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Old June 27th, 2011, 01:16 AM   #1161
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II) CABLE-PULLED

The next type of tram was the cable car, which sought to reduce labour costs and the hardship on animals. Cable cars are pulled along the track by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed that individual cars grip and release to stop and start. The power to move the cable is provided at a site away from the actual operation. The first cable car line in the United States was tested in San Francisco, California, in 1873.

The Clay Street Hill Railroad was the first successful cable hauled street railway. It was located on Clay Street, a notably steep street in San Francisco in California, and first operated in August 1873.

The promoter of the line was Andrew Smith Hallidie (1836-1900), and the engineer was William Eppelsheimer (1842-?). Accounts differ as to exactly how involved Hallidie was in the inception of the Clay Street Hill Railway. One version has him taking over the promotion of the line when the original promoter, Benjamin Brooks, failed to raise the necessary capital. In another version, Hallidie was the instigator, inspired by a desire to reduce the suffering incurred by the horses that hauled streetcars up Jackson Street, from Kearny to Stockton Street.

There is also doubt as to when exactly the first run of the cable car occurred. The franchise required a first run no later than August 1, 1873, however at least one source reports that the run took place a day late, on August 2, but that the city chose not to void the franchise. Some accounts say that the first gripman hired by Hallidie looked down the steep hill from Jones and refused to operate the car, so Hallidie took the grip himself and ran the car down the hill and up again without any problems. The line involved the use of grip cars, which carried the grip that engaged with the cable, towing trailer cars. The design was the first to use such grips.

The Clay Street line started regular service on September 1, 1873 and was a financial success. In 1888, it was absorbed into the Sacramento-Clay line of the Ferries and Cliff House Railway, and it subsequently became a small part of the San Francisco cable car system. Today none of the original line survives. However grip car 8 from the line has been preserved, and is now displayed in the San Francisco Cable Car Museum.

Currently cable car system is an icon of San Francisco, California. The cable car system forms part of the intermodal urban transport network operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, or "Muni" as it is better known. Cable cars operate on two routes from downtown near Union Square to Fisherman's Wharf, and a third route along California Street. While the cable cars are used to a certain extent by commuters, their small service area and premium fares for single rides make them more of a tourist attraction. They are among the most significant tourist sites in the city, along with Alcatraz Island and Fisherman's Wharf.

It is the only transportation system listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The second city to operate cable trams was Dunedin in New Zealand, from February 24, 1881 to March 2, 1957. In Dresden, Germany, in 1901 an elevated suspended cable car following the Eugen Langen one-railed floating tram system started operating. Cable Cars operated on Highgate Hill in North London and Kennington to Brixton Hill in South London. They also worked around "Upper Douglas" in the Isle of Man, Cable Car 72/73 being the sole survivor of the fleet.

Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since an expensive system of cables, pulleys, stationary engines and vault structures between the rails had to be provided. They also require strength and skill to operate, to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be dropped at particular locations and the cars coast, for example when crossing another cable line. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a cable route, while the cable was repaired. After the development of electrically powered trams, the more costly cable car systems declined rapidly.

Cable cars were especially effective in hilly cities, because the cable laid in the tracks physically pulled the car up the hill at a strong, steady pace, as opposed to the low-powered steam dummies trying to chug up a hill at almost a crawl, or worse a horse-drawn trolley trying to pull a load up a hill. This concept partially explains their survival in San Francisco. However, the most extensive cable system in the U.S. was in Chicago, a much flatter city (since January 28, 1882 till October 21, 1906). The largest cable system in the world, in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, had at its peak 592 trams running on 74 kilometres of track (it worked since November 11, 1885 till October 26, 1940).

The San Francisco cable cars, though significantly reduced in number, continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being a tourist attraction. A single line also survives in Wellington, New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 as a funicular but still called the "Wellington Cable Car").

Powell-Hyde line cable car passing by Lombard Street on Russian Hill, San Francisco:

Wikipedia
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Old June 27th, 2011, 01:18 AM   #1162
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III) PETROL-DRIVEN TRAMS IN RUSSIA

In few Russian cities were used petrol-driven trams.

1) April 4, 1912 - Yekaterinodar (now Krasnodar)-Pashkovskaya stanitsa (closed in 1914):

Pashkovsky is a microdistrict at the south-east of Krasnodar city. The main international airport serving Krasnodar is known as Pashkovsky Airport. It's located north-east of Pashkovsky microdistrict.

Pashkovsky kurin (settlement) of a Black Sea Cossack Host was founded in 1794. In 1821 there were 165 houses in the settlement. In 1842 Pashkovsky kurin was renamed into Pashkovskaya stanitsa (Cossack settlement). Since 1940 till 1953 stanitsa was centre of Pashkovsky District. On April 15, 1958 Pashkovskaya stanitsa was transformed into the workers’ settlement Pashkovsky. In 2004 urban-type settlement Pashkovsky became the microdistrict of Krasnodar city.

