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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:47 PM   #1221
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4) October 14, 1875 - Kazan (closed on December 26, 1900):

In the mid-19th century Kazan was one of the largest cities in Volga Region. But city was located in few kilometers from Volga bank. In 19th century were built piers of the first steamship companies, and transport communication with city became relevant - every year during the spring freshets connection with Kazan was stops for a weeks.

The first step in changing the situation was the construction of Admiralteyskaya dam. The second step was the opening of stagecoach (omnibus) route between Kazan and Volga piers on February 5, 1854. It was date of opening of first public transport in Kazan. However, it turned out to be unprofitable for the owners and has been closed.

The first attempt to built street railway in Kazan was been in 1867. Then, between entrepreneur Sergey Shipov and government of Kazan Governorate was signed an agreement for the construction of 7.5 kilometers of streetcar railway from Prolomnaya street (now Bauman street) to the Volga piers. However, later Shipov refused to implement the contract. On January 13, 1870 Ministry of Railways has approved the project of engineer Pyotr Panayev. On February 21, 1873 Panayev and city authorities signed contract on construction of lines. However, realization of this project was stopped due to various reasons. The construction works were started only on October 14, 1873. On October 20, 1873, after 3.5 years, City Council reviewed this issue and recognized entrepreneurs Tahlqvist and Etolin as new owners the horse-tram.

On October 14, 1875, at 2:00pm, horse-drawn tram was put into operation. Initially there were two lines - Volga line (from Tolchok Market in the centre of city to the settlements Nearest Mouth and Far Mouth - the piers of Volga River) and Prolomnaya line (from Tolchok Market along Prolomnaya street through Fish Square (now Ğabdulla Tuqay Square) to Cloth Settlement district). Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (first-class seats) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second-class seats) for urban lines, for the trip from city to the Volga piers - 15 kopecks and 5 kopecks respectively. During first year of operation horse-trams carried 1.164.809 passengers, the revenue was 59.367 rubles and 69 kopecks. It's intesting that only on September 23, 1876, one year after opening, horse-drawn tram started to work by schedule. The first tram cars were supplied from Moscow. There were operated 12 tram cars with capacity of 40 persons each. At the most difficult part of the Volga line one more horse (so-called "Petrushka") was fastened to the harness.

In 1877 company “Sivkov, Toropchaninov, Tahlqvist and Co” become the owner of horse-drawn tram. Gustav Tahlqvist was the merchant from St. Petersburg (Finn by nationality) who created the glory of the Kazan horse-tram. He created garden entertainment "Tivoli" near Admiralteyskoe horse-tram depot and organized a private industrial and agricultural exhibitions at this garden. The building of horse-tram depot become the place of public entertainment, performances of orchestras, artists, etc.

In 1885 "Partnership of the Volga-Kazan railway and commercial warehouses" became the owner of horse-drawn tram. In 1892 State Councillor N. Markov became new owner of tram network. He together with I. Likhachev signed new contract with City Council on the further extension of horse-tram lines. But in 1893 Markov and Likhachev handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to Belgian “Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Russia". In 1890s were built three other lines:
1) Georgian line (from Nicholas Square near Kazan Kremlin to Arsk Field, now Yershov Field, which in 19th century has been built up with housing, and there was held trade fair);
2) Central line (from Right Teatrical to Evangelists streets);
3) St. Catherine line (from Nicholas Square through St. Catherine street (now Ğabdulla Tuqay street) to the factory of Krestovnikov brothers).

The horse-tram lines were improved - along the routes were paved the telegraph and telephone lines, some paths were lighted at night. At the summer horse-tram worked from 7:00am till 9:00pm. At the winter there was no such regular work, and some lines didn't worked at this period. In the end of 19th century in Kazan were 5 tram lines (43 stops) with total length 18.3 km and two horse-tram depots - Admiralteyskoe (200 horses) and Arskoye (130 horses). The average speed of horse-drawn tram was no more than 7.5 km per hour. It was replaced with electric tram and closed on December 26, 1900.

1875, Admiralteyskoe horse-tram depot. Day of opening of horse-drawn tram:

rustik68

130-anniversary of the opening of Kazan horse-tram:

vnu4ka

Horse-drawn tram in Kazan:

Link


Link


vnu4ka

"Imperial":

kazantransport

Interier of car:

kazantransport


Яркий Трамвайщик
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:49 PM   #1222
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5) July 20, 1880 - Odessa, Ukraine (closed in June 1921):
(including - Kuyalnitskiy Liman, Odessa Region, 1888-1915 and Khajibeyskiy Liman, Odessa Region, 1899-1917);
6) September 4, 1882 - Riga, Latvia (closed in 1909);
7) September 24, 1882 - Kharkiv, Ukraine (closed in 1918);
8) April 3, 1883 - Tbilisi, Georgia (closed in 1910);
9) May 13, 1887 - Saratov (closed in 1909):


Saratov is a major city in southern Russia. It is the administrative center of Saratov Region and a major port on the Volga River.

The modern city traces its history to the reign of Russian Tsar Feodor I, who constructed several settlements along the Volga River in order to secure the southeastern boundary of his state. During the summer of 1586, the fortress of Samara was founded, followed by Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd) in 1589 and finally Saratov, located midway between Samara and Tsaritsyn, in 1590. Saratov was built at the insistence of count Grigory Zasekin. All three forts were located in a region where the Volga and the Don flow nearest one another, which allowed the Duchy of Moscovy to secure both rivers and to ensure control over the recently annexed khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan in the years following the Livonian War of 1558-1583.

By the 1800s, Saratov had grown to be an important shipping port on the Volga. The Ryazan-Ural Railroad reached Saratov in 1870. In mid-19th century, together with Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod, Saratov was one of the largest cities of Volga Region. The population of the city was 114.9 mln in 1880.

On January 6, 1886 was signed contract between city authorities and Leonid Blummer on construction of horse-tram line. Leonid Blummer (1841-1888) was a hereditary nobleman, a journalist and editor. He was born in Kerch and studied in Simferopol and Kharkiv gymnasiums. In 1859-1860 he was studied at Faculty of Oriental Studies in St. Petersburg State University (Chinese language). In 1861 he graduated Moscow State University on specialty candidate of law. After this Blummer went to Europe, where he was the publisher of magazine "Free Word" (firstly - in Berlin, later - in Brussel), newspapers "News" (in Berlin) and "European" (in Dresden). In Europe Blummer met with many Russian revolutionary emigrants such as Alexander Herzen. However, they did not have a close relationship, and Blummer decided to return in Russia. Russian authorities did not liked liberal themes of his editions. In 1865 Leonid Blummer was convicted and sentenced to exile in Tomsk Governorate. Here he remained for four years, served as manager of the gold mines in the Altai and Eastern Siberia. In 1870, his rights were reinstated. After exile Blummer settled in Voronezh, later - in Saratov, where he worked as lawyer and journalist.

According to the contract with the city authorities, Blummer received exclusive rights to develop and operate horse-tram network in Saratov for 40 years, after which he obliged to return the whole system to the city goverment. Horse-drawn railway cargo transportation was taxed – annual contributions to the city treasury were to be 1000 rubles during the first decade, 1500 rubles during second decade, 2000 rubles - during third and 2500 rubles during the last decade.

Testing trip has been made along Moscow street on April 13, 1887. On May 13, 1887 the horse-tram lines (gauge - 1524 mm) were put into operation. Initially there were two lines - from rail terminal along Moscow street to the Old Cathedral Square (now Museum Square) and from Moscow street along Alexander street (now Maxim Gorky street) to the Big St. Sergius street (now Chernyshevsky street). The tram worked from 7:00am till 10:00pm. Time intervals were 10 minutes. Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (single-class seats) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second-class seats).

Later were opened other five lines:
3) from St. Elijah Square along St. Elijah street (now Chapayev street) to the Big Mountain street;
4) from Moscow street along Astrakhan street to the Mercantile rail station (now station Saratov II);
5-6) from Moscow street along Nicholas street (now Radishchev street) to the Konstantinov street (now Soviet street) and later along Konstantinov street to the People Theatre (now Saratov Drama Theater named after Ivan Slonov);
7) along Big Mountain street.

In 1888 founder and owner of the horse-drawn tram Leonid Blummer died. The whole enterprise was transferred to the balance of the joint stock company. Its fund was 900.000 rubles. The cost of transporting of each passenger varied from 3.44 to 4.08 kopecks. Daily receipt of check-takers varied from 290 to 412 rubles. In 1888 there were 4 lines with total lenght 17.4 km, serving by 25 cars and 109 horses (later - by 69 cars and 306 horses). There were one-floor tram cars (without "imperial") with capacity 20 seats. Tram car was run by one horse. At the most difficult parts one more (second) horse was fastened to the harness. Central horse-tram depot was located at Moscow Square.

After Blummer's death horse-drawn trams successfully worked in Saratov during next 20 years. In 1893 horse-trams carried 2.579.500 passangers, in 1896 - 3.452.000, in 1900 - 5.473.000.

However, the age of the horse-drawn tram came to an end. On March 31, 1907 horse-drawn tram has been transferred to the ownership of Belgian joint stock company “Mutual Company of trams", who had plans of tram electrification. On April 6, 1907 was started strike of horse-tram workers, who were unhappy with the new owners. This strike continued during 1.5 months till May 24. In 1908-1909 all horse-tram lines were electrified.

Horse-tram car near Saratov Rail Terminal:

omnibus


omnibus


Link

10) September 11, 1887 - Rostov-on-Don (closed on December 22, 1902):

Rostov-on-Don is a city and the administrative center of Rostov Region and the Southern Federal District of Russia, located on the Don River, just 46 kilometers (29 miles) from the Sea of Azov. It was founded on December 15, 1749, as a customs house was set up on the Temernik River (a tributary of the Don) to control the trade with Turkey. Rostov's favorable geographical position on the crossing of trade routes promoted the rapid economic development of the city. The Don River that the city is named for is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with regions to the north, and Rostov-on-Don is an important river port in both passenger-oriented and industrial shipping. Rostov-on-Don became a busy trading port, which was visited by Russian, Italian, Greek, Turkish, as well as other foreign merchants.

The population of Rostov-on-Don was 15 thousand in 1850 and 110 thousand at the beginning of 20th century. In the neighborhood there developed another town, founded in 1779 by the Crimean Armenians, who were granted shelter in the South of Russia. It was Nakhichevan-on-Don. A wheat field was the border between two towns. Nowadays the central square of Rostov-on-Don, Theatre Square, is situated directly on the place of the former town border. In 1928 two cities were united and Nakhichevan became part of Rostov. In Armenian "Nakhichevan" means "the first halt". Thousands of descendants of the Crimean Armenians still live in Rostov.

