan

1935. Tramcar near Kazan State University named after Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin (now Kazan [Volga Region] Federal University) at Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street):

Андрей В.

1930s. Central City Library named after Vladimir Lenin (now National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan) at the end of Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street):

rustik68

Early 1930s. Central City Library named after Vladimir Lenin (now National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan; left) and Kazan State University named after Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin (now Kazan [Volga Region] Federal University; right) at the end of Chernyshevsky Street (now Kremlin Street):

Link

1928. Kazan Research Trachomatous Institute named after Emilian Adamyuk (now Republican Clinical Ophthalmological Hospital) at Butlerov Street:

oldsamara

1930s, tramcar at Butlerov Street. The construction of building of the Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute on the background:

lext-2009
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:42 PM   #3628
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1928. Tatar State Theatre (now Kazan State Academic Russian Great Drama Theatre named after Vasily Kachalov) at Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street):

oldsamara

1930, Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street). The belltower of Epiphany Church on the background (photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

Link

1930, Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street). The belltower of Epiphany Church on the background (photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

Link

1930. Tramline near library of "Tatizdat" ("Tatar Publishing House") at Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street; photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

Link

1930-1935. Hotel "Kazan" at the intersection of Bauman Street and Bank Street (now Musa Cälil Street):

Link
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:43 PM   #3629
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1930-1935. Tramcars at Bauman Street:

Rustik68

1930-1935, House of Peasant at Bauman Street. The view from University Street:

oldsamara

1934, tramcar at Bauman Street. The construction of the House of Printing at left side:

Ааре Оландер

1935, House of Printing (right). Tram operation at the central Bauman Street was ceased on May 31, 1935:

Step_50081

1935. House of Printing (right) at Bauman Street was built in the Constructivist style in 1933-1935 according to the project of architect Semyon Pen:

Link
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:44 PM   #3630
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1910s. Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square). The electric tramcar with double-deck trailer (redone horsecar):

kazan-history

1910s. Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square). The belltower of Epiphany Church at Greater Prolomnaya Street (Greater Breach Street, now Bauman Street) on the background:

kazan-history

Late 1920s. Tram pavilion on the Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square):

Teamsky

1930-1935. Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square). The belltower of Epiphany Church at Bauman Street on the background:

Link

1930. Tram pavilions on the Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square):

Link

1930. Tramcar on the Fish Row Square - so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square), tram route №4 (photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

kazan-history

1930s. "Kh" tramcar №29 near tram pavilion on the Fish Row Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square):

kazantransport

1934-1935. Corporative Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square). The belltower of Epiphany Church at Bauman Street on the background:

kazan-history

1934-1935. Monument to Russian Revolutionary Nikolay Bauman (1873-1905) at the centre of the Corporative Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square). The view in direction to Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street):

oldsamara

1934-1937. Monument to Russian Revolutionary Nikolay Bauman (1873-1905) at the centre of the Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square). The view in direction to Sverdlov Street (now Petersburg Street):

kazan-history

1935. Kuybyshev Square, so-called "Ring" (now Tuqay Square). The view in direction to Tatarstan Street:

rustik68
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:45 PM   #3631
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1930-1935. Tramcar at Pushkin Street near Lenin Garden:

Андрей В.

1930s, Freedom Square. Tramcar at Pushkin Street near Derzhavin Garden:

Андрей В.

1930-1935, Red Army House (former building of Gentry Assembly, now City Hall) on the Freedom Square. Tramcar near Georgian Church at Karl Marx Street:

Андрей В.

1930s. The parade of athletes on the Freedom Square near Red Army House (former building of Gentry Assembly, now City Hall):

Link

1930, Red Army House (former building of Gentry Assembly, now City Hall) on the Freedom Square during celebrations dedicated to the tenth anniversary of the Tatar ASSR. Georgian Church at Karl Marx Street (photographer - Frank Whitson Fetter):

humus

1935. Tramline near the Kazan Institute of Civil Engineering named after Maxim Gorky (now Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering) at Karl Marx Street:

Link

1935. "Kh" tramcar near the Kazan Agricultural Institute (now Kazan State Agrarian University) at Karl Marx Street, tram route №6:

пассат
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:46 PM   #3632
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REPLICA OF HORSECAR №125

The replica of horsecar was constructed in 2000, in the year of 125th anniversary of the opening of horse-drawn tram in Kazan. That's why it got number №125. For ten years, this replica was located at the tram depot №2. In July 2010 replica of horsecar №125 was moved to the museum site (so-called "Alley of Glory") that was created in Kazan at same year near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street, between entrances to Metro station "Sukonnaya Sloboda" ("Cloth Settlement"; opened on August 27, 2005).

