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Old May 29th, 2011, 01:12 AM   #1121
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Old May 30th, 2011, 11:31 AM   #1122
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
Dase, about what you are talking about? There are no big correlation between major sport events and development of urban transport. World Cup (like any sport tournament) is temporary event, while Metro lines must to be built on many decades. How many Metro stations were built in South Africa for WC2010? Among all Russian cities, which were included in the preliminary list for WC2018, only Kazan and Yekaterinburg has plans to built Metro stations near the future football stadiums for WC2018.
Pardon? It was you who wrote that the situation in Samara might change for WC 2018 here

Apart from that, while the Championship is a temporary thing, the Stadiums will be continued to use and therefore sufficient public transportation links are a temporary issue neither. The Airport upgrades for the Games are going to stay as well, after all. Nobody expects things to be built only for the duration of the WC, but this event can be and is used to speed up developments by every hosting country.

As you've asked for examples: South Africa actually finished the first stretch of it's first High-Speed Rail line, the Gautrain, for the Games, Germany finished up Berlin Hauptbahnhof and a whole new rail network in the capital city. Of course, these things would have been built without the worldcup, albeit definitely not so fast.

So, the question remains how Samara is going transport people between airport and railway station and the stadium. The current Trolleybus and Tram lines to Khlebnaya will not be sufficient.

On a sidenote, when I was in Samara last weekend, I was surprised to see a single-track elektrified rail line ending around 500 meters from the terminal building at a (very simple, i.e. no roof and so on) platform called "Kuromoch airport". If have not read anything about a rail connection between city and airport so far and it does not seem to be part of the planned Aeroexpress routes as described here. Any informations about this?
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Old May 30th, 2011, 09:00 PM   #1123
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Pardon? It was you who wrote that the situation in Samara might change for WC 2018 here
Not quite so. I'm wrote that passenger traffic should be increased after opening of new Metro stations in Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinburg and Kazan. Then hungar added that the Samara residents are also hoping on development of Samara Metro in connection with the World Cup 2018 (and noted that he personally does not believe in it). I'm replied - yes, there is little chance for positive change (having in mind possible to the increase in funding). However, after reading the latest news, I realized that nothing will change - the officials still plan to open one Metro station in five years (2002-2007-2013-2018).

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
Apart from that, while the Championship is a temporary thing, the Stadiums will be continued to use and therefore sufficient public transportation links are a temporary issue neither. The Airport upgrades for the Games are going to stay as well, after all. Nobody expects things to be built only for the duration of the WC, but this event can be and is used to speed up developments by every hosting country.

As you've asked for examples: South Africa actually finished the first stretch of it's first High-Speed Rail line, the Gautrain, for the Games, Germany finished up Berlin Hauptbahnhof and a whole new rail network in the capital city. Of course, these things would have been built without the worldcup, albeit definitely not so fast.
Yes, I'm absolutely agree with you. The city, which want to host such big event, must to develop own infrastructure - airport, rail terminal and urban transportation to the stadium. But the Metro line seems too fantastic project for this situation.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
So, the question remains how Samara is going transport people between airport and railway station and the stadium. The current Trolleybus and Tram lines to Khlebnaya will not be sufficient.
To be honest, I'm not even 100%-sure that Samara will be included into final list of hosting cities. Last month Valery Mutko (Minister of Sport and Tourism in Russia) mentioned about current problems in sport funding in Samara. All it, of course, only rumors and speculations.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
On a sidenote, when I was in Samara last weekend, I was surprised to see a single-track elektrified rail line ending around 500 meters from the terminal building at a (very simple, i.e. no roof and so on) platform called "Kuromoch airport". If have not read anything about a rail connection between city and airport so far and it does not seem to be part of the planned Aeroexpress routes as described here. Any informations about this?
Rail communication between airport and city centre was opened on October 18, 2008 (travel time - 75 minutes, price - 2.5 Euros). What about Aeroexpress - it's need to understand that this is a commercial company. Let's see at statistic:

Passanger traffic in Russian airports (2010):
Domodedovo, Moscow - 22.15 mln. passangers (13th busiest in Europe);
Sheremetyevo, Moscow - 19.12 mln. (18th);
Vnukovo, Moscow - 9.46 mln. (39th);
Pulkovo, St. Petersburg - 8.39 mln. (46th);
Kurumoch, Samara - 1.57 mln.

So, now we have actual question - how many passangers will be use Aeroexpress, even if the ticket prices will be low and this line will not be profitable?
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Old May 31st, 2011, 01:15 PM   #1124
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Wow, talk about bad maketing Neither the airport website, nor Samaratrans (only Kuromoch, but not the actual airport) or tutu.ru have any informations about that and at the railway station, nothing was to be found either. My taxi driver and hotel reception also never heared about any alternative to a taxi to the airport. Do you have any informations about how many trains go there a day? 75 Minutes sounds bad, but a taxi is not much faster either.

Of course you are right regarding the small passenger numbers - one even needs to add the fact that the airport is serving Tolyatti as well, but considering Samara wants to place themselves as something like a summer resort and an ideal town for a short holiday in the shiguly hills, that number could increase and public transport would become much more important. On the othe rhand, in this case the airport should be upgraded first - three flights within one hour already maxed out it's capacity.
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Old May 31st, 2011, 08:45 PM   #1125
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Originally Posted by Dase View Post
Wow, talk about bad maketing Neither the airport website, nor Samaratrans (only Kuromoch, but not the actual airport) or tutu.ru have any informations about that and at the railway station, nothing was to be found either. Do you have any informations about how many trains go there a day? 75 Minutes sounds bad, but a taxi is not much faster either.
Sorry, I was using old information. Express train was canceled in 2009. There have been 6 trips per day from airport to city (some of them were canceled yet in 2008, after few months). Main reasons - the low passenger traffic in airport, the lack of rail stops near the Metro station and so on. All this led to low self-sufficiency of express train. As you can understand, Aeroexpress in Samara is utopic idea.