In early 1880s in Rostov-on-Don were horse-drawn omnibuses (since 1867) and carriages, but it were too bulky and heavy to use. In 1886 two entrepreneurs (councilor of State, engineer Andrey Gorchakov and candidate of law Leonid Blummer) drafted to the City Council a project: to build in Rostov-on-Don a horse-drawn railway, or rather a horse-drawn tram system.

The streetcar in Rostov-on-Don was opened on September 11, 1887. The horse-drawn tram in Rostov-on-Don was unique in Russia for two reasons. Firstly, it belonged to the Belgian Joint stock company. For this reason it had so-called "standart" lenght of gauge - 1435 mm, which common in Europe. By the way, currently electric tramline in Rostov-on-Don still have 1435 mm-gauge. The other tramlines in Russia are have or had either "narrow gauge" (1000 mm) or "broad gauge" (1519-1524 mm).

Secondly, there worked only one horse-tram line between two Russian cities - Rostov-on-Don and neighboring Nakhichevan-on-Don. This line was opened on May 21, 1890. In 1900 there were four lines:
1) From New Settlement District to the Bogatyanovsky Descent;
2) From Hay Market to the Smirnov Descent;
3) From city depot to the Big Garden street;
4) From rail terminal to Nakhichevan-on-Don.

In 1901-1902 it was replaced with electric tram and closed in 1902.

1900, scheme of horse-tram lines (bold). Thin lines - railways:

Link
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:50 PM   #1223
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August 24, 1888 - Tallinn, Estonia (closed on September 24, 1919);
October 29, 1888 - Chisinau, Moldavia (closed in 1914);
November 15, 1888 - Tula (closed in 1919):


Tula is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Region. It is located 193 kilometers (120 miles) south of Moscow, on the Upa River.

The city has existed since at least the 14th century; the name is of pre-Russian, probably Baltic, origin. In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades later, Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking centre of Eastern Europe. The oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, and Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was also established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the centre of their manufacture to the Urals, the city continued as a center of heavy industry, particularly in the manufacture of materiel.

Only in 1872 in Tula started talking about the need to organize public transport for all citizens. This year at the one of meeting of City Council Alexey Weidengamler, collegiate registrar and nobleman from Moscow, offered own project of the construction horse-tram lines with 4 passanger and 10 freight cars. But six months later this project was rejected. On May 23, 1888 engineer Andrey Gorchakov presented own project of the construction of four horse-tram lines. The horse-tram depot was built on the left bank of Upa River. The first single-track line (wide - 1 m) was built from Kievskaya Outpost (now Leo Tolstoy street) to the Kursk Rail Terminal (now Moscow Rail Terminal), along the Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue), Ambassadors street (now Soviet street), Staro-Pavshinskaya street (now Mosin street), Gryazev street (now Leitensen street) and Krivonogovskaya street (now Clara Zetkin street). Horse-drawn tram was put into operation on November 15, 1888.

The average speed of horse-drawn trams was about 10.6 km/h, that only in two times more than average speed of walking man. The most popular children joke in those years was the same: "Konka, konka, dogoni tsyplyonka!" ("Tram, tram, catch up with chicken!"). A great Russian writer Anton Chekhov wrote about it: "The horse-driven railway, or more simply put the so-called horse-driven horse road consists of its inner essence, its veneer and horse-driven railway rules. Inner essence costs five kopecks, veneer three kopecks, while the horse-driven railway rules costs nothing. The first is given mankind for a comfortable contemplation of a conductor's temper, the second for early morning peeking into low-cut second story windows, the third for its fulfillment. The rules are essentially the following: the horse tram doesn't serve the public, the public serves the horse tram. When the conductor enters the carriage the public must smile pleasantly. Moving forward, moving backward and absolute peace is the essence of synonyms. Speed equals its negative size, now and then naught and on major holidays two versts an hour. In the event of derailments the passenger pays nothing..." ("An Ideal Exam").

As in other cities, at the most difficult parts one or two more horses were fastened to the harness. The such most difficul part of route in Tula was been at Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) - at the path from Upper Gentry street (now Gogol street) to the Ploshchadnaya street (now Kaminsky street). The railways were not perfect, and derailment of tram cars was very common thing. But despite all these inconveniences, horse-drawn tram was a popular kind of transport. The passangers were mostly ordinary citizens - clerks, workers and servants.

By the early 1910s, total lenght of horse-tram lines was 12 km. There were built lines along the Millionnaya street (now October street), Suvorov street (now Red Army Avenue), Krestovozdvizhenskaya street (now Revolution street), Mendeleev street, Voronezh street (now Defence street) and Vanykinsky Driveway (now May Day street). The horse-tram depot was removed to Horse Square.

In 1910 Belgian “Joint stock company of urban and suburban tramways in Russia" («Societe des tramways urbains et suburbains de Russie») became the new owner of Tula horse-tram. When selling, all property of horse-drawn tram (tramcars, horses, railways) was assessed in 204.000 rubles. The opened Danish tramcars were replaced with more modern and warm Belgian tramcars. The fares was depended on the distance of travel. The smallest price - 2 kopecks or 0.02 rubles was been for the trip from the Vyazemsky Rail Terminal (now Ryazhsky Rail Terminal) to the Millionnaya street (now October street), the highest - 8 kopecks or 0.08 rubles - for the trip from urban park (now Central Park of Culture and Leisure named after Pyotr Belousov) to the Kursk (now Moscow) or Vyazemsky (now Ryazhsky) Rail Terminals, to the Horse Square or Arsenal Square. Time intervals were 6 minutes in peak hours and 12 minutes in rest time.

In 1889 Andrey Gorchakov offered to built electric tramlines in Tula, but his proposal was not implemented. In 1913 Head of Tula Arkady Smirnov negotiated with Belgian joint-stock company on construction of two-tracks 4.26-km electrified railways and even signed corresponding contract. However, implementation has been delayed due to WWI. In 1916 there worked only 12 tram cars. Troubled years after the October Revolution of 1917 were disastrous for the horse-drawn tram in Tula. In 1918 it was nationalized and closed in beginning of 1919. Tula lost its low-speed, but public kind of transport. For some years Tula residents used only the services of a cabmen. Only in 1922 buses began to operate in Tula.

Crossing of the Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) and Ambassadors street (now Soviet street):

Андрей Кравчук

Crossing of the Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) and Upper Gentry street (now Gogol street):

Андрей Кравчук

Kiev street (now Lenin Avenue) near its crossing with Ploshchadnaya street (now Kaminsky street):

Андрей Кравчук

Ambassadors street (now Soviet street) near its crossing with Suvorov street (now Red Army Avenue):

tulainpast

Tramcars at Saviour Square (now Uprising Square):

tulainpast

Horse-car tram at the wooden bridge across Voronka River near the Kursk (now Moscow) Rail Terminal:

tulainpast

Tramcar at Millionnaya street (now October street) near bridge across the Upa River:

Андрей Кравчук

Cast-iron Bridge and Iron Bridge (between Ambassadors street in the centre of Tula and Millionnaya street beyond the Upa River):

kazagrandy

Tramlines at Ambassadors street (now Soviet street):

kazagrandy

Tramlines at Mendeleev street:

kazagrandy
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:52 PM   #1224
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April 19, 1889 - Baku, Azerbaijan (closed on October 1, 1923);
May 4, 1890 - Turku, Finland (closed on October 31, 1892);
May 21, 1890 - Nakhichevan-on-Don (closed on December 22, 1902):


Nakhichevan-on-Don was a town on the right bank of Don River. In 1778, Russian Empress Catherine the Great invited Armenian merchants from the Crimea to Russia. After moving to the area, they established a settlement on the Don, which they named "Nor Nakhichevan", after one of the ancient areas of Armenia, Nakhichevan.

On May 21, 1890 was opened horse-tram line, linking Nor Nakhichevan and rail terminal of neighboring city Rostov-on-Don. It was first and only one horsecar line in Russian Empire, which connected two cities. Like in Rostov-on-Don, this line was electrified in December 1902. Like other tramlines in Rostov-on-Don, it belonged to the Belgian joint stock society and had a "standart gauge" (1435 mm), which common in Western Europe. Like other lines in Rostov-on-Don, this line was electrified in 1902. The first Russian electric tramline between two cities was put into operation on December 22, 1902. In 1928 Nor Nakhichevan was combined with Rostov-on-Don. Now it's Armenian-populated region in the city of Rostov-on-Don.

1890 - Cheryokha, Pskov Region (closed in first half of XX century):

Cheryokha is a village in Pskov Region. It's located 100 kilometers (62 miles) south of Pskov, on the Cheryokha-River. In the end of 19th century there was created resort area with cottage massive and sanatorium. To delivery of visitors in Cheryokha, was organized "Society of shipping". In May 1883 steamship "Olga" of this society for the shipping on Cheryokha-River was put into operation. In 1887 this steamship was purchased by Georg Wickenheiser (1843-1914), entrepreneur from Elsenz, Grand Duchy of Baden (who moved in Pskov when he was 20-yo). Later he bought one more steamship - "Alexander".

Wickenheiser built in Cheryokha 15 cottages for lease, kursaal (sanatorium) and new pier at Cheryokha-River. Also, according to initiative of Georg Wickenheiser, in Cheryokha was built 1.5 km line of horse-tram line, linking kursaal and new pier. This single-track line (wide - 1 m) was put into operation in 1890. In contrast to the Pskov, the crew in Cheryokha were harnessed two horses. This line was closed in the first half of 20th century.

Horse-drawn car in Cheryokha:

Wikipedia

Tramline in the Cheryokha forest:

pskovrail

Kursaal in Cheryokha:

pskovrail
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:53 PM   #1225
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June 21, 1891 - Helsinki, Finland (closed on October 21, 1901);
August 11, 1891 - Kyiv, Ukraine (closed on February 1, 1896);
August 23, 1891 - Voronezh (closed in 1919):


Voronezh is a city in southwestern Russia, the administrative center of Voronezh Region. It is located on both sides of the Voronezh River, 12 kilometers (7 miles) kilometers away from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway (connecting European Russia with Ural and Siberia, as well as Caucasus and Ukraine), as well as the center of the Don Highway (Moscow—Rostov-on-Don). The Voronezh River was first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex in 1177, but human settlement on the site is attested since the Stone Age by archeological finds. The present town was founded in 1585 or 1586 by Russian Tsar Feodor I as a fort protecting the Russian state from the raids of Crimean and Nogay Tatars. In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Rostov-on-Don in 1868 and Moscow in 1871.