In 1908 was established "First Russian partnership of the electric-motor tram Yekaterinodar-Pashkovskaya" and was approved the project of construction of a new line between Krasnodar (which was known as Yekaterinodar till December 7, 1920) and Pashkovskaya stanitsa. On July 14, 1910 City Council signed contract with "Russian partnership". After this was started construction of single-track Pashkovskaya Line (1 meter wide) from the Red street to the Pashkovsky Deadend, along the Gogol street, Railway street, Mountain street (now Vishnyakova street), Stavropol street and Peter the Great street (now Yevdokia Bershanskaya street). It was opened on April 4, 1912. The lenght of this line was 12.8 km, including 10.7 km of suburban part. There were used 4 tram cars, which were serving by Pashkovskoe depot.

On July 30, 1914 City Council signed new contract with "Russian partnership", which established specific dates for the electrification of existing Pashkovskaya Line, for construction of branch to the rail station and for the organization of two urban routes. The urban part of this line was electrified on December 27, 1914. This day was opened two-track line from Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) to the Wide street (now Shevchenko street). In 1915 was electrified suburban part of Pashkovskaya Line and petrol-driven trams were replaced with electric trams. On August 3, 1915 was opened branch of this line to the rail terminal.

There were three routes:
1) Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) - Pashkovskaya stanitsa (suburban route);
2) Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) - Wide street (now Shevchenko street) (urban route);
3) Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) - rail terminal (urban route).

On June 2, 1920 Pashkovskaya Line was municipalized and was included in the urban tram system of Yekaterinodar. In 1948-1949 the gauge of this line was changed from 1000 mm to 1524 mm.

1911. Nuremberg, Germany. MAN petrol-driven tram for Pashkovskaya Line:

Solar

1912. Petrol-driven tram in Yekaterinodar (now Krasnodar):

Андрей Кравчук

1912-1914. Pashkovskaya Line, Mountain street (now Vishnyakova street):

Solar

Krasnodar, tram route #5 to Pashkovsky microdistrict:

Александров Николай

Terminus station "Pashkovsky settlement":

Ищенко Никита
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Old June 27th, 2011, 01:19 AM   #1163
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2) May 1912 - Darnytsya (now part of Kyiv), Ukraine (closed in 1934);
3) 1914 - Vilnius, Lithuania (closed in 1926);
4) January 26, 1916 - Tallinn-Kopli, Estonia (closed in 1953);
5) 1918 - Murmansk Light Railway (closed in 1934);

Murmansk is a city and the administrative center of Murmansk Region. It serves as a seaport and is located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, 12 kilometres (7 miles) from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland. Murmansk remains the largest city north of the Arctic Circle.

Murmansk was the last city founded in the Russian Empire. In 1915, WWI needs led to the construction of the railroad from Petrozavodsk to an ice-free location on the Murman coast in the Russian Arctic, to which Russia's allies shipped military supplies. The terminus became known as the Murman station, and soon boasted a port, a naval base, and an adjacent settlement with a population which quickly grew in size and soon surpassed the nearby towns of Alexandrovsk and Kola.

On July 12, 1916, Russian Transport Minister Alexander Trepov petitioned to grant urban status to the railway settlement. On July 19, 1916, the petition was approved, and the town was named Romanov-on-Murman, after the royal Russian dynasty of Romanovs. On October 4, 1916, the official ceremony was performed, and the date is now considered the official date of the city's foundation. After the February Revolution of 1917, on April 16, 1917, the town was given its present name.

From March 1918 to 1919 during the Russian Civil War, the town was occupied by the Western powers who had been allied in the First World War. British and American aggressors have established a colonial regime at the occupied territories of Russian Arctic. They declared martial law, imposed military courts, and plundered northern towns (43 millions kg. of different goods to the amount of 950 mln. gold rubles). American troops have served as chasteners. Near 50 thousands of Russians (about 10% of population of occupied territories) were imprisoned. Only in Arkhangelsk were executed 8000 prisoners and 1020 prisoners died from hunger, cold and disease.

British occupants decided to built line of petrol-driven light railway for military cargo transportation in Murmansk. The 10-km line (gauge - 750 mm) was built from the seaport and rail station to the coal wharfs of Green Cape, along the Vorovsky street. British occupants used prisoners from Russian Army for construction of this line. After uprising against British aggressors and liberation of city, Murmansk Light Railway (which formerly was known as Murmansk Tram) became to use for cargo and passenger transportation. There were used five or six locomotives. This line operated till 1934, when it was replaced with bus. It was fully dismantled.

1919. Trestle on Murmansk Light Railway:

Link

1919. Light Railway Equipment:

Link


Link
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Old June 27th, 2011, 01:21 AM   #1164
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6) 1930 - Bannovskoe (now Sviatohirsk), Ukraine (closed in 1941).

IV) DIESEL TRAM IN RUSSIA

1935 - Penza (closed in 1937):

Penza is a city and the administrative center of Penza Region. It stands on the Sura River, 625 kilometers (388 miles) southeast of Moscow.