I'm don't know situation in Samara, but for the World Cup 2018 it's possible to do the following things:
1) To modernize rail station near airport;
2) To built additional railways near Metro station;
3) To put into operation temporary express trains by new route during WC2018.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dase View Post
My taxi driver and hotel reception also never heared about any alternative to a taxi to the airport.
Samara resident wrote me that, except taxi, it's possible to use bus from Rail or Bus Terminals of Samara to the airport.
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Old June 4th, 2011, 01:00 AM   #1126
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KAZAN METRO

May 13, 2011. Construction of the second (left) tunnel between "Aviastroitelnaya" ("Aircraft manufacturing") and "Moskovskaya" ("Moscow") stations, which are planned to be open on May 9, 2013:

Tmix

Jack of the tunnel boring machine "Aisylu" (manufacturer - "NFM Technologies", France):

Tmix

"Tail" of the tunnel boring machine:

Tmix

665 meters of 1324 were dug:

Tmix


Tmix

Control panel of the tunnel boring machine:

Tmix
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Old June 4th, 2011, 01:04 AM   #1127
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Foundation pit of "Aviastroitelnaya" station:

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Old June 13th, 2011, 07:35 AM   #1128
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I really think it's excellent that Krasnoyarsk is on its way to having an expansive and well-traveled subway system. It's quite fitting, because after all, this ancient and holy city will be the third-largest municipality in Russia in just nine years! That's right, due to annexation of neighboring cities, Krasnoyarsk will have 1.5 million people in 2020, making it even bigger than its fellow Siberian metropolis Novosibirsk. I sincerely hope that Krasnoyarsk will have its metro network done by then, to spare itself the shame of being the largest subway-less city in Russia.

Of course, the tragedy is that they couldn't get up to 1 million during the Soviet administration, or else they'd have a subway by now.
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:18 PM   #1129
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I really think it's excellent that Krasnoyarsk is on its way to having an expansive and well-traveled subway system. It's quite fitting, because after all, this ancient and holy city will be the third-largest municipality in Russia in just nine years! That's right, due to annexation of neighboring cities, Krasnoyarsk will have 1.5 million people in 2020, making it even bigger than its fellow Siberian metropolis Novosibirsk. I sincerely hope that Krasnoyarsk will have its metro network done by then, to spare itself the shame of being the largest subway-less city in Russia.

Of course, the tragedy is that they couldn't get up to 1 million during the Soviet administration, or else they'd have a subway by now.
You are too optimistic. Construction of Krasnoyarsk Metro was stopped two and a half months ago. Now it's "on conservation".

I'm think that Omsk has more chances to become the second Metro city in Siberia.

OMSK METRO

The tunnel boring machine "Lovat" will be put into operation on June 18, 2011 (from "Kristall" to "Zarechnaya" stations).

April 8, 2011. Station "Kristall" ("Crystal"). Immersion of the part of "Lovat":

AlexP

June 9, 2011. Station "Kristall":

AlexP

June 9, 2011. Station "Zarechnaya" ("Beyond the river"):

AlexP

June 9, 2011. Station "Zarechnaya". Drilling rig:

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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:26 PM   #1130
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Meanwhile, I decided to change the subject and to write about the history of another mode of transport - tram. I want to apologize in advance - first, for my bad English, and secondly, for the bad quality of some photos. Now it's impossible to believe this, but in the late 19th century people in Russia were so poor that they had no money to buy a digital photocamera for himself!
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:28 PM   #1131
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HISTORY OF TRAM IN RUSSIA

(DEVOTED TO THE BRIGHT MEMORY OF RUSSIAN TRAM)

PART ONE - HORSECARS

Tram, streetcar or trolley systems were common throughout the industrialized world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but they disappeared from many cities in the mid-20th century. In recent years, they have made a comeback. Many newer light rail systems share features with trams, although a distinction is usually drawn between the two, especially if the line has significant off-street running.

I) INVENTION OF HORSE-DRAWN TRAM:

The very first tram was on the Swansea and Mumbles Railway in south Wales, UK; it was horse-drawn at first, and later moved by steam and electric power. The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, and the first passenger railway (similar to streetcars in the US some 30 years later) started operating in 1807.

In 1804 the British Parliament approved the laying of a railway line between Swansea and Oystermouth in South Wales, for transportation of mined materials to and from the Swansea Canal and the harbour at the mouth of the River Tawe. In the autumn of that year the first tracks were laid. At this stage, the railway was known as the Oystermouth Railway. It later became the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, but in common parlance its name was the Mumbles Train.

There was no road link between Swansea and Oystermouth and the original purpose of the railway was to transport coal, iron-ore and limestone. Construction seems to have been completed in 1806 and operations began without formal ceremony, using horse-drawn vehicles. As constructed, the line ran from the Brewery Bank adjacent to the Swansea Canal in Swansea, around the wide sweep of Swansea Bay to a terminus at Castle Hill (near the present-day Clements Quarry) in the tiny isolated fishing village of Oystermouth (colloquially known as "Mumbles" although, strictly speaking, that name applies only to the headland at the south-western tip of Swansea bay with its distinctive twin islets, on one of which is mounted the Mumbles lighthouse).

In 1807 approval was given to carry passengers along the line, when one of the original proprietors, Benjamin French, offered to pay the company the sum of twenty pounds for the right to do so for twelve months from March 25, 1807. This is usually cited as the date when the first regular service carrying passengers between Swansea and Oystermouth began, thus giving the railway the claim of being the first passenger railway in the world. The venture was evidently a success because the following year French joined with two others in offering the increased sum of twenty five pounds to continue the arrangement for a further year, but the construction of a turnpike road parallel to the railway in the mid 1820s robbed it of much of its traffic and the passenger service (by that time in the hands of one Simon Llewelyn) ceased in 1826 or 1827, ironically just as events elsewhere in the United Kingdom (particularly in the north east of England) were paving the way for the development of railways as a truly national and international transport system.

Swansea and Mumbles Railway (1804-1806; opened on March 25, 1807) - first passenger railway in the world:

Link

Horsecars were early forms of public transport developed out of industrial haulage routes or from the omnibus that first ran on public streets in the 1820s, using the newly invented iron or steel rail or "tramway". These were local versions of the stagecoach lines and picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route, without the need to be pre-hired. Horsecars on tramlines were an improvement over the omnibus as the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on iron or steel rails (usually grooved from 1852 on), allowed the animals to haul a greater load for a given effort than the omnibus and gave a smoother ride. The horse-drawn streetcar combined the low cost, flexibility, and safety of animal power with the efficiency, smoothness, and all-weather capability of a rail right-of-way.

The first streetcars, also known as horsecars in North America, were built in the United States and developed from city stagecoach lines and omnibus lines that picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route without the need to be pre-hired. These trams were an animal railway, usually using horses and sometimes mules to haul the cars, usually two as a team. Occasionally other animals were put to use, or humans in emergencies. The first streetcar line, developed by Irish-American John Stephenson, was the New York and Harlem Railroad's Fourth Avenue Line which ran along the Bowery and Fourth Avenue in New York City. Service began in 1832.