The first means of transportation in Voronezh was assuredly a horse-drawn tram at the end of the XIX century. It was preceded by horse-drawn special stage coaches and omnibuses, but they could hardly be called a town transport - they were too bulky, often traveling outside the town limits and had no regular town routes. As a matter of fact, an omnibus (in Latin “for everybody”) was initially made for people incapable of using individual means of transportation and might be properly called the first public transport. But the main passenger traffic was responsibility of cabmen, analogous to modern taxi service. They were mostly located at the cabmen exchange at Old Horse Square (part of modern Lenin Square), where any citizen in line with existed rates might make an arrangement with a cabman to be transported to any part of the town. But not all citizens could afford an individual cab, and cabmen, as a type of transportation, were no longer up to the town demands.

At the second half of 1886 two entrepreneurs (councilor of State, engineer Andrey Gorchakov and candidate of law Leonid Blummer) drafted to the City Council a project: to build in Voronezh a horse-drawn railway, or rather a horse-drawn tram system. By the end of the XIX century the horse-drawn trams were built in the majority of big cities and provincial centers of Russia — St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, Rostov-on-Don. Total length of horse-drawn rail by 1890 amounted to 600 kilometers. The construction money mostly came from foreigners.

After all-round discussion by the City Council the horse-drawn railway proposal by the entrepreneurs was approved on October 28, 1886, and on June 28, 1887 Voronezh City Council signed a concession with engineer Gorchakov, empowering him with the exceptional right of organizing network of horse-drawn rail for passenger and cargo transportation in Voronezh. The agreement stipulated: forty years after commissioning of the horse-drawn tram system all the rails with associated buildings, maintenance shops, rolling stock (with the exception of horses and harness) were to be handed over to the town for free. The town reserved right to buy out the completed network within the first twenty five years.

Horse-drawn railway cargo transportation was taxed – annual contributions to the town treasury per each double-decked street car were to be 40 rubles during the first 30 years and 50 rubles during the last 10 years. Each one-level car was to pay 30 and 40 rubles accordingly. Cargo cars or platforms were to be paid for 10 rubles each. Total annual payments were to be no less than 600 rubles (after the first 5 years of operation). In winter cars were to be substituted by sleighs, if necessary, without any additional payment. The horse-drawn railway system construction, led by the entrepreneurial engineer, went on for four years. Two tracks of steel rails (1 meter wide) were laid along the central streets of Voronezh. Rails were laid aflush and created no obstacles to free flow of street traffic. But on July 7, 1891, not long before the completion of all works, Andrey Gorchakov handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to Belgian “Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Russia”, which at that time took part in construction of such system in Minsk.

On August 23, 1891 the first route traffic of the horse-drawn trams was opened to connect the rail terminal through Big Gentry street (now Revolution Avenue) with New Mitrophan Church (currently the circus area). Passenger trams and cargo platforms, drawn by one or two horses with a coach, started their movement along the streets of Voronezh. Trams capacities were up to 20 people. In line with the railway transport system horse-drawn trams had the first class seats with passengers sitting above the roof. Every carriage was accompanied by a ticket-selling conductor. Every tram was equipped with brakes, lights and a number. Rules for passengers were placed to advantage inside of a tram.

Travel prices in summertime (April 1 to October 1) from 7 am to 11 pm and in wintertime (October 1 to April 1) from 8 am to 10 pm were limited by the town council to be 2.5 kopecks (0.025 rubles) per verst (1 verst – 1.06 km) for the first class and 1.5 kopecks (0.015 rubles) for the second. Any other time the price might be twice as high. Cargo payment was set by a carrier independently, but the town council permission was required to increase it. The cost of a trip from the rail terminal to 1st Ostrogozhsk street (now Pushkin street) or back was 5 kopecks. Children below three traveled free of charge, unless they occupied a separate seat. New Mitrophan church route started at 7:00 am and ended at 10:00 pm. The first car left station near rail terminal at 7:30 am, and the last one - at 10:30 pm.

The City Council issued a decree prohibiting movement along rails and between them for any carriages. It was also prohibited to clutter and damage tracks. Horse-drawn cars had advantage over other carriages, the latter were to move to street sides, and in case of track-crossing horse-drawn cars had preference. Speed of cars was limited to 12.8 km per hour, but the minimum speed between terminal points was not to be lower than 8 km per hour. Thus carriers moved pretty slowly, and agile passengers might jump in or out right on the go. In the steep slopes areas postboys on duty harnessed one or two more horses and helped a car to move up the hill, than at the flat area extra horses were un-harnessed to wait for another car.

At the beginning of the XX century Voronezh boasted three horse-drawn rail routes, mostly in the town center. The longest route started at the rail terminal and went to Big Gentry street (now Revolution Avenue) through Ring street, crossed Old Horse Square and turned to Big Devitsa street (now Platonov street), moved along 1st Ostrogozhsk street (now Pushkin street) and ended at New Cemetery (currently the circus area). The second route crossed the first one at Old Horse Square and went directly along New Moscow street (now Plekhanov street) from Mitrophan Monastery (currently the University main building) right to the western suburb — the Outpost. Another route – the most difficult and slow one due to particulars of the relief - connected Big Maidens street (now Sacco and Vancetti street) and Petrovsky descent (currently Stepan Razin street) with Maidens Market and the Town Garden.

The horse-drawn trams existed for about three decades and proved to be a convenient and accessible town transport, truly a public one. By 1915 the system was used by over two million and hundred thousand passengers. In 1914 due to technical achievements electric tram system put an end to “horse” age. But the war started and made the electric tram construction impossible, therefore the horse-drawn carriages kept on. But general economic crisis, caused by the prolonged war, prevailed and was followed by the Revolution and the Civil War, as a result the horse-drawn transport fell into decay. By 1919 only one such car traveled along the town streets, and after a short while the electric tram construction completely shut down horse-drawn rail movement.

1st Male grammar school (now building of Technological academy) on a background of horse tramway at Big Gentry street (now Revolution Avenue):

mihaylov-vrn

Tramline at New Moscow street:

mihaylov-vrn

Horse-drawn tram at Big Maidens street (now Sacco and Vancetti street):

mihaylov-vrn

Voronezh Terminal of the Southeastern Railway. Terminus tram station:

mihaylov-vrn

Horse tramway near Winter Theatre at Big Gentry street:

mihaylov-vrn

Сabmans at Old Horse Square. Line of horse tramway at New Moscow street (in the line of Outpost):

mihaylov-vrn

Horse tramway at Big Gentry street (now Revolution Avenue). Central Hotel (Revolution Avenue, 42):

Wikipedia

Horse tramway at Big Gentry street:

Link

Tickets:

Link
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:55 PM   #1226
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May 22, 1892 - Minsk, Belarus (closed in 1928);
June 5, 1892 - Kaunas, Lithuania (closed on April 15, 1929);
August 4, 1892 - Berdychiv, Ukraine (closed in 1921);
June 15, 1893 - Vilnius, Lithuania (closed in 1915);
July 22, 1895 - Samara (closed in 1917):


Samara is a city in southeastern part of European Russia, the Volga Federal District, at the confluence of the Volga and Samara Rivers. It's also the administrative center of Samara Region. Samara is located on the eastern bank of the Volga River, which acts as its western boundary. The life of Samara's citizens has always been intrinsically linked to the Volga River, which has not only served as the main commercial thoroughfare of Russia throughout several centuries, but also has great visual appeal. Samara's river-front is one of the favorite recreation places for local citizens and tourists.

Officially the town started with a fortress 1586 at the confluence of the Volga and Samara Rivers. This fortress was a frontier post protecting the then easternmost boundaries of Russia from forays of nomads. A local customs office was established in 1600. As more and more ships pulled into Samara's port, the town turned into the center for diplomatic and economic links between Russia and the East. In 1780 Samara was turned into the chief town (uyezd) of the Simbirsk Region overseen by the local Governor-General. On January 1, 1851 Samara became the center of the Samara Governorate with an estimated population of 20.000. This gave a stimulus to the development of the economic, political and cultural life of the community.

The quick growth of Samara's economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was determined by the scope of the bread trade and flour milling business. The Samara Brewery came into being in the 1880s, as well as the Kenitser Macaroni Factory, an ironworks, a confectionery factory and a factory producing matches. The town acquired a number of magnificent private residences and administrative buildings. The Trading Houses of the Subbotins, Kurlins, Shikhobalovs and Smirnovs — founders of the flour milling industry, who contributed a lot to the development of the city — were widely known not only across Russia, but also internationally wherever Samara's wheat was exported. In its rapid growth Samara resembled many young North-American cities, and contemporaries coined the names "Russian New Orleans" and "Russian Chicago" for the city.

Territory of city was limited by the Volga River (from west) and Samara River (from south). Therefore, the city has been expanded only in one (northern) direction. If 1880s distance from northern border to Samara River was 5 km, that in the end of 19th century distance from northern border (Postnikov Ravine) to the southern border (Bread Square) increased to 11 km. This distance was difficult for walk, and population of Samara reached 100.000 people. Therefore, need for public transport was obvious.

In 1880s-1890s horse-drawn tram (which was known as "konka") was such kind of public transport in Russian Empire. It was preceded by horse-drawn special stage coaches and omnibuses. Samara cabmen were famous outside the city, but this kind of transport was too expensive and had a small bandwidth. The first horse-drawn tram in Volga Region was opened on October 14, 1875 in Kazan. It was third tram system in present-day Russia after St. Petersburg (1863) and Moscow (1872). On January 6, 1886 in Saratov was signed contract between city authorities and Voronezh entrepreneur, candidate of law Leonid Blummer on construction of horse-tram line. During 1886 company, which consisted of engineers Prokhorov and Rubinsky, laid two tracks of steel rails along the streets of Saratov. On May 13, 1887 two tramlines along the Moscow street were put into operation in Saratov. Thus, in the end of 1880s horse-drawn tram operated in two largest cities of Volga Region.