Penza was founded in 1663 as a frontier outpost on the then southeastern border of Russia. The town bears the name of the river that it was originally built upon. As it was originally a frontier city, most houses were built of wood and the town developed without any master plan. During the 18th century Penza became an important trade center. In 1774 the insurgent army led by Yemelyan Pugachev occupied Penza after citizens of the town welcomed the rebellious Cossacks into the city. The first stone houses started to appear after 1801, and by 1809 Penza's population had grown to more than 13000 people.

During the Soviet period the city developed as a regional industrial center. The Ural mainframe was made here between 1959 and 1964.

The construction of the Penza tramline was started in 1930s, when group of workers wrote a letter to Moscow. They complained about the lack of public transport to the industrial district, which is located in the Penza outskirt. The 2.8 km line was built between the Drama Theatre and important industrial district near Bicycle Factory, which was known as Frunze Factory - ZIF (many decades later it became known that in really ZIF was secret military factory, where worked 39000 people). ZIF workers were initiators of construction of Penza tramline. It was put into operation in summer of 1935. Penza tramline was laid along the Bakunin street, Plekhanov street, Kuznetsk street, Proletarian street and Factory Highway.

The tram became very popular kind of transport in Penza. However, this single-track line was far from perfect. Its gauge was too narrow (750 mm) for transportation of big number of passangers. Tramline was laid very poorly, some curves had too small radius. Turns were too sharp. As a result, there were many derailments. There was one tram, which worked as an unpredictable, with the chronic delays and frequent cancellations of trips. The tram system was operated by city authorities, but technical support was provided by ZIF factory. This meant a lack of responsibility for exploitation of tram network. In addition, exploitation of this kind of transport was unprofitable.

The tram consisted of one diesel wagon and two passenger wagons. The design of wagons did not meet the standards of the time. The doors were made only from one side of wagons. Presumably tram wagons were made at ZIF factory.

For this reasons, tram line was closed in autumn of 1937. In 1943 there was acute need for a public electric transport in Penza. There were two options - construction of electric tram network with broad gauge and construction of trolleybus network. The choice was made in favor of the trolleybus, which was put into operation on November 4, 1948.

1935. Diesel tram in Penza:

Ymtram

Scheme of Penza tram:

Ymtram
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Old June 27th, 2011, 01:22 AM   #1165
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V) INVENTION OF ELECTRIC TRAM

Nonetheless, the most popular kind became the electric tram. And first electric tram was invented in Russia. Electric trams (trolley cars) were first successfully installed in Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky as early as 1880, and in Berlin in 1881 by Werner von Siemens and the company that still bears his name.

EARLY INVENTIONS

The convenience and economy of electricity resulted in its rapid adoption once the technical problems of production and transmission of electricity were solved. As early as 1834, Thomas Davenport, a Vermont blacksmith, had invented a battery-powered electric motor which he later patented. The following year he used it to operate a small model electric car on a short section of track four feet in diameter.

Thomas Davenport (9 July 1802 – 6 July 1851) was a Vermont blacksmith who invented the first American DC electrical motor in 1834. He lived in Forest Dale, a village near the town of Brandon, Vermont. As early as 1834, he developed a battery-powered electric motor. He used it to operate a small-model car on a short section of track, paving the way for the later electrification of streetcars.

Davenport's 1833 visit to the Penfield and Taft iron works at Crown Point, New York, where an electromagnet was operating, based on the design of Joseph Henry, was an impetus for his electromagnetic undertakings. Davenport bought an electromagnet from the Crown Point factory and took it apart to see how it worked. Then he forged a better iron core and redid the wiring, using silk from his wife's wedding gown.

With his wife Emily, and a colleague Orange Smalley, Davenport received the first American patent on an electric machine in 1837, U. S. Patent No. 132. In 1849, Charles Grafton Page, the Washington scientist and inventor, commenced a project to build an electromagnetically powered locomotive, with substantial funds appropriated by the US Senate. Davenport challenged the expenditure of public funds, arguing for the motors he had already invented. In 1851, Page's full sized electromagnetically operated locomotive was put to a calamity-laden test on the rail line between Washington and Baltimore.

RUSSIAN INVENTIONS

The first prototype of the electric tram was developed by Russian engineer Fyodor Pirotsky, who modified a horse tram to be powered by electricity. The invention was tested in 1880 in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Fyodor Pirotsky (1 March 1845 - 12 March 1898) was a Russo-Ukrainian engineer and inventor of the world's first railway electrification system and electric tram. While the commercialization of his inventions in Russia was relatively slow, Pirotsky is known to met with Carl Heinrich von Siemens and to influence the Siemens's eventual introduction of the first regular electric tram line (for the Berlin Straßenbahn).

Fyodor was born to the family of a military physician in Lokhvytsia Uezd of Poltava Governorate (currently, Ukraine). His family was of Ukrainian Cossacks ancestry. Fyodor graduated from the Konstantin Cadet Corps (Konstantinovskiy Kadetskiy Korpus) and Michael Artillery School (both in Saint Petersburg) in 1866 and served in Kyiv with the Fortress Artillery. There he became a friend of a famous electrical engineer Pavel Yablochkov and an enthusiast for applications of electrical energy.