John G. Stephenson (1809-1893) was American coachbuilder, invented and patented the first streetcar to run on rails in the United States. He emigrated to the United States from Ireland with his parents, James and Grace Stephenson, when he was two years old. After attending public schools in New York City, he completed his education at the Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. At the age of 19, he became an apprentice to Abram Brower, the pioneer of the Broadway stage lines.

In May 1831, Stephenson started his own business, the John Stephenson Company, on 667 Broadway where he built omnibus cars for Brower until a fire destroyed his shop in March 1832. He immediately moved to a new site on Elizabeth Street near Bleecker where he continued to build omnibuses which proved to be a huge success on the streets of New York.

However, soon afterwards he received an order from John Mason, a wealthy banker and president of Chemical Bank who was among the largest landowners in New York City, to build a horse car for the New York and Harlem Railroad which had just been granted a charter authorizing a route from Fourth Avenue and the Bowery north to the Harlem River. This company was incorporated on April 25, 1831 as the New York and Harlem Railroad, to link New York City with suburban Harlem. The first stretch was opened from Prince to 14th Street on November 26, 1832, with a procession of the four cars developed for the company. Stephenson's car, named "John Mason" or simply the "Mason" after the company's president, was in the lead with the mayor and other dignitaries. He had modeled it after the English four-wheeled passenger railroad car but dropped the body down over the wheels for easier access. Four horses pulled the car and it carried up to 30 passengers in its three compartments. It was Stephenson's design which was finally adopted. In April 1833, he obtained a U.S. patent for it. Stephenson is therefore remembered as the creator of the tramway.

New York and Harlem Railroad (opened on November 26, 1832) - the world's first streetcar line:

Link


It was followed in 1835 by New Orleans, Louisiana, which has the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Though short-lived, Poydras-Magazine was the first true streetcar line to begin operation in New Orleans, having opened the first week of January 1835. This line was closed in the spring 1836. Planning for St. Charles Avenue Line began in 1831, and work began as the New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad in February 1833, the second railway in Greater New Orleans after the Pontchartrain Rail Road. Service began on September 26, 1835, originally without a dedicated right-of-way (it ran on public streets) although one was eventually established in the neutral ground (the median). This line still operate till now.

The typical American streetcar was operated by two crew members. One man, a driver, rode up front. His job was to drive the horse, controlled by a set of reigns. The driver also had a brake handle that he could use to stop the streetcar. When streetcars got bigger, sometimes two and three horses would be used to haul a single car. The second crew member was called the conductor, who rode at the back of the car. His job was to help passengers get on and off the streetcar, collect their fares, and give a signal to the driver when everyone was on board and it was safe to proceed. He gave this signal by pulling on a rope that was attached to a bell at the other end of the car that the driver could hear.

St. Charles Avenue Line in New Orleans - the oldest among operating tramlines in the world (opened on September 26, 1835):

Gonola

The first horse-drawn rail cars on the continent of Europe were operated from 1828 by the Ceske Budejovice - Linz railway. At first the rails protruded above street level, causing accidents and major trouble for pedestrians. They were supplanted in 1852 by grooved rails or girder rails, invented by Alphonse Loubat. Alphonse Loubat (1799-1866) was a French inventor who developed improvements in tram and rail equipment, and helped develop tram lines in New York City and Paris. He was born in Sainte-Livrade-sur-Lot. Loubat went to New York City in 1827 where he helped develop that city's first tramway in 1832. He returned to France and developed the grooved rail in 1852, which greatly facilitated street railways and tramlines. The further development of the tram system in the world would have been impossible without grooved rails. In 1853 Alphonse Loubat initiated construction of Paris tramline. It was in Paris that Loubat built the first line of this type, for horse trams, which was inaugurated on November 21, 1853 in connection with the 1855 World Fair. On a trial basis, it ran along the banks of the Seine from the Place de la Concorde to the Pont de Sevres in the village of Boulogne. Although the results of first tests were unconvincing, the system was improved and in 1855 in Paris opened the regular tramline. It was one of the oldest tram systems in Europe.

Paris tramline - the first tram system with grooved rails:

Wikipedia
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:29 PM   #1132
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II) HORSE-DRAWN TRAM IN RUSSIA:

Europe saw a proliferation of horsecar use for new tram services from the mid-1860s, many towns building new networks. Russian Empire was no exception.

LIST OF HORSE-DRAWN TRAM SYSTEMS IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE:

The first line of horse-drawn tram (which is known as "konka" in Russia) was opened in the capital of Russian Empire.

1) September 8, 1863 - Saint Petersburg (closed on September 8, 1917):

Saint Petersburg saw the arrival of street rail transport during the 1860s in form of horse-drawn rail carriages. The first, freight-only 3.5-km street railway track was opened in 1854 to serve one of the industrial city suburbs (near Smolenskaya Sloboda, engineer - A. Polezhaev). In 1860 engineer Domontovich built freight-only 3-km street railway in St. Petersburg - from steamship piers at Nicholas Enbankment (now Lieutenant Schmidt Enbankment) to Exchange Square (now Pushkin Square). A private Horse railway company (with the administration unit situated at house #3 at Trinity Street, presently Rubinstein Street) was founded on October 3, 1862, and until 1917 horse-car service remained a private business.

In 1863, three passenger lines (gauge - 1524 mm) in the city centre came into operation. The first testing of line was on August 3. On September 8, 1863 Horse railway company launched the first route from Nicholas Rail Terminal at Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square) along Nevsky Avenue to the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island. Shortly thereafter, two other lines were put into operation - from Admiralty Square to 6th Line of Vasilyevsky Island and from St. Nicholas Market along Garden street to Nevsky Avenue. The total lenght of three lines was 8 km.

Several private companies were formed, and the horsecar network eventually expanded to 26 routes covering over 90 kilometres of track. Initially horse-drawn trams didn't have big speed - maximum 8 km per hour. Horse-cars consisted of a wagon (streetcar) of about 8 meters in length with two harnessed horses, hauling it along rails. The car had an upper passenger deck (so-called "imperial"), where the fare was lower. Horse-cars were serviced by a coachman and a fare collector. Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (inside the wagon) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (at "imperial"). The capacity of carriage was 22 seats, not including 24 seats at upper deck. Interestingly, that the first models of trams did not have convenient staircase leading at "imperial". For this reason, women were forbidden to ride on the upper deck. First, walk up was some risky and secondly, it could lead to embarrassing situations because all women wear skirts in those times. Only on March 17, 1903, when configuration of staircases was changed, this ban was lifted.