130th anniversary of the opening of Kazan horse-drawn tram:

vnu4ka

November 11, 2000. The replica of horsecar №125 at Tatarstan Street at tram parade dedicated to the 125th anniversary of the opening of horse-drawn tram in Kazan:

Огнев О.В.

November 11, 2000. The replica of horsecar №125 at Tatarstan Street at tram parade dedicated to the 125th anniversary of the opening of horse-drawn tram in Kazan:

Кирилл Сябар

The replica of horsecar №125 in Kazan:

Link

The top deck (so-called "imperial"):

kazantransport

Interior of horsecar:

kazantransport

September 11, 2009. The replica of horsecar №125 at the tram depot №2:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

July 6, 2010. The replica of horsecar №125 at Petersburg Street. The top deck (so-called "imperial") was under restoration:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

July 7, 2010. The replica of horsecar №125 at Petersburg Street:

Inkazan

November 20, 2010. The replicas of horsecar №125 and Belgian electric tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street. The top deck (so-called "imperial") was returned to its place after restoration:

Дмитрий Сагдеев
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:46 PM   #3633
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Spring 2011. The wall of honour of "Metroelectrotrans" company near entrance to Metro station "Sukonnaya Sloboda" ("Cloth Settlement"; opened on August 27, 2005):

Link

Spring 2011. The entrances to Metro station "Sukonnaya Sloboda" ("Cloth Settlement"):

Link

Spring 2011. The entrance to Metro station "Sukonnaya Sloboda" ("Cloth Settlement"):

Link

Spring 2011. The replicas of horsecar №125 and Belgian electric tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street. The construction of new building of the Tatar State Puppet Theatre "Akiyat" ("Fairytale") on the background:

Link

Spring 2011. The replica of horsecar №125 at Petersburg Street:

vnu4ka

May 8, 2011. The replicas of horsecar №125 and Belgian electric tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street. The construction of new building of the Tatar State Puppet Theatre "Akiyat" ("Fairytale") on the background:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

August 13, 2011. The replicas of horsecar №125 and Belgian electric tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

September 17, 2011. The replica of horsecar №125 at Petersburg Street:

Ёж

March 20, 2012. The replica of horsecar №125 at Petersburg Street:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

March 9, 2013. The replicas of horsecar №125 and Belgian electric tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street. The new building of the Tatar State Puppet Theatre "Akiyat" ("Fairytale") on the background (opened on March 1, 2012):

Дмитрий Сагдеев

April 8, 2014. The replicas of horsecar №125 and Belgian electric tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street. The new building of the Tatar State Puppet Theatre "Akiyat" ("Fairytale") on the background (opened on March 1, 2012):

Дамир Абдуллин

April 8, 2014. The replicas of horsecar №125 and Belgian electric tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дамир Абдуллин

April 8, 2014. The replica of horsecar №125 at Petersburg Street:

Дамир Абдуллин
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:47 PM   #3634
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REPLICA OF BELGIAN MOTOR TRAMCAR №100

The replica of Belgian two-axle motor tramcar was constructed in 1999, to the 100th anniversary of the electric tram in Kazan. That's why it got number №100. The snowplow GS-1 constructed at the Gorky Wagon-Repair Plant was used for assembling of this replica. This replica was located at the tram depot №1 for more than 10 years. In July 2010 replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 was moved to the museum site (so-called "Alley of Glory") that was created in Kazan at same year near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street, between entrances to Metro station "Sukonnaya Sloboda" ("Cloth Settlement"; opened on August 27, 2005).

December 2, 1999. RVZ-6M2 restaurant tramcar (constructed at Riga Wagon-Building Plant) and replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100:

Link

December 2, 1999. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Qayum Nasyri Street before tram parade dedicated to the 100th anniversary of electric tram in Kazan:

Огнев О.В.

November 2000. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Decembrists Street after tram parade dedicated to the 125th anniversary of the opening of horse-drawn tram in Kazan:

Огнев О.В.