After signing the contract in Saratov, these same entrepreneurs - Leonid Blummer and N. Rubinsky - decided to built horse-drawn tram system in Samara. In end of April 1886 they drafted this project to the City Council. This project was discussed on the meeting of City Council on April 25, 1886. In May was prepared text of a contract, which was signed between entrepreneurs and city authorities on July 4, 1886. According to contract, entrepreneurs paid a pledge (5000 rubles) to the city treasury.

In those times, according to law, a contract between entrepreneurs and city authorities should to be approved by government officials in the Russian capital. For this reason, in summer of 1886 all necessary documents were sent to St. Petersburg. That same summer Leonid Blummer conveyed all the cases to Rubinsky, who was very busy with construction of horse-drawn tram system in Saratov - rails must to be laid till autumn and tramcars must be purchased at Baltic factory in Riga. He had no time on realization of same project in Samara. Unfortunately, Rubinsky died in early November 1886. In 1888 was died his partner Leonid Blummer. For this reason realization of tram project in Samara was postponed - the documents remained lying without attention in the Ministry of Internal Affairs in St. Petersburg.

After this, project of Samara tram was entrusted to councilor of State Andrey Gorchakov. Gorchakov was famous engineer and author of projects of horse-drawn tram systems in many Russian cities. According to his projects, was constructed second horse-drawn tram network in Moscow (1883-1885) as well as horse-drawn tram systems in Rostov-on-Don (1886-1887), Tula (1888), Voronezh (1887-1891). According to Gorchakov's project was built horse-drawn tram system in Minsk (1890-1892), which was opened on May 22, 1892. On May 28, 1891 Gorchakov signed contract with city authorities in Vilna (now Vilnius, Lithuania), where tramline was put into operation on June 15, 1893.

In 1890, for construction and exploitation of the Russian tram systems, Andrey Gorchakov established in Moscow "Joint stock company of urban and suburban horse-drawn railways in Russia". Officially it was Russian company, but part of the its shares was owned by Belgian shareholders (in the end of 1909 this company was entirely taken over by the new Belgian Tram Trust "Company of urban and suburban tramways in Russia"). Later Andrey Gorchakov handed agreements on exploitation of some current and future tram systems (with all rights and liabilities) to Belgian “Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Russia”.

Samara was last city, where this Belgian company constructed horse-drawn tram system. As the old contract, which was signed by Leonid Blummer with Samara authorities on July 4, 1886, was never approved neither by Ministry of Internal Affairs nor by Russian goverment, Andrey Gorchakov on behalf of the Belgian company signed new contract with city authorities on March 17, 1890. This contract was supplemented by some new provisions after consideration in Ministry of Internal Affairs on August 26, 1890. Factually, the new contract was successor of the old and only differences were in the route of tram lines.

According to new contract, the first line should to be built from Old Cathedral (Bread Square) to the Molokan Orchard (now May Day street) - along the Kazan street (now Alexey Tolstoy street), Ascension street (now Stepan Razin street), Resurrection street (now Pioneers street), Gentry street (now Kuybyshev street), Panskaya street (now Leningrad street), Cathedral street (now Young Guard street), Tinmen street (now Leo Tolstoy street), Samara street, Simbirsk street (now Ulyanovsk street) and Garden street. The total lenght of this line was 5.4 km. According to the contract, Gorchakov's company was required to built second line (from first line along the Tinmen street (now Leo Tolstoy street) to the rail terminal) during five years after opening of first tramline. Company had right to dismantle second line, if it will be unprofitable after two years from its opening. Company had right to put into operation other lines only after 5 years after opening of first tramline. Tram rails should to be laid along the axis of streets. The horse-tram depot was built near Molokan Orchard. There was introduced as add-on penalty for maiming by the horse-drawn tram (50 rubles for each case in favor of the victims). The agreement stipulated: fifty years after commissioning of the horse-drawn tram system (in 1940) all the rails with associated buildings, maintenance shops, rolling stock (with the exception of horses and harness) were to be handed over to the city for free. Horse-drawn railway cargo transportation was taxed – annual contributions to the city treasury were to be 1000 rubles during the first decade, 1500 rubles during second decade, 2000 rubles - during third, 2500 rubles - during fourth and 3000 rubles - during the fifth decade.

Due to active construction works, which in 1890s were been carried out by Gorchakov's company in other cities (Voronezh, Minsk, Vilnius), realization of Samara project was postponed. The construction works in Samara were started only on May 10, 1895 - 9 years after signing the contract. The 5.4-km single-track (gauge - 1000 mm) line was laid in early July. On June 27 eleven tramcars were delivered to Samara from Voronezh. Heretofore those cars belonged to Voronezh horse-drawn tram system, but there have been superfluous. Both Voronezh, and Samara tram systems belonged to one company, so there were no any problems with transfer of tramcars from one city to another. These tramcars had closed parts with 16 seats inside the wagon (first-class seats) and open standing places for 8 persons at front and back (second-class). The horses were delivered from Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk).

The horse-drawn tram system was put into operation on July 22, 1895, at 12:00 noon. During first day there operated 8 tramcars, which were crowded. There worked two (rarely - one) horses in harness of each tramcar. First line was divided on two parts: 1) from the Bread Square to the Trinity Market (now Frunze Square) at the crossing of Panskaya street (now Leningrad street) and Cathedral street (now Young Guard street); 2) from the Trinity Market to the Molokan Orchard (now May Day street). The maximum speed of horse-drawn tram was 12 km/h. The travel time by whole 5.4-km route was 40 minutes. Travel prices at each part were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (first-class) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second-class). For comparison, at these times 5 kopecks was also cost of 0.4 kg of good meat or 8 kg of potatoes. The students had season tickets, which were costs 1 ruble (each season ticket gave the right on 23 trips by the whole 5.4-km route). In late summer of 1895 daily revenue of horse-drawn tram was 250-300 rubles, while daily consumption was 80-100 rubles. There worked 17 tramcars during "summer period" (since April 1 till October 1) and 8 tramcars during "winter period". The horse-drawn tram worked from 7:00am till 10:00 pm (during "summer period") and from 8:00am till 10:00pm (during "winter period").

Administration of society received big profit from exploitation of horse-drawn tram. Therefore, it was decided to extend tram network. Firstly, according to contract, in spring 1896 was built second tramline from the Bread Square along Tinmen street (now Leo Tolstoy street) to the rail terminal. This 2-km line was put into operation on June 27, 1896.

In June 1897 property of horse-drawn tram was valued at 210.000 rubles (including 17 tramcars and 7.4 km of tramways). In spring 1900 was started construction of third tramline to the cottage area. On June 14, 1900 was put into operation "cottage line" from Molokan Orchard (now May Day street) to the rest camps, after half of month this line was extended to the Postnikov Ravine near nothern border of Samara. The new horses for this line were delivered from Simbirsk Governorate. Travel prices at "cottage line" (8 kopecks or 0.08 rubles) were higher than at urban lines (5 and 3 kopecks). The tramcars of this line were crowded. For the convenience of cottage people were introduced season tickets which costs 5 rubles (100 trips). Therefore, average ticket price was decreased from 8 to 5 kopecks. This line worked only during "cottage season" (from April 15 till September 15). Initially there were 4 tramcars at this line, but in summer 1901 this number was increased.

In 1901 in Samara were three routes with total lenght 10.5 km:
1) Bread Square - Trinity Market - Molokan Orchard;
2) Bread Square - Trinity Market - Rail Terminal;
3) Molokan Orchard - rest camps - Postnikov Ravine.

Since 1902 began to discussed the issue about construction of the fourth tramline from Postnikov Ravine to the resort in Barboshina Valley (with construction of the bridge across Postnikov Ravine), but this project was realized only in 1954. In 1909 horse-drawn tram system in Samara, as well as systems in Tula, Voronezh, Minsk and Vilnius was passed from "Joint stock company of urban and suburban horse-drawn railways in Russia" into the possession of anonymous Belgian Tram Trust "Company of urban and suburban tramways in Russia". New Belgian shareholders continued to pay in the city treasury, but this amount was too small compared with profit from exploitation of tram system. By this years tram cars, which were built in 1890, began to come into disrepair due to long-term use. Belgian company had planned to electrify own tramlines in Russia. But, knowing about aspiration of city authorities municipalize tram system, Belgians didn't want to risk with modernization of old system in Samara.

In 1915-1916 were put into operation lines of electric tram in Samara. These electric lines were specially constructed parallel to the horse-drawn lines along the other streets. It led to a sharp decrease of passenger traffic at horse-drawn tramlines. The owners of horse-drawn tram tried to resist the sharp decreasing of profit. In summer 1916 they have lowered travel prices on 1 kopeck (from 5 to 4 kopecks at urban lines). As result of decreasing of profit, they were forced to use only one horse in harness of each tramcar. But in heavy winter of 1916/1917, due to strong storms and snow drifts, the work of horse-drawn tram system was irregular and some lines were closed at this period. As a result, the popularity of horse-drawn tram decreased even more. After October Revolution 1917, according to decree of city authorities on December 19, 1917, all horse-drawn tramlines were closed and all equipment (tramcars, horses, etc) was given to the military departament.

It was later emerged that the horse-drawn tram system had played a positive role for development of transport in Samara. The central streets, where were horse-drawn tramlines, later were turned into main busiest auto magistrals of Samara. Horse-drawn tram lines were later replaced by trolleybus routes. Electric tramlines were built at the parallel quiet streets. For this reason, it were no dismantled in 1950s-1960s (as it was happened with tramlines in few other cities).

1895. Horse-drawn tram car:

forumuuu

1900. The part of Panskaya street (now Leningrad street) between the Cathedral street (now Young Guard street) and Trinity street (now Galaktionov street):

samaratrans

1900s. Kazan street (now Alexey Tolstoy street):

aquaumniki

1900s. Horse-drawn tram near Postnikov Ravine:

samaratrans

1906. Molokan Orchard:

samaratrans

Mid-1900s. Crossing of the Cathedral street (now Young Guard street) and Tinmen street (now Leo Tolstoy street):

Андрей Кравчук

Mid-1900s. Cathedral street (now Young Guard street):

Link

1900s. Cathedral street (now Young Guard street):

samaramapsmu
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:56 PM   #1227
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1895 - Bialystok, Poland (closed in 1915);
August 8, 1897 - Mikolaiv, Ukraine (closed in 1921);
1898 - Svyatoshin (now part of Kyiv), Ukraine (closed in 1900);
April 13, 1901 - Toshkent, Uzbekistan (closed in 1913);
1902 - Rostov Veliky (closed in 1921):


Rostov is one of the oldest towns in Russia and a tourist centre of the Golden Ring. It is located on the shores of Lake Nero in Yaroslavl Region, 202 km to the north east of Moscow. While the official name of the town is Rostov, it is better known to Russians as Rostov Veliky, i.e. Rostov the Great. This name is used to distinguish it from Rostov-on-Don, which is now a much larger city. Rostov Yaroslavsky is the official name of its railway station (due to its position in Yaroslavl Region); the town itself is hardly ever called by that name.

