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Old March 29th, 2011, 09:18 PM   #901
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FUNICULARS IN RUSSIA - HISTORY, PRESENT AND PROJECTS

CHAPTER TWO - FURTHER DEVELOPMENT:

During first decade of the 20th century were opened three new funiculars in different cities of the Russian Empire.

1902 - ODESSA

Odessa is a major seaport city in Ukraine. It was founded by a decree of the Russian Empress Catherine the Great on September 2, 1794. One of the symbols of Odessa is the famous Potemkin Stairs (originally it was known as Maritime Stairs).

This giant stairway was constructed between 1837 and 1841 by the English engineer named John Upton. Greenish-grey sandstone from the extreme northeastern Italian town of Trieste (at the time it was an Austrian town) was shipped in. The stairs are considered a formal entrance into the city from the direction of the sea and are the best known symbol of Odessa. The top step is 12.5 meters (41 ft) wide, and the lowest step is 21.7 meters (70.8 ft) wide. The staircase is 27 meters high, and extends for 142 meters, but it gives the illusion of greater length. The stairs were designed to create an optical illusion. A person looking down the stairs sees only the landings, and the steps are invisible, but a person looking up sees only steps, and the landings are invisible. A secondary illusion creates false perspective since the stairs are wider at the bottom than at the top. Looking up the stairs makes them seem longer than they are and looking down the stairs makes them seem not so long.

This stairway became world famous after Sergey Eisenstein's 1925 silent film The "Battleship Potemkin"; according to the fictionalized account in that film, soldiers opened fire on the people on the stairs on June 14, 1905. According to journalist Korney Chukovsky, who was in the city during the events, it is unknown whether the Cossacks at the top of the stairs, that were filled with people, actually opened fire on the stairs. In Eisenstein's movie the horrific events that actually took place in various parts of the city were concentrated at the stairs. Noted film critic Roger Ebert writes, "That there was, in fact, no Czarist massacre on the Odessa Steps scarcely diminishes the power of the scene ... It is ironic that Eisenstein did it so well that today the bloodshed on the Odessa steps is often referred to as if it really happened".

The first attempt to create project of funicular to transport people up and down instead of walking by stairway was in 1880, but it was unsuccessful. In 1895 a young engineer Nikolay Pyatnitsky presented own project of funicular, linking Maritime street on the wharf near bottom of the stairway and Maritime Boulevard near top of the stairway. Nevertheless, city officials announced an open contest for the best project of funicular, but only one French company presented an alternative variant. Thus, funicular in Odessa was constructed between 1900 and 1902 on the left side of the stairs according to Pyatnitsky's project. The works were performed under the leadership of engineer V. Rakovsky. Two cars were bought in France. The second funicular in Russian Empire was opened on June 8, 1902.

Technical parameters:
One track with a siding;
Electrical power;
Length - 120 m;
Gauge - 1000 mm;
Gradient - 25%.

1905 - KYIV

Three years after the opening of Odessa funicular this system was also put in operation in Kyiv.

The Kyiv funicular serves the Ukranian capital, connecting the historic Uppertown and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil through the steep hill overseeing the Dnieper River. In 19th century there used wooden stairways for this purpose. However, it took a much more time for rise. Therefore, arose idea of construction of mechanical lifting device.

The construction cost, about 230.000 Russian rubles, was covered by a Belgian owner of the Kyiv trams. The funicular was the idea of Russian statesman Arthur Abrahamson, who received professional training on railroad engineering in Zürich, Switzerland and Saint Petersburg, Russia. Directly the authors of project were engineer Nikolay Pyatnitsky (who was also author of Odessa funicular) and architect Alexander Baryshnikov. The station vestibules were designed by Baryshnikov, and the railway structure was designed by Pyatnitsky. According to initial plans, the funicular was supposed to have a length of 250 meters. However, due to inability to demolish a private house at the bottom of the slope, the planned length was reduced to 200 meters.

