daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Subways and Urban Transport

Subways and Urban Transport Metros, subways, light rail, trams, buses and other local transport systems



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:16 PM   #3641
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

Early projects and beginning of the construction of Astrakhan Tram (1884-1899)

The rapid-growing city like Astrakhan required the development of new kind of transport, more thrifty and spacious than the transport facilities provided by the cabmen. The latter paid taxes as envisaged to replenish city treasury.

The construction of tram network in Astrakhan was started at the end of 19th century. The issue about constructing of Astrakhan horse-drawn tram was discussed in the City Council in December 1884. On February 1, 1886, the City Council recognized the implementation of the said project desirable and vested the City Management (executive body) with the function of "communicating with other cities" (St. Petersburg, Tbilisi, Warsaw and others) to study the experience of implementing of horse-drawn trams. The committee consisting of the Сity Council members - Ivan Plotnikov, Grigory Tetyushinov, Nikolay Artemyev, Pyotr Shaverdov, M. Uvarov under leadership of City Head Vladimir Lazarevsky, studied the application of Hereditary Honorary Citizen Georgy Mallison and Privy Councilor N. Rubinsky concerning the construction of horse-drawn tramlines in Astrakhan under concession. After that the Committee worked out draft terms and conditions of the concession and on April 4, 1887 submitted the report to the City Council.

However, the solution of the problem was postponed due to several reasons. Georgy Mallison left Astrakhan, he didn't declared his wish to continue negotiations with city authorities. Rubinsky died. New proposals were received by the City Council (from authorized representative of the "Russian Company of the Industrial Commercial Enterprises" in Brussels Mr. Viskovaty, enterpreneur Leonid Blummer, merchants Polyakov and Mereines, and others). In 1894, the Belgian "Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Russia" confirmed their desire to build the horse-drawn tram system in Astrakhan.

Finally, the issue was discussed at the third special meeting of the Astrakhan City Council, and on February 20, 1895, the City Head Ivan Plotnikov turned to the members of the City Council with the request to state their opinion on the necessity to build the horse-drawn tram system and on the way of construction: economic or concessional.

There was debate on the issue. Member of the City Council N. Verov recognized the horse-drawn tram unnecessary ("communication lines in Astrakhan are good ... owing to roadways", the horse-drawn tramlines will "considerably reduce the income of the city from cabs"). Member of the City Сouncil P. Khlebnikov stated that the horse-drawn tram should be built using the city funds, having refused concessioner's services. S. Butkov could not understand why the issue that had been once solved was now under discussion. It was resolved by secret ballot that the horse-drawn tram in Astrakhan should be constructed: 35 votes "for", 5 votes "against". The positive decision was influenced by a great number of applications filed by houseowners, who asked the members of the City Council to accelerate the decision-making process related to the horse-drawn tram, which, according to them, could make it easier for those who lived on the outskirts of Astrakhan to get to the city centre.

The regular committee was established to make a plan of the horse-drawn tram network, the chairman of this committee was the City Head. The Committee included members of the Astrakhan City Council: Khristofor Sergeyev, Ivan Bezzubikov, I. Petrov, A. Alekseyenko, A. Bekunov, M. Molchalov and P. Orekhov. The further development of the issue was hindered by the outdated projects, difficulties in adopting the terms and conditions, etc.

However, the project of construction of horse-drawn tram in Astrakhan was never implemented. The experience of exploitation of horse-drawn tram in Russian Empire showed that horses quickly tired to work at hilly terrain. As a result, city authorities paid attention to the perspective up-to-date kind of transport - electric tram.

In 1896, the City Council voted by secret ballot for the construction of electric tramlines under concession, and the committee under leadership of the City Head Ivan Plotnikov was appointed to develop the terms and conditions of the concession. Taking into account the experience of other cities, Nizhny Novgorod in particular, the Committee drew up the draft contract and the plan of tramlines. By the appointed date (April 27, 1896), City Council received several proposals from foreign and domestic entrepreneurs for the construction of the Astrakhan tram. Finally it was chosen project of Belgian entrepreneur Félicien Maes. The contract between Maes and city authorities was signed on May 16, 1896.

Construction works started in 1897 and were completed in 1900. It was necessary to strengthen and expand all bridges at which tramlines planned to be built, as the weight of one tramcar was 3.276-4.095 tons. In 1897, when construction was not even started, Maes tried to hand the agreement with all rights and liabilities to the Belgian joint stock company - "Tramways d'Astrakhan" (established in 1896), administration of which was in Paris. However, City Council rejected his application. The trusted engineer Du Welz lived in Astrakhan during whole construction period. Only after completition of construction in 1900, Belgian joint stock company has assumed all rights and liabilities according to contract. "Tramways d'Astrakhan" obtained concession to construct Astrakhan tramlines with the right of operation till April 22, 1932. The city had the right to repurchase the tram after 18 years since the signing of contract (on April 22, 1897). The concessioner paid the city "4% of its gross proceeds" from the operation of the enterprise annually. The capital invested in the project "Astrakhan Tram" amounted to 1 million 300 thousand rubles. The basic capital of the company was 2 million francs, which was divided into 20.000 shares at 100 francs each. In the end of 19th century, tram depot was constructed near the Pleasant Garden. Tram enterprise built its own central power station situated near the northern wall of Astrakhan Kremlin, at the intersection of Esplanade Street and Artillery Street (now Turgenev Street).

The construction process was actively discussed in the local newspapers. Sometimes reviews were very unflattering like this "tram will look in our puddle-city like pince-nez on the nose of blind man" or "tram is the beautiful and fashionable tie at the neck of person committing suicide". It's interesting that the prices of apartments in the houses located along the tram routes greatly increased even before its opening. As a result, even most miserable room at the "tram street" became in three times more expensive.

June 7, 1896. The ordinary share №10530 of Belgian joint stock company "Tramways d'Astrakhan" (decorated by V. Gossart and Jean Malvaux):

gornitsa

June 7, 1896. The ordinary share №10519 of Belgian joint stock company "Tramways d'Astrakhan" (decorated by V. Gossart and Jean Malvaux):

Link

June 7, 1896. The ordinary share №10751 of Belgian joint stock company "Tramways d'Astrakhan" (decorated by V. Gossart and Jean Malvaux):

Link

June 7, 1896. The ordinary share №12472 of Belgian joint stock company "Tramways d'Astrakhan" (decorated by V. Gossart and Jean Malvaux):

Link

June 7, 1896. The preference share №15342 of Belgian joint stock company "Tramways d'Astrakhan" (decorated by V. Gossart and Jean Malvaux):

Link

June 7, 1896. The ordinary share №12462 of Belgian joint stock company "Tramways d'Astrakhan":

astrahanfoto
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:17 PM   #3642
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

The initial routes of Astrakhan Tram (1900-1907)

On June 24, 1900 first trams appeared at Astrakhan streets. All in all 9.25 km of tramlines were constructed and 15 motor tramcars operated along them. The opening ceremony was solemn. At the evening, there was given grand banquet for the founders of tram at the kursaal (public hall) of "Arcadia" Garden. At first, there were opened two narrow-gauge tramlines named "Bolda" (Volga Embankment - Bolda timber wharfs) and "Pleasant" (Old Hagrites Street, now Admiralty Street - Pleasant Garden). A little later, two other narrow-gauge tramlines were opened. The opening of electric tram caused a stir among the local population. In the early days of tram operation, there were crowds of people at the streets, "wild" people stormed tramcars and rejoiced by new kind of transport like children. It's interesting that railway was opened in Astrakhan only nine years later - in 1909.