The street rail network in Saint Petersburg proved a successful commercial venture. However, the first years were not successful. By the year 1864 the horse-trams carried 1.5 million passengers, in 1865 - 2 million. The total lenght of first lines was no big - near 8 versts (1 verst – 1.06 km). Initially there were 29 cars. Therefore, tram was no profitable. For this reason Horse railway company appealed to the City Council with a request to build new lines, but was refused due to protest of noble families. In 1875, the loss-making Horse railway company was sold to the London firm "E. Erlanger and Co." for the 23-years period.

However, the need of city in public transportation grew. In May 1874 City Council announce contest on the construction of a network of horse railroads with total lenght not less than 85 km. The winner of contest was bid of Сouncilor of State Sergey Bashmakov and Commerce Counsellor Pyotr Gubonin. In April 1876 Bashmakov and Gubonin established Joint-stock horse-railway society, with the Administration Headquarters located at #35 Liteiny Avenue, which supervised six horse-tram depots (Rozhdestvensky in the vicinity of the present 1st Soviet Street, Narvsky around Tractor Street, Vyborgsky at the corner of #23/19 Forest Avenue and others). By 1877 there were 26 horse-car routes with total lenght 90 km in St. Petersburg, serviced by 3500 horses; in 1906 there were 32 routes with the railway network exceeding 150 km.

However, it become clear that not all new routes are profitable. In order to save there were used one-floor cars without "imperials", which were driven by only one horse instead of two. However, horse-railway society was operated at a loss. Therefore, in 1879 they were forced to ask City Council for permission to raise fares in order to avoid bankruptcy. City Council gave permission to raise prices on one kopeck per passenger and to close unprofitable lines. However, they demanded in answer to build 10.6 km of new lines and to add second tracks at most busiest routes. Despite of the price increase, the horse-railway society operated at a loss till 1884, and only in 1885 become to make a profit.

In 1878 the Nevsky Suburban Horse-Railwaу Society was established with headquarters at 160 Nevsky Avenue, servicing the areas around Shlisselburg Road from Nicholas Rail Terminal to Murzinka Village, with a depot in Alexandrovskoe Village. By the year 1893 the horse-trams carried 57.781.582 passengers. In 1902, city authorities started buying out horse-railway property from joint-stock societies. With the first trams, run by municipal authorities, the private horse-car business carried on with its services. On September 8, 1917 by the decision of the City Council all horse-car lines were closed "due to starvation of horses and unavoidable difficulties for feed".

Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Moskovsky or Moscow Rail Terminal):

Link

Nevsky Avenue - main street in St. Petersburg:

panevin

January 29, 1874. Solemn transportation of the rescue boats to Nicholas Rail Terminal for its further transportation by rail:

babs71

November 14, 1877. Nicholas Rail Terminal. Transportation of wounded in actions during Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878:

babs71

1905. Transportation of injured in actions during Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 to the Nicholas Military Hospital:

babs71

1896. "Imperial" of horse-drawn tram:

Link

1900s:

babs71

1900. "Imperial":

babs71

1906, Anichkov Bridge. It became possible to see women on "imperial":

babs71
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:30 PM   #1133
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1896. Nevsky Avenue before Kazan Cathedral:

babs71

1890s. Crossing of Nevsky Avenue and St. Michael street. The building of Volga-Kama Commercial Bank:

babs71

1900s. Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Moskovsky Rail Terminal):

oldspb

1901. Nevsky Avenue:

oldspb

1900s. Nevsky Avenue:

babs71

1906. Nevsky Avenue:

babs71

1900s. Terminus station near Moscow Triumphal Gate:

babs71

1900s. Terminus station near Hotel "Europe" at St. Michael street:

babs71

1900s. Palace Square:

Link

Alexander Garden:

babs71

1900s. Novo-Kalinkin Bridge:

oldsp

1900s. Garden street:

Wikipedia

1905. Saint Isaac's Cathedral:

babs71
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:31 PM   #1134
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1896. Spit of Vasilyevsky Island:

Link

1903. Imperial Academy of Arts at Vasilyevsky Island:

babs71

1906. Stock Exchange at Vasilyevsky Island:

babs71

1905-1906, Pontoon Palace Bridge. At the most difficult parts of the routes one more (third) horse was fastened to the harness:

babs71

1906. Ligovskaya street (now Ligovsky Avenue):

oldsp

Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square). Wooden building at right is a horsecar station:

Link

Admiralty Square:

Link


Link

Monument to the horsecar, crossing of Middle Avenue and 7th Line of Vasilyevsky Island. It was opened on October 27, 2004. This is a copy of tram car (sample of 1872-1878), which was made a life-size according to the drawings of Putilov Plant, which were found in Central Historical Archive. The plastic sculptures of horses (sculptor - Akhnaf Ziyakaev) were added on October 24, 2005 and replaced with marble sculptures in 2007:

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drugoypiter
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:33 PM   #1135
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2) December 11, 1866 - Warsaw, Poland (closed in September 1914);
3) June 22, 1872 - Moscow (closed in 1912):

In 1872, since June 12 till September 13, in Moscow was held first All-Russian Technical Exhibition on the bicentennial anniversary of the birth of Russian Emperor Peter the Great (1672-1725). This exhibition was visited by 750.000 people. The exposition was been in Moscow Manege and in temporary pavilions at Alexander Garden, Kremlin enbankment and St. Barbara Square. As result, two large Moscow museums were founded in 1872 after exhibition. Fund of exhibition become the basis for the collection of Polytechnic Museum. Now it's a science museum in Moscow that emphasizes the progress of Russian and Soviet technology and science, as well as modern inventions and developments. In the historical halls of the All-Russian Technical Exhibition were displayed portraits of Peter I and his associates, productions and art of Peter's times. Those exhibits become basic for collection of State Historical Museum. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers in the millions. It was founded in 1872 by Ivan Zabelin, Aleksey Uvarov and several other Slavophiles interested in promotion of Russian history and national self-awareness. The board of trustees, composed of Sergey Solovyov, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Uvarov and other leading historians, presided over construction of the museum building. Its beautiful building at Red Square was built between 1875-1881 by Vladimir Sherwood and intricately decorated in the Russian Revival style by great Russian artists.