Pirotsky and Yablochkov are often walked together by the Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) in Kyiv. During one of walks, inventors paid attention to the dense traffic on the descent: "If civilization will develop along its present path, it will be impossible to live in the cities. Look - it's need to more and more carts and carriages. They do not have time to clean up streets after horses. Even granite surface collapses by horseshoes and iron hoops. It's possible to add problems with darkness in this gloomy picture. I'm think the only salvation in using of electricity - more precisely, in electric traction". Thus, in 1860s was created idea about electric coach, which must move by rails. After many years, Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) became a first street in Russian Empire, where was opened permanent electric tramline.

Some later Pavel Yablochkov became known as inventor of the electric carbon arc lamp (so-called Yablochkov's candle) in 1876. Two years ago Russian electrical engineer Alexander Lodygin patented incandescent light bulb, but it was not commercially profitable. On contrast with Lodygin's lamps, the first world's electric street lighting employed Yablochkov's candles. It was succesfully presented at Paris Exposition of 1878. Prior to the era of Thomas Edison's lightbulbs, Yablochkov's candles were installed in many world cities - in Paris (Grands Magasins du Louvre, Hippodrome, Avenue de l’Opera, Place du Theatre), London (West-Indies docks, Metropole Hotel, Waterloo Bridge, Thames Embankment - the first electric street lighting in Britain), Rome (Colosseum, Via Nazionale, Piazza Colonna), Vienna (Volksgarten), Athens (Phaleron Bay), in the palaces of Persian Shah and King of Cambodia as well as in Berlin, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico, Delhi, Kolkatā, Madras (now Chennai), etc.

In 1871 Pirotsky moved back to Saint Petersburg, where among other things he proposed a new type of blast furnace. In 1874 he started experiments on Volkov Field in Saint Petersburg and in 1875 he put electrically powered railway cars on the Sestroretsks railway Miller's line (not far from the station Miller's pier). The electricity was transferred over a distance of approximately one kilometer. In his design rails were connected to a Gramme generator. Both rails were isolated from the ground, one rail served as a direct conductor and one as a reverse conductor.

Sestroretsk spur line has been laid by request of the Russian Ministry of Defence for communication of Sestroretsk armory with strategic Riihimäki-Saint Petersburg railroad in 1871. Line was opened on November 2, 1871, when the first train proceeded on the route Beloostrov settlement - Sestroretsk town. In 1872 the schedule of trains of the Sestroretsk branch was published in the city directory. In Beloostrov went three pairs trains: in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening. Time in a way made 25 minutes (average speed made less than 16 kilometres per hour).

A study in 1872 had showed the line was unprofitable, and in 1873 the administration decided to close it. These plans became known to entrepreneurs of Sestroretsk, and they bought the line from Finnish railways. The new line was Private "Societies of the Sestroretsk railway" and was named Miller's line. Miller's line was not fully independent, as well as use of rolling stock, rent a Finnish railways.

Miller's line was a passenger railway line in Russia from 1873 to 1886, run by the "Finnish Railways VR Group". Its total lenght was 9.5 km (5.9 miles), with three stations. The line ran from Beloostrov settlement to Sestroretsk town, and was the site of the world's first functional electric railway. The private organisation "Societies of the Sestroretsk Railway" was established to control the railway, headed by Collegiate Assessor Moritz von-Dezen and Titular counsellor Michael Miller. There were plans to build a station three versts (approximately three kilometres) from Sestroretsk, on the bank of Sestroretsk Bay, and also an additional branch line to the Tarhovsky pier, where an operational station already existed.

Miller's pier is a railway station at the quay in Sestroretsk Resort. In harbour of Gulf of Finland from boulders the 50-metre dam was dumped. In an operating time the name "Miller's Harbour" was fixed to harbour. On bay coast in 1875 have laid a branch line to landing stage and the same year on it the first structures have gone. In 1899–1900 the Resort's esplanade has been opened. To this event a line have surrounded with two low enclosure.

In 1875, on an area between Miller's pier and Sestroretsk rail station, the engineer Fyodor Pirotsky experimented on the adaptation of rail transport to be driven by an electrogalvanic cell. These experiments later led to a patent "For an electric way of transfer of forces on rail and other conductors", that is, for the creation of the first electric tram. The experimental area consisted of a site with an extent of 3.5 versts (3.73 km), which passed along the sand of beach for a large part of its length, with rail cars travelling distances of over one kilometre.

The system used the rails as conductors for electricity transmission; one rail carried the direct current, and the second rail functioned as a return wire. After establishing the necessary connections on the joints between the rails, the transmission of electricity was successfully carried out. Pirotsky stated that current leakage to the earth was not appreciable, and the transfer efficiency was calculated to be acceptable. Expenses for the adaptation of existing railways to electricity transmission were determined to be insignificant – from 50 to 100 roubles per verst. Although the experiment did not last, this was the first use of electricity to power any railway in the world.

In 1877 the line operated four pairs of trains. They primarily served residents during the summer period, while in the winter they were only used by officials. The recorded volume of patronage was very insignificant because of a disputed tariff policy of Finnish railways, and ultimately the Miller's pier station was left idle. As a result the operators appeared to be in a disastrous financial position, and the majority of the proposed plans were left incomplete. By the mid-1880s the "Society of the Sestroretsk Railway" was definitively ruined, and on January 1, 1886, the railway was closed.

In 1879 Fyodor Pirotsky presented the project of the electric tram to the city authorities. He declared that the "electric tram is more faster and reliable. It does not need to stables and cleaning of streets from the manure. And, most importantly, electricity is cheaper than oats and hay for horses".

In 1880 Fyodor Pirotsky modified a city two-decker horse tramway to be powered by electricity instead of horses, and on September 3, 1880, at 12:00 noon, the unusual kind of public transport started to serve residents of Saint Petersburg amid the vocal protests of the owners of the horse-cars. The first world's electric tramline was put into operation at the crossing of Swamp street and Tar Lane, in the Sands District of St. Petersburg. The experiments continued until the end of September 1880. Some historians claim that this was the first electric tram in the world. However, St. Petersburg entrepreneurs have already spent a lot of money on construction of lines of horse-drawn tram. They had long-term contracts with city authorities and wanted to have profit from the exploitation of tram network. Therefore, the new kind of tram would be competitor for them. Pirotsky did not have the money to continue his experiments, and it was stopped.

The subsequent fate of Fyodor Pirotsky was unenviable. He continued to serve as an artillery officer. Among other things he installed the first underground electric cable in Saint Petersburg to transfer electricity from a cannon foundry to the Artillery School (1881). Pirotsky also was the author of a project for centralizing the city's electricity production using underground cables, he proposed new constructions of blast furnaces and bakery ovens. In 1888 he retired with the rank of colonel, lived on his military pension in the town of Aleshki (now Tsiurupynsk, Kherson Region, Ukraine) and died in 1898. Since no money was found on him when he died, the burial was paid for by a credit secured by the colonel's furniture.

Although Pirotsky did not have the money to continue his experiments, his works stirred interest in electric trams around the world. Among people who met Pirotsky was Carl Heinrich von Siemens who was very interested and asked many questions. In 1879 at Berlin Trades Exposition Werner von Siemens presented first electric passenger train. It was made according to electric schemes, which were published by Pirotsky in the international magazine. In 1881 the brothers Siemens started producing their own design of electric trams commercially. The first permanent electric tram line using Siemens tram cars was opened in Berlin in 1881.

1900s. Railway station "Miller's pier":

Link

1900s, Sestroretsk Resort near St. Petersburg. Place on Miller's railway line - the site of the world's first functional electric railway:

Link

1913. Railway station "Miller's pier":

Link

First world's electric tram by Fyodor Pirotsky (1880):

Link

Pavel Yablochkov (left), inventor of the first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp (1876) for the first world's electric street lighting, and Fyodor Pirotsky (right), inventor of the first world's railway electrification system (1875) and first world's electric tram (1880):

Wikipedia
Link
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Old June 27th, 2011, 01:24 AM   #1166
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GERMAN INVENTIONS

Ernst Werner Siemens, von Siemens since 1888, (13 December 1816 – 6 December 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist. Siemens' name has been adopted as the SI unit of electrical conductance, the siemens. He was also the founder of the electrical and telecommunications company "Siemens".

Werner Siemens was born in Lenthe, today part of Gehrden, near Hannover, Germany, the fourth child (of fourteen) of a tenant farmer. He is a brother of Carl Wilhelm Siemens (1823-1883) and Carl Heinrich von Siemens (1829-1906), sons of Christian Ferdinand Siemens (1787-1840) and wife Eleonore Deichmann (1792-1839). They had two more brothers, Hans Siemens (1818-1867) and Friedrich August Siemens (1828-1904).

Siemens left school without finishing his education, but joined the army to undertake training in engineering. Siemens was thought of as a good soldier, receiving various medals. Upon returning home from war, he put his mind to other uses. He is known world-wide for his advances in various technologies, and chose to work on perfecting technologies that had already been established. Siemens invented a telegraph that used a needle to point to the right letter, instead of using Morse code. Based on this invention, he founded the company "Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske" on 1 October 1847, with the company taking occupation of its workshop on 12 October.

In 1848-1849, the company built the first long-distance telegraph line in Europe; 500 km from Berlin to Frankfurt am Main. It was put into operation on March 28, 1849. After this began construction of telegraph lines, which connected Berlin with Cologne, Hamburg, Breslau and Stettin.

The company was internationalised soon after its founding. In 1850 the founder's younger brother, Carl Wilhelm Siemens started to represent the company in London. The company continued to build a telegraph network in Europe. In 1851 the Royal Danish telegraph department ordered "Siemens" pointer telegraph. One year later, Dutch Government has ordered equipment, which connected Rotterdam with Belgium.

Despite of the early successes, the initial period in the history of company was not without unpleasant moments. In 1850s, due to disagreements with the Prussian telegraph departament, all domestic orders were canceled. This led to a serious crisis for young company. Fortunately for Germans, at this moment they received a major order from Russia. The company was involved in building long distance telegraph networks in Russian Empire.