Rostov was predated by Sarskoye Gorodishche, which some scholars interpret as the capital of the Merya tribe, while others believe it was an important Viking trade enclave and fortress guarding the Volga trade route. First mentioned in the year 862 as an already important settlement, by the 13th century, Rostov became capital city of one of the most prominent Russian principalities. It was incorporated into Muscovy in 1474. Ravaged by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries (last sack by Edigu in 1408) and the Poles in 1608, Rostov is now a medium size town. The metropolitan see was transferred to Yaroslavl late in the 18th century.

In November 1898 merchant Nikolay Kostrulin, who supplied kerosene for agencies and street lighting, appealed to the City Council to allow him to construct the horse-drawn tramline to facilitate the delivery of goods. It was opened in 1902 and worked till 1921. This route linked Rolma linen factory (established in 1878) and rail terminal; along the Yaroslavl street (now Proletarian street), Nativity Square (now Soviet Square) and Kremlin street. It worked from 6:00am till 9:00pm. The maximum speed was 10 km/h.

It's interesting that few months ago, to the 1150-anniversary of Rostov's foundation (2012), was presented project "Rostov - sacred centre of Russia". This is project of modernization of town for the period up to 2020. In particular, this project envisages the construction of horse-drawn tram line along the central streets as a tourist attraction. However, thousands of local residents have signed a petition against revival of horse-drawn tram, and this project was canceled.

Horse-drawn tram in Rostov. Caricature:

Wikipedia

1911. Rostov Veliky. Color photo (photographer - Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

rostovru

1911. Rostov Veliky. Color photo (photographer - Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

veinik

1904 - Poti, Georgia (closed in 1932);
1904 - Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Ukraine (closed in 1930);
1900s - Lounatjoki (now Zakhodskoe settlement), Leningrad Region (closed in 1919):


Zakhodskoe is a cottage settlement of a Vyborgsky District, Leningrad Region, located 80 kilometers (50 miles) northwest of St. Petersburg. It was founded in the end of 19th century as a cottage settlement Lounatjoki. Until the Winter War and Continuation War, Lounatjoki was village in the Kanneljärvi municipality of the Viipuri province of Finland. In 1948, after WWII, it was renamed into Zakhodskoe in honour of Alexander Zakhodsky (1917-1941), Hero of Soviet Union.

In early 1900s there were two kinds of public transport - horse-drawn tram and steam tram. Both kinds of transport were built by Jewish Finance Association "Leovilla", which was engaged in construction and operation of cottages in this area. The steam tramline (gauge - 750 mm) was built along the Trubetskoy Avenue from the rail station Lounatjoki to the Säkkijärvi lakes. It worked until 1917. The horse-drawn tramline was built along the Beloselsky Avenue from rail station Lounatjoki to the Harju village. It worked until 1919.

1900s - Vyritsa, Leningrad Region (date of closing is unknown):

Vyritsa is an urban-type settlement of a Gatchinsky District, Leningrad Region, located 60 kilometers (37 miles) south of St. Petersburg. In 19th century it become popular place for summer resort. There was built horse-tram line along the Magistral Avenue (now Communal Avenue) from rail station to the centre of cottage settlement. Its total lenght was 1.33 km.

1900s. Tramline near the office house of the Prince Genrich Wittgenstein for the sale of land areas:

venividi

1900s. Magistral Avenue (now Communal Avenue):

serafim

October 20, 1905 - Sablino (now Ulyanovka), Leningrad Region (closed in 1918):

Ulyanovka (which was known as Sablino till 1922) is a small town, selo of a Tosnensky District, Leningrad Region. It's located 40 kilometers (25 miles) south of St. Petersburg. The closest rail station is Sablino. In the mid-19th century in Sablino were built many country estates, and in the end of 19th century it become popular place for summer resort. The one of those estates was Alexandrovka, in which was created famous Alexander Park with hotel and restaurant. In summer 1903, Count Alfred Keiserling (1861-1939), owner of Alexandrovka estate, began the construction of tram line to his estate. On October 20, 1905 horse-drawn tram line between rail station and Alexandrovka estate was put into operation. Its maximum speed was 10.7 km/h. The length of this line was 5.86 km. The cost of one-way ticket was 10 kopecks or 0.10 rubles (adults), 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (children from 5 to 10 years) and free for kids up to 5 years. It didn't worked during winter. The line was closed few months after October Revolution 1917.

Horse-drawn tram in Sablino:

rostowskaja

September 29, 1906 - Yerevan, Armenia (closed in August 1918);
July 28, 1908 - Nizhny Novgorod (closed in 1918):


Unlike other Russian cities, horse-drawn tram line in Nizhny Novgorod was put into operation after opening of electric tramlines. The first electric tramline in Nizhny Novgorod on May 20, 1896. Totally in 1896-1901 in Nizhny Novgorod were built four electric tramlines and two funicular lines. In 1897 "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" became owner of tram network.

Working and living conditions of tram workers were extremly difficult. For this reason, during Russian Revolution of 1905, tram workers organized two long-term strikes, but it finished without result. In 1905 the tram system was not working for a long time. As a result, city officials severely punished "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting", forced them to pay a large fine in city treasury.

In 1906 city authorities planned to expand tram network with construction of three new lines. However, the relationships between city officials and "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" were severely damaged. As result, city officials decided to built three own horse-drawn tram lines. It was a project of I. Kemarsky, Member of City Council. On October 26, 1906 City Council created the special comission headed by Kemarsky, who developed project of horse-tram network. It was discussed at the meeting of City Council on March 22, 1907. This project has caused objections of the merchant members of City Council. Their Head, Yakov Bashkirov, was not able to understand why it's necessary to built horse-drawn tram, while in other cities it was replaced with electric tramlines. Their opponent replied that horse-drawn tram is much cheaper than electric lines and it's necessary to develop horse-tram for the poorer residents of the city suburbs. As a result, merchants were in the minority, and was built only one horse-drawn tram line (1 meter wide).

The testing trip at horse-drawn tramline was on May 12, 1908. This line was put into operation on July 28, 1908. This route linked St. Tikhon street (now Ulyanov street) and Trinity Square (now territory of Linguistic University); along the Small Pecherskaya street (now Piskunov street) and Big Pecherskaya street. The lenght of this line was 2.5 km. The tram cars were made by Belgian company "Oerlikon".

However, the era of horse-drawn tram was coming to the end. Comparing with electric lines, this line proved its ineffective. The quality of tram ways was bad, and derailment of tram cars was very common thing.

The tram network in Nizhny Novgorod was closed on May 1, 1919 due to October Revolution of 1917 and followed Civil War in Russia of 1918-1922. In 1923 horse-drawn tramline was electrified and reopened on November 28, 1923.

Scheme of tram lines in 1917 (orange line - horse-drawn tram; black lines - railways; other color lines - electric tramlines and funicular lines):

Wikipedia

1908 - Ilskaya stanitsa (now Ilsky urban-type settlement), Krasnodar Region (closed in XX century):

Ilsky is an urban-type settlement in Seversky Municipal District of the Krasnodar Region. Widely spread over the banks of the Il river, Ilsky urban-type settlement is considered the founding father of all settlements in the Seversky Municipal District. It was founded in 1863, much earlier than any other settlement or village. On 28 June 1863, following the Order of the Commander-in-Chief of Caucasian Army, the joint squadron of Seversk Dragoon Regiment started to erect the Ilskaya stanitsa (Cossack settlement). The first settlers came here on July 9, 1863. So this date is considered the founding day of Ilskiy urban-type settlement.

Cossacks who founded the stanitsa were coming mostly of their own free will: the government promised the settlers to provide numerous benefits, monetary compensation for the property left behind, and, above all, hereditary property land rights. Half of Cossack families (113 families) came from the Kuban Region of former Black Sea Army. They brought their cultural, domestic and building traditions. That is why bleached huts with reed roofs, shutters and nearby gardens became the most common architectural features here. In 1886, the first wooden school was erected, and the first typically planned school building appeared here in 1876. In 1896, the first ministerial Cossack school was built on the intersection of Victory and Soviet streets.

In 1864, mining engineer Friedrich von Koskull who was engaged in exploring the subsurface resources of the Kuban Region noted that there were some sources of petroleum in Ilskaya. But the government signed a contract with another person for exclusive oil production in the territory from Azov and Black Seas to Krasnodar. A man who saw the long-term prospects of the black gold extraction was Colonel of the Guards Ardalion Novosiltsev. Novosiltsev extracted his first oil near the Kudako River in 1866, and this was reported in newspaper "Russkiy Invalid" (issue No.59). The originator of the Soviet oil geology, academician Ivan Gubkin said about this event: "The Kudako Valley, a cradle of the Russian oil industry, gave the first in Russia and Caucasus oil gusher that produced 16.000 tons of oil". After the first contract, Novosiltsev signed the second one for eight years. Oil derricks soared up in the sky between Ilskaya and Kholmskaya stanitsas. And later on, the third lease contract for oil fields near Il, Sups and Chibiy rivers was signed. The contracts prohibited anybody except Novosiltsev to extract oil not only in the well-known oil-bearing regions but also in areas of possible oil deposits. These were not just words. Archival documents reported a case when some inhabitant of Ilskaya named Svistun was arrested and put to guardhouse for unauthorized taking oil in the oil gully.

The horse-drawn tram line (gauge - 1524 mm) from the rail station to the centre of Ilskaya stanitsa was opened in 1908. The date of its closing is unknown (probably, in 1920s or 1930s). In the Ilsko-Kholmsky District, 10 oil-production sites were allocated: five in August 1913, and another five in October 1917. Basing on these achievements and other factors, the communist organizations recommended Ilsky Council to apply to Presidium of Supreme Council of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic for transformation of Ilskaya from stanitsa into the workers’ settlement. Under the Decree of the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic dated August 14, 1947, Ilskaya stanitsa was transformed into the workers’ settlement Ilsky.