2002. Saloon of the replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at the tram depot №1:

TimeRider
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:47 PM   #3635
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March 31, 2009. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at the tram depot №1:

Niko

April 21, 2010. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 during restoration and repainting at the tram depot №1 named after Ivan Kabushkin:

Иванов Олег

July 6, 2010. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

July 7, 2010. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Inkazan

July 7, 2010. The speed controller and break in the replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100:

Inkazan

July 7, 2010. The "anchor" of the replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100:

Inkazan

July 7, 2010. Saloon of the replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100:

Рома

July 7, 2010. Saloon of the replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100:

Inkazan
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:48 PM   #3636
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November 20, 2010. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

November 20, 2010. Driver's place in the replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

Spring 2011. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Link

May 2, 2012. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

March 9, 2013. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дмитрий Сагдеев

April 8, 2014. The replicas of Belgian motor tramcar №100 and horsecar №125 at Petersburg Street:

Дамир Абдуллин

April 8, 2014. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дамир Абдуллин

April 8, 2014. The replica of Belgian motor tramcar №100 at Petersburg Street:

Дамир Абдуллин
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:49 PM   #3637
geometarkv
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"Kh" TRAMCAR №24 OF MYTISHCHI PLANT

Apart of replicas, in Kazan was preserved original pre-WWII "Kh" tramcar №24. This standard Soviet tramcar of interwar period was constructed at Mytishchi Plant near Moscow. In 1932-1937 tram driver Ivan Kabushkin (1915-1943), future Hero of Soviet Union (1965), worked at this tramcar.

Ivan Kabushkin was born on February 15, 1915 in the peasant family at the village of Malakhovtsy, Navahrudak uezd, Minsk Governorate (now Baranavichy Raion, Brest Region, Belarus). After WWI, this territory was given to Poland. As a result, his family moved to Kazan. As soldier of Red Army, Ivan Kabushkin took participation into liberation of Western Belarus (1939) as well as into Winter War against Finland (1939-1940) at which he was wounded. In June 1941 Kabushkin was captured by Nazi aggressors but in Minsk he was able to escape from captivity. Since November 1941, Ivan Kabushkin was active participant of the guerilla war at the territory of native Belarus that was occupied by Nazi aggressors. Under the alias "Jean", he took part into reconnaissance and sabotage operations and raids on enemy vehicles, saved people from death camps. Kabushkin personally killed 20 agents of Abwehr, SD and police. On February 4, 1943 he was captured in a combat mission. In Minsk prison, he was tortured with hot irons and electric current. But, despite of brutal tortures, Kabushkin didn't inform names of other partisans and even didn't disclosed his real name. On July 4, 1943 he was executed in the Minsk prison.

On May 8, 1965, to the 20th anniversary of Soviet Victory in WWII, Ivan Kabushkin was posthumously awarded the order of the Hero of the Soviet Union. "Kh" tramcar №24 at which he worked was located at the tram depot №1. In 1999, to the 100th anniversary of electric tram in Kazan, it was restored as the serviceable tramcar and was transferred into tram depot №2. On August 31, 2009 tram depot №1 where Ivan Kabushkin worked as tram driver was named into his honour. In 2010 "Kh" tramcar №24 (as well as replicas of horsecar and Belgian electric tramcar) was moved to the museum site (so-called "Alley of Glory") that was created in Kazan at same year near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street, between entrances to Metro station "Sukonnaya Sloboda" ("Cloth Settlement"; opened on August 27, 2005).

April 1989. "Kh" tramcar №24 at the tram depot №1:

Огнев О.В.

April 1989. The old pre-revolutionary building of the tram depot №1 (former Arskoye tram depot) at Nikolay Yershov Street:

Огнев О.В.

"Kh" tramcar №24 at the tram depot №1:

Link

The model of the "Kh" tramcar №24 at the Kazan Museum of Urban Electric Transport:

Rustik68

November 2000. "Kh" tramcar №24 at Decembrists Street after tram parade dedicated to the 125th anniversary of the opening of horse-drawn tram in Kazan:

Огнев О.В.