To service the exhibition was built horse-drawn tramline from the Brest Rail Terminal (now Belorussky or Belarusian Rail Terminal) to the present-day State Historical Museum via Tverskaya Street, the main and probably best-known radial street of Moscow. Its construction was financed by entrepreneurs D. Guryev and M. Novikov. This single-track line had lenght 4.5 km (gauge - 1524 mm), serviced by 10 trams. All necessary equipment, including two-floors carriages (with "imperial"), was supplied from Great Britain. The testing of this line was on June 21, 1872 (at the path from Tverskaya Outpost to the Triumphal Square). It was put into operation on July 7, 1872. At this day the horse-drawn trams carried more than 8.000 passangers. The capacity of each tram car was 40 seats. Travel prices were 10 kopecks or 0.10 rubles (inside the wagon) and 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (at "imperial"). At the most difficult parts of the routes one or two more horses were fastened to the harness. City authorities planned to disassemble this line after closing of All-Russian Technical Exhibition, but this kind of transport become popular (it was carried 10.000 passangers per day). As a result, Governor-General of Moscow Vladimir Dolgorukov allowed to continue its exploitation, but to use no more than 8 cars per day and to pay in city treasure 50 rubles per year from each car. City Council increased this tax on 100 rubles per month. This line worked before beginning of construction of main network of tramlines and was closed in April 1874 on reconstruction.

Before 1872 in Moscow was no any regular and reliable kind of public urban transport. The Moscow residents were forced to use the services of private entrepreneurs, who in 1847 organized work of "lineika" - open multi-seats horse-drawn carriages (4-5 seats, capacity - 10-15 passangers). The noble families used cabs or own carriages. In 1850 was founded Moscow Society of Multi-seat carriages.

The first project for construction of tramlines was offered in 1864. But only in 1872 City Council finally approved project of construction of tram network in Moscow. The concession for this project was given on 40-years period to the company of Count A. Uvarov. On September 25, 1873 Uvarov's company and city authorities signed contract, and construction of tramlines was started in Summer-Autumn 1874. On September 13, 1874 was opened renovated two-tracks 6.65-km Petrovskaya tramline (from Iberian Gate near Red Square to the Petrovsky Park through present-day Pushkin Square and Tverskaya Outpost). The new tram cars were supplied from Paris and were more graceful and comfortable. In November 1874 was put into operation Pokrovskaya line (from Lubyanka Square to Pokrovsky bridge; lenght - 7.47 km), in 1875 - Sretenskaya, Sokolnicheskaya, Nizhegorodskaya, Sofiyskaya and Bolotnaya lines. In 1875 horse-drawn trams carried 8 mln. passangers. For exploitation of tram network Count Uvarov and Co in 1875 established "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow". By end of 1876 this company has built tram network at main radial urban streets with total lenght 29 km, serviced by 82 tram cars and three horse-tram depots; in 1880-1881 lenght of tram network was extended to 35 km; in 1891 there were 11 lines with total lenght 48 km and five horse-tram depots (1539 horses, 235 cars; daily use - 152 cars).

In 1880 councilor of State, engineer Andrey Gorchakov offered project of second tram network, which must be built at minor radial urban streets, at Boulevard Ring and Garden Ring, as well at some suburban districts. The contract between Gorchakov and city authorities was signed on November 27, 1883. The city authorities had a right to redeem this tram network after 20 years after the conclusion of the contract. In March 1885 Andrey Gorchakov handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to Belgian joint stock company “Main company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow and Russia”, which was founded in Brussels on January 17, 1885. In Moscow it was known as "Belgian company" or "Second company of horse-drawn railways".

Belgian company has built lines of second tram network in 1885-1887. The first Yekaterininskaya line (from Trubnaya Square to Catherine Park) of second tram network was opened on July 15, 1885. On July 29, 1885 was put into operation Dolgorukovskaya line (from Strastnoy Monastery to Butyrskaya Outpost), in September 1885 - two lines along Boulevard Ring and Garden Rings. The one-floor cars for second tram network were manufactured in Odessa factory. In May 1885 they become supplied to Moscow. There were two types of tram car - "summer car" (opened) and "winter car" (closed). The capacity of those trams was 20 seats. In 1886 Belgian company has built first line of steam tram (from Butyrskaya Outpost to village Petrovsko-Razumovskoe; put into operation on July 29, 1886), in 1887 - second line (from present-day Gagarin Square to former village Sparrow Hills). In 1888 there were 10 lines of second tram network with total lenght 39.6 km; In 1889-1891 second tram network was extended to 46 km (13 lines, including two lines of steam tram; three horse-tram depots).

However, existence in a city two separate tram networks of different companies have been extremely inconvenient as for the Muscovites, as for the companies. Therefore, in 1890-1891 companies agreed with city authorities to merge two networks into one and to exploit it together. "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow" was responsible for the exploitation of all network, while Belgian company received 1/3 of total proceeds for the year. Such common exploitation was started since November 13, 1891. All pre-existing routes of horse-drawn trams were revised and from that day began to operate 25 new lines. Passengers could travel in all directions with one interchange ticket, that reduced the cost of travel for the majority of Muscovites and significantly increased the number of tram passengers. The lines were divided on zones. For the trip within one zone passangers were paid 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (inside wagon) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (at "imperial"), for two zones - 10 and 6 kopecks respectively. The cost of ticket for transfer on other line was 5 kopecks. This ticket was valid within one hour. Common tram network had lenght 94 km, 9 horse-tram depots, serviced by 2000 horses and 400 tram cars. In 1894-1896 the horse-trams carried 47.5 mln. passengers (till 20 mln. per year). In April-September trams worked from 7:00am till 11:00pm, in other months - from 8:00am till 10:00pm. In 1901, city authorities started buying out horse-railway property from joint-stock societies. This process continued until 1911. In 1912 it was replaced with electric tram.


