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Old December 15th, 2010, 09:26 AM   #581
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Quote:
Originally Posted by TheKorean View Post
Ah, I see. But what about Moscow metro?
Moscow, in contrast to St. Petersburg, has no such problems with hydrogeology. Therefore, the depth of Metro stations is determined by the its location. The quantity of shallow and ground-level Metro stations in Moscow more than quantity of deep-level stations.
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Old December 15th, 2010, 10:13 AM   #582
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Aokromes View Post
Those where build on cold war times to serve as bunker.
This is a popular myth of Western propaganda. Let's look at history of the Moscow Metro.

1st stage (1931-1935) - 13 stations: 4 deep-level, 9 shallow.
Two of four deep-level stations was built by London-type due to problem with quicksands (In order to minimize the amount of excavation required, the planned full-length central hall was abandoned in favour of a short passage at the end of the station connecting the two platform tubes). However, in 1970s, when technology of building was improved, the construction of the central halls was completed.

2nd stage (1935-1938) - 9 stations: 6 deep-level, 3 shallow.
The main factor for choise of depth was geology.

3rd stage - Wartime (1938-1944) - 7 stations: 5 deep-level, 2 shallow.

4th stage (1944-1954) - 15 deep-level stations.
Undoubtly, when Yankees decided to demonstrate own power and committed a crime against humanity, tested a nuclear bombs against the civilians, the threat of American nuclear aggression was more than real. American spy planes have repeatedly invaded into Soviet space.

Therefore it was more than logical when it was ordered to build a new deep-level stations and install a hermetically sealed mechanisms at the old deep-level stations.

1954-1980s:
However, during the reign of Nikita Khrushchev (when the threat of nuclear war was real), there was implemented another principle in the Moscow Metro. Khrushchev (who was directly involved in the construction of the first Moscow Metro line in 1930s) has approved new types of stations - ground-level stations and shallow stations of standard type. Future Soviet leaders followed the same principle in the choice of depth. This fact destroys popular myth of Western propaganda.

1990s - nowadays:
Now the choice of depth depends by the location. In the central districts, where territory was built up few decades ago, apply a deep-level Metro construction. But the majority of the new Metro stations were built in the outskirts, in the bedroom areas. There's easier to build shallow stations with using the cut and cover method, because the territory was not so built up as in the central part of city.

This is list of the deepest Metro stations in Moscow:
1) "Park Pobedy" (2005) - 84.0 meters;
2) "Timiryazevskaya" (1991) - 63.5 meters;
3) "Dubrovka" (1999) - 62.0 meters;
4) "Petrovsko-Razumovskaya" (1991) - 61.0 meters;
5) "Sretensky Bulvar" (2007) - 60.0 meters;
5) "Trubnaya" (2007) - 60.0 meters;
5) "Maryina Roshcha" (2010) - 60.0 meters;
5) "Dostoevskaya" (2010) - 60.0 meters;
9) "Dmitrovskaya" (1991) - 59.0 meters.

As you can see, these stations were built in the era of perestroika, in the "democratic" Yeltsyn times and during last five years. I hope that I will no disprove this myth further.
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Old December 15th, 2010, 11:15 AM   #583
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^ Why is it a myth or propaganda? The deep-level stations built in the 2nd phase have been used as commando centrals and/or where dedicated bomb shelters. So even if they wouldn't have been built for that, they where used in that way. I extremely doubt the geological issues you claim for phase 2, as for instance the first part of Zamoskvoretskaya (green) line - Sokol to Teatralnaya - goes directly under roads which have been widened during that time as well. It would have been very easy to continue to build stations like on the Sokolnicheskaya line.

During hot times of the Cold war and the immediate threat of a new war (1944-1954), all Stations where deep-level. All stations close to the city center built after that where deep-level stations as well. The new Stations on the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya (bright green) line are a bad example because obviously, a new line has to connect to the existing lines in the easiest way.

#563: you can barely see the SOS-column. Russian Metros anyway have a problem with providing informations on platform-level, so I don't see why the changes only benefit Tourists, especially considering the speakers at the SOS-phones only speak Russian anyway.
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Old December 15th, 2010, 01:15 PM   #584
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
^ Why is it a myth or propaganda? The deep-level stations built in the 2nd phase have been used as commando centrals and/or where dedicated bomb shelters. So even if they wouldn't have been built for that, they where used in that way.
These stations were not originally intended to be used as a bomb shelters, but they were used for this purpose during the Nazi air bombings. Before the WWII there were 22 stations in Moscow Metro, 12 of which are shallow. Shallow stations have proven to be ineffective when on July 23, 1941 Nazi bomb damaged the tunnel between Metro stations "Smolenskaya" and "Arbatskaya", resulting in more than 60 people were killed and near 40 were wounded.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
I extremely doubt the geological issues you claim for phase 2, as for instance the first part of Zamoskvoretskaya (green) line - Sokol to Teatralnaya - goes directly under roads which have been widened during that time as well. It would have been very easy to continue to build stations like on the Sokolnicheskaya line.
OK, let see: originally there were 6 stations at this line. "Sokol" and "Aeroport" are shallow stations. "Mayakovskaya" was built in an unstable area of quicksands. As a result, this led to the problems of waterproofing in 1980s-1990s. Even despite of the recent expensive renovation, now it's possible to see the water traces at some places.

"Belorusskaya" was built near Belarus Railway Terminal, "Teatralnaya" was built near Bolshoi Theatre and Kremlin. Therefore, it was difficult to use cut and cover method. This method means that it's necessary to close for people a large territory during construction of stations.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
During hot times of the Cold war and the immediate threat of a new war (1944-1954), all Stations where deep-level.
Right, during this period was carried out such a policy. Although some stations have been difficult to make shallow, since the Ring line repeatedly crosses the Moskva River and its Bypass Canal.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
All stations close to the city center built after that where deep-level stations as well. The new Stations on the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya (bright green) line are a bad example because obviously, a new line has to connect to the existing lines in the easiest way.
The main reason for choise of deep depth is geological conditions and the complexity of construction in areas with dense buildings (houses, underground communications and etc.).

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
#563: you can barely see the SOS-column. Russian Metros anyway have a problem with providing informations on platform-level, so I don't see why the changes only benefit Tourists, especially considering the speakers at the SOS-phones only speak Russian anyway.
NIP - New Informational Space - is not only the SOS columns, but also additional color tapes, schemes and indices. This isn't combined with image of stations.


artkoder


artkoder


artkoder


den91


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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:07 AM   #585
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MOSCOW METRO:

RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PASSAGEWAY BETWEEN STATIONS "BELORUSSKAYA" ("BELARUS") IS OVER:

1938: STATION "BELORUSSKAYA" (LINE 2):

The station was opened on September 11, 1938. The station is named after Belorussky Railway Terminal and was built to carry passangers to and from it.

1920s. Triumphal Gates devoting to the Russian victory in the anti-Napoleonic war 1812 (1829-1834; sculptor - Joseph Bové; since 1968 at Poklonnaya Hill):

mosmetro

Belorussky Railway Terminal with the vestibule of the station:

cocomera


Yury Gridchin

Vestibule of station:

Russos

The design was the standart one for deep-level pylon-type stations. As usual the architects, Nikolay Andrikanis and Nadezhda Bykova, were faced with the task of making the heavy, squat station look lighter. It was decided to cut deep niches in the pylons and place a large bronze standart lamp with a cone-shaped fitting in each of them. The niches are faced with semi-precious onyx, as in "Dynamo" Metro station, and brightly lit. This made the pylons seem lighter and the supporting elements look like smooth pilasters at the edges. The pylons are faced with pink marble. In her memoirs architect Nadezhda Bykova writes admiringly of its rare shades. The ceiling vault has caissons of a simple geometrical pattern:

Wikipedia


Russos


pitkina

The floor was originally planned to be decorated with traditional Belorussian ornament (and idea subsequently used in "Belorusskaya" of Ring Line), but the final decision was a chequered pattern of black and grey marble tiles. There is black granite bust of Vladimir Lenin by the end wall in the central hall:

Russos


eugeny1988

The track walls are faced with white and black marble running along the lower section:

Russos


metrovagony

In 1952 a passageway was added from the centre of the hall to the station "Belorusskaya" of Ring Line. The sculptural group "Belorussian Partisan" can be seen in the passageway:

Russos

In 1958 the first cruise control system in the Moscow Metro was tested on "Belorusskaya" with a fotoelement installed on a train.
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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:16 AM   #586
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INTERMEDIATE PERIOD:

The station "Belorusskaya" of Ring Line was opened in 1952. During this period (1938-1952) there were several important historical events and at the Belorussky Railway Terminal, and at the Metro station "Belorusskaya", and in the whole Soviet Belarus.

1941:

At 04:45 on 22 June 1941, four million German soldiers, to be joined by Italian, Romanian and other Axis troops over the following weeks, burst over the borders and stormed into the Soviet Union, including the Belarus. For a month the offensive was completely unstoppable north of the Pribjet marshes, as the Panzer forces encircled hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops in huge pockets that were then reduced by slower-moving infantry divisions while the panzers charged on, following the Blitzkrieg doctrine. Eastern Belarus suffered particularly heavily during the fighting and German occupation. Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August 1941.

Since the early days of the occupation, a powerful and increasingly well-coordinated Soviet partisan movement emerged. Hiding in the woods and swamps, the partisans inflicted heavy damage to German supply lines and communications, disrupting railway tracks, bridges, telegraph wires, attacking supply depots, fuel dumps and transports, and ambushing Axis soldiers. In the largest partisan sabotage action of the entire Second World War, the so-called Asipovichy diversion of July 30, 1943, four German trains with supplies and Tiger tanks were destroyed. To fight partisan activity, the Germans had to withdraw considerable forces behind their front line.

On June 26, 1941 at Belorussky Railway Terminal was first performed the song "Holy (Sacred) War" by the Red Army Red-Bannered Song and Dance Ensemble of the USSR for soldiers, who going to the front. This song was written by Vasily Lebedev-Kumach in 1941 upon the beginning of the German invasion in the Soviet Union. The composer of the music was Aleksandr Aleksandrov. This song became non-official hymn of the Great Patriotic War:



Link


Link

In 1941 Moscow Metro stations were used as bomb shelters during Nazi air bombings. Every night the General Staff descended to the bomb shelter under the Staff's building, which was completely unsuitable for permanent work. In July it was decided to move on the nights at the station "Belorusskaya". A part of "Belorusskaya" was enclosed for this purpose. Every night after closing of the Metro, the part of station was fenced off by plywood wall. The General Staff worked beyond this wall. At other part was ordinary bomb shelter for the inhabitants of Moscow.

Train with point of communication was located somewhere at this place:

Russos


Russos

Every evening the officers of General Staff collected all materials and went to the Belorussky Rail Terminal, every morning - in the opposite direction. It took too much time. In the some better conditions was been the post of communication at "Belorusskaya" station. It was equipped at special train, which was standing in the sidings behind the station. It could not continue for long time, and in the late August-early September General Staff moved at the building at Kirovskaya (now Myasnitskaya) street. Staff got the station "Kirovskaya" for full disposal. This station was closed for passangers and its platforms were fenced off with plywood for use as the headquarters of the General Staff and PVO Air Defense. All trains bypassed this station without stops. The point of communication remained at "Belorusskaya":

Russos
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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:20 AM   #587
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1944:

The territory of Belarus was liberated during operation "Bagration". It was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation, which cleared German forces from the Belorussian SSR and eastern Poland between 22 June 1944 and 19 August 1944. The operation was named after 18th–19th century Georgian Prince Pyotr Bagration, general of the Russian army who received a mortal wound at the Battle of Borodino in 1812. This action resulted in the almost complete destruction of the German Army Group Centre and three of its component armies: Fourth Army, Third Panzer Army and Ninth Army. The operation "was the most calamitous defeat of all the German armed forces in World War II". By the end of the operation most of the western Soviet Union had been reconquered and the Red Army had achieved footholds in Romania and Poland.

The battle has been described as the triumph of the Soviet theory of "the operational art" because of the complete co-ordination of all the Strategic Front movements and signals traffic to fool the enemy about the target of the offensive. The military tactical operations of the Red Army successfully avoided the mobile reserves of the Wehrmacht and continually "wrong-footed" the German forces. Despite the huge forces involved, Soviet front commanders left their adversaries completely confused about the main axis of attack until it was too late. Compared to other battles, this was by far the greatest Soviet victory in numerical terms. The Red Army liberated a vast amount of Soviet territory (whose population had suffered greatly under the German occupation). The advancing Soviets found cities destroyed, villages depopulated, and much of the population killed, or deported by the occupiers. Within three years of Nazi occupatian about 2 mln. people - almost quarter of Belarus population - were killed.

In order to show the outside world the magnitude of the victory, some 50.000 Nazi prisoners, taken from the encirclement east of Minsk, were paraded through Moscow: even marching quickly and twenty abreast, they took 1.5 hours to pass. But it was not a parade of Nazi fame, it was a parade of Nazi disgrace.

22 June, 1940. Meeting of Nazi Army in Paris:


17 July, 1944. Meeting of Nazi Army in Moscow:



waralbum


waralbum


waralbum


Wikipedia


waralbum

In a symbolic gesture the streets were washed down afterwar. Moscow was cleaned from Nazi traces:

waralbum
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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:22 AM   #588
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1945:

On July 24, 1945 Belorussky Railway Terminal become the place for the meeting of the Soviet winners:

Final episode from the Soviet film "Belorussky Rail Terminal" (1970):



waralbum


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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:27 AM   #589
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1952 - STATION "BELORUSSKAYA" (RING LINE):

mosmetro

The design of "Belorusskaya" (Ring Line) was entrusted to the married pair of architects Ivan Taranov and Nadezhda Bykova (she also designed the other "Belorusskaya", on the Line 2):

"Архитектор"

They regarded this as the last opportunity to realise some cherished plans, for example, to create floor with a pattern of national Belorussian ornament, which they failed to implement at the radial-line station. The floor was originally made of multi-coloured ceramic tiles. At this time Nikita khrushchev was very fond of ceramics and did his utmost to encourage their use. This type of covering was not very practical on a floor used by thousands of people each day, however. It was replaced with granite tiles in 1994 by the son of the architects, Andrey Taranov. However, original pattern was retained. The architect Taranov had to defend the floor as it did not fit in with the richly decorated caissons of the main vault. The ceiling ornament was produced in a rather unusual way. The pattern was imprinted directly on the asbestos-cement "umbrella" to protect the station from water oozing through the tubing seams. Decorative porcelain inserts were fastened to it at the factory stage. In creating their arabesques the architects were inspired by the caisson vaults of villas in Ancient Rome:

Igor Vanin

The theme of the station's decor is the culture and economy of Soviet Belorussia. The twelve panels in the middle of the ceiling illustrate the life of the Belorussian people. They are executed in the Florentine mosaic technique from sketches by Grigory Opryshko. When Nikita Khrushchev was inspecting the new line, the architect Nadezhda Bykova confessed to him: "After a visit at the neighboring station "Novoslobodskaya", our station will be look like Cinderella for you". "But Cinderella must turn into princess in the final", - answered Khrushchev. In 1952 artist Grigory Opryshko and architects Ivan Taranov and Nadezhda Bykova were awarded Stalin Prize of 3rd class for decoration of the station "Belorusskaya":

Kaban


Kaban

For one-third of their height the pylons are faced with light-coloured Koelga marble. The track walls, originally covered with small coloured Mettlach tiles, now have white ceramic tiling. The station is lit by marble light fillings of an unusual design:

Тов. Аминьев


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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:30 AM   #590
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1997 - OPENING OF THE NEW EXIT FROM THE STATION OF RING LINE:

The sculptural group "Soviet Belorussia" (sculptor - Matvey Manizer) stood at the east end until it was removed in 1997 to make way for a second exit. The group was very close compositionally to another group, "Belorussian Partisans" (sculptors - Sergey Orlov, Saul Rabinovich and Ilya Slonim), which still adorns the passageway to the Line 2.

1980s:

Artemy Lebedev

First time in Moscow Metro there were used sodium vapor lamps in the second exit from "Belorusskaya".

igorrogkoff

This exit was decorated with the majolica panel "Faces of the world" by the Portuguese artist Graça Morais. It was gift from the Mayoralty of Lisbon on the 850-anniversary of the Moscow's foundation, which was widely celebrated in 1997:

Yury Gridchin
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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:40 AM   #591
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2010 - RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PASSAGEWAY BETWEEN STATIONS "BELORUSSKAYA":

On May 29, 2010 the passageway between station was closed for reconstruction. There were made: waterproofing works, replacement of the old escalators and renovation works. On December 10, 2010 the vestibule was reopened for passangers:

PASSAGEWAY BEFORE RECONSTRUCTION:

Monument "Belorussian Partisans" devoted to the guerilla war at the territory of the occupied Belarus in 1941-1944:

fmg-krasnogorsk

The floor fixtures were used only for decoration:

Russos


Russos

Old escalators:

metro-ussr

Marble mosaics were damaged due to bad waterproofing:

natlub2009


eugeny1988


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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:41 AM   #592
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PASSAGEWAY AFTER RECONSTRUCTION:

Here were added glass windows at the bridges. It's first time in the Moscow Metro when it was made during reconstruction:

q_rex

The sculpture was slightly restored and painted:

q_rex

The floor surface was replaced with polished granite, the ceiling was replaced with modern "umbrella":

q_rex

The workers of the Moscow Metro:

q_rex

The decoration of the vault:

q_rex
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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:42 AM   #593
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New fixtures:

q_rex

The mosaic arches (artist - Grigory Opryshko) were restored:

q_rex

The bridge:

q_rex

The big mosaic arch was decorated with national Belorussian ornament:

q_rex

The way to the escalators:

q_rex
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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:43 AM   #594
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Restorers of the passageway:

q_rex

The floor fixtures began to glow:

q_rex

Authority of the Moscow Metropoliten:

q_rex

Dmitry Gaev, chief of the Moscow Metropoliten:

q_rex


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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:44 AM   #595
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This girl, Yelena Cherkezova, become the winner of the professional contest among the Metro workers:

q_rex

Prize-cap to the winner:

q_rex

The opening of the passageway:

q_rex

New escalators:

q_rex

Partisans:

q_rex
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Old December 16th, 2010, 01:44 AM   #596
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Chandelier:

q_rex

New automatic video cameras:

q_rex

Historic ornamental railing behind the glass now. But, despite of this, it was cleaned and renovated:

q_rex

View from the platform:

q_rex

Dmitry Gaev at the station:

maksmasterov

First passanger on the new escalator:

maksmasterov
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Old December 16th, 2010, 08:16 PM   #597
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KAZAN METRO:

December 15, 2010. Construction of the station "Kozya Sloboda", which planned to be open on December 30, 2010:

Underground pathway under the Dekabristov street:

evening-kazan

Platform of the station:

evening-kazan

Construction of the station:

evening-kazan

Escalator:

evening-kazan
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Old December 17th, 2010, 04:53 AM   #598
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
English information at the track walls. As we can see, piece of the decorative panel was cut off for the information space:

andreev
pure ugliness.

There's no need for Roman letters in the SP subway. Foreign tourists in Russia don't generally use public transit. They're usually carted around in chartered buses on guided tours like in the Intourist days. Of course, these days with the new high-speed rail line to Helsinki, there will be hordes of Finnish tourists coming in daily to Finlyandskiy Vokzal. But most arrive too drunk to read a line diagram on a track wall, no matter what alphabet it's written in.
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Old December 17th, 2010, 12:05 PM   #599
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Well. I think it would be nice to write names in latin alphabet too but not in such ugly way...
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Old December 17th, 2010, 05:52 PM   #600
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO:

December 17, 2010. Construction of the vestibule of station "Obvodny Kanal" ("Bypass Canal"), which planned to be open on December 26, 2010:

Original idea of architects - arches over the escalators in the industrial style:

karhu


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