"Kh" tramcar №24 in Kazan:

Link

"Kh" tramcar №24 in Kazan:

Link
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:49 PM   #3638
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July 11, 2009. The serviceable "Kh" tramcar №24 at the tram depot №2:

Димар Сагдеев

July 12, 2009. The serviceable "Kh" tramcar №24 at the tram depot №2:

Александр Леонидович

March 18, 2010. "Kh" tramcar №24 near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Рома

March 18, 2010. "Kh" tramcar №24 near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Димар Сагдеев

March 18, 2010. Saloon of the "Kh" tramcar №24:

Рома

March 18, 2010. Driver's place in the "Kh" tramcar №24:

Рома

March 29, 2010. The overhauling of the "Kh" tramcar №24 near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Иванов Олег

March 29, 2010. The overhauling of the "Kh" tramcar №24 near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Иванов Олег

April 13, 2010. The overhauling of the "Kh" tramcar №24 near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Иванов Олег

April 18, 2010. "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street after overhauling:

Димар Сагдеев

April 22, 2010. The memorial plaque - "Since 1932 till 1937, Ivan Konstantinovich Kabushkin worked at this tramcar. According to Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, he was posthumously awarded title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for his courage and heroism in the struggle against Nazi invaders":

Димар Сагдеев
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Old May 14th, 2014, 05:55 PM   #3639
geometarkv
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April 24, 2010. "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street after overhauling:

Александр Леонидович

April 24, 2010. "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street after overhauling:

Рома

May 8, 2010. The model of the "Kh" tramcar in the saloon of the "Kh" museum tramcar №24:

Рома

November 20, 2010. "Kh" tramcar №24 at the museum site near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Димар Сагдеев

November 20, 2010. The mannequins in the "Kh" tramcar №24 at the museum site near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Димар Сагдеев

March 27, 2011. The mannequins in the "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Алексей Савин

Spring 2011. The mannequins in the "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Link

September 17, 2011. The mannequins in the "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Ёж

2012. The museum site (so-called "Alley of Glory") near the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

gelio-nsk

March 9, 2013. "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Димар Сагдеев

February 17, 2014. "Kh" tramcar №24 at the intersection of Petersburg Street and Esperanto Street:

Дамир Абдуллин
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Old May 20th, 2014, 05:15 PM   #3640
geometarkv
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12) Astrakhan (opened on June 24, 1900):

Astrakhan is a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Region. The city lies on the left bank of the Volga River, close to where it discharges into the Caspian Sea at an altitude of 28 meters below sea level. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, rich in sturgeon and exotic plants.

Pre-revolutionary history

The fertile area formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan' itself was first mentioned by travellers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan. Tamerlane burnt it to the ground in 1395. From 1459 to 1556, Xacitarxan was the capital of Astrakhan Khanate. In 1547 the city was seized by the Crimean Khan Sahib Giray whose troops stood in Xacitarxan until 1552. The ruins of this medieval settlement were found by archaeologists 12 km upstream from the modern-day city.

Russian chronicles record about forty attacks of Kazan Khans on Russian territories (mainly the regions of Nizhniy Novgorod, Murom, Vyatka, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Galich) in the first half of the 16th century. In 1521, the combined forces of Khan Mehmed Giray and his Crimean allies attacked Russia, captured more than 150.000 slaves. This threat was eliminated in 1550s when Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible conquered Kazan Khanate and Astrakhan Khanate. In 1552 his army defeated the Kazan Khanate, whose armies had repeatedly devastated the northeast of Russia; and annexed its territory.

In 1556, Ivan the Terrible annexed the Astrakhan Khanate and destroyed the largest slave market on the Volga River. The medieval city of Xacitarxan (Astrakhan) was besieged and burned. The modern-day city of Astrakhan was founded at the new site in 1558. Ivan the Terrible had a new fortress, or Kremlin, built on a steep hill overlooking the Volga River. These conquests complicated the migration of the aggressive nomadic hordes from Asia to Europe through Volga and transformed Russia into a multinational and multiconfessional state. In 1569, Astrakhan was besieged by the Ottoman army and Crimean Tatars, which had to retreat in disarray. A year later, the Sultan Selim II renounced his claims to Astrakhan, thus opening the entire Volga River to Russian traffic. Astrakhan Kremlin was built from the 1580s to the 1620s from bricks pillaged at the site of Sarai Berke. Its two impressive cathedrals - Trinity Cathedral and Assumption Cathedral - were consecrated in 1700 and 1710, respectively. Built by masters from Yaroslavl, they retain many traditional features of Russian church architecture, while their exterior decoration is definitely baroque. In the 17th century, the city was developed as a Russian gate to the Orient. Many merchants from Armenia, Persia, India and Khiva settled in the town, giving it a multinational and variegated character.