Е.Н. Захарова

1887. 1st Tverskaya-Yamskaya street. First tram line to the Triumphal arch near Brestsky (now Belorussky) Rail Terminal:

SanSani4(р)

End of 19th-beginning of 20th century. Rozhdestvensky (Nativity of Mary) Boulevard:

SanSani4(р)

1900s. Winter tram car. Capacity - 20 seats; 30 standing:

Андрей Кравчук

1903. Tram car with lamp. Capacity - 20 seats; 30 standing:

Андрей Кравчук

Moscow Uprising of December 1905. Barricade of tram cars at Forest street:

dedushkin

1900. Horsecar in Moscow:

Кирилл

1900s. Serpukhov Square:

Вячеслав Кудинов

1907. Taganka Square:

Вячеслав Кудинов

Maroseyka street:

1-9-6-3

1900s. Maroseyka street:

dedushkin1

Theatre Square:

oldmos
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:34 PM   #1136
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1902, St. Paraskeva Pyatnitsa street:

oldmos

1906. Novogireevo settlement, Moscow Region (now part of Moscow):

oldmos

1900s. Prechistenskaya Enbankment, Greater Stone Bridge:

Андрей Кравчук

1900s, Greater Stone Bridge:

kudinov-da

1900. Lubyanka Square:

Артём Светлов

1890s, Small Dmitrov street:

retromoscow

1890s, Iberian Gate:

retromoscow

1900s, Moscow City Hall:

retromoscow

1900s, Novodevichy Convent:

retromoscow

St. Elijah Gate:

retromoscow

Horse-drawn tram. Episodes from the Russian mini-series "Doctor Zhivago" (2006):
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:35 PM   #1137
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May 1, 2009. Repetition of the historical parade, devoted to the 110-anniversary of Moscow electric tram:

presten2009

June 13, 2009. Celebration of the 110-anniversary of Moscow tram:

Link


Link

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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:36 PM   #1138
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4) October 14, 1875 - Kazan (closed on December 26, 1900):

In the mid-19th century Kazan was one of the largest cities in Volga Region. But city was located in few kilometers from Volga bank. In 19th century were built piers of the first steamship companies, and transport communication with city became relevant - every year during the spring freshets connection with Kazan was stops for a weeks.

The first step in changing the situation was the construction of Admiralteyskaya dam. The second step was the opening of stagecoach (omnibus) route between Kazan and Volga piers on February 5, 1854. It was date of opening of first public transport in Kazan. However, it turned out to be unprofitable for the owners and has been closed.

The first attempt to built street railway in Kazan was been in 1867. Then, between entrepreneur Sergey Shipov and government of Kazan Governorate was signed an agreement for the construction of 7.5 kilometers of streetcar railway from Prolomnaya street (now Bauman street) to the Volga piers. However, later Shipov refused to implement the contract. On January 13, 1870 Ministry of Railways has approved the project of engineer Pyotr Panayev. On February 21, 1873 Panayev and city authorities signed contract on construction of lines. However, realization of this project was stopped due to various reasons. The construction works were started only on October 14, 1873. On October 20, 1873, after 3.5 years, City Council reviewed this issue and recognized entrepreneurs Tahlqvist and Etolin as new owners the horse-tram.

On October 14, 1875, at 2:00pm, horse-drawn tram was put into operation. Initially there were two lines - Volzhskaya line (from Tolchok Market in the centre of city to the settlements Blizhneye Ustye and Dalneye Ustye - the piers of Volga River) and Prolomnaya line (from Tolchok Market along Prolomnaya street through Fish Square (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Square) to Sukonnaya Sloboda district). Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (first-class seats) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second-class seats) for urban lines, for the trip from city to the Volga piers - 15 kopecks and 5 kopecks respectively. During first year of operation horse-trams carried 1.164.809 passengers, the revenue was 59.367 rubles and 69 kopecks. It's intesting that only on September 23, 1876, one year after opening, horse-drawn tram started to work by schedule. The first tram cars were supplied from Moscow. There were operated 12 tram cars with capacity of 40 persons each. At the most difficult part of the Volzhskaya line one more horse (so-called "Petrushka") was fastened to the harness.

In 1877 company “Sivkov, Toropchaninov, Tahlqvist and Co” become the owner of horse-drawn tram. Gustav Tahlqvist was the merchant from St. Petersburg (Finn by nationality) who created the glory of the Kazan horse-tram. He created garden entertainment "Tivoli" near Admiralteyskoe horse-tram depot and organized a private industrial and agricultural exhibitions at this garden. The building of horse-tram depot become the place of public entertainment, performances of orchestras, artists, etc.

In 1885 "Partnership of the Volga-Kazan railway and commercial warehouses" became the owner of horse-drawn tram. In 1892 State Councillor N. Markov became new owner of tram network. He together with I. Likhachev signed new contract with City Council on the further extension of horse-tram lines. But in 1893 Markov and Likhachev handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to Belgian “Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Russia". In 1890s were built three other lines:
1) Georgian line (from Nicholas Square near Kazan Kremlin to Arsk Field, now Yershov Field, which in 19th century has been built up with housing, and there was held trade fair);
2) Central line (from Pravo-Teatralnaya to Evangelists streets);
3) Yekaterininskaya line (from Nicholas Square through Catherine street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay street) to the factory of Krestovnikov brothers).

The horse-tram lines were improved - along the routes were paved the telegraph and telephone lines, some paths were lighted at night. At the summer horse-tram worked from 7:00am till 9:00pm. At the winter there was no such regular work, and some lines didn't worked at this period. In the end of 19th century in Kazan were 5 tram lines (43 stops) with total length 18.3 km and two horse-tram depots - Admiralteyskoe (200 horses) and Arskoye (130 horses). The average speed of horse-drawn tram was no more than 7.5 km per hour. It was replaced with electric tram and closed on December 26, 1900.

1875, Admiralteyskoe horse-tram depot. Day of opening of horse-drawn tram:

rustik68

130-anniversary of the opening of Kazan horse-tram:

vnu4ka

Horse-drawn tram in Kazan:

Link


Link


vnu4ka

"Imperial":

kazantransport

Interier of car:

kazantransport


Яркий Трамвайщик
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:37 PM   #1139
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5) July 20, 1880 - Odessa, Ukraine (closed in June 1921):
(including - Kuyalnitskiy Liman, Odessa Region, 1888-1915 and Khajibeyskiy Liman, Odessa Region, 1899-1917);
6) September 4, 1882 - Riga, Latvia (closed in 1909);
7) September 24, 1882 - Kharkiv, Ukraine (closed in 1918);
8) April 3, 1883 - Tbilisi, Georgia (closed in 1910);
9) May 13, 1887 - Saratov (closed in 1909):


Saratov is a major city in southern Russia. It is the administrative center of Saratov Region and a major port on the Volga River.