In 1901 there operated four narrow-gauge (1 meter wide) tramlines in Astrakhan:
1) River Terminal (Volga Embankment) - Bolda timber wharfs (the area of present-day Central Stadium).
River Terminal (Volga Embankment) - Transportation Street (now Lieutenant Schmidt Street) - Blacksmith Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) - Transverse Bath Street (now Anzali Street) - Longitudinal Volga Street (now Uritsky Street) - St. Nicholas Street - Skarzhinsky Street (now Fioletov Street) and Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street) - Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment) - Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street) - 3rd Transverse Volga Street (now Henri Barbusse Street) - Steppe Street (now Tatishchev Street) - Bolda timber wharfs (near present-day Central Stadium).
2) The second line went along Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) – to "Greater Isady" Market, over the St. John Bridge along 2nd Bakaldinskaya Street (now Baku Street), over the Earthern Bridge (now Customs Bridge at the beginning of present-day Admiralty Street near Swan Lake) along the Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square), through Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street) to Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street near its intersection with Sverdlov Street).
Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) - Exchange Street (now Sverdlov Street) - "Greater Isady" Market - Dam Street (now Sverdlov Street) - St. John Bridge across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal) - 2nd Bakaldinskaya Street (now Baku Street) - Tatar Market Street (now Combat Street) - Tatar Market Square (now Freedom Square) - Earthern Bridge (now Customs Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal) - Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square) - Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street) - Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street).
3) The third line went from Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street) along Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) across Exaltation Bridge (the area of present-day Kalinin Street) to the Pleasant Garden (the area of former tram depot).
Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street) - Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) - Stockpile Street (now Kalinin Street) - Exaltation Bridge across Kutum River – Nativity-in-the-Gardens Street (now Kalinin Street) – Nativity of Christ' Square (now Karl Marx Square) - Pleasant Garden (near former tram depot).
4) The fourth route went from Commercial Bridge (the area of Admiralty Street) to the Hospital of the Department for Public Assistance (now Emergency Hospital, Scientific and Practical Medical Complex "Environmental Medicine") on the Parobich Hillock.
Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment) - Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street) - Police Street (now Kirov Street) - Police Bridge (now Varvakis Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal) - Parobich Hillock Street (now Kirov Street and Kuban Street) - Hospital on the Parobich Hillock.

The total area occupied by tram tracks was about 35000 sq. m. The total length of tramlines was 16.3 km in 1904. The tramcars were not so big, with open platform for conductor. There were 20 seats and standing place for 24 people in each tramcar. Traffic rules said: "Departure from terminal stops occurs every five minutes, permitted speed is 12.8 km/h. Trams stop only at passing loops and on demand at intersections of streets". Tramcars operated every day: from April 15 to October 15 from 5 am to 10-11 pm; from October 15 to April 15 - from 6 am to 9-10 pm. The fare was as follows: 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (first-class places), and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second-class places). Only policemen and students "wearing uniform" were allowed to travel free of charge. Drunk people and passengers with big luggage were not allowed into tramcars. Such high culture of riding in the public transport gradually degraded by the middle of 20th century. Tram operation in Astrakhan did not began very smoothly. Already in January 1901 there was happened strike of tram employees that was caused by increasing of working hours due to retrenchment of workers, introduction of fines for violations during tram operation, permutations of tram drivers from one route to another, unreasonable dismissals. The downtime of popular kind of transport caused acute discontent among residents. There were also accidents when pedestrians fell under a tramcar. The annual ridership was 4.311128 million passengers in 1901.

The scheme of initial tram routes can be found on the "Plan of the city of Astrakhan with the surrounding area, compiled by the City Surveyor L. Rudnev in 1901". If to compare this scheme with description of tram routes in the "A Short Guide on Volga River" (1905) by the St. Petersburg company "Nadezhda" ("Hope"), its complete identity will be obvious. It was recommended to make a 2-3 hour excursion tour by tram for travelers arriving in Astrakhan for one day and wanting to explore the city. It was assumed that such tour will begin near the pier "Hope" at Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street) because steamships of this company arrived at this pier. After arrival, it was possible to buy tram ticket (5 kopecks - first-class places, 3 kopecks - second-class places, children up to 5 years - free of charge) and to ride by tram from this pier to the River Terminal (where carried city transportation through Volga River). It was terminal stop of this route. The other terminal stop was located near the Bolda timber wharfs, tram rode in this direction from Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street) through 3rd Transverse Volga Street (now Henri Barbusse Street). But it was necessary to change the tram in order to ride in this direction.

Thus, first tram route operated along Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street) near the piers of steamship companies "Orekhov's sons" and "By the Volga", near marine pier "Hope", near building of water supply, through Commercial Bridge across Kutum River (enbankment near this bridge was called "Spit" already then - it was very overcrowded, especially in the spring when many people hired on fisheries). Later tram ran along Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment), near Exchange building (now Wedding Palace), salt and flour stores; along Skarzhinsky Street (now Fioletov Street), near hotels "European", "Russia" and Mochalov's Hotel; along St. Nicholas Street near Volga-Kama Bank and Commercial-Industrial Bank, notarial and other offices; along Longitudinal Volga Street (now Uritsky Street). If passengers had desire to visit "Little Isady" Market, they could get out from tramcar at the Longitudinal Volga Street (now Uritsky Street). Here, in the floating cages at Volga Embankment, was trade by live fish and fresh caviar that was prepared under the gaze of buyer. After this market, tram ran near pier of "Plane" partnership, near Red Barracks in direction to River Terminal, to the gates of trade pier of "Caucasus and Mercury" company at the port.

On the way back, tram turned from St. Nicholas Street to the Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street). Here, at the first stop, it was possible to change the tram and to ride in direction to St. Vladimir Cathedral. In the second class at this route, it was possible to buy ticket of direct transfer (i.e. with transfer to another tramline) that costed 5, not 6 kopecks. After transfer, tram ran back along Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street). After the turn, it rode at the steep climb and then passed near Astrakhan Kremlin from one side; as well as near house & shop of Gantscher brothers (burned in 1918), Guest Court (it was located at the site of Brotherly Garden) and building of Public Assembly (beginning of present-day Soviet Street) - from opposite side. Then tram ran down to Kremlin Garden (present-day Lenin Square), skirted this garden and passed near Museum of the Petrovskoye Society of the Researchers of the Astrakhan Region (corner house with a turret). This museum was located near prison castle (prison "White Swan"), at the Sergeyev's House. Nowadays this building is preserved as apartment building at the corner of Burov Street. After this house, tram ran near the port, through Earthern Bridge (now Customs Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal), near Tatar Market, and almost near St. Vladimir Cathedral. After that, the passenger with ticket of direct transfer could change the tram and to ride in direction to the St. John Bridge across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal), along the 2nd Bakaldinskaya Street (now Baku Street). After reaching St. John Bridge in the tramcar that run in direction to Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street), it was possible to buy another ticket of direct transfer that costed 5 kopecks for two tramlines. Tram ran to "Greater Isady" Market through St. John Bridge across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal). From "Greater Isady" Market, tram ran to the building of Regional Court (in Soviet years - Palace of Labour). Near the building of Regional Court, passenger could either to change the tram (using ticket of direct transfer that was purchased near the St. John Bridge) in order to ride in direction to suburban entertainment gardens (named "Arcadia" and "Pleasant") or to continue to ride by same route in direction to Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street).

Near the Tobacco Row, passenger was able to change the tram again (using ticket of direct transfer that was purchased near the St. John Bridge) in order to ride in direction to the Parobich Hillock at the southern outskirt of Astrakhan. At this route, tram rode again at the steep climb while crossing historical city centre from north to south. During climbing, tram rode near Alexander Garden with Monument to Russian Emperor Alexander II (now Brotherly Garden) from right side and near House of Governor from left side. After passing Alexander Garden, tram rode near "Moscow Trading House", Male Gymnasium and Post Office. After that, tram rode down with few stops in direction to Police Bridge (now Varvakis Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal). After passing Police Bridge (now Varvakis Bridge), tram rode again at the steep climb and passed near Persian Mosque with 4 minarets at the corners. The terminal stop of this route was located near Hospital of the Department for Public Assistance on the Parobich Hillock that operates at this place till now. From this terminal stop, same tramcar rode back. It was possible to ride at this tramcar to Alexander Garden or to Post Office in order to walk by Moscow Street (now Soviet Street). But for this trip, it was necessary to buy one more ticket of direct transfer, then ride to Commercial Bridge across Kutum River in order to change the tram and return to the point where excursion tour began, i.e. to the pier "Hope" at Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street). The such excursion route that was proposed for travelers in the "A Short Guide on Volga River" (1905) lasted 2.5-3 hours and costed 20 kopecks or 0.20 rubles.