For seventeen months in 1670–1671 Astrakhan was held by Stepan Razin (1630-1671) and his Cossacks. Early in the following century, Russian Emperor Peter the Great constructed a shipyard here and made Astrakhan the base for his hostilities against Persia, and later in the same century Russian Empress Catherine II accorded the city important industrial privileges. The city rebelled against the Tsar once again in 1705, when it was held by the Cossacks under Kondraty Bulavin. A Kalmuck Khan laid an abortive siege to the Astrakhan Kremlin several years prior to that. On December 3, 1717, it became the administrative center of a governorate, whose first governors included Artemy Volynsky (1689-1740) and Vasily Tatishchev (1686-1750). Six years later, Astrakhan served as a base for the first Russian venture into Central Asia. It was granted town status in 1717. In 1702, 1718, and 1767, it suffered severely from fires; in 1719 it was plundered by the Persians; and in 1830 the cholera swept away a large number of its people.

Foreign capital played the leading role in Astrakhan economics at all times. In the 18th century trade turnover of Indian and Armenian merchants in Astrakhan was 10 times more than that of Russian merchants. They ran most of Russian trade with oriental countries. Indian merchants occupied leading positions in Astrakhan loan financing market. Wide development of silk and cotton manufacturing in the region was also directly connected with foreign capital – first factories were launched by Armenian merchants in the first half of the 18th century. Foreign specialists and companies also participated in the revival and development of many branches, important for regional economics. Thus, the development of shipbuilding in the 18th century, launched by the emperor Peter the Great, was directly connected with experience of Dutch shipbuilders: vessels from the Netherlands were most widely spread in the Volga-Caspian Region. Heyday of gardening in Astrakhan (second half of the 18th century) is connected with such names as the Serbian Ivan Parobich (who had Hungarian citizenship) and the Italian Giacinto Rico. Astrakhan was also the place where the largest German colony Sarepta appeared in the 18th century. In the 19th century Greek merchants and agents of Warsaw companies dealt with promoting traditional Astrakhan fish products to European and Middle-East markets. During the last quarter of the 19th century, Astrakhan fishery managers studied the possibility of artificial fish reproduction, based on technologies, elaborated by the American fishery company for artificial reproduction of fish with the use of floating fish breeding plants. In the 19th century Astrakhan was famous for the activities of "Partnership of Weiner beer-brewing factories in Astrakhan", who produced beer brands well known in Europe, such as "Viennese", "Nuremberg", "Bohemian", "Bavarian", "Munich" and others. Beer, produced by this partnership, was awarded at many exhibitions. Besides beer, they produced other alcoholic beverages, selling them in adjacent regions of Russia, in the Volga region, Northern Caucasus and Central Asia.

Creation of the Russian oil industry – Nobel and Shukhov's inventions

At the end of the 19th century, the industrial development of Astrakhan by efforts of foreign capital stepped up onto a new level. The leading role belonged to "Partnership for oil production of the Nobel brothers" ("Branobel"), established in 1876 by famous inventors and businessmen from Sweden - Ludwig, Alfred and Robert Nobels. The partnership carried out oil extraction works at the Apsheron peninsula (Russian Empire) and exported oil products to Europe. Ludwig Nobel (1831-1888), older brother of Alfred Nobel (founder of the Nobel Prize), is credited with creating the Russian oil industry. He invented oil tankers, and better refineries, pipelines. Before 1880 the United States was Russia's teacher in most aspects of the oil business. The roles were reversed in some respects by Nobel. The oil business lacked technical know-how and scientific methodology. To rectify this, Nobel established technical chemical research labs in Baku. These research centers were very active and when something of commercial interest was found, Nobel was fast in trying the new products out on a large scale.

Dozens of scientists were employed, finding ways to treat oil, developing new uses for oil, and developing products derived from oil. Creation of first oil tankers for the Caspian Sea is also connected with the Nobels. Ludwig Nobel successfully developed the idea of the Artemyev brothers, Astrakhan ship owners, who were the first to transport oil and oil products not in tanks, but in cargo holds of their vessels. But unlike them Ludwig Nobel built metal tankers. The world's first successful oil tanker was Nobel's "Zoroaster". Ludwig designed this in Lindholmen-Motala in Sweden with Sven Almqvist. The contract to build it was signed January 1878, and it made its first run later that year from Baku to Astrakhan. Ludwig Nobel died in 1888 and was buried at the Smolensk Lutheran Cemetery in St. Petersburg.