The modern city traces its history to the reign of Russian Tsar Feodor I, who constructed several settlements along the Volga River in order to secure the southeastern boundary of his state. During the summer of 1586, the fortress of Samara was founded, followed by Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd) in 1589 and finally Saratov, located midway between Samara and Tsaritsyn, in 1590. Saratov was built at the insistence of count Grigory Zasekin. All three forts were located in a region where the Volga and the Don flow nearest one another, which allowed the Duchy of Moscovy to secure both rivers and to ensure control over the recently annexed khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan in the years following the Livonian War of 1558-1583.

By the 1800s, Saratov had grown to be an important shipping port on the Volga. The Ryazan-Ural Railroad reached Saratov in 1870. In mid-19th century, together with Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod, Saratov was one of the largest cities of Volga Region. The population of the city was 114.9 mln in 1880.

On January 6, 1886 was signed contract between city authorities and Leonid Blummer on construction of horse-tram line. Leonid Blummer (1841-1888) was a hereditary nobleman, a journalist and editor. He was born in Kerch and studied in Simferopol and Kharkiv gymnasiums. In 1859-1860 he was studied at Faculty of Oriental Studies in St. Petersburg State University (Chinese language). In 1861 he graduated Moscow State University on specialty candidate of law. After this Blummer went to Europe, where he was the publisher of magazine "Free Word" (firstly - in Berlin, later - in Brussel), newspapers "News" (in Berlin) and "European" (in Dresden). In Europe Blummer met with many Russian revolutionary emigrants such as Alexander Herzen. However, they did not have a close relationship, and Blummer decided to return in Russia. Russian authorities did not liked liberal themes of his editions. In 1865 Leonid Blummer was convicted and sentenced to exile in Tomsk Governorate. Here he remained for four years, served as manager of the gold mines in the Altai and Eastern Siberia. In 1870, his rights were reinstated. After exile Blummer settled in Voronezh, later - in Saratov, where he worked as lawyer and journalist.

According to the contract with the city authorities, Blummer received exclusive rights to develop and operate horse-tram network in Saratov for 40 years, after which he obliged to return the whole system to the city goverment. Horse-drawn railway cargo transportation was taxed – annual contributions to the city treasury were to be 1000 rubles during the first decade, 1500 rubles during second decade, 2000 rubles - during third and 2500 rubles during the last decade.

Testing trip has been made along Moscow street on April 13, 1887. On May 13, 1887 the horse-tram lines (gauge - 1524 mm) were put into operation. Initially there were two lines - from rail terminal along Moscow street to the Old Cathedral Square (now Museum Square) and from Moscow street along Alexander street (now Maxim Gorky street) to the Big St. Sergius street (now Chernyshevsky street). The tram worked from 7:00am till 10:00pm. Time intervals were 10 minutes. Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (single-class seats) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second-class seats).

Later were opened other five lines:
3) from St. Elijah Square along St. Elijah street (now Chapayev street) to the Big Mountain street;
4) from Moscow street along Astrakhan street to the Mercantile rail station (now station Saratov II);
5-6) from Moscow street along Nicholas street (now Radishchev street) to the Konstantinov street (now Soviet street) and later along Konstantinov street to the People Theatre (now Saratov Drama Theater named after Ivan Slonov);
7) along Big Mountain street.

In 1888 founder and owner of the horse-drawn tram Leonid Blummer died. The whole enterprise was transferred to the balance of the joint stock company. Its fund was 900.000 rubles. The cost of transporting of each passenger varied from 3.44 to 4.08 kopecks. Daily receipt of check-takers varied from 290 to 412 rubles. In 1888 there were 4 lines with total lenght 17.4 km, serving by 25 cars and 109 horses (later - by 69 cars and 306 horses). There were one-floor tram cars (without "imperial") with capacity 20 seats. Tram car was run by one horse. At the most difficult parts one more (second) horse was fastened to the harness. Central horse-tram depot was located at Moscow Square.

After Blummer's death horse-drawn trams successfully worked in Saratov during next 20 years. In 1893 horse-trams carried 2.579.500 passangers, in 1896 - 3.452.000, in 1900 - 5.473.000.

However, the age of the horse-drawn tram came to an end. On March 31, 1907 horse-drawn tram has been transferred to the ownership of Belgian joint stock company “Mutual Company of trams", who had plans of tram electrification. On April 6, 1907 was started strike of horse-tram workers, who were unhappy with the new owners. This strike continued during 1.5 months till May 24. In 1908-1909 all horse-tram lines were electrified.

Horse-tram car near Saratov Rail Terminal:

omnibus


omnibus


Link

10) September 11, 1887 - Rostov-on-Don (closed on December 22, 1902):

Rostov-on-Don is a city and the administrative center of Rostov Region and the Southern Federal District of Russia, located on the Don River, just 46 kilometers (29 miles) from the Sea of Azov. It was founded on December 15, 1749, as a customs house was set up on the Temernik River (a tributary of the Don) to control the trade with Turkey. Rostov's favorable geographical position on the crossing of trade routes promoted the rapid economic development of the city. The Don River that the city is named for is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with regions to the north, and Rostov-on-Don is an important river port in both passenger-oriented and industrial shipping. Rostov-on-Don became a busy trading port, which was visited by Russian, Italian, Greek, Turkish, as well as other foreign merchants.

The population of Rostov-on-Don was 15 thousand in 1850 and 110 thousand at the beginning of 20th century. In the neighborhood there developed another town, founded in 1779 by the Crimean Armenians, who were granted shelter in the South of Russia. It was Nakhichevan-on-Don. A wheat field was the border between two towns. Nowadays the central square of Rostov-on-Don, Theatre Square, is situated directly on the place of the former town border. In 1928 two cities were united and Nakhichevan became part of Rostov. In Armenian "Nakhichevan" means "the first halt". Thousands of descendants of the Crimean Armenians still live in Rostov.

In early 1880s in Rostov-on-Don were horse-drawn omnibuses (since 1867) and carriages, but it were too bulky and heavy to use. In 1886 two entrepreneurs (councilor of State, engineer Andrey Gorchakov and candidate of law Leonid Blummer) drafted to the City Council a project: to build in Rostov-on-Don a horse-drawn railway, or rather a horse-drawn tram system.

The streetcar in Rostov-on-Don was opened on September 11, 1887. The horse-drawn tram in Rostov-on-Don was unique in Russia for two reasons. Firstly, it belonged to the Belgian Joint stock company. For this reason it had so-called "standart" lenght of gauge - 1435 mm, which common in Europe. By the way, currently electric tramline in Rostov-on-Don still have 1435 mm-gauge. The other tramlines in Russia are have or had either "narrow gauge" (1000 mm) or "broad gauge" (1519-1524 mm).