1901. THE INITIAL TRAMLINES AT THE PLAN OF ASTRAKHAN:
Red line: River Terminal (Volga Embankment) - Bolda timber wharfs;
Green line: Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) - 2nd Bakaldinskaya Street (now Baku Street) - Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street);
Blue line: Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street) - Pleasant Garden;
X - tram depot near Pleasant Garden;
Orange line: Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Hospital on the Parobich Hillock:


Link
CLICKABLE
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:18 PM   #3643
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

June 24, 1900. The opening of electric tram in Astrakhan:

astrakhan-electro

June 24, 1900. The opening of electric tram in Astrakhan, tram stop "Kremlin":

astrakhan-electro

June 24, 1900. The opening of electric tram in Astrakhan - tramcar №12 near tram depot on the Nativity of Christ' Square (now Karl Marx Square):

Link

1900. Astrakhan tram depot on the Nativity of Christ' Square (now Karl Marx Square):

astrakhan-electro

1900s. Tramcar №26 in Astrakhan:

astrakhan-electro
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:19 PM   #3644
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

The further development and decline of Astrakhan Tram (1908-1920)

In 1908 additional tramlines were built:
- from Helling (dockyard) to Tsarev River (present-day Bekhterev Street - 1st Sand Lane - Embankment of Admiralty Backwater, now Embankment of Volga Backwater - 1st Admiralty Street, now Babeuf Street - Customs Street, now Kostin Street - Control Bridge across Admiralty Backwater, now Volga Backwater - Tatar Market Square, now Freedom Square - Tatar Market Street, now Combat Street - 2nd Bakaldinskaya Street, now Baku Street - Transverse Backwater Street, now Army General Yepishev's Street - Tsarev Street, now Menzhinsky Street);
- from "Greater Isady" Market to Cemetery (New Isady Street, now Nogin Street - Red Bridge across Kutum River - Pentecost Street, now Vsevolod Nozdrin Street - Garden Street, now Sophia Perovskaya Street).

In 1910, there were 10 tramlines (routes): "Druzhina-River Terminal" Line, Bolda Line, Pleasant Line, Demidov Line, Police Line, Tatar Market Line, Bakaldinskaya Line, Helling Line, Tsarev Line, Cemetery Line. The most profitable ones were the Demidov Line (86237.99 rubles per year) and Tatar Market Line (72394.88 rubles). During first half of 1910, the revenue from tram operation was 570 thousand francs (on 116 thousand francs more comparing with first half of 1909). In the next few years, tramline from Nativity of Christ' Square (now Karl Marx Square) to Rail Terminal was built due to the completion of railway between Saratov and Astrakhan (1909).

In 1910, the City Council permitted the "tram company" to replace the steam engines with diesel engines, having received "remuneration" that was the increase of the interest on the profit: from 4 to 6 percents. Tram operation yielded considerable profit for the city treasury. By 1913 total length of the tramlines amounted to 23.25 km.

In 1912, concessioners stopped repairs of rolling stock, tram tracks and other equipment for the reason that the term of possible repurchase of the enterprise by the city, prior to the termination of the contract, was approaching (April 22, 1915), and the concessioners did not want to incur "excess" expenses and were ready to transfer the tram to the city in improper and unfit condition. City authorities were firm with the Belgian joint stock company "Tramways d'Astrakhan": having selected the tramcar type stipulated by the contract ("made in Belgium"), they did not admit anything else, even the improved tramcar that the company proposed to use. The rolling stock consisted of tramcars of small size, of different types and systems. All the terms and conditions of the plan had to be unreservedly fulfilled. The city did not approve of trailers. The directions of tramlines and procedure for tram operation were specified as well.

The city authorities monitored the actions of the administration of Astrakhan Tram in order to keep tram pavilions clean. The citizens often "relieved themselves" right there, irrespective of the notice: "No urinating!". The administration of Astrakhan Tram could not prevent that as there were city urinals only near the pavilions of the St. John Bridge and Customs Bridge. In 1913, city authorities constructed a urinal near the tram pavilion on the Parobich Hillock.

The meetings of the "Tram Committee" noted the facts of unsatisfactory work of Astrakhan Tram. In 1914, inspector Shobolov mentioned the 171 cases of "tram stop-off" due to damages or lack of electricity. Delays in the traffic occurred frequently. Tramcars continued to become decrepit. The very enterprise became notorious for its drawbacks in tram operation.

But this kind of transport returned constant interest to the shareholders, in future city authorities intended to build a separate tramlines ("competing lines"). However, the First World War frustrated both the plans and the very idea of repurchasing the tram. The City Council considered the issue of obtaining free street lighting from the Belgian company in case of concession prolongation, but finally, the Council decided in favour of a millionth loan to extend the power station (on December 25, 1914 the Council resolved to start the reconstruction of the power station).

City authorities hesitated: 1915 was the year when rights to the tram could have been repurchased but the city did not possess the required funds. At the joint meeting of the City Council and the "Tram Committee" on March 5, 1915, Engineer B. Rafalsky agreed with the opinion of engineer in charge of the power station B. Garshva that the city is not ready to repurchase the tram, but, nevertheless he believed that they should not be afraid of such repurchase. The experience of other cities proved that city authorities could arrange "tram business" well enough. The issue remained open-ended.

In May 1915 members of the "tram committee" inspected the work of the Astrakhan tramcars, having travelled themselves along the seven routes. The following drawbacks were revealed: the route from the Commercial Bridge to the Combined Alexander-Maria Hospital (now Alexander-Maria Regional Hospital №1 at the intersection of the Henri Barbusse Street and Tatishchev Street) was maintained badly (the line "Druzhina-Bolda"); they waited for the tram from Helling (dockyard) for 12 minutes. They also mentioned the insufficient amount of tramcars (31), the fact that the tramcars were crowded, "abandonment" of tram pavilions in the area of Bolda River, "noise and screech" produced by tramcars when they were moving along "rounded lines". However, the committee paid attention to the fact that many of tram pavilions were painted, there were "glass and grids" on windows.

Some members of Astrakhan City Council turned to the City Head with the request to streamline "tram traffic": "drawbacks" in the work of the joint stock company were obvious. A. Fardo, the representative of Belgian joint stock company, pleading "force majeure military circumstances", acknowledged the said drawbacks. The absence of the required materials, shortness of hands (it was difficult to find experts even for big money) impeded the effective tram maintenance.

In October 1915, the Directorate of the Astrakhan Religious School applied for giving the right to their students to travel by tram free of charge as the students were settled in private apartments on the outskirts of the city after the school building was given to the hospital. The City Council did not object to that but they demanded that the students of the school should wear "the uniform adopted by the law". In the spring of 1916, chairman of the "tram committee" Ivan Biryukov stressed that the City Council allowed to hire women as conductors and tram drivers.

The total length of tramlines was 24.5 km in 1915. The annual ridership increased from 4.311128 people in 1901 to 14.628178 people in 1915. By 1916, there were 45 motor tramcars and 21 trailers in Astrakhan. The number of cabmen reduced accordingly from 1192 people in 1904 to 900 people in 1910. The aforesaid data indicate Astrakhan citizens' preferences in the choice of transport facilities. With all its "drawbacks" the tram turned out to be more suitable for the citizens. Besides, gradual increase in the "cab tax" made cab unattractive for owners so many of them quitted cab business.

The population of city greatly increased: 136.8 thousand people in 1909, 150.7 thousand people in 1913, 154.5 thousand people in 1914. In January-February 1918, after October Revolution 1917, there were street battles in Astrakhan, which continued for two weeks. It were finished by Bolshevik victory over anti-Bolshevik Cossacks and establishment of Soviet power. On December 16, 1918 Presidium of Astrakhan City Council (City Soviet) passed a resolution to municipalize tram network. The rolling stock, tram tracks and overhead lines were completely rundown.

In March 1919 after a failed workers revolt against Bolshevik rule thousands of people were executed by the Emergency Commission under orders from prominent Bolshevik leader Sergey Kirov (1886-1934). Some victims had stones tied around their necks and were thrown into the Volga River. British historian Simon Sebag Montefiore (born 1965) writes: "In Astrakhan Kirov enforced Bolshevik power in March 1919 with liberal blood-letting: over four thousand were killed. When a bourgeois was caught hiding his own furniture, Kirov ordered him shot". The tram operation was ceased in April 1919 due to combat operation during Civil War. During Civil War, in the summer-autumn of 1919 there were fierce battle near Astrakhan. In November 1919 Red Army started offensive operations against the Whites.

THE SCHEME OF TRAMLINES AT THE ASTRAKHAN MAP OF 1914:
Red line: River Terminal (Volga Embankment) - Bolda timber wharfs;
Green line: Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) - 2nd Bakaldinskaya Street (now Baku Street) - Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street);
Blue line: Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street) - Pleasant Garden;
X - tram depot near Pleasant Garden;
Orange line: Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Hospital on the Parobich Hillock;
Purple line: Helling (dockyard) - Tsarev River;
Black line: extension from "Greater Isady" Market to cemetery:


CLICKABLE

THE TRAMLINES OF 1910S AT THE ASTRAKHAN MAP OF 1926:
Red line: River Terminal (Volga Embankment) - Bolda timber wharfs;
Green line: Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) - 2nd Bakaldinskaya Street (now Baku Street) - Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street);
Blue line: Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street) - Pleasant Garden;
X - tram depot near Pleasant Garden;
Orange line: Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Hospital on the Parobich Hillock;
Purple line: Helling (dockyard) - Tsarev River;
Yellow line: extension to the Rail Terminal;
Black line: extension from "Greater Isady" Market to cemetery:


Vladislav Prudnikov
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:22 PM   #3645
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. Hotel "Kaluga" (right) at the intersection of Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street) and 1st New Forest Street (now Academician Korolyov Street):

Etoretro

1900s. Hotel "Kaluga" (right) at the intersection of Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street) and 1st New Forest Street (now Academician Korolyov Street):

Link

1900s. Tramcar at Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street) during freshet:

damir-sh

1900s, tramcar №7 at Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street) near Commercial Bridge across Kutum River. St. Nicholas Chapel (left):

yapet

1900s. Tramcar №11 at Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street):

yapet

1900s. Tramcar that leading to St. Vladimir Cathedral at Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street):

Link

1900s. Tramcar on the Commercial Bridge across Kutum River:

Link

1910s, Fish Market at Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment). Commercial Bridge across Kutum River and Exchange building (now Wedding Palace) on the background:

Link

1900s. Fish Exchange at Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment):

yapet

1900s, tramline at Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment). White building of Alexander Gubin's House (now Astrakhan branch of the Saratov State Academy of Law) on the background was built in 1900-1902 according to the project of Konstantin Domontovich:

Link

1900s, tramline at Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment). Alexander Gubin's House (now Astrakhan branch of the Saratov State Academy of Law) on the background:

Link

1900s. Tramcar №5 near Astrakhan Regional Court at the intersection of Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) and Stockpile Street (now Kalinin Street):

Etoretro

1900s. Tramcar near Astrakhan Regional Court at the intersection of Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street) and Stockpile Street (now Kalinin Street):

Link

1900s. "Arcadia" Garden:

Link
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:23 PM   #3646
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. The main alley of Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square):

Link

1900s. Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square):

yapet

1900s. Tramcar near Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square):

Link

1910s. Museum of the Petrovskoye Society of the Researchers of the Astrakhan Region (now Astrakhan State United Historical-Architectural Museum-Reserve) at the corner of Alexander Street (now Burov Street):

Etoretro
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:24 PM   #3647
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square):

Владислав Мартыненко

1900s. Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square):

Link

1900s. Alexander Square (now Lenin Square) at the intersection of Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street) and White City Street (now Lenin Street):

astrahanfoto

1910s, Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square). The view at Assumption Cathedral and new cathedral belltower of Astrakhan Kremlin from southern side:

Link

1900s, Old Guest Court at Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street) was built in 1822-1825 according to the project of Carlo Depedri. St. Nicholas Church on the background:

Link

1900s, "Evening Market" at Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street). St. Nicholas Church on the background:

yapet

1900s, "Evening Market" at Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street):

Link

1900s. New Guest Court at Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) was built in late 1890s according to the project of great Russian architect Victor Schröter:

Link
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:25 PM   #3648
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. Tramcar №13 at Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street):

Link

1910s, Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street). Artillery Tower of Astrakhan Kremlin (right):

yapet

1910s, the view of Astrakhan Kremlin from northern side. Artillery Tower:

Etoretro

1900s, the view of Astrakhan Kremlin from northern side. Central tram power station:

russiahistory

1900s. St. Nicholas Street:

Link

1900s, tramcar leading in direction to Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street). Artillery Tower of Astrakhan Kremlin (right):

Link
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:26 PM   #3649
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. Tramcar near the intersection of St. Nicholas Street and Old Hagrites Street (now Admiralty Street):

yapet

1900s. St. Nicholas Street:

Link

1900s. St. Nicholas Street:

Link

1900s. St. Nicholas Street:

yapet

1900s. St. Nicholas Street:

Link

1910s. Russo-Asian Bank (now Astrakhan State Puppet Theatre) at the intersection of St. Nicholas Street and Skarzhinsky Street (now Fioletov Street):

yapet
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:26 PM   #3650
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street):

Link

1900s. Tramcar №7 near the intersection of Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street) and Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street):

Link

1900s. Tramline at Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street) near its intersection with Esplanade Street:

Link

1900s. Tramline at Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street) near its intersection with Esplanade Street:

Link

1900s. Tramcar at Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street) near its intersection with Akhmatov Street:

Link

1900s. The intersection of Tobacco Row Street (now Kirov Street) and Greater Demidov Street (now Sverdlov Street):

Link
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:27 PM   #3651
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. The intersection of Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) and Police Street (now Kirov Street):

astrahanfoto

1910s, the intersection of Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) and Police Street (now Kirov Street). Assumption Cathedral and cathedral belltower of Astrakhan Kremlin on the background:

Link

1910s, the intersection of Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) and Police Street (now Kirov Street). Assumption Cathedral and cathedral belltower of Astrakhan Kremlin on the background:

Link

1900s. 1st Male Gymnasium at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Post Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

Link

1910s. Post Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

Link

1910s. The view at Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) from Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street):

Link
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:28 PM   #3652
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s. House of Governor at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Moscow Street (now Soviet Street):

Link

1900s. House of Governor at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Moscow Street (now Soviet Street):

Link

1900s. House of Governor at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Moscow Street (now Soviet Street):

etoretro

1900s. House of Governor at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Moscow Street (now Soviet Street):

Link

1900s. Tramline at Police Street (now Kirov Street) near Alexander Garden (now Brotherly Garden):

Etoretro

1900s. Post Office (left) at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Post Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

Etoretro

1900s. Post Office (left) at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Post Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

Link

1900s. Post Office (left) at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Post Street (now Chernyshevsky Street):

Link

1900s. Tramline near the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and White City Street (now Lenin Street):

Link

1909-1917. Police Street (now Kirov Street):

Link

1909-1917. The building of confectionery "Karl Scharlau and sons" at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and White City Street (now Lenin Street) was built in 1899-1901 according to the project of Konstantin Domontovich:

Link

1909-1917. The confectionery "Karl Scharlau and sons" at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and White City Street (now Lenin Street):

Link

1909-1917. The confectionery "Karl Scharlau and sons" at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and White City Street (now Lenin Street). Church of the Sign on the background:

Link
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:29 PM   #3653
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1900s, tramline at Police Street (now Kirov Street) near Police Bridge (now Varvakis Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal). Club of Cyclists (right):

russiahistory

1900s, tramline at Police Street (now Kirov Street) near Police Bridge (now Varvakis Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal). Club of Cyclists (right):

Link

1900s. The view to Police Bridge (now Varvakis Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal):

Link

July 9, 1910. The view to Earthern Bridge (now Customs Bridge) across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal):

Link

1900s. The corner of Tatar Market at Tatar Market Street (now Combat Street):

Link

1910s. Greater Tsarev Street (now Menzhinsky Street) at the outskirts of Astrakhan:

Link

1910s. Tramcar №20 at Helling Line:

astrahanfoto
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:30 PM   #3654
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

1918. Old Guest Court at Cathedral Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street) was destroyed during Civil War:

Link

1918. The building of 1st Male Gymnasium at the intersection of Police Street (now Kirov Street) and Moscow Street (now Soviet Street) was destroyed during Civil War:

Link
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:32 PM   #3655
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

The revival of Astrakhan Tram (1921-1925)

In 1921 there began period of famine in Astrakhan and surrounding areas. Nevertheless, the presence of even small stocks of fish helped Astrakhan residents survive this period more successfully in comparison with residents of other regions of Lower Volga. The majority of industrial enterprises stopped operation due to lack of raw material and labour force.

In 1922 there began slow revival of industrial production in the city. In April 1922 tram traffic was renewed. The route of Bolda Line was a little changed - there was closed tramline at Rosa Luxemburg Street (now St. Nicholas Street), tramlines were moved from Fioletov Street to Uritsky Street and from Red Embankment to Sverdlov Street.