The project of funicular was ready in 1902. The funicular was constructed during 1903-1905. All its equipment, including cars, was made ​​in Switzerland. On May 7, 1905 funicular was put into test operation (for builders and mechanics). The test was successful, and on next day it was open for passangers.

Due to its nearness to the St. Michael's Cathedral, it was once named the Mikhailivsky Mechanichny Pidyom (literally St. Michael's Mechanical Lift). After the cathedral was destroyed by the Soviet authorities in 1934-1936, the name of the funicular was changed.

Technical parameters:
One track with a siding;
Electrical power;
Length - 238 m (lengthened after reconstruction in 1928-1929);
Gauge - 1250 mm;
Gradient - 36%.

1905 - TBILISI

In 1905 funicular was open not only in the Ukrainian, but also in the Georgian capital. The funicular in Tbilisi (it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936) connected centre of the city and upper park on the Mount Mtatsminda (the park was built in 1930).

The Mtatsminda Pantheon of Writers and Public Figures is a necropolis in Tbilisi, Georgia, where some of the most prominent writers, artists, scholars, and national heroes of Georgia are buried. It is located in the churchyard around St. David’s Church "Mamadaviti" on the slope of Mount Mtatsminda (Mtatsminda mean the Holy Mountain in Georgian) and was officially established in 1929.

The first celebrities to be buried at this place were the Russian writer and diplomat Alexander Griboyedov (1795–1829) and his Georgian wife Nino Chavchavadze (1812–1857). The Pantheon was officially opened in 1929 to 100-years anniversary of Griboyedov’s murder in Iran. Since then, several illustrious Georgians have been buried or reburied there. The Pantheon is administered by the Municipality of Tbilisi and is frequented by locals as well as the city’s visitors.

In 1900 city goverment signed an agreement on construction of funicular in Tbilisi and approved a project of the Belgian engineer Alphonse Roby. Directly authors of project were engineer A. Bluche (France) and Shimkevich. The construction cost was about 280.000 Russian rubles. The funicular was constructed during 1903-1905. It was opened in March 1905. Tbilisi funicular had three station - "Lower station" (in the centre of Tbilisi), "Pantheon" (intermediate station near Mtatsminda Pantheon) and "Mtatsminda" (at the top of mountain).

Technical parameters:
One track with a siding;
Electrical power;
Length - 500 m;
Gauge - 1000 mm;
Gradient - 65%.
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Old March 29th, 2011, 09:21 PM   #902
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The destiny of the four pre-WWI funiculars, which were built in Russian Empire within 1895-1905, was different.

1) Kyiv funicular survived four reconstructions (1928-29, 1958, 1984-86, 2008-09) and still works in the Ukrainian capital.

2) Odessa funicular also works now. However, its appearance and operating principle very changed. After 60 years of operation, the funicular was outdated. It was closed in 1969 and later replaced by an escalator built in 1970. The escalator broke in the 1997, the money for its repair was stolen, but during reconstruction in 1998-2005 it was replaced with a new funicular (type - incline elevator). The incline elevator was opened on September 2, 2005, to the 211-anniversary of Odessa's foundation. There work two cars, the capacity of each car is 12 persons. The travel time is 70 seconds.

3) In October 1958, to 1500-anniversary of Tbilisi's foundation, was open aerial tramway as alternative to the funicular. Like funicular, aerial tramway was connected centre of Tbilisi and park on the top of Mount Mtatsminda. Both systems have worked together for 32 years. However, on June 1, 1990, the tragic accident occurred on the aerial tramway. As a result of cable break, 21 passangers died. After this accident the aerial tramway to the Mount Mtatsminda was closed. Later, in the 1990s, the other aerial tramways in Tbilisi were also closed due to financial reasons. On June 21, 2000 another tragic accident occurred on Tbilisi funicular. As a result of this accident suffered 20 Japanese tourists, 8 of whom were injured. Therefore, the funicular was also closed. On December 4, 2006, due to economical reasons, Tbilisi authorities announced about the elimination of urban trams and trolleybuses. Thus, presently Metropoliten is only one of the five urban electric kinds of transport, functioned in Tbilisi during Soviet times, which continues to operate till now (although it had not been expanded since 2000).

4) In 1897, after the closing of the All-Russia Exhibition 1896, both Nizhny Novgorod funiculars (Kremlyovsky and Pokhvalinsky) were leased to "Russian Society of Electric Roads and Electric Lighting", although the city goverment was formal owner.

Kremlin funicular, 1898-1899:

Link

Both funiculars were municipalize in 1914. In 1920s, after the development of alternative kinds of urban transport, funiculars have become redundant. Therefore, Kremlin funicular was closed in 1927 and Pokhvalinsky was closed next year. In 1929 the famous Nizhny Novgorod Fair was held last time. It was abolished under the Decree on February 6, 1930. A society named "Nizhny Novgorod Fair" was created in 1991 with its headquarters in the former main fair building. However, today it is not actually a fair, but an exhibition center.

In 2006, the city administration of Nizhny Novgorod announced about decision to revive the Kremlin funicular. According to this idea, the funicular cars will be decorated in a retro style and should be a touristic sight of the city. However, in summer 2007 it was decided to postpone this idea before the implementation of the main city project - the construction of Metro bridge across Oka River (this bridge was opened on November 4, 2009 for vehicles and planned to be open on November 4, 2012 for Metro trains).
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Old March 29th, 2011, 09:22 PM   #903
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Remains of the Kremlin funicular, general view:

Суханов М.


Суханов М.


zheka-wmf


larik
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Old March 29th, 2011, 09:23 PM   #904
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Трешина Т.


Суханов М.

Portal of the tunnel:

Суханов М.


Суханов М.
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Old March 29th, 2011, 09:24 PM   #905
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i-kiselewa2009_IRA


Суханов М.

Observation deck, where was operated funicular:

i-kiselewa2009_IRA


Владимир

TO BE CONTINUED....
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Old March 31st, 2011, 03:43 PM   #906
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very nice pictures
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:47 PM   #907
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FUNICULARS IN RUSSIA - HISTORY, PRESENT AND PROJECTS

CHAPTER THREE - SOCHI:

Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Region, Russia, situated on the Black Sea coast. Sochi is the largest Russian resort city.

The city was founded by Russians on May 3, 1838. The Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under Joseph Stalin, who had his favourite dacha built in the city; Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public. During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums. The centrepiece of this early period is Shchusev's Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology (1927–31). The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union.

The first medical research institution was established in Sochi in 1936 and named after Stalin. Between 1936 and 1939 it was led by professor (and then academician) Anatoly Nesterov and included laboratories and 4 hospitals with the total of 200 beds. The research of that institute was focused on balneotherapy and physiotherapy. In January 1934, Sochi was included in the list of the first-priority expansion areas of Soviet Union (which was usually reserved for industry). As a result, by 1940 the city contained more than 60 sanatoriums and hospitals with the total capacity of about 9000 beds. In comparison, in the late 1920s, there were only 6 sanatoriums with 465 beds. The development of Sochi was promoted by Joseph Stalin who had his favorite dacha built in the city – a tradition followed by most succeeding Soviet and Russian leaders. Those dachas were used not only for personal leisure, but also hosted numerous (less formal) meetings with high-ranking foreign officials.

VOROSHILOV SANATORIUM:

The history of Sochi Central Military Clinical Sanatorium begins on May 31, 1929, when according to the order No 137 by Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic and People's Commissar of health care of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was founded a Military sanitarium station in Sochi. The sanatorium was constructed between 1932 and 1934 according to project of architect Miron Merzhanov (1895-1975), who notable for being the de-facto personal architect of Joseph Stalin in 1933–1941. In 1929 Merzhanov won a contest to design a Red Army sanatorium in Sochi, sponsored by the People's Commissar of Defense Kliment Voroshilov (1881-1969), Soviet military commander and bureaucrat. Sanatorium was opened on June 1, 1934 and was named after Kliment Voroshilov on June 23, 1934.

The sanatorium is located on the western slope of Bytkha Mountain. It steps down its sloping site on the Black Sea coast with great elegance and accomplishment. The now maturely landscaped site adds to the sense of quality here. The complex of Voroshilov Sanatorium took the Grand Prix at the Paris World Exhibition of 1937.

The present-day CMCS Sochi has modern treatment-diagnostics base and everything that is necessary for high qualified treatment. There are different modern diagnostic methods: laboratories, roentgenologic; functional: reovasographics, veloergometry, electrocardiogram, ultrasonic dopplerographia, USI of internal and etc.

Voroshilov Sanatorium, 1930s:

Link


Link


Link


Link


Link


Link

As part of the construction of the complex of Voroshilov Sanatorium, in 1930 was opened Sochi funicular. Its project was designed by Kharkiv branch of "Voenprokat" company. This funicular was connected Voroshilov Sanatorium and Sochi beach. Its length - 396 meters. Here were used two cars (capacity of one car - 56 persons).

Technical parameters:
gauge: 1270 mm;
length: 396 m;
height: 94 m;
gradient: 24%;
speed: 2.4 m per second.
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:48 PM   #908
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FUNICULAR OF VOROSHILOV SANATORIUM. 1930s:


arch-sochi


arch-sochi


Transphoto


Link


Link


Link
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:49 PM   #909
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Link


Link


Link


Link


Link

The funicular of Voroshilov Sanatorium was reconstructed in 1957.
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:50 PM   #910
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1957


Link

1964

Lower station:

Е.В. Грачев


Е.В. Грачев


Transphoto

Upper station:

Е.В. Грачев


Е.В. Грачев

Car at the crossing loop:

Link
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:52 PM   #911
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1972

Upper station:

Link

In 1985 it was reconstructed for second time. The new cars were made in Czechoslovakia:

1994

Link


Link

2005

viktoronoprienko

Sochi funicular was one of the city symbols. Soon, however, the Central Military Clinical Sanatorium (which was known as Voroshilov Sanatorium in Soviet times) began to have financial problems. In 2006 funicular was closed "on restoration".
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:54 PM   #912
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2007

The official reason of the closing of funicular - "Dear visitors! The funicular is not working due to the expiration of the safe operation. Administration":

Vladislav Prudnikov

Upper station, cul-de-sac:

Vladislav Prudnikov


Vladislav Prudnikov

Upper part of route and pavilions on both sides:

Vladislav Prudnikov

Upper part of route. View from the bridge of Resort Avenue, the major street in Sochi:

Vladislav Prudnikov
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:55 PM   #913
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Upper station. "NO ENTRANCE":

Vladislav Prudnikov

Upper station. "HERE IS ENTRANCE" (this inscription is not valid anymore ):

Vladislav Prudnikov

Upper station:

Vladislav Prudnikov

A rare phenomenon - crosswalk across funicular line, which equipped with traffic lights:

Vladislav Prudnikov
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:56 PM   #914
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Two cars ("red" and "blue") under the bridge of Resort Avenue:

Vladislav Prudnikov


Vladislav Prudnikov


Vladislav Prudnikov


Vladislav Prudnikov


Vladislav Prudnikov
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:57 PM   #915
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View down from the service platform:

Vladislav Prudnikov

Crossing loop, view at the lower part of route:

Vladislav Prudnikov


Vladislav Prudnikov

Lower station. Visitors of the Sanatorium are forced to walk up the stairs. Not so long ago was organized a special bus route between the beach and sanatorium:

Vladislav Prudnikov

Lower station. It's need to use neighboring underpass under railway to reach the beach:

Vladislav Prudnikov

Lower station, general view:

Vladislav Prudnikov


Vladislav Prudnikov
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:58 PM   #916
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2009

Dismantling of the funicular line:

Никита Новиков


Никита Новиков


Никита Новиков

Abandoned cars under the bridge:

Никита Новиков


Никита Новиков
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Old March 31st, 2011, 10:59 PM   #917
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2011

Upper station:

Link

Abandoned cars:

Link

The absurd inscription:

Link

Broken stairs:

Link

The heroes of the great past are watching at this with silent reproach:

Link
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Old March 31st, 2011, 11:03 PM   #918
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ORDZHONIKIDZE SATANORIUM:

Ordzhonikidze Sanatorium is a one of dozens sanatoriums, which were built in Sochi during 1930s. It was named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze (1886-1937), Georgian Bolshevik, later member of the CPSU Politburo, People's Commissar of the Soviet Heavy Industry during 1932-1937 and close friend to Joseph Stalin.

Ordzhonikidze Sanatorium was built for the coal workers on the southern slope of Bytkha Mountain. The site for its construction was personally chosen by Sergo Ordzhonikidze. The project of sanatorium was designed in 1934-1935. Constructivism was leading style in the Soviet architecture within 1920s and early 1930s (for example, Voroshilov Sanatorium in Sochi was built by architect Miron Merzhanov between 1932 and 1934 in this style). However, in late 1930s it was replaced with so-called Stalin's Empire style or Stalin's Neo-renaissance. For this reason, new leading style was chosen for the future sanatorium.

Ordzhonikidze Sanatorium was built between 1935 and 1937 by architect Ivan Kuznetsov and was opened on December 13, 1937. It's the magnificent palace constructed in style of Stalin Neoclassicism and recognized as a monument of architecture of federal value. Sanatorium was built on the southern slope of Bykhta Mountain. The health resort is in the central part of a resort, in 500 m from the sea (descent to a cable car), cases are surrounded with unique subtropical vegetation, is present own beach. It attracts customers who are tired of the monotony of urban buildings, the order of boring concrete boxes and looking for new experiences. It's possible to say that it is an island of the Italian Renaissance - the majestic columns everywhere, weightless galleries, lobbies, lounges, balconies, as well as skillful art of painting masters of Palekh and Mstera. The fontain was made in 1939 by sculptor Dobrovolsky, but had an ordinary form. In 1953 it was rebuilt by architect Prokopy Dzyuganov into famous fontain "Dancing Bacchantes" with sculptural group.


arch-sochi


arch-sochi


arch-sochi


arch-sochi


arch-sochi


Svetlana Korenkova


СТЮША


sankurtur

In 1950 was equipped own beach of the Ordzhonikidze Sanatorium. Therefore, it was decided to construct funicular, linking sanatorium and this beach (as it was previously realized for Voroshilov Sanatorium). The funicular of Ordzhonikidze Sanatorium was constructed between 1951 and 1952 by Kharkiv company "Yuzhgiproshakht" according to project of architect Fuk. The cars for funicular were delivered in Sochi on September 19, 1952. The funicular was opened in the end of September, 1952. It was reconstructed in 1985. Here are operate Czechoslovakian cars. The funicular line is partly laid in the tunnel near upper station. The travel time is near two minutes.

Technical parameters:
gauge: 1270 mm;
length: 353 m;
height: 72.5 m;
gradient: 24%;
speed: 1.9 m per second.
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Old March 31st, 2011, 11:05 PM   #919
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FUNICULAR OF ORDZHONIKIDZE SANATORIUM:

Territory of sanatorium:

gay-do


gay-do


gay-do


gay-do


gay-do
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Old March 31st, 2011, 11:05 PM   #920
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Way to the funicular:

Russos


Russos


Russos


Russos
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