Secondly, there worked only one horse-tram line between two Russian cities - Rostov-on-Don and neighboring Nakhichevan-on-Don. This line was opened on May 21, 1890. In 1900 there were four lines:
1) From New Settlement District to the Bogatyanovsky Descent;
2) From Hay Market to the Smirnov Descent;
3) From city depot to the Big Garden street;
4) From rail terminal to Nakhichevan-on-Don.

In 1901-1902 it was replaced with electric tram and closed in 1902.

1900, scheme of horse-tram lines (bold). Thin lines - railways:

Link
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Old June 13th, 2011, 02:38 PM   #1140
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August 24, 1888 - Tallinn, Estonia (closed on September 24, 1919);
October 29, 1888 - Chisinau, Moldavia (closed in 1914);
November 15, 1888 - Tula (closed in 1919):


Tula is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Region. It is located 193 kilometers (120 miles) south of Moscow, on the Upa River.

The city has existed since at least the 14th century; the name is of pre-Russian, probably Baltic, origin. In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades later, Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking centre of Eastern Europe. The oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, and Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was also established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the centre of their manufacture to the Urals, the city continued as a center of heavy industry, particularly in the manufacture of materiel.

Only in 1872 in Tula started talking about the need to organize public transport for all citizens. This year at the one of meeting of City Council Alexey Weidengamler, collegiate registrar and nobleman from Moscow, offered own project of the construction horse-tram lines with 4 passanger and 10 freight cars. But six months later this project was rejected. On May 23, 1888 engineer Andrey Gorchakov presented own project of the construction of four horse-tram lines. The horse-tram depot was built on the left bank of Upa River. The first single-track line (wide - 1 m) was built from Kievskaya Outpost (now Leo Tolstoy street) to the Kursk Rail Terminal (now Moscow Rail Terminal), along the Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue), Ambassadors street (now Soviet street), Staro-Pavshinskaya street (now Mosin street), Gryazev street (now Leitensen street) and Krivonogovskaya street (now Clara Zetkin street). Horse-drawn tram was put into operation on November 15, 1888.

The average speed of horse-drawn trams was about 10.6 km/h, that only in two times more than average speed of walking man. The most popular children joke in those years was the same: "Konka, konka, dogoni tsyplyonka!" ("Tram, tram, catch up with chicken!"). A great Russian writer Anton Chekhov wrote about it: "The horse-driven railway, or more simply put the so-called horse-driven horse road consists of its inner essence, its veneer and horse-driven railway rules. Inner essence costs five kopecks, veneer three kopecks, while the horse-driven railway rules costs nothing. The first is given mankind for a comfortable contemplation of a conductor's temper, the second for early morning peeking into low-cut second story windows, the third for its fulfillment. The rules are essentially the following: the horse tram doesn't serve the public, the public serves the horse tram. When the conductor enters the carriage the public must smile pleasantly. Moving forward, moving backward and absolute peace is the essence of synonyms. Speed equals its negative size, now and then naught and on major holidays two versts an hour. In the event of derailments the passenger pays nothing..." ("An Ideal Exam").

As in other cities, at the most difficult parts one or two more horses were fastened to the harness. The such most difficul part of route in Tula was been at Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) - at the path from Upper Gentry street (now Gogol street) to the Ploshchadnaya street (now Kaminsky street). The railways were not perfect, and derailment of tram cars was very common thing. But despite all these inconveniences, horse-drawn tram was a popular kind of transport. The passangers were mostly ordinary citizens - clerks, workers and servants.

By the early 1910s, total lenght of horse-tram lines was 12 km. There were built lines along the Millionnaya street (now October street), Suvorov street (now Red Army Avenue), Krestovozdvizhenskaya street (now Revolution street), Mendeleev street, Voronezh street (now Defence street) and Vanykinsky Driveway (now May Day street). The horse-tram depot was removed to Horse Square.

In 1910 Belgian “Joint stock company of urban and suburban tramways in Russia" («Societe des tramways urbains et suburbains de Russie») became the new owner of Tula horse-tram. When selling, all property of horse-drawn tram (tramcars, horses, railways) was assessed in 204.000 rubles. The opened Danish tramcars were replaced with more modern and warm Belgian tramcars. The fares was depended on the distance of travel. The smallest price - 2 kopecks or 0.02 rubles was been for the trip from the Vyazemsky Rail Terminal (now Ryazhsky Rail Terminal) to the Millionnaya street (now October street), the highest - 8 kopecks or 0.08 rubles - for the trip from urban park (now Central Park of Culture and Leisure named after Pyotr Belousov) to the Kursk (now Moscow) or Vyazemsky (now Ryazhsky) Rail Terminals, to the Horse Square or Arsenal Square. Time intervals were 6 minutes in peak hours and 12 minutes in rest time.

In 1889 Andrey Gorchakov offered to built electric tramlines in Tula, but his proposal was not implemented. In 1913 Head of Tula Arkady Smirnov negotiated with Belgian joint-stock company on construction of two-tracks 4.26-km electrified railways and even signed corresponding contract. However, implementation has been delayed due to WWI. In 1916 there worked only 12 tram cars. Troubled years after the October Revolution of 1917 were disastrous for the horse-drawn tram in Tula. In 1918 it was nationalized and closed in beginning of 1919. Tula lost its low-speed, but public kind of transport. For some years Tula residents used only the services of a cabmen. Only in 1922 buses began to operate in Tula.

Crossing of the Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) and Ambassadors street (now Soviet street):

Андрей Кравчук

Crossing of the Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) and Upper Gentry street (now Gogol street):

Андрей Кравчук

Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) near its crossing with Ploshchadnaya street (now Kaminsky street):

Андрей Кравчук

Ambassadors street (now Soviet street) near its crossing with Suvorov street (now Red Army Avenue):

tulainpast

Tramcars at Saviour Square (now Uprising Square):

tulainpast

Horse-car tram at the wooden bridge across Voronka River near the Kursk (now Moscow) Rail Terminal:

tulainpast

Tramcar at Millionnaya street (now October street) near bridge across the Upa River:

Андрей Кравчук

Cast-iron Bridge and Iron Bridge (between Ambassadors street in the centre of Tula and Millionnaya street beyond the Upa River):

kazagrandy

Tramlines at Ambassadors street (now Soviet street):

kazagrandy

Tramlines at Mendeleev street:

kazagrandy
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