Carl Heinrich von Siemens (often just Carl von Siemens) (March 3, 1829 in Menzendorf, Mecklenburg - March 21, 1906 in Menton, France) was a German entrepreneur, a child (of fourteen) of a tenant farmer. He is a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens (1816-1892) and Carl Wilhelm Siemens (1823-1883). In 1853, Carl Heinrich traveled to St. Petersburg where he established the second international branch office of his brothers company "Siemens & Halske". Siemens had a contract for constructing the Russian telegraph network at the time.

Werner von Siemens had already established contact with the influential chief of the Russian state telegraph administration, Count Pyotr Kleinmichel, which had proved useful for obtaining orders. In 1852 "Siemens & Halske" thus installed a line from Riga to Bolderāja and an underground line from St. Petersburg to Oranienbaum. This was followed in 1853 by the first submarine telegraph cable in the world linking Oranienbaum with Kronstadt. In his management of the telegraph installations, Carl soon proved to be a competent entrepreneur who was unafraid to make decisions, and in 1853 he was accorded power of attorney for the Russian side of the business. In 1855 the business was turned into a subsidiary, directed independently by Carl Siemens on the basis of his own capital assets.

The four telegraph lines (Moscow-Kyiv-Odessa-Sevastopol, St. Petersburg-Kronstadt, St. Petersburg-Helsinki-Turku and St. Petersburg-Warsaw) were completed in 1855. Its total lenght was more than 9000 km. From 1853 to 1855 the Russian orders ensured full capacity utilization of the Berlin workshop and were an important mainstay of the Berlin parent company. After the Crimean War, however, business declined as the impoverished Russian government was no longer in a position to give new orders. In addition, Count Pyotr Kleinmichel was relieved of his office, which meant the loss of direct personal access to the management of the Russian state telegraph administration. A continuous income was however guaranteed until well into the 1860s by the maintenance contracts for the lines already constructed by Siemens and Halske, which were concluded in 1855 for a term of 12 years. For the maintenance work, the Russian subsidiary set up a small workshop in St. Petersburg and three engineering offices in Petersburg, Kyiv and Odessa. The respect in which "Siemens & Halske" was held in Russia was reflected in particular by its official title of "Contractor for the Construction and Maintenance of the Imperial Russian Telegraph Lines". To give them authority for the maintenance of the telegraph lines, the "officials" employed by "Siemens & Halske" were granted the right to wear uniforms with badges of rank.

The year 1867 marked a turning point in the Russian business, as the Russian government took over the maintenance of the telegraph lines when the contracts with "Siemens & Halske" ran out. In addition, Carl Siemens left St. Petersburg out of consideration for the health of his wife and moved to Tbilisi, where he took over the management of the Kedabeg copper mine in the Caucasus jointly acquired with his brothers Werner and Wilhelm in 1864. After initial difficulties, Kedabeg’s profits increased in 1877 and it became a viable business. This was in marked contrast with a further private undertaking, the "Gorodok" glass foundry built by Carl von Siemens in 1861 on the Khmelyovo estate on Lake Ilmen: this operated at a constant loss, so that Carl was obliged to liquidate the business and close the factory down. In 1867, "Siemens & Halske" began building of the monumental 11000-km Indo-European telegraph line (Kolkatā-Tehran-Tbilisi-Kerch-Odessa-Warsaw-Berlin-London), which entered service in the spring of 1870.

In 1869 Carl went to London after the death of his wife Mariya (née Kapherr), the daughter of a St. Petersburg banker and merchant, and spent the next ten years helping in his brother Wilhelm’s business. A further reason for his departure was almost certainly the decline in business in Russia, which made staying on there a less attractive proposition. In 1881 Carl Siemens, who was no longer comfortable in London in the shadow of his older brother Wilhelm, returned to St. Petersburg and again improved the performance of the Russian business. The "All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition" of 1882 in Moscow provided a good opportunity for repositioning the company: "Siemens" built an electrically powered railroad specifically for this exhibition, which was designed to demonstrate "the use of electricity for operating trains". For this achievement, the company was awarded a high distinction: the right to bear the imperial double eagle in its letterhead.

In the 1880s, Siemens & Halske manufactured telegraph equipment and railway signal systems as well as accessories for electric lighting. The manufacture of cables was expanded with the company’s own cable factory, which had been planned since 1878 and was built on a plot of land acquired in 1879 on the Neva estuary in St. Petersburg. In addition, the Russian Siemens company increasingly concentrated on lighting. Carl von Siemens attempted to gain entry into the Russian market by obtaining concessions, and for this purpose founded the "Company for Electrical Lighting" together with other St. Petersburg firms in 1886. This so-called "Lighting Company", which had substantial headquarters in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Lodz, acquired a monopoly and received the right to lay cables and establish power plants.

Founder of the company was ennobled in 1888, becoming Werner von Siemens. He retired from his company in 1890 and died in 1892 in Berlin. After Werner's death, Carl became the senior chief executive of "Siemens & Halske". For his service to Russia, he was ennobled by Emperor Nicholas II in 1895. In 1904 Carl withdrew from the company for health reasons and died on March 21, 1906. The company, reorganized as "Siemens & Halske AG", "Siemens-Schuckertwerke" and – since 1966 – "Siemens AG" was later led by Werner's three sons Arnold, Wilhelm, and Carl Friedrich and his nephews Hermann, Ernst and Peter von Siemens. "Siemens AG" is still one of the largest electrotechnological firms of the world.

Apart from the pointer telegraph Werner von Siemens made several contributions to the development of electrical engineering and is therefore known as the founding father of the discipline in Germany. On December 14, 1877 he received German patent No. 2355 for an electromechanical "dynamic" or moving-coil transducer, which was adapted by A. L. Thuras and E. C. Wente for the "Bell System" in the late 1920s for use as a loudspeaker. On May 31, 1879 the first electric passenger train was presented by Werner von Siemens at Berlin Trades Exposition. He built the world's first electric elevator in 1880. His company produced the tubes with which Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen investigated x-rays. He claimed invention of the dynamo although others invented it earlier. Siemens is also the father of the trolleybus which he initially tried and tested with his "Elektromote" on April 29, 1882. In 1881, Werner von Siemens opened the world's first permanent electric tram line in Lichterfelde near Berlin, Germany. For some time the German word for tram was simply "die Elektrische".

On June 22, 1865, the opening of Berlin's first horse tramway marked the beginning of the age of trams in Germany, spanning from Brandenburger Tor along today's Straße des 17. Juni (17 June Street) to Charlottenburg. Two months later, on the August 28, it was extended along Dorotheenstraße to Kupfergraben near today's Museumsinsel (Museum Island), a terminal stop which is still in service today. Like the horse-bus, many companies followed the new development and built horse-tram networks in all parts of the today's urban area. In 1873, a route from Rosenthaler Platz to the Gesundbrunnen (Health well) was opened, to be operated by the new Große Berliner Pferde-Eisenbahn (Great Berlin Horse Tram) which would later become the dominating company in Berlin under the name of Große Berliner Straßenbahn (GBS) (Great Berlin Tram).

Werner von Siemens had presented the first electric passenger train at the Berlin industrial exhibition two years before. In order to develop the concept, he received the official approval to run an electric tramway line on already existing tracks that had been used for building the Prussian military academy (Hauptkadettenanstalt) at Lichterfelde West.

On 16 May 1881, the region of Berlin again wrote transport history. In the village of Groß-Lichterfelde, a suburb of Berlin, which was incorporated into Berlin-Steglitz 39 years later, Werner von Siemens opened the Groß-Lichterfelde Tramway - world's first permanent electric tramway. Initially, the route was intended merely as a testing facility. Siemens named it an "elevated line taken down from its pillars and girders", because he wanted to build a network of electric elevated lines in Berlin. But the sceptical town council did not allow him to do this until 1902, when the first elevated line opened.

The electric tram in Groß-Lichterfelde was built in meter-gauge and ran from today's suburban station, East Lichterfelde, to the cadet school in the Zehlendorfer Straße (today Finckensteinallee). This electric tramline in Groß-Lichterfelde was built in meter-gauge. The 2.45 km (1.5 miles) long line started at Berlin-Lichterfelde Ost station on the Anhalt Railway line. Each car was originally equipped with a 4 kW electric motor supplied with 180 Volt direct current via the rails, similar to most present-day model railways. Therefore the metre gauge tracks were generally separated from driveways and trespassing was prohibited.

At railroad crossings the rails were dead or switched on only briefly before the approach of the tramcar. Nevertheless persons and horses frequently received electrical shocks. It is also believed that young persons caused short circuits which shut down the operation by putting wire mesh on the tracks, in order to enjoy the sight of glowing metal.

A single trip cost more than an average hourly wage. In 1891 the track was equipped with an overhead wire and the line was extended to Berlin-Lichterfelde West station. The route was refitted to standard gauge in October 1925. After several extensions, operation finally discontinued in 1931.

Werner von Siemens - inventor of pointer telegraph that used a needle to point to the right letter (1847), Dynamo (1867), first world's electric elevator (1880) and trolleybus (1882):

Link

Russian telegraph network (1853-1855) - the first of numerous implemented projects of "Siemens" in Russia:

Wikipedia

First world's electric passenger train in Berlin (1879):

Link

The first worls's permanent electric tramline was opened in Berlin (1881):

Wikipedia


Link

The "Elektromote", the world's first trolleybus in Berlin (1882):

Link
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Old June 27th, 2011, 01:25 AM   #1167
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SUMMARY

Although the first world's electric tramline was tested in St. Petersburg in 1880, it found no further use in Russia for a long time. The main reasons were lack of financial support and protests of the owners of horse-drawn tram, who had monopoly rights at the time.

However, horse-drawn tram had many shortcomings - low speed (about 10 km/h), limited time of work of each horse, necessity to feed and care of horses, prodigious amounts of horse manure on urban streets, difficulty with exploitation at the urban outskirts (especially at bad roads during bad weather). For this reasons, other kinds of tram have been used. The most popular alternative kind of tram in Russia was been steam-driven tram - something like of ordinary railway with mini-steam train. Those steam-driven tram lines were used in the urban outskirts as well as for passenger transportation from central part of towns to the resorts - beach resorts, cottage areas or balneologic resorts. However, heavy steam-driven trams weren't used in the central parts of the cities due to noise, steam, smoke and sparks. The first Russia's steam-driven tram was put into operation on July 23, 1881. It was built between Odessa and seaside resort Big Fountain.

Steam-driven trams were also used in the two major Russian cities, and the history of its development was very similar. Both St. Petersburg and Moscow had two steam-driven tram lines. All four lines were built in the 1880s. One line in each of two cities led to a cottage area in the southern direction (Murzinka village in St. Petersburg and Sparrow Hills in Moscow). The other lines led to the institutes in the northern direction (Polytechnical University in St. Petersburg and Agricultural Academy in Moscow). The one line in each of two cities was electrified in early 1910s, prior to beginning of WWI. The other two steam-driven tram lines were electrified in 1922.

In some Russian towns were also used other types of trams, but they are not widely used. The lines of petrol-driven trams were later either closed or electrified. The only Russian line of diesel tram in Penza became symbol of bad work done and was dismantled after two years of operation. In March 1899 were tested accumulator trams in St. Petersburg, but it could not be used for a long time. For this reason, accumulator trams were never used for the permanent operation.

The first world's permanent tram line was opened in Berlin on May 16, 1881. It was built by the "Siemens" company, which by that time had own branch office in St. Petersburg. Later this company will be involved in construction of early electric tram lines in Russia.

Monument to Fyodor Pirotsky (inventor of electric tram) in Vitebsk, Belarus:

KP

TO BE CONTINUED...
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Old July 4th, 2011, 01:39 AM   #1168
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD

June 25, 2011. Construction of the tunnel from Metro bridge across Oka River to the future station "Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky"), which planned to be open on November 4, 2012:

CrossC


CrossC


CrossC

Station "Gorkovskaya", dead ends for turnover of trains:

[p0d]NikE
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Old July 4th, 2011, 01:40 AM   #1169
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2009, Volga River:


June 27, 2011. Construction of the cableway from Nizhny Novgorod to the Bor town across Volga River

View from the support:

s1rus

Rowing Canal:

s1rus

Industrial town Bor at the opposite bank of Volga River:

s1rus

Nizhny Novgorod station:

s1rus


s1rus


s1rus


s1rus
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Old July 6th, 2011, 10:13 PM   #1170
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KAZAN METRO

Audio information at three languages (Russian, Tatar and English):
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Old July 6th, 2011, 10:47 PM   #1171
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CHELYABINSK METRO

June 24, 2011. Construction of escalator tunnel of the station "Torgovy Tsentr" ("Trade Center"):

Виталий Раскалов

Station "Torgovy Tsentr" ("Trade Center"):

Виталий Раскалов
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Old July 6th, 2011, 11:18 PM   #1172
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KAZAN METRO

June 29, 2011. Construction of the station "Moskovskaya" ("Moscow"), which planned to be open on May 9, 2013:

fndoder


fndoder


fndoder


fndoder


fndoder
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Old July 6th, 2011, 11:19 PM   #1173
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fndoder


fndoder


fndoder


fndoder
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Old July 6th, 2011, 11:20 PM   #1174
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Construction of the station "Dekabristov" ("Decembrists"), which planned to be opened on May 9, 2013. View from the northern vestibule:

fndoder

View from the southern vestibule:

fndoder


fndoder


fndoder
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Old July 6th, 2011, 11:21 PM   #1175
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fndoder


fndoder


fndoder


fndoder
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Old July 6th, 2011, 11:49 PM   #1176
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO

June 26, 2011. Construction of the trade store "Mezhdunarodny", where will be built vestibule of the station "Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International"; planned to be opened in 2012):

ENJINEER


ENJINEER


ENJINEER

July 2, 2011:

RAID
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Old July 6th, 2011, 11:50 PM   #1177
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June 28, 2011. Construction of escalator tunnel of the station "Admiralteyskaya" ("Admiralty"), which planned to be opened in 2012:

karhu


karhu


karhu

Construction of the foundation pit for the future vestibule:

karhu


karhu
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Old July 7th, 2011, 12:05 AM   #1178
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VOLGOGRAD METROTRAM

June 17-19, 2011. Landscaping of territory near the station "Yelshanka", which planned to be opened in November 2011:

SAHEK


SAHEK


SAHEK


SAHEK
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Old July 7th, 2011, 12:06 AM   #1179
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YEKATERINBURG METRO

July 3, 2011. Entrances to the station "Botanicheskaya" ("Botanical"), which planned to be opened on December 1, 2011:

Viru


Viru


Viru
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Old July 7th, 2011, 12:07 AM   #1180
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July 6, 2011. Station "Botanicheskaya" ("Botanical"). Visit of Alexander Yakob, Head of the City Administration:

Ekburg


Ekburg


Ekburg


Ekburg
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