In 1878 great Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939) invented first world's cylindric oil depot in Baku. Such form was a more optimal for oil storage as well as more economical and simplier for mounting. Today modern cylindrical depots are being built worldwide according to the basic principles, developed by Vladimir Shukhov. His projects were instrumental in constructing of oil pipeline, the first in the Russian Empire, between Balkhany and Cherny Gorod near Baku (12 km, 1878 complete, used by the "Branobel"). By 1883 the total length of Shukhov-designed oil pipelines in Baku exceeded 94 km, transporting 30 thousands barrels of oil per day. In 1894 a similar pipeline network was built in Grozny. Shukhov designed the first Trans-Caucasian kerosene pipeline between Baku and Batumi (835-km long) and Grozny-Tuapse pipeline (618-km long). A superior design for oil-tanker barges (less than half of the metal previously required), 150-meters long barges were built (mostly for the Volga River) as well as the first Russian seaworthy oil tanker ship. His approach to the ship strength analysis (using the model of a shell on an elastic foundation) was absolutely novel for that time. Shukhov designed inexpensive oil tanks with the bottom calculated as a membrane on elastic foundation. They became very popular among oil-producers of the Imperial Russia.

By 1881, 130 such tanks were built in Baku alone. Shukhov made important contributions to the chemical industry. He designed and built an oil cracking plant. His patents (Shukhov cracking process - patent of Russian Empire No. 12926 from November, 27th, 1891) on cracking were used to invalidate "Standard Oil"'s patents (Burton process – Patent of USA No. 1,049,667 on January 7, 1913) on oil refineries. He designed an original oil pump. Shukhov's pumps revolutionized Baku's oil industry allowing to increase its oil output. He designed one of the first furnaces that used the residual oil: before his works the residual oil was considered a waste and was discarded, due to his works it became recognized as an important technical product known as a fuel oil.

These engineering solutions were revolutionary in oil industry, allowing for a long-distance transportation of oil products, including transportation across the Atlantic Ocean. In Astrakhan the Nobels built a base for oil products storage and shipping, for servicing marine and river tanker fleet. The settlement of oilmen was considered the most comfortable in Astrakhan. City authorities were proud to show it to high-ranked guests, who visited Astrakhan, including Persian Shah Nasir-ed-Din. Success of the Nobels' industrial activities was to a large extent provided for by highly qualified staff of the partnership. Thus, in 1896 former employee of Nobel partnership, Swedish engineer A.K. Noren started his own business in Astrakhan, producing small-sized steam and heat vessels, where he built the first ichthyologic vessel for Astrakhan. Here he also reconstructed oil engine, which was later widely spread in shipbuilding. Already at the turn of 19th-20th centuries Astrakhan was a large industrial and trading center in the South of Russia. The population of Astrakhan was 74 thousands people in 1888 and 122 thousands people in 1900. According to the Russian Imperial Census of 1897, the population of Astrakhan was 113 thousand residents. It was seventh most populous city of the present-day Russia after Saint Petersburg (1.265 mln. residents), Moscow (1.039 mln. residents), Saratov (137 thousand residents), Kazan (130 thousand residents), Rostov-on-Don (120 thousand residents) and Tula (115 thousand residents).

Cargo traffic of Astrakhan port was the second in the country after Odessa on the Black Sea. By this time economic interests of many European countries were focused in the Caspian Region, which was the basis for opening of unofficial consular representations of some European countries in Astrakhan. Later public transport of Astrakhan also became the pride of local authorities. The first tram appeared in Astrakhan in 1900 thanks to the cooperation of local authorities with a Belgian company.

Old Astrakhan:


1910s. Cold Store (Refrigerator) near railway bridge across Bolda River (this bridge was built in 1906-1909):

Link

1916. Astrakhan Rail Terminal (now Astrakhan I) was opened in September 1909:

Link

1900s. "Red Mosque" at Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment) near "Greater Isady" Market was built in 1894-1900:

Link

1900s. St. Vladimir Cathedral at Transverse Backwater Street (now Army General Yepishev's Street) was built in 1895-1902 by Vasily Kosyakov and N. Ikawitc:

yapet

1900s, the pier of "Caucasus and Mercury" steamship company. The wooden Triumphal Arch (on the background) was erected in 1871 to commemorate visit of Russian Emperor Alexander II (1818-1881):

yapet

1900s. The view from Volga River at the "Spit" of Kutum River:

Link

1900s, Volga Embankment. Assumption Cathedral and old cathedral belltower of Astrakhan Kremlin (right):

Link

1900s, the view of Astrakhan Kremlin from southern side. Crimean Tower:

Link
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