During 1922 and the years following it, the rolling stock was overhauled and reconditioned. By October 1, 1922, the enterprise reconditioned 8 of the existing 73 tramcars, by October 1, 1923 it had 18 serviceable tramcars, by October 1, 1924 - 42, by October 1, 1925 - 70, by October 1, 1926 - 72 and by October 1, 1927 all 73 tramcars were reconditioned.

The annual ridership was 2.9 million passengers in the "financial" (fiscal) year of 1922/1923, and 5.5 million passengers in 1923/1924. In October 1925, tram system and power station were transferred under authority of the Astrakhan Department for Electric Enterprises. The "financial" (fiscal) year of 1925/26 was completed without loss, the tram debts were paid off and for the first time the reserve for depreciation received 255.307 rubles.

Apart from the construction in 1919 of the new tramline leading to the Rail Terminal and the completion of annual overhaul starting from financial year of 1924/1925, by the beginning of 1936 the following important arrangements were performed.

In 1924-1925 the single-track line was built along the reconstructed Robespierre Street (now Admiralty Street) and Trusov Street (now Admiralty Street) through the territory of the port from the Shaumyan Square (Swan Lake) to Rosa Luxemburg Street (now St. Nicholas Street). The direct traffic was started along the ring tramline. There was cancelled former direction of this tramline: from Shaumyan Square (Swan Lake) to Rosa Luxemburg Street (now St. Nicholas Street), along Burov Street and Oсtober Street (now Vasily Trediakovsky Street). As a result, tramcars started to run along the other side of Kremlin Wall. In addition, there was built canteen-club for workers and employees of Astrakhan Tram.

Thus, in 1925 tramcars ran from depot in the very different directions. The one branch line linked tram depot and area of Rail Terminal. The another tramline was located between tram depot and corner of Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street); along Kalinin Street, 5th of April 1912 Bridge (now Exaltation Bridge) across Kutum River, Tsaritsyn Street (now Kalinin Street) and Sverdlov Street. From the intersection of Zhelyabov Street of Red Embankment, it was possible to change the tram and to ride by one of other tramlines. For example, tram at one of these tramlines rode near the Exchange building (now Wedding Palace) through Highway Bridge (now Commercial Bridge) across Kutum River, along Steamship Street (now Admiralty Street), Simbirsk Street (now Henri Barbusse Street), and 3rd Steppe Street (now Tatishchev Street) till its end (the area of present-day Central Stadium). Also, at the intersection of Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) and Red Embankment, it was possible to ride by the tram near Exchange building (now Wedding Palace); along Uritsky Street, Jean-Paul Marat Street (now Anzali Street), Little Isady Street (now Maxim Gorky Street) and Lieutenant Schmidt Street - to the river transportation to the other bank of Volga River. From the intersection of Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) and Red Embankment, it was also possible to ride by tram along Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street), near Astrakhan Kremlin (west of Kremlin wall) and Tatar Market on the Freedom Square, along Combat Street and Baku Street. From Tatar Market, tramcars ran through the Control Bridge (now non-existing) to the western bank of Tibor Szamuely Backwater (now Volga Backwater) and then - along the 2nd Control Street (now Kostin Street), Babeuf Street to Proletarian settlement at Golden Backwater. It was also possible to change the tram at the intersection of Combat Street and Baku Street - for example, tram that ran along Semipalatinsk Street (now Army General Yepishev's Street) and Greater Tsarev Street (now Menzhinsky Street) to the pier at the bank of Tsarev River. The other tramcars ran from the intersection of these streets to "Greater Isady" Market along Baku Street and Kyiv Street (now Sverdlov Street), and then - along Sverdlov Street to its intersection with Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street). The another branch line was located at Kalyayev Street (now Vsevolod Nozdrin Street) and Sophia Perovskaya Street, between Red Bridge across Kutum River and Cemetery.

March 8, 1924. The demonstration at Soviet Street dedicated to celebrations of International Women's Day:

astrahanfoto

1920s. Tramline at Kirov Street:

Link

1920s. Tramline at Kirov Street near Brotherly Garden:

Link

1925-1930. Ascension Church of Coreligionists near Kremlin Wall at the intersection of Trusov Street (now Admiralty Street) and Fioletov Street:

Link

ASTRAKHAN TRAM NETWORK IN EARLY 1926:

Astrakhan
CLICKABLE
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:34 PM   #3656
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

New routes of narrow-gauge tram system (1926-1940)

In 1925-1926 there was laid new tramline from 3rd Steppe Street (now Tatishchev Street) along Bolda Highway (now Latyshev Street) to the Cold Stores (Refrigerators) of Fish Factory. The old Bolda Line was reconstructed at the segment between the Hospital named after Astrakhan Proletariat (now Alexander-Maria Regional Hospital №1 at the intersection of the Henri Barbusse Street and Tatishchev Street) and the site of confluence of the Volga and Bolda Rivers. In 1926-1927 there were built three pavilions at tram stops and the retaining wall near the Astrakhan Kremlin.

In 1926-1928 the Pleasant Line was reconstructed to be double-tracked at the segment between tram depot and Palace of Labour (former building of Regional Court) at Sverdlov Street.

In 1927-1928 the single-track line was built from the intersection of Baku Street and Combat Street, along Combat Street and Radishchev Street. It became part of the Tsarev Line (route №3). As a result, there was cancelled former direction of Tsarev Line: from the intersection of Baku Street and Combat Street, along Combat Street and Semipalatinsk Street (now Army General Yepishev's Street), to the intersection of Semipalatinsk Street (now Army General Yepishev's Street) and Radishchev Street. Also, there was built a second track from Bolda Highway (now Latyshev Street) to the Hospital named after Astrakhan Proletariat (now Alexander-Maria Regional Hospital №1 at the intersection of the Henri Barbusse Street and Tatishchev Street) to make tram stop of the Rail Terminal Line and Bolda Line near the hospital. There were constructed two new service completely-equipped motor tramcars for tramlines. The annual ridership in 1927/1928 ("financial year") was 17.435 million people. There operated 47 motor tramcars and 21 trailers in 1927/1928. The average speed of tramcars was 8.4 km/h. The total length of tramlines was 34.5 km (27.4 km by axises of streets). There worked 580 tram employees in 1928. The total profit from tram operation was 1.199 million rubles while total expenses – 1.024 million rubles.

In 1927-1929 the Ring Line was reconstructed to be double-tracked at the segment between Central tram power station (near Astrakhan Kremlin) and Baku Street; as well as along Baku Street, Kyiv Street (Sverdlov Street) and along Sverdlov Street at the segment between Kyiv Street (now Sverdlov Street) and "Greater Isady" Market. In 1928-1929 there were built Central tram ring near Astrakhan Kremlin and new branch line to the City power station. In 1929 were bought 15 new "Kh" motor tramcars for narrow-gauge tramlines. In 1929-1930 there was built a single-track tramline from the Hospital named after Astrakhan Proletariat (now Alexander-Maria Regional Hospital №1 at the intersection of the Henri Barbusse Street and Tatishchev Street) to the Cold Stores (Refrigerators) of Fish Factory; parallel to the existing tramline along the Bolda Line.

Therefore, by the beginning of 1930s the tram network was generally formed. In 1932 were bought 12 new "Kh" motor tramcars and 8 "M" trailers for narrow-gauge tramlines. That year there was built a single-track tramline from former Cemetery Street in direction to Ship Repair Plant named after Friedrich Engels. This plant was established in 1925 at the settlement of Cossack Hillock and turned into large industrial enterprise after reconstruction of 1934-1935.

The annual ridership in 1932 was 36.601 million people. On the average, in 1932 each Astrakhan resident did 169 trips in the tramcar. There operated 54 motor tramcars and 28 trailers. The average speed of tramcars was 11.4 km/h. The total length of tramlines was 42.0 km (29.6 km by axises of streets). There worked 912 tram employees. The cost of tram ticket was 10 kopecks or 0.10 rubles. In 1932, the total profit from tram operation was 4.010 million rubles while total expenses – 2.539 million rubles.

In 1932-1933 there was built tram bridge across Cossack Yerik River in order to prolong tramline directly to the gates of Ship Repair Plant named after Friedrich Engels. In that period, there was built a single-track tramline from Tsarev River to the another large Ship Repair Plant - named after Joseph Stalin (now Astrakhan Shipbuilding Production Association). This plant was commissioned on October 15, 1930 at the bank of Golden Backwater. In 1933 there was built branch tramline leading to the Bread-Baking Plant №3.

However, some tramlines were closed for passengers operation. In 1933 passenger operation was ceased at the segment of Bolda Line from River Terminal to Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) - at Lieutenant Schmidt Street, Little Isady Street (now Maxim Gorky Street), Jean-Paul Marat Street (now Anzali Street), Uritsky Street and Sverdlov Street. Tramlines at these streets started to serve only for freight operation, and were dismantled after end of WWII. Also, in 1933 there was closed Brotherly Line from Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) to the Hospital on the Parobich Hillock - at Red Embankment (even side), Brotherly Street (now Kirov Street) and Karakozov Street (now Kuban Steet). The reason for closing of this tramline remains unknown. On September 6, 1933 in Astrakhan was opened first bus route along former Brotherly Line.

In 1932-1934 the Central tram power station was reconstructed. There were built branch tramlines for freight operation - to rail station of the Ryazan-Ural Railway, to distilling plant and to 13th pier of Volga River (in 1934). In 1934, two freight tramcars were constructed for the operation at branch line to distilling plant.

In 1935 there was prolonged tramline from Ship Repair Plant named after Friedrich Engels to the dockyard named after Sergey Kirov. This dockyard was built in 1931-1935. In 1937, according to the Order of the People's Commissariat of Food Industry of the USSR, this dockyard was merged with Ship Repair Plant named after Friedrich Engels and "Rybosudomotor" engine plant into one enterprise. This enterprise become a major ship repair and shipbuilding base of the fishing fleet of the Volga-Caspian Region. It was engaged in the construction of wooden self-propelled and a non-powered fishing vessels.

In 1930s there were built new workshops - joiners' shop and painting shop (1932-1936), pavilion of tram stop near the Cold Stores (Refrigerators) of Fish Factory (1935), etc. Due to the carried out extension and reconstruction of the tram network, completion and reconditioning of the rolling stock, it was possible to connect the city centre with the outskirts and big enterprises which previously had not been connected with the city by means of convenient traffic.

Passenger traffic significally grew along with the extension of Astrakhan enterprises. The annual ridership was 2.9 million passengers in the "financial" (fiscal) year of 1922/1923 and 5.5 million passengers in 1923/1924. In early 1930s passenger traffic increased to 31.9 million passengers in 1933 and 34.1 million passengers in 1935. The book value of all constructions and property of Astrakhan tram enterprise amounted to 6153771.99 rubles by the beginning of 1936.

By 1941, Astrakhan Tram remained one of only few Soviet tram systems that completely consisted of narrow-gauge tramlines (1 meter wide). In 1929-1932 were bought 27 new "Kh" motor tramcars and 8 trailers. However, the requirements set for the tram were so great that the tram could not meet them under the existing condition and there was a need for tram reconstruction and transfer to the broad gauge (1524 mm). Since 1934, production of Soviet narrow-gauge and short tramcars was ceased. This decision was made for unification of tramlines and railways in order to have possibility for using railroad trains at urban tramlines (near factories, plants and other enterprises) in the case of war. Therefore, it became clear that narrow-gauge tram systems have no chances of survival in the future – without regauging on the broad gauge, it will be outdated sooner or later and there will be necessary to replace tram by other kinds of transport. There were plans for reconstruction of old tramlines and construction of new ones (Eastern Bolda Line, etc). In particular, there were no trams in the Trusov District at the right bank of Volga River, and construction of tramlines in that part of city was one of the urgent problems to be solved by the communal services. However, the realization of these plans was postponed due to beginning of the Great Patriotic War.

On May 7, 1926 there was started radio broadcasting in Astrakhan. On May 9, 1930 there was established Astrakhan Technical Institute of Fishing Industry and Economy (now Astrakhan State Technical University) - it was opened on October 1, 1930. On March 15, 1932 there was opened Astrakhan State Pedagogical University (now Astrakhan State University). On September 1, 1936 there was opened first Astrakhan airport.

On May 21, 1928 Astrakhan Governorate ceased to exist. The territory of Astrakhan and surrounding areas became a part of newly-established Lower Volga Region. There was established Astrakhan District within Lower Volga Region, but it was abolished on July 30, 1930. The administrative center of Lower Volga Region was Saratov (since 1932 - Stalingrad). As Lower Volga Region was very large its administration was very difficult, on January 10, 1934 it was divided into two parts: Saratov Region and Stalingrad Region. As a result, Astrakhan and surrounding areas became a part of the Stalingrad Region. On July 16, 1937 Astrakhan District was established again - within the Stalingrad Region.

The population of Astrakhan increased during 20 years of Soviet power along with the extension of city. In 1923, the population of Astrakhan was 132.9 thousand residents. According to the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926, there lived 176.5 thousand people in Astrakhan. It was 14th most populous city of the USSR and seventh most populous city of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR) after Moscow (2.026 mln. residents), Leningrad (1.614 mln. residents), Rostov-on-Don (308.1 thousand residents), Saratov (215 thousand residents), Nizhny Novgorod (185 thousand residents) and Kazan (179 thousand residents). But further growth of population was not so significant in comparison to other cities because administrative status of Astrakhan was downgraded in following years - 186 thousand people in 1927, 209 thousand people in 1931, 216.4 thousand people in 1932 and 259 thousand people in 1939. In 1939, Astrakhan was only 18th most populous city of the RSFSR.

1930. The construction of new house at the intersection of Trusov Street (now Esplanade Street) and Shelgunov Street as part of First Five-Year Plan (1928-1932):

astrahanfoto

1939. The view to the Ship Repair Plant named after Joseph Stalin (now Astrakhan Shipbuilding Production Association):

Link

1930s, Tram Ring (now October Square). Central tram power station (right):

Алексей Вилявин

1930s, the intersection of Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) and Sverdlov Street. Tram stop of the Ring Line (route "A"), Bolda Line (route №1) and Rail Terminal Line (route №2) at right side:

Алексей Вилявин
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post

Last edited by geometarkv; May 30th, 2014 at 10:47 AM.
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:35 PM   #3657
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

THE LIST OF ASTRAKHAN NARROW-GAUGE TRAMLINES (1937)

A) Ring Line (length of this tramline by axis of streets - 6885.0 meters).

"Greater Isady" Market - Kyiv Street (Sverdlov Street) - Sverdlov Bridge (now St. John Bridge) across May Day Canal, near canning factory - Baku Street - Combat Street - Tatar Market on the Freedom Square - Shaumyan Bridge (now Customs Bridge) across May Day Canal - Robespierre Street (now Admiralty Street) - Trusov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Tram Ring (now October Square) - Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Sverdlov Street - "Greater Isady" Market.

1) Bolda Line (length of this tramline by axis of streets - 4907.5 meters).

Tram Ring (now October Square) - Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Highway Bridge (now Commercial Bridge) across Kutum River - Dzerzhinsky Street (now Admiralty Street) - Henri Barbusse Street; near the 2nd Clinical Hospital (now Alexander-Maria Regional Hospital №1 at the intersection of Henri Barbusse Street and Tatishchev Street) and fire station - 3rd Steppe Street (now Tatishchev Street); near the Astrakhan Technical Institute of Fishing Industry and Economy (now Astrakhan State Technical University), timber mill №5, timber wharfs and new water pipe under construction - Bolda Highway (now Latyshev Street); near the Woodworking Plant named after Joseph Stalin - tram pavilion near the Cold Stores (Refrigerators) and canning combine.

2) 1st Rail Terminal Line (length of this tramline between Rail Terminal and Hospital by axis of streets - 970.5 meters).

Tram Ring (now October Square) - Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Highway Bridge (now Commercial Bridge) across Kutum River - Dzerzhinsky Street (now Admiralty Street) - Henri Barbusse Street; near the 2nd Clinical Hospital (now Alexander-Maria Regional Hospital №1 at the intersection of Henri Barbusse Street and Tatishchev Street) - Astrakhan Rail Terminal of the Ryazan-Ural Railway - Mikoyan Fish Town; near the Meat-Packing Factory and the Heat Electropower Station under construction (back along the same route but in the opposite direction to the Tram Ring).

9) 2nd Rail Terminal Line (length of this tramline between Rail Terminal and Pleasant Line by axis of streets - 970.0 meters).

Tram Ring (now October Square) - Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Highway Bridge (now Commercial Bridge) across Kutum River - Henri Barbusse Street; near the 2nd Clinical Hospital (now Alexander-Maria Regional Hospital №1 at the intersection of Henri Barbusse Street and Tatishchev Street) - Astrakhan Rail Terminal of the Ryazan-Ural Railway - Mikoyan Fish Town near the Heat Electropower Station under construction;
back in the opposite direction from the Heat Electropower Station and further on to the Tram Ring by the route: Rail Terminal Square near the Bread-Baking Plant №3 - through Karl Marx Square to the Pleasant Line - further on along the Pleasant Line: Karl Marx Square near the Karl Marx Garden (now Central City Park of Culture and Leisure "Arcadia") - Kalinin Street - 5th of April 1912 Bridge (now Exaltation Bridge) across Kutum River - Stalingrad Street (now Kalinin Street) - Sverdlov Street - Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Tram Ring (now October Square).

3) Tsarev Line (length of this tramline by axis of streets - 2282.5 meters).

Tram Ring (now October Square) - Trusov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Robespierre Street (now Admiralty Street) - Shaumyan Bridge (now Customs Bridge) across May Day Canal - Tatar Market on the Freedom Square - Combat Street - Radishchev Street - Greater Tsarev Street (now Menzhinsky Street) - embankment of Tsarev River near river transportation.

4) Helling Line (length of this tramline by axis of streets - 2840.0 meters).

Tram Ring (now October Square) - Trusov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Robespierre Street (now Admiralty Street) - Shaumyan Bridge (now Customs Bridge) across May Day Canal - Control Bridge across Volga Backwater - 2nd Control Street (now Kostin Street) - Babeuf Street; near the main pumping station of the city sewage system and territory of timber mill №3 - Embankment of Volga Backwater, near the territory of Karl Marx Plant - 1st Sand Lane - Sand Spit Street (now Bekhterev Street); near the Infectious Diseases Hospital named after Vladimir Bekhterev and Antimalarial Centre to Oil Storage №8.

5) Pleasant Line (length of this tramline by axis of streets - 1448.0 meters).

Tram depot - Karl Marx Square - Kalinin Street - 5th of April 1912 Bridge (now Exaltation Bridge) across Kutum River - Stalingrad Street (now Kalinin Street) - Palace of Labour at Sverdlov Street.

6) Stalin Line.

Embankment of Tsarev River near river transportation - along the territory of Narimanov District Executive Committee - Ship Repair Plant named after Joseph Stalin (now Astrakhan Shipbuilding Production Association).

7) Cossack Hillock Line (length of this tramline by axis of streets - 5087.0 meters).

Tram Ring (now October Square) - Zhelyabov Street (now Admiralty Street) - Sverdlov Street - "Greater Isady" Market - Nogin Street - Red Bridge across Kutum River - Kalyayev Street (now Vsevolod Nozdrin Street) - Sophia Perovskaya Street; near the cartage, City Public Service Department, Russian and Armenian cemeteries - tram bridge across Cossack Yerik River - settlement named after Friedrich Engels (former Cossack Hillock settlement); near the Ship Repair Plant named after Friedrich Engels and dockyard named after Sergey Kirov.

1937. SCHEME OF ASTRAKHAN TRAM ROUTES AT THE CITY MAP OF 1925:
A) Ring Line ("Greater Isady" Market - Baku Street - Tram Ring, now October Square - Sverdlov Street - "Greater Isady" Market);
1) Bolda Line (Tram Ring, now October Square - Cold Stores of Fish Factory);
2) 1st Rail Terminal Line (Tram Ring, now October Square - Meat-Packing Factory);
3) Tsarev Line (Tram Ring, now October Square - Tsarev River);
4) Helling Line (Tram Ring, now October Square - Sand Spit Street, now Bekhterev Street);
5) Pleasant Line (Tram depot - Sverdlov Street);
6) Stalin Line (Tsarev River - Ship Repair Plant named after Joseph Stalin, now Astrakhan Shipbuilding Production Association);
7) Cossack Hillock Line (Tram Ring, now October Square - dockyard named after Sergey Kirov);
9) 2nd Rail Terminal Line (Tram Ring, now October Square - Meat-Packing Factory):


Astrakhan
CLICKABLE
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:38 PM   #3658
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

SOVIET ASTRAKHAN IN POPULAR CULTURE

"IMPOSSIBLE!" (1975)

Looking ahead, it can be said that Astrakhan preserved own image of provincial city prior to the collapse of Soviet Union and afterwards. That's why some prominent Soviet movie directors selected this city for shooting of own movies the actions of which took place in the interwar period (1920s-1930s). In particular, the great Soviet comedy director Leonid Gayday (1923-1993) opted to shoot there scenes from own comedy film "It Can't Be!" also known as "Impossible!" (1975). It is one of popular and well-known Soviet comedy films. This film consists of three independent parts (segments) based on short stories of great Soviet satirist Mikhail Zoshchenko (1895-1958). The first and second parts were filmed in Astrakhan.

The first part (segment) named "Crime and Punishment" is about a store manager Gorbushkin who steals goods from own store for himself. One day he was summoned for interrogation to testify in investigation against other peculator. But not knowing about real purpose of summons, he and his relatives are sure that he was summoned as accused for stealing. Trying to avoid full forfeiture of property, Gorbushkin's wife with the help of her brother immediately starting to sell all objects of property. This segment is based on Mikhail Zoshchenko's short play with same name (written in 1933). According to screenplay, the actions takes place on August 21, 1927.

The recognizable Astrakhan places in the episodes from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!", segment "Crime and Punishment" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):
00:00 - 01:08. Jean Jaurès Street (in order to make fun of tendency to frequent renaming streets and squares in the Soviet cities, this place is titled in film as "Hare Lane, former Wolf Deadend" );
01:09 - 03:01. Tatar Market near the intersection of Volga Street and Kotovsky Lane (in order to make fun of tendency to frequent renaming streets and squares in the Soviet cities, this place is titled in film as "New Linden Square, former Old Oak Square" );
03:02 - 05:15. Jean Jaurès Street (so-called "Hare Lane, former Wolf Deadend");
05:16 - 05:38. Pioneer Palace (now Astrakhan branch of the Saratov State Academy of Law) at the intersection of Red Embankment and Kuybyshev Street;
05:39 - 07:54. Astrakhan Kremlin (beyond the window);
07:55 - 08:16. Red Embankment;
08:17 - 08:24. The intersection of Volga Street and Kotovsky Lane (so-called "New Linden Square, former Old Oak Square");
08:25 - 10:14. Jean Jaurès Street (so-called "Hare Lane, former Wolf Deadend"):



September 16, 1974. Pioneer Palace (now Astrakhan branch of the Saratov State Academy of Law) at the intersection of Red Embankment and Kuybyshev Street. The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

elena-pim

September 17, 1974. The intersection of Volga Street and Kotovsky Lane (so-called "New Linden Square, former Old Oak Square"). The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

elena-pim

September 17, 1974. Volga Street. The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

elena-pim

September 19, 1974. The view at Astrakhan Kremlin. The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

elena-pim

October 1, 1974. Jean Jaurès Street (so-called "Hare Lane, former Wolf Deadend"), Church of John Chrysostom (right) near Tatar Market. The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

elena-pim

The second part (segment) named "A Funny Adventure" includes cheating husband (stage actor Anatoly Barygin-Amursky) who trying to "survive" in a love triangle. But at the end of story it became clear that this love triangle was only part of more complex "geometric figure" This segment is based on Mikhail Zoshchenko's short story with same name (written in 1935).

The recognizable Astrakhan places in the episodes from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!", segment "A Funny Adventure" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):
00:28 - 01:17. Rosa Luxemburg Street (now St. Nicholas Street);
01:18 - 02:05. Fioletov Street;
02:06 - 02:42. Volga Embankment;
02:43 - 03:30. Rosa Luxemburg Street (now St. Nicholas Street):



October 11, 1974. Rosa Luxemburg Street (now St. Nicholas Street). The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

ave-zesar

Nowadays it's possible to see monument to shoeshine boy from this movie at Central Embankment of Volga River in Astrakhan:

ave-zesar

October 11, 1974. Fioletov Street - it's possible to see tramline here. The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

zhilkina-nadin

October 10, 1974. Rosa Luxemburg Street (now St. Nicholas Street). The frame from Soviet comedy film "Impossible!" (1975, director - Leonid Gayday):

zhilkina-nadin
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2014, 05:41 PM   #3659
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

"MY FRIEND IVAN LAPSHIN" (1984)

Eight years later, in Astrakhan was shooted drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984) - the direct opposite of Leonid Gayday's comedy film "Impossible!" (1975). The film was directed by Leningrad filmmaker Aleksey German (1938-2013) and produced by "Lenfilm" studio. It's based on a novella "Lapshin" (1937) by Yuri German (1910-1967) adapted by screenwriter Eduard Volodarsky (1941-2012).