November 14, 1909 - Pskov (closed in 1912):

Pskov is an ancient city and the administrative center of Pskov Region, located in the northwest of Russia about 20 kilometers (12 miles) east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. The name of the city, originally spelled "Pleskov", may be loosely translated as "[the town] of purling waters". Its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev married a local lady, St. Olga. Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, and in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1100th anniversary.

By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de-facto sovereign republic. Its most powerful force was the merchants who brought the town into the Hanseatic League. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years later, the veche promulgated a law code (called the Pskov Charter) which was one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497. For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe. For Europe, it was a western outpost of Russia and subject of numerous attacks throughout the history. Unbelievably, the kremlin (called by Pskovians the Krom) withstood 26 sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, and local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov.

Peter the Great's conquest of present-day Estonian and Latvian territories during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it has served as a capital of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777. It was here that the last Russian Emperor abdicated in March 1917.

The first horse-drawn tramline in Pskov Governorate was put into operation in 1890 in Cheryokha village. In December 1900, one of members of the electric committee published in the local newspaper "Helios" article with proposal to build an electric tramline, but it was ignored. In 1904 was built first power station in Pskov. The construction of tram network was started in 1904 and finished in 1906. The first tramline was built from the rail terminal to the Trade Square (now Lenin Square) and later to the salt barns at the Narva street (now Leon Pozemsky street) in Zapskovye District. However, due to lack of the necessary electrical power and tram cars an electric tramline was not put into operation.

The initiator of the opening of tram line was Pskov entrepreneur Georg Wickenheiser (1843-1914). He was born in Elsenz, Grand Duchy of Baden and moved in Pskov when he was 20 years old, with almost no money. He was engaged in sausage production and trade. In Pskov Wickenheiser made own business - he built apartment houses and cottages, organized water supply (1881), founded a brickyard and sawmill. In 1880s he built new pier, kursaal (sanatorium) and cottage houses in Cherokha village as well as horse-drawn tramline (1890) from the pier to the kursaal. Wickenheiser was nicknamed "Pskov American" for his pushfulness. He was died in 1914, few months before beginning of WWI.

Together with own son Karl, Georg Wickenheiser decided to open horse-drawn tram at the existing street railways. Wickenheiser's family paid their own money to buy tramcars, horses, and pledged to pay the workers as well as pay monthly rent into town treasury. On November 14, 1909 all six tram cars of horse-drawn line were put into operation and tram line (1 meter wide) was opened for public. This day was opened part of tramline from Trade Square (now Lenin Square) to the rail terminal, later was opened part leading in Zapskovye District. The total lenght of horse-drawn tramline was 4.2 km.

Horse-drawn tram in Pskov worked only during two years. In March 1907, city officials bought the power station and began working to increase its electric capacity to launch an electric tram. This problem was solved in 1910. The existing tram line was electrified and electric tram was put into operation on January 22, 1912.

Pskov, Great street (now Soviet street):

rus-biography

Pskov, St. Sergius street (now October Avenue):

pskovrail

February 10, 1910 - Mogilev, Belarus (closed in 1920);
1914 - Abinskaya stanitsa (now Abinsk town), Krasnodar Region (closed in 1919):


Abinsk is a town in Krasnodar Region, located 75 kilometers (47 miles) south-west of Krasnodar. The Abinskaya fortress was built in 1834 (during Caucasian War of 1817-1864) by the Lieutenant General Alexey Velyaminov at the territory of the former Shapsugs aul. In 1863 at this place was founded Abinskaya stanitsa (Cossack settlement). In 1962 Abinskaya stanitsa was transformed into the urban-type settlement Abinsky and in 1963 - into Abinsk town. Abinsk's economy includes food processing industry, production of building materials, metallurgical industry, extraction of oil, ricegrowing, cattle breeding and aviculture.

In 1914 industrialist-millionaire S. Kurguzov presented segment of railways, leading to the mill and creamery, to the stanitsa. On this line (1 meter wide) was opened horse-tram movement. It linked rail station and mill; across the present-day Pioneers street, Crimean street and International street. There was only one tram car. This line was closed for passangers in 1919 (according to unconfirmed information, it was used for cargo transportation before early-1930s).

1915 - Nizhyn, Ukraine (closed in 1919);
1921 - Krymskaya stanitsa (now Krymsk town), Krasnodar Region (closed in 1932):


Krymsk is a town in Krasnodar Region. It was founded in 1858 as the fortress Krymskaya, named after the Crimean Cossack Regiment. On July 6, 1862 was founded Krymskaya stanitsa (Cossack settlement). In 1866 begun extraction of oil in this region. The stanitsa was granted town status and given its present name a century later, in 1958. The town's railway station, however, retains the name Krymskaya.

Krymsk is known for its experimental plant-breeding station, which holds important scientific collections of, among other crops, green peas, sweetcorn, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, cucumbers, apples, plums, peaches, pears, apricots, and strawberries. The station's stone fruit and quince collections are the largest and most important in Russia or any part of the former Soviet Union. Of the 9000 accessions of Prunus, about 5000 to 6000 are wild species and forms, 500 to 1000 local varieties, and 2000 to 3000 cultivars and breeding materials. The station is also known for the creation of fruit-tree rootstocks, which are named after the town + a number (e.g. Krymsk 1, Krymsk 2, etc.).

In 1914 was drafted the project of construction of electric tramline in Krymskaya stanitsa, but it was never realized. In 1921 was opened 3-km horse-drawn tramline from the rail station to the centre of stanitsa; along the present-day Marshal Grechko street, Lenin street and Demyan Bedny street. This line was closed in 1932.

1926 - Irbit, Sverdlovsk Region (closed in 1933):

Irbit is a town in Sverdlovsk Region, located about 203 km from Yekaterinburg by train or 250 km by car on the right bank of the Nitsa River. Founded in 1631 as Irbeyevskaya Sloboda, its name was changed in 1662 to Irbit. It was granted official town status by Catherine the Great in 1775 for the town's loyalty to the Empress during the Pugachev uprising of 1773–1774. The following year she awarded the town its official crest. In the 19th century, the Irbit fair was an important event for the trade in Siberian fur and Chinese tea.

Soviet power in Irbit was set on January 28, 1918. During Soviet times in Irbit were built motorcycle plant, glass factory, chemical-pharmaceutical factory, brickyard, garment factory, etc. The only one horse-drawn tramline on territory of the former Soviet Union was opened in Irbit in 1926. It was closed in 1933.
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:57 PM   #1228
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SUMMARY:

The tram systems has appeared in Russian Empire later than in Europe and North America. Despite this, the tram was a rapidly developed in the cities of Russian Empire. Here is popular Russian joke of these times:

- You would not believe me! Last week I was been in Berdychiv and met Karl Marx in a tram!
- It's impossible!!! Does Berdychiv has tram system????!!!!!


In 1890 (when the electric tram lines were only in the few world cities and horse-drawn tram was most popular kind of urban rail transport), the total length of the horse-tram lines was the follow:
United States - 8955.8 km;
Geramny - 1286 km;
Russian Empire - near 600 km;
Netherlands - 592 km;
France - 508 km;
Belgium - 404 km;
Great Britain - 343 km;
Italy - 223 km;
Austro-Hungary - 222 km;
Denmark - 61 km;
Switzerland - 28 km.

However, with the advent of the electric lines horse-drawn tram has lost its leading role. During first decades, horse-drawn tram was trying to be competitive, using lobbying and legislation. However, the advantages of the electric tram were too obvious. In Russia, horse-drawn tram finally vanished from the urban streets after the October Revolution, due to starvation and the use of horses for military purposes.
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Old August 10th, 2011, 05:59 PM   #1229
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HISTORY OF TRAM IN RUSSIA

(DEVOTED TO THE BRIGHT MEMORY OF RUSSIAN TRAM)

PART TWO - FROM HORSES TO ELECTRIC POWER

As many city streets were not paved at that time, normal carriages pulled by horses were often hindered by wet, muddy, or snowy conditions. One of the advantages of the horsecar tram over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing animals to haul a greater load for a given effort even in poor weather conditions. Problems included the fact that each animal could only work so many hours per day, had to be housed, groomed, fed and cared for day in and day out, and produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company had to dispose of. Since a typical horse pulled a car for perhaps a dozen miles a day and worked for four or five hours, many systems needed ten or more horses for each horsecar.

1898, St. Petersburg. Horse-drawn tram cars at the courtyard of depot:

Виталий Виталий

1898, St. Petersburg. Horse-tram staff before starting work:

aleks-dralo

1898, St. Petersburg. Horse-tram workers near own office:

aleks-dralo
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:00 PM   #1230
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Trams subsequently developed in numerous cities, including Paris (since 1855), London (1861), Berlin (1865), Southampton (1879), Tokyo (1882), Melbourne (1885), Kyoto (1895), Seoul (1899) and Hong Kong (1904). Faster and more comfortable than the omnibus, trams had a high cost of operation because they were pulled by horses. That is why mechanical drives were rapidly developed, with steam power in 1830s, and electricity after 1881, when "Siemens" presented the electric drive at the International Electricity Exhibition in Paris.

OTHERS TYPES OF PROPULSION

I) STEAM

The first mechanical trams were powered by steam. Generally, there were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a small steam locomotive (called a tram engine in the UK) at the head of a line of one or more carriages, similar to a small train. Systems with such steam trams included Christchurch, New Zealand (1880-1914); Sydney, Australia (1879-1910); other city systems in New South Wales; Munich, Germany (1883-1900). Steam tramways also were used on the suburban tramway lines around Milan (from 1878); the last Gamba de Legn tramway ("Peg-Leg" in Milanese) ran on the Milan-Magenta-Castano Primo route in late 1958.

The other style of steam tram had the steam engine in the body of the tram, referred to as a tram engine or steam dummy. The most notable system to adopt such trams was in Paris. French-designed steam trams also operated in Rockhampton, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1909 and 1939. Stockholm, Sweden, had a steam tram line at the island of Södermalm between 1887 and 1901. A major drawback of this style of tram was the limited space for the engine, so that these trams were usually underpowered.

A steam dummy or dummy engine, in the United States of America and Canada, was a steam engine enclosed in a wooden box structure made to resemble a railroad passenger coach. Steam dummies had some popularity in the first decades of railroading in the U.S., from the 1830s but passed from favor after the Civil War.

It was thought that the more familiar appearance of a coach presented by a steam dummy, as compared to a conventional engine, would be less likely to frighten horses when these trains had to operate in city streets. Later it was discovered that it was actually the noise and motion of the operating gear of a steam engine that frightened horses, rather than the unfamiliar outlines of a steam engine. Many steam dummies were simply locomotives enclosed in coach's clothing, but some combined an actual railroad coach in the same body with the locomotive, creating an all-in-one vehicle that was a predecessor of later self-propelled rail cars, usually powered by electricity or petrol.

The first steam-driven tramline was opened in New Orleans, United States. Planning for the line began in 1831, and work began in 1833. Service began on January 13, 1835, originally without a dedicated right-of-way (it ran on public streets) although one was eventually established in the neutral ground (the median). Passenger and freight cars were hauled by steam locomotive.

As the area along the line became more urbanized, objections to the soot and noise produced by the locomotive increased, and transport was switched to cars that were powered by horses and mules. For decades in the late 19th century, desire for a mode of transit more swift and powerful than horses but without the disruptive effects of locomotives resulted in a number of systems being tried out. Experimental systems included overhead cables propulsion (with a cable clamp patented by Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard in 1869 later being adapted for the San Francisco cable car system), and several innovative designs by Dr. Emile Lamm, including ammonia engines, a "Chlorine of Calcium Engine", and most successfully the Lamm Fireless Engine which not only propelled pairs of cars along the line in the 1880s but was adopted by the street railways of Paris.

The second steam-driven tramline was been in Louisville, Kentucky (1838-1844) before replacing by horse-drawn tram system (1844-1901). In the steam locomotive era, tram engines had to comply with certain legal requirements, although these varied from country to country:
1) The engine must be governed to a maximum speed of 10 miles per hour (8 mph in the UK);
2) No steam or smoke may be emitted;
3) It must be free from noise produced by blast or clatter;
4) The machinery must be concealed from view at all points above 4 inches from rail level.

To avoid smoke, the fuel used was coke, rather than coal. To prevent visible emission of steam, two opposite systems were used:
1) condensing the exhaust steam and returning the condensate to the water tank;
2) superheating the exhaust steam to make it invisible.

Henry Hughes of the Falcon Works, Loughborough started building tram engines in 1876. His engines were of the saddle-tank type and exhaust steam was condensed in a tank under the footplate by jets of cold water from the saddle-tank.

"Kitson & Co." started to build tram engines in 1878. They used a roof-mounted, air-cooled, condenser of thin copper tubes in which the exhaust steam was condensed. This is rather like the radiator on a modern road vehicle. The air-cooled system eventually became standard for steam tram engines.

William Wilkinson of Wigan patented the superheating system about 1881. It now seems bizarre to superheat steam after, rather than before, use because it would involve considerable waste of fuel. Despite this, the Wilkinson system was popular for a time and engines of the Wilkinson type continued to be built up to about 1886.

STEAM-DRIVEN TRAM IN RUSSIA

Steam-driven trams were also used in several cities of the Russian Empire. The first line of steam-driven tram in Russia was built between Odessa and popular coastal resort area Big Fontain.

1) July 23, 1881 - Odessa, Ukraine (closed in October 1913):
Odessa - Big Fontain (July 23, 1881 - October 1912);
Odessa - Khajibeyskiy Liman (1893 - October 1913);

2) 1882 - St. Petersburg (closed on August 26, 1922):

The first experiments with steam engines "Scania" (Denmark), designed for urban railways, were held in 1877 at Vasilyevsky Island. In 1878 the Nevsky Suburban Horse-Railwaу Society was established with headquarters at #160 Nevsky Avenue, servicing the areas around Shlisselburg Road from Nicholas Rail Terminal, now Moscow Rail Terminal (at Znamenskaya Square, now Uprising Square) to the Murzinka Village, with a depot in Alexandrovskoe Village. Originally pulled by horses, it was replaced with steam-driven trams in 1882-1898.

In 1880 there were experiments with using of steam locomotives at the lines of horse-drawn tram. Steam locomotives "Scania" (Denmark) and "Baldwin" (USA) were found to be unsuitable for use in climatic conditions of St. Petersburg. In August 1881 were held experiments with using of steam locomotives "Krauss" (Germany) at the Forest Line of horse-drawn tram. This year has started an experienced using of the steam-driven tram with passengers on the Nevskaya Suburban Horse-Drawn Line. Steam traction was introduced in 1882 along the Nevskaya Horse-Drawn Line on the route from Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square) to Semyannikov Plant (now Nevsky Machine-Building Plant at Obukhovskaya Defence Avenue). Three locomotive engines operated on Sundays and holidays. The train was comprised of four or five carriages (one wagon was drawn to Fisher village, where was located Semyannikov Plant). In April 1884 three more steam locomotives were put into operation. From 1884, the tram ran regularly from Znamenskaya Square to the Imperial Glassworks (near present-day Professor Kachalov street). In 1898 steam locomotives begun to operate at whole route of Nevskaya Suburban Line - from Znamenskaya Square to Murzinka Village, along the Old Nevsky Avenue, Shlisselburg Avenue and present-day Obukhovskaya Defence Avenue (parallel to Neva River). Seventeen locomotive engines made by "Krauss" (Germany) and "Cockerill" (Belgium) travelled along the line. The railway station was located on Znamenskaya Square, depot - at Alexandrovskoe Village (not preserved). Travel price for all route was 20 kopecks or 0.20 rubles (for comparison, travel price for horse-drawn tram was 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles). In 1913, the line came under the control of the city, including the tram-depot, workshops, 12 locomotives and 62 wagons. This line was fully electrified in 1922. On August 26, 1922 steam-driven tram made its last trip in St. Petersburg.

In October 1885 City Council allowed exploitation of the steam locomotives at the Forest Line of horse-drawn tram at the northern part of St. Petersburg. Eight steam locomotives were prepared to the work. In 1887, regular steam tram service was introduced along the Forest Line, from the Baron Willie Clinic (now Army Medical Academy) to Round Pond (near the 2nd Murinsky Avenue and Institute Avenue), along the Big St. Sampson Avenue. Steam engine had a number of advantages over the horsecars: higher speed, more power. But at the same time, those engines were very noisy. Steam expulsions caused fright of the passing horses. Due to resistance of the owners of horse-drawn tram system and appearance of the electric tram, there were no opened new lines of steam-driven tram - Forest Line was the last. In September 1902 this line passed under the control of the city. In November 1907 the route was extended from the Round Pond to the Polytechnical Institute (which was opened to students on October 14, 1902). In 1914, there were 16 steam locomotives serving the line, made by "Brown Company" (Switzerland), "Cockerill Company" (Belgium) and "Putilov Plant" (St. Petersburg, Russia). The horse-tram depot at the corner of Nyslott Lane and Forest Avenue was used as a station. In June 1914 steam-driven tram at the part of Forest Line (from 1st Murinsky Avenue to the Polytechnic Institute) was replaced with electric tram. Horse-driven trams were used between 1914 and 1916 at the other part of Forest Line (from Baron Willie Clinic to the 1st Murinsky Avenue, along the Big St. Sampson Avenue), but in 1916 it were again replaced with steam-driven trams due to lack of horses. The steam-driven traffic along the Forest Line stopped completely in 1918.

In 1892-1894, the Maritime Railway (New Village station - Sestroretsk town) and the Irinovskaya Railway (Okhta station - Rzhevka station - Irinovka settlement) were opened, leading to municipal tramlines. In 1926-28, the Irinovskaya Railway was transformed into a tramline.

Nevskaya Suburban Line of the steam-driven tram:


1900s. Nevskaya Suburban Line, Old Nevsky Avenue:

Дмитрий Н. (колл.)

1900s. Nevskaya Suburban Line, Old Nevsky Avenue. Alexander Nevsky Lavra on the background:

babs71

Shlisselburg Avenue:

aroundspb

Steam-driven tram at Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square):

aroundspb

Steam-driven tram (made in 1904 at Kolomna Plant, Russia):

aroundspb
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:01 PM   #1231
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1900s. Forest Line, 2nd Murinsky Avenue:

Дмитрий Н. (колл.)

1900s. Forest Line, Old Pargolovo Avenue (now Maurice Thorez Avenue):

Дмитрий Н. (колл.)

1900s. Forest Line, Big St. Sampson Avenue. Monument to Peter the Great (left) and St. Sampson's Cathedral (right):

Дмитрий Н. (колл.)

1910s. Steam-driven tram at Forest Line, Polytechnical street:

Дмитрий Н. (колл.)

1900s. Forest Line, Sosnovka Road:

aroundspb

Forest Line, Murinsky Avenue:

Андрей Кравчук
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:02 PM   #1232
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In addition to the steam-driven tram, in St. Petersburg have been experimented with internal combustion engine (in those days it was known as "gas motor"). As the gas expulsions were cleaner than the steam expulsions, gas-driven trams were used on the Nevsky Avenue, main street of St. Petersburg.

1900s. Exhibits at the Exposition in the building of City Council:

babs71

1901. Transport at Nevsky Avenue. Gas-drawn tram at the centre:

babs71

1900s. Gas-driven tram at Nevsky Avenue (with a wagon of horse-drawn tram):

babs71

Since March 9 till March 31, 1899, in St. Petersburg were tested accumulator trams. However, it could not be used for a long time. For this reason, accumulator trams were never used for the permanent operation.

1899, Nevsky Avenue:

Андрей Кравчук
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:03 PM   #1233
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3) July 29, 1886 - Moscow (closed in 1922):

Two lines of the steam-driven trams were built in late 1880s by Belgian joint stock company “Main company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow and Russia”, during the construction of second tram network in Moscow (along the minor radial urban streets, along the Boulevard Ring and Garden Ring, as well at some suburban districts). It was built according to project of engineer Andrey Gorchakov - councilor of State, who was author of project of second tram network in Moscow. The first line of steam-driven tram (from Butyrskaya Outpost to village Petrovsko-Razumovskoe) was put into operation on July 29, 1886. It was between the Butyrskaya Outpost (near present-day Savyolovsky Rail Terminal) and Petrovskaya Agricultural Academy (now Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural Academy named after Kliment Timiryazev). The lenght of this line was 7.5 km. The train was comprised of five wagons (one wagon was drawn to Academy). There were 6 stops at this line - "Butyrskaya Outpost", "Butyrskaya street" (near 4th Vyatsky Lane), "Butyrsky Khutor", "Straw Watchtower" (near #2 Ivanovskaya street), "Ivanovsky Driveway" (near #9 Oaks street) and "Petrovskaya Academy" (near #50 Timiryazev street). In the beginning of 20th century was opened intermediate station - "Pyshkin Garden" (near #3 Kostyakov street).

Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles for the trip from Butyrskaya Outpost to the Straw Watchtower as well as for the trip from Straw Watchtower to the Petrovskaya Academy. Travel price for the trip by whole route was 10 kopecks. For comparison, at those times loaf of rye bread costs 2 kopecks, entrance to a public bath - 4 kopecks, soap - 1 kopeck, lunch - 10 kopecks. Students and teachers of the Petrovskaya Academy had discounts on the tickets. Steam-driven trams worked from 7:00am till 0:30am. For the steam-driven trams were built: long hangar, locksmithing shed, repair shed and water tower, designed by Vladimir Shukhov, the great Russian engineer who built a TV Tower at Shabolovka street and dozens of the other buildings in Moscow. At the tram stops were built wooden pavilions. After Revolution this line was electrified, and steam-driven tram was replaced with electric tram. In June 1922 solemnly decorated tram went triumphantly on its last journey. With songs and music, students and teachers of Academy accompanied it to retire. This line was fully electrified on July 1, 1922.

The second line of the steam-driven tram was put into operation in 1887. It was built between Kaluga Outpost (present-day Gagarin Square) and observation site at Sparrow Hills (in 19th century there was popular cottage area for summer resort). The total lenght of this line was ~ 2.5 km. There were used locomotive engines made by "Krauss" (Germany). The steam-driven trams at Sparrow Line were used till September 1911. This line was electrified on June 12, 1912.

Both lines of steam-driven tram were built in the Moscow outskirts. Those lines were laid near the urban forests and fields. During bad weather, the roads here were in improper condition. For this reason, horse-drawn tram was not acceptable for those areas - horses were sticking in mud. However, due to noise, steam, smoke and sparks, heavy steam-driven trams were not used in the central part of Moscow with its narrow streets and wooden houses.

Scheme of Moscow tramlines in 1891-1901. Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line, Red arrows - Sparrow Line:

Дмитрий Н. (колл.)

1900s, Sparrow Hills:

oldmos

June 6, 1899. Steam-driven tram at Sparrow Hills. Imperial pavilion on the background (built in 1896, not preserved):

mostramway

June 6, 1899. Steam-driven tram at Sparrow Hills:

Aviateur
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:04 PM   #1234
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1894, Petrovskaya Line:

oldmos

1898, Petrovskaya Line:

oldmos

1900s. Petrovskaya Line, Dmitrov Highway:

oldmos

Petrovskaya Line:

msk-timiriaz

1901, Petrovskaya Line:

oldmos

St. Nicholas Church and tram stop "Straw Watchtower":

msk-timiriaz

1890s-1900s. Tram stop "Ivanovsky Driveway":

dedushkin1
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:05 PM   #1235
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1900. Terminus station near Moscow Agricultural Academy:

oldmos

1900s, 5th Corps ("Farm") of the Moscow Agricultural Academy:

msk-timiriaz

Petrovskaya Line. Shukhov's water tower on the background:

msk-timiriaz

1903. Petrovskaya Line, hangar:

msk-timiriaz

1903. Petrovskaya Line, hangar:

msk-timiriaz

Moscow Agricultural Academy. View from the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral:

msk-timiriaz

June 1922. Last trip of the steam-driven tram. Solemn farewell:

msk-timiriaz
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:06 PM   #1236
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Timiryazev street. Electric line at rail mound is reminder about the steam-driven tram:

Вива

5th Corps ("Farm") of the Timiryazev Academy:

Dmitry Nikolaev

Timiryazev Academy:

olgalytaeva
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:07 PM   #1237
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4) October 6, 1889 - Baku, Azerbaijan (closed in 1894);
5) February 19, 1892 - Kyiv, Ukraine (closed in 1904);
6) 1894 - Sloviansk, Ukraine (closed in 1941);
7) 1907 - Akkerman (now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi), Ukraine (closed in 1930);
8) 1912 - Ķemeri (Jūrmala), Latvia (closed in 1915);
9) 1914 - Kaunas, Lithuania (closed in 1936);
10) 1915 - Yeysk, Krasnodar Region (closed in 1918):

Yeysk is a port, resort town and the administrative center of Yeysky District of Krasnodar Region. It is situated on the shore of The Gulf of Taganrog in the Sea of Azov. The town is build primarily on Yeya Spit, which separates the Yeya River from the Sea of Azov. The town was founded in 1848 by Prince Mikhail Vorontsov in accordance with a royal order from the Emperor of Russia.

Yeysk is known for its mineral waters and its medicinal mud baths. This mud is brought from the neighbouring Lake Khanskoye. The town has a number of parks, a sanatorium, several recreation centers, hotels, and beaches. The bathing season lasts from May until September. Yesk offers a variety of attractions, restaurants, open-air cafes, clubs, bars, and discos. The most popular resort area in Yeysk is Dolgaya Spit, near the village of Dolzhanskaya.

Yeysk Railway was built between 1908 and 1911. It was opened on July 24, 1911. In 1910-1911, for transporting of the sand and seashells, from Yeysk rail station to the quarry at Yeya Spit was laid rail line (1 meter wide). As a result of intensive extraction of natural limestone, natural dam of Yeya Spit was weakened. On March 25, 1914, due to storm and washout of the Isthmus, Yeya Spit was been divided on two parts - coastal part and so-called Green Island. In 1915 "Joint stock company of Yeysk Railway" opened passenger steam-driven tram line from the Yeysk rail station to the beach at Yeya Spit. There was used one locomotive engine with three passenger wagons. During resort seasons it carried 59000 passengers per year. This line was closed for passengers in 1918.

Yeysk station of the North Caucasus Railway:

Wikipedia

Yeya Spit:

Эдуард

Green Island:

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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:08 PM   #1238
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11) September 1915 - Tallinn-Kolpi, Estonia (closed on September 14, 1931);
12) June 11, 1922 - Staraya Russa, Novgorod Region (closed on October 1, 1923):

Staraya Russa is an old Russian town located 99 km (61.5 miles) south of Veliky Novgorod. It is the administrative center of Starorussky District of Novgorod Region and a wharf on the Polist River (Lake Ilmen basin). It is the third largest town in Novgorod Region.

Thought to have originated in the mid-10th century, Staraya Russa was first mentioned in chronicles for the year 1076 as one of three main towns of the Novgorod Republic, alongside Pskov and Ladoga. Its name is derived from the time of the Varangians, who called themselves Rus and settled in the vicinity to control important trade routes leading from Novgorod to Polotsk and Kyiv. After Pskov became independent, Russa, located in Shelon pyatina, became the most important town and trade centre of the Novgorod Republic except for the Novgorod itself; by the end of the 15th century it contained about 1000 homesteads. Brine springs made the saltworks principal business activity in the town that was the biggest centre of salt industry in the Novgorod Land.

The wooden fortifications of Russa burned to ashes in 1190 and 1194 and was replaced by the stone fortress after the last fire. In 1478, it was incorporated into Muscovy together with Novgorod. The word Staraya (Old) was prefixed to the name in the 15th century, to distinguish it from newer settlements called Russa. When Ivan the Terrible ascended the throne, Staraya Russa was a populous city. During the Time of Troubles (1598-1613) it was held by Polish brigands and heavily depopulated. Only 38 people lived there in 1613.

In 1824, Russian Emperor Alexander I created the so-called military settlements near Staraya Russa, which would be a stage for an uprising in 1831 as part of the Cholera Riots. The town was fictionalized as Skotoprigonievsk in Dostoyevsky's novel "The Brothers Karamazov" (1879–1880). The Soviet authority in Staraya Russa was established on November 18, 1917.

Staraya Russa is a balneologic resort, celebrated for its mineral springs used for baths, drinking, and inhalations; medicinal silt mud of the Lake Verkhneye and Lake Sredneye and mud from artificial reservoirs. A summer residence of the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky, who wrote there his novels "The Brothers Karamazov" and "The Possessed", is open to visitors as a museum. The ancient monuments include the Transfiguration Monastery, with a cathedral built in 70 days in 1198, partly rebuilt in the 15th century, and several 17th-century buildings and churches. The principal city cathedral (1678) is dedicated to the Resurrection of Christ. Other notable churches are consecrated to St. George (1410, family temple of the Dostoevsky family), Mina the Martyr (14th century), and the Holy Trinity (1676).

The plans to build a tram line in Staraya Russa were before the beginning of WWI. In 1915, due to threat of German occupation of Latvia, all tram equipment (including locomotiv engine and wagons) was evacuated from Ķemeri resort (44 km from Riga) to the other resort town - Staraya Russa. This equipment didn't use till 1918, when it was decided to build electric tram system in Staraya Russa. The town was in need of public transport as its population was increased, but there was no food for horses. The construction of tram line was started in October 1919. However, due to effects of WWI and Russian Civil War (economic problems, delay loans, lack of experience) construction was take five years. The construction works were held under leadership of engineer Roman Bishard.

The 2-km line (1 meter wide) of steam-driven tram in Staraya Russa was built between rail station and balneologic resort, along the Karl Liebknecht street, Lenin street and Karl Marx street. Due to delaying with construction of electric tram network, it was decided to put into operation steam-driven tram before full completion of works. It was opened on June 11, 1922. Locomotive engine "Arthur Koppel" (which was made in 1911) with two passenger wagons travelled along the line. It worked during two resort seasons, till October 1, 1923. After this it was replaced with electric tram, which was put into operation on July 6, 1924.

Staraya Russa station of the October Railway:

tatiana 3010

End of 19th century. Hotel and Muravyov source in Staraya Russa:

Wikipedia

1924. Electrification of tram line in Staraya Russa:

Link
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:09 PM   #1239
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II) CABLE-PULLED

The next type of tram was the cable car, which sought to reduce labour costs and the hardship on animals. Cable cars are pulled along the track by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed that individual cars grip and release to stop and start. The power to move the cable is provided at a site away from the actual operation. The first cable car line in the United States was tested in San Francisco, California, in 1873.

The Clay Street Hill Railroad was the first successful cable hauled street railway. It was located on Clay Street, a notably steep street in San Francisco in California, and first operated in August 1873.

The promoter of the line was Andrew Smith Hallidie (1836-1900), and the engineer was William Eppelsheimer (1842-?). Accounts differ as to exactly how involved Hallidie was in the inception of the Clay Street Hill Railway. One version has him taking over the promotion of the line when the original promoter, Benjamin Brