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Old April 3rd, 2011, 08:38 PM   #941
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FUNICULARS IN RUSSIA - HISTORY, PRESENT AND PROJECTS

Funicular of Voroshilov Sanatorium in Sochi, 2005 (closed in 2006):


Ordzhonikidze Sanatorium and its funicular, Sochi (time from 4:14):
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Old April 6th, 2011, 11:28 PM   #942
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FUNICULARS IN RUSSIA - HISTORY, PRESENT AND PROJECTS

CHAPTER FOUR:

Thus, before WWII in Soviet Union were functioned four funiculars (in Odessa, Tbilisi, Kyiv and Sochi). After the territorial changes which was followed after Soviet victory in WWII, this number had increased to seven.

KAUNAS

During Soviet times two of these three funiculars were operated in Kaunas, Lithuania. Both funiculars were opened in 1930s.

Žaliakalnis Funicular Railway is a funicular railway in Kaunas, Lithuania. It is the oldest funicular in Lithuania and was constructed by the engineering office "Curt Rudolph Transportanlagen" from Dresden, Germany with electric equipment from AEG and mechanical parts from "Bell Maschinenfabrik", Switzerland.

Žaliakalnis (literally, "the green hill") is an elderate (smallest administrative division) in Lithuania's second largest city, Kaunas. Žaliakalnis is located north of the old town and the downtown area, between the Neris and Girstupis rivers. It is one of the largest residential areas in Kaunas. Žaliakalnis became part of Kaunas in 1919, when the city became the temporary capital of Lithuania. Kaunas expanded rapidly, and the need for a comprehensive plan became evident by 1922. The Danish engineer M. Frandsen was invited to devise this plan.

In Frandsen's plan, Žaliakalnis was to be an important part of Kaunas, where all the city's administrative functions would be located. This part of the concept was not fulfilled, although the neighbourhood quickly became very popular and many modern residences were built. In 1924-1925 alone, more than 300 plots were created and sold. In accordance with the plan, its streets were planted with different species of trees, and space was left for gardens. By 1940, the area was largely built up, and only a few plots remained vacant. Following the expansion of Žaliakalnis, the residents began to write applications to the city administration for improve communication with a lower part of the city.

In 1929 Jonas Vileišis, Mayor of Kaunas, began corresponding with Railway Board. The original idea to improve communication between between central part and Žaliakalnis was to build narrow gauge railway. However, Railway Board criticized this idea, primarily due to its high cost, and Mayor offered another popular urban transport solution - to build an electric tramline. However, City Council disagreed and issued a final decision to build a funicular.

The construction was started in 1930. For construction of the funicular was an exchange of correspondence with the Austrian, German and Swiss firms. The tender for construction was won by the engineering office "Curt Rudolph Transportanlagen" from Dresden, Germany. The official opening was on 5 August 1931 (three days later it started carry residents) with one passenger car, while the second car was only a platform ballasted with stones used to counterbalance the passenger car. The electric overhead power cable and the pantographs of the coaches are only used for lighting and heating of the cars. The upper station housed the electrical driven funicular mechanism in the basement, whilst the lower end of the line not even had a shelter till 1932.

However, this kind of transport become very popular, and they were decided to reequipped funicular with second passanger car. The funicular was between 1935 and 1937 renovated, again. New larger cars with car bodies from "Napoleono Dobkevičiaus" on underframes from "Bell Maschinenfabrik" have been built and the lower station received a real building. Following the further development of Žaliakalnis, the passanger traffic was increased - from 1.406.999 in 1937 to 1.988.592 in 1938 and 2.291.477 in 1939. The funicular continued to operate during WWII. During Soviet times Žaliakalnis Funicular belonged to the trolleybus park. It was carried more than 5 mln. passangers in 1970. It was renovated in 1986. Here were constructed passanger platforms for the upper station. Also, there were demolished old buildings and created square near lower station.

Žaliakalnis Funicular Railway was included into the Registry of Immovable Cultural Heritage Sites of the Republic of Lithuania in 1996. Since 2003 funicular belong to JSC "Kauno liftai". It was renovated in 2003. Here were restored initial authentic image of 1931.

The funicular is made of a wood panelled coachwork and is serviced by a uniformed, English speaking operator. It climbs 75 metres up from behind the Vytautas the Great War Museum to the Church of the Resurrection from where some of the best views in Kaunas can be experienced. The ticket costs 0.5 litas. Today about 300 passengers use it everyday. A music of Giedrius Kuprevicius (b. 1944), created especially for this funicular, sounds in the cars. Passengers are met by servants wearing interwar Lithuania style uniforms.

Technical parameters:
One track with a siding;
length: 142 m;
gauge: 1200 mm;
gradient: 25.9%;
speed: 2 m per second;
travel time: 1 min. 38 sec.;
capacity of car: 36 passangers;
electrical power.

Aleksotas Funicular Railway is a funicular railway in Kaunas, Lithuania. It was built by initiative of President of Lithuania Antanas Smetona. Such mean of transport became necessary when many institutions and private houses settled in Linksmakalnis (Kaunas suburb) and was started to worry about dwellers, officers, students communication with the city.

The works started on March 1, 1934. Construction works were performed by "Muras" company, the cars were manufactured by "Amlit" company, electrical equipment was installed by the Berlin firm AEG and mechanical equipment was installed by "Bell Maschinenfabrik", Switzerland. The latter firm was famous in the world as specialist in construction of cable cars.

Aleksotas Funicular was projected by special comission, which consisted of architect Karolis Reisonas and engineers Napoleonas Dobkevičius, Jonas Andriūnas, Aleksandras Ganfmanas, Aleksandras Mačiūnas, others. Famous engineer Jurgis Čiurlys was consultant of this project.

The funicular was officially opened on December 5, 1935. In the opening ceremony participated Julius Čaplikas (Minister of the Internal Affairs of Lithuania), who become first passanger of funicular. Among participants of the opening ceremony were also Antanas Merkys (Mayor of Kaunas), Steponas Rusteika (Deputy Mayor of Kaunas) and other officials.

The cost of construction was about 200.000 litas, half of which were paid to the workers and other half - to the foreign companies, which installed the equipment. During Soviet times Aleksotas Funicular belonged to the Trolleybus Park. Currently, the funicular system operated by the JSC "Autrolis". Now it's on reconstruction till June 2011.

The track of the Aleksotas funicular remained unchanged. It is a monorail with a separation in the center of the track for carriages to pass. Special automatic breaks were installed in carriages not to let them run down in case of cable damage. Authentic traction equipment, including the genuine pre-war wagon, wooden seats, and stop platforms of the funicular are still used.

The funicular climbs from the end of the Vytautas the Great Bridge to the Aleksotas hill from where the panorama of the Old Town of Kaunas can be experienced. It was included into the Registry of Immovable Cultural Heritage Sites of the Republic of Lithuania in 1997. During one day Aleksotas funicular made 226 trips. One trip, the same as now, lasted for more than 1 minute. Initial apperance and equipment of funicular is saved, which work perfectly until these days.

Technical parameters:
One track with a siding;
length: 142 m;
gauge: 1000 mm;
gradient: 29.5%;
electrical power.
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Old April 6th, 2011, 11:30 PM   #943
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SVETLOGORSK

Another funicular worked in a little-known town Svetlogorsk.

Svetlogorsk, prior to 1945 known by its German name Rauschen is a town on the coast of the Baltic Sea in Russia's Kaliningrad Region. It is situated on the Sambian Peninsula and is a popular coastal resort. Population: 11.202 (2010).

Svetlogorsk is situated in the historical region Sambia of East Prussia. A Sambian fishermen settlement named Ruse-moter (translated as 'region of cellars') at the place of Svetlogorsk was first mentioned in 1258. The Teutonic Order that conquered the land gradually corrupted the name into Rause-moter, Raushe-moter, and finally Rauschen.

In the early 19th century, the place became fashionable among German vacationers. On June 24, 1820 it was officially recognized as a spa town. During his visit to Rauschen in 1840, King Frederick William IV of Prussia ordered the sea embankment to be beautified. The arrival of the railway between Königsberg (present-day Kaliningrad) and Rauschen in 1900 boosted the resort's popularity. A cable railway and a racecourse were constructed in Rauschen before World War I. Carl Otto Nicolai (German composer) and Thomas Mann (German writer) were among the celebrities who stayed there.

The town was conditionally divided into two parts: bottom and upper. The upper part is located approximately at a height of 40 m above sea level. For this reason, in 1912 was opened funicular road for the delivery of summer visitors to the sea and back.

Technical parameters:
Lenght: 90 m;
difference of levels: 35 m;
gauge: 750 mm;
gradient: 39%;
speed: 1 m. per second;
capacity of car: 12 persons.

Rauschen Funicular. German photo of 1928:

Link


Link
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Old April 6th, 2011, 11:37 PM   #944
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On April 14, 1945 Rauschen was conquered by the Soviet Union during World War II. It became part of the Kaliningrad Region and in 1946 the town was renamed to Svetlogorsk. Today it is a moderately popular summer resort town thanks to its beachfront and many spas, clubs and attractions.

On November 10, 1945 in Svetlogorsk was opened Central Sanatorium of Ministry of Defense of USSR (now Central Military Sanatorium). The funicular was in good condition, but it has not worked for long time. The problem was that funicular was located at the territory of Central Sanatorium of Ministry of Defense of USSR, and visitors of the other Svetlogorsk sanatoriums had no right to pass on this territory. Therefore, exploitation of the funicular was uneconomical.

Svetlogorsk Funicular. Soviet photos of 1954:

Link


Link
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Old April 6th, 2011, 11:38 PM   #945
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Funicular was closed between 1967 and 1969. In 1973 at this place was opened lift, linking territory of sanatorium and Svetlogorsk enbankment (Promenade), which was renovated at same year. The lift tower also serves as a observation platform.


nuclear-XONIX


nuclear-XONIX


Pretty


sandra6049


Stas.s.


planetainna
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Old April 6th, 2011, 11:39 PM   #946
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In early-1970s it was decided to build a aerial tramway. This line was constructed in mid-1970s and was opened in 1983. It links Promenade and area near railway station "Svetlogorsk-2".

Ticket office. "5 minutes - and you will near the sea":

ZoUlka


ZoUlka


APRELIKA


Mirta
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Old April 6th, 2011, 11:39 PM   #947
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Елена Жеглова


el-16


ZoUlka

TO BE CONTINUED....
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:01 PM   #948
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FUNICULARS IN RUSSIA - HISTORY, PRESENT AND PROJECTS

CHAPTER FIVE: THE FINAL

The last Soviet funiculars were opened in 1960s.

1960 - BAKU

Baku Funicular was built in the capital of Azerbaijan on the initiative of Alish Lemberansky (1914-1999), the famous Soviet and Azerbaijani statesman. It was opened in May 1960. The cars for Baku Funicular were made on special order in Kharkiv, Ukraine. The main constructor was Radchik Arakelov. During Soviet times Baku Funicular was linked Seaside Boulevard and amusement Kirov Park on the hill. After collapse of Soviet Union park amusement facilities were removed and at the site of former Kirov Park was created Alley of Martyrs - cemetery and memorial dedicated to those killed by the Soviet Army during Black January 1990 and later to those killed in Nagorno-Karabakh War against Armenia during 1988-1994. Thus, Baku Funicular began to transport people not to the place of entertainment, but to the place of mourning.

But in 1980s popularity of funicular began to decrease. In early 1990s its territory was launched, and funicular was closed for more than 10 years. However, according to initiative of Hajibala Abutalybov, Mayor of Baku, the funicular was opened after reconstruction on December 31, 2001. Nevertheless, its popularity was not increased, because Baku residents preferred to use an alternative kind of transport - "marshrutka" (route taxi).

In 2007 Baku Funicular was renovated, again. It was reopened in June of next year.

Technical parameters:
One track with a siding;
electrical power;
length: 455 m;
speed: 2.5 m per second;
time interval: 10 minutes;
time travel: about 4 minutes;
working hours: 10:00am-10:00pm;
capacity of car: 28 persons;
cost of one trip: 0.20 Azerbaijani manats (~ 0.25 USD).
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:02 PM   #949
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1962 - VLADIVOSTOK

The last Soviet Funicular was opened in Vladivostok.

Vladivostok is Russia's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. It was founded by Russians in 1860. It is situated at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's border with China and North Korea. It is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet. The population of the city is 616.884 (2010).

While visiting the United States in September 1959, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was greatly impressed by the Californian city San Francisco, and sought to imitate it in the Soviet Union. According to Khrushchev's slogan, Vladivostok should become a Soviet San Francisco and look better than the Californian city. On January 18, 1960 was issued a Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR - "About development of Vladivostok city". As a result, in the 1960s in Vladivostok started a mass housing, and urban development received a strongest impetus during the whole Soviet period of history. It was at Vladivostok that Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and U.S. President Gerald Ford conducted the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1974. At the time, the two countries decided quantitative limits on various nuclear weapons systems and banned the construction of new land-based ICBM launchers. During his visit, Ford noticed "This site remind me Camp David".

In 2012 Vladivostok will host the 24th APEC summit. Leaders from the APEC member countries will meet on Russky Island, off the coast of Vladivostok. With the planned summit on Russky Island, the government and private businesses are building of resorts, dinner and entertainment facilities, in addition to the renovation and upgrading of Vladivostok International Airport. Two giant cable-stayed bridges are currently under condtruction in preparation for the summit, namely the Golden Horn bridge over the Golden Horn Bay in the center of the city, and the Russky Island Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island (it will become the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world upon completion). The new campus of Far Eastern Federal University will be completed on Russky Island by 2012.

Vladivostok Funicular was built during mass housing in Vladivostok in 1960s. Its construction was started in 1959. Geodetic work were performed under the supervision of P. Butylin, who was a chief surveyor of the "Primorskugol" conglomerate. The cars of Vladivostok Funicular were made in Leningrad, the hoisting equipment - in Donetsk, Ukraine. It was opened in May 1962. Funicular located on the slope of Orlinaya Sopka (Eagles Hill), overlooking the Golden Horn Bay. Lower station is located at Pushkin street, upper station - at Sukhanov street. The line of funicular passes over the Vsevolod Sibirtsev street. The majority of the passangers of Vladivostok Funicular are tourists and students of Far Eastern State Technical University. Two main buildings of this univercity are located not so far from the both stations of funicular.

According to some reports, it was also planned to build one more funicular in Vladivostok. The equipment for its construction was delivered in Vladivostok, but this idea was never realized for unknown reasons.

Funicular, 1969:

DANIIL

1970s

Alex_34RUS


Link


Link

1985

санёк
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:04 PM   #950
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1999

General view of funicular:

Link

Upper station:

Link

Interior of the upper station:

Link

Departure of the car from upper station:

Link

View from the car:

Link

Interior of the car:

Link

Cars on the siding. View from the top station:

Link

Arrival of the car at lower station:

Link

The car at lower station:

Link

Lower station:

Link
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:10 PM   #951
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2005

The funicular was closed for general reconstruction since May 13, 2002 till July 2, 2005. During reconstruction the cars were painted in red and blue colors.

Upper station. August 20, 2005:

Wikipedia

Cars of the Vladivostok Funicular:

Wikipedia

Car at the upper station:

Wikipedia

Siding:

Wikipedia
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:13 PM   #952
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Car at the upper station:

Wikipedia

Estacade of funicular:

Wikipedia


Wikipedia

In 1957 was also built stairway between top of hill and its piedmont. People use it in the night hours, and during reconstruction or prophylaxis of funicular. It's known in Vladivostok as "Stairway of Funicular", "Stairway of Health" and "Stairway of 1001 steps" (although in reality it consist of 368 steps):

Wikipedia
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:19 PM   #953
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2006


Wikipedia

Control panel:

Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:23 PM   #954
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Machine hall:

Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:25 PM   #955
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2007

Lower station:

Wikipedia


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:29 PM   #956
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2008


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин

The building of Far Eastern State Technical University at the left corner:

Олег Сывороткин
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:30 PM   #957
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Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин

Southern slope of the Eagles Hill:

Олег Сывороткин
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:32 PM   #958
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Since August 25, 2008 till March 4, 2009 funicular was closed due to construction of tunnel, leading in direction to the future Golden Horn bridge.

August 8, 2008. Construction of the tunnel:

Wikipedia

September 8, 2008:

Wikipedia

October 15, 2008:

Wikipedia

March 4, 2009. Reopening of the funicular:

Олег Сывороткин
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:34 PM   #959
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2009

Technical parameters:
One track with a siding;
electrical power;
length: 183 m;
difference of attitude: 70 m;
gradient: 38.2%;
speed: 2 m per second;
time of stops: 3 minutes (workdays), 5 minutes (weekend);
time travel: about 1.5 minutes;
working hours: 7:00am-10:00pm (during Soviet times it worked from 6:00am till 12:00am);
capacity of car: 35 persons;
cost of one trip: 6 Roubles (~ 0.20 USD).

Ticket of funicular:

Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин


Олег Сывороткин
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Last edited by AlekseyVT; April 10th, 2011 at 10:37 PM.
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Old April 10th, 2011, 08:36 PM   #960
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Car at the lower station:

Wikipedia

Interior of car:

Wikipedia

View from the car:

Wikipedia

Funicular line:

Wikipedia
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