Set in 1935-1936 in the fictional provincial town of Unchansk, the film is presented as the recollections of a man who at the time was a nine-year-old boy living with his father in a communal flat shared with criminal police investigator Ivan Lapshin and a number of other characters. There are several plot strands: a provincial troupe of actors arrive and put on a play without much success; a friend of Lapshin's, the journalist Khanin, shows up, depressed after his wife's death; and Lapshin investigates the Solovyov's gang of criminals. Lapshin falls in love with the actress Natasha Adashova, but she is in love with Khanin. "It is a film about people 'building socialism' on a bleak frozen plain, their town's one street a long straggle of low wooden buildings beneath a huge white sky, leading from the elegant stucco square by the river's quayside out into wilderness... These are people whose faith in the future remains intact, but whose betrayal is imminent. Aleksey German has said that his main aim was to convey a sense of the period, to depict as faithfully as possible the material conditions and human preoccupations of Soviet Russia on the eve of the Great Purge. It is for this world, for these people that the narrator struggles to declare his love - unconditional, knowing how flawed that world was, and how tainted the future would be. German compared the film to the work of Anton Chekhov, and one can see in it a similar tenderness for the suffering and absurdity of its characters" (Tony Wood, "New Left Review", 2001).

For creation of Chekhov's atmosphere, Aleksey German opted to shoot this film in Astrakhan with its streets where preserved rickety wooden houses and tram tracks that overgrown with reeds. Tramcar decorated with attributes of 1930s serves as one of numerous symbols for this movie. However, by 1982, there no preserved any own pre-WWII tramcar in Astrakhan - tram network was regauged on the broad gauge (1524 mm) in 1950s, and all narrow-gauge tramcars were either written-off or delivered to other cities. That's why pre-WWII MS tramcar with trailer were delivered from Leningrad to Astrakhan especially for filming. The freight platform (constructed in 1950s) was only unit of Astrakhan rolling stock that was used for shooting of movie. The music orchestra plays "Das Einheitsfrontlied" ("United Front Song") on this platform in the final part of film.

"Das Einheitsfrontlied" ("United Front Song") was written in 1934 (music - Hanns Eisler, lyrics - Bertolt Brecht ) when German Communists tried to organize United Front for the struggle against Nazism:


The recognizable Astrakhan places in the episodes from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):
00:00 - 01:21. The area near "17th pier" of Volga River;
01:22 - 03:53. The intersection of Volga Street and Kotovsky Lane;
03:54 - 04:40. May Day Canal and May Day Embankment;
04:41 - 06:47. Krupskaya Street;
06:48 - 07:45. The area near "17th pier" of Volga River;
07:57 - 09:13. Krupskaya Street;
09:14 - 09:27. Pleshcheyev Street:



1982. The intersection of Volga Street and Kotovsky Lane. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. The intersection of Volga Street and Kotovsky Lane. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. Tramline at Krupskaya Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. The view from Krupskaya Street in direction to Trofimov Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. Tramline at Krupskaya Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. The intersection of Krupskaya Street, Trofimov Street and Pskov Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. MS tramcar (delivered from Leningrad to Astrakhan) near the intersection of Krupskaya Street, Trofimov Street and Pskov Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. Astrakhan freight platform (constructed in 1950s) at Krupskaya Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. Tramline at the intersection of Krupskaya Street and Pleshcheyev Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. Tramline at the intersection of Krupskaya Street and Pleshcheyev Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim

1982. MS tramcar and freight platform at Pleshcheyev Street. The frame from Soviet drama film "My Friend Ivan Lapshin" (1984, director - Aleksey German):

elena-pim
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 27th, 2014, 05:04 PM   #3660
geometarkv
Registered User
 
Join Date: Apr 2012
Posts: 553
Likes (Received): 588

13) Krasnodar (opened on December 23, 1900),
including Pashkovskaya stanitsa (opened on December 27, 1914):


Krasnodar is a city in Southern Russia on the Kuban River, located around 148 kilometers (92 miles) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. It is the administrative center of Krasnodar Region (also known as Kuban).

Pre-revolutionary history

The Kuban territory in the North Caucasus was an uninhabited steppe region that was gained by the Russian Empire in 1784. It was nonetheless a crucial foothold for the Russian expansion into the Caucasus. On July 11, 1792 Russian Empress Catherine the Great granted land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks (later the Kuban Cossacks). In 1792-1793 about 25.000 persons made the migration and settled on the regions north of the Kuban River. On June 20, 1793 Kosh ataman of Black Sea Cossack Host Zakhary Chepega (1725-1797) sent report to Governor of Taurida Region Semyon Zhegulin with request to establish new military town at the new area. The permission was given very soon. On November 30, 1793 new military town was firstly mentioned as Yekaterinodar. This name was officially formalized in the document named "Order for the common good" on January 12, 1794. The original name meant "Catherine's Gift" simultaneously in recognition of Catherine the Great's grant of land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks and in recognition of Saint Catherine, the Martyr, who is considered to be the patron of the city.

The origin of the city starts with a fortress built by the Cossacks in order to defend imperial borders and claim Russian ownership over Circassia, which was contested by Ottoman Turkey. In the first half of the 19th century Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Black Sea Cossacks (later the Kuban Cossacks). In 1801 there was opened first pharmacy, in 1803 - first school, in 1806 - first library. Yekaterinodar was incorporated into Astrakhan Governorate (1794-1802), Caucasus Governorate (1802-1822), Caucasus Region (1822-1847) and Stavropol Governorate (1847-1860).

On February 20, 1860 Yekaterinodar became administrative centre of Kuban Region. After the end of Caucasian War of 1817–1864, establishing of private property and permission for people of non-Cossack origin to settle at Cossack lands with good climatic conditions and fertile nature, population of Yekaterinodar became to rapidly grow. The founders of city - Kuban Cossacks - were resettled at nearest stanitsas (i.e. Cossack settlements). In 1863 in Yekaterinodar was opened Mary Female College and first newspaper was published, in 1865 there was opened first telegraph station for communication with Stavropol. Yekaterinodar was granted town status on June 20, 1867. In 1876 there was opened first bank, in 1888 - water pipe, in 1893 - public bathhouse.

In 1870s-1880s the segment of North Caucasian Railway (Tikhoretsk-Yekaterinodar-Novorossiysk) was completed. This turned Yekaterinodar into large commercial, industrial and transport center of the North Caucasus. There was launched telephone station. In 1891 in Yekaterinodar was built power station and launched electric lighting. There were commissioned flour-milling factory, oil mill, cannery and metalworking plant. The population of city rapidly grew - from 14.100 residents in 1867 to 38.900 residents in 1878. By 1888 about 45.000 people lived in the city and it became a vital trade center of southern Russia. This number increased till 65.606 residents in 1897 and 67.515 residents (35.299 men and 32.216 women) in 1900. The city income amounted to 534371.71 rubles, city costs - 464001.03 rubles. On May 19, 1897, an obelisk commemorating 200 year old history of Kuban Cossack Host was built in Yekaterinodar at the intersection of Red Street and New Street (now Budyonny Street). In 1894 there were opened public libraries, in January 1900 - public library named after Alexander Pushkin, in 1904 - art gallery named after Fyodor Kovalenko, in 1906 - musical school named after Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov.

October 1864. The religious moleben at Red Street near the wooden Resurrection Cathedral dedicated to the end of the Caucasian War of 1817–1864:

myekaterinodar

June 1, 1868. The requiem for victims of the Caucasian War of 1817–1864 near the wooden Resurrection Cathedral at Red Street:

myekaterinodar

1890s. St. Catherine Church (built in 1814) at St. Catherine Street (now Peace Street):

Solar

1900s. General view of Yekaterinodar - southern side:

myekaterinodar

1902. The opening of Kuban Regional Agricultural Exhibition:

Solar

1910s. Steamship pier on the Kuban River near Trinity Church (built in 1899-1910 by Ivan Malgerb):

Solar
__________________

ChuckScraperMiami#1 liked this post
geometarkv no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Tags
метро, kazan, metro, novosibirsk, samara, st. petersburg, subway, transport

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 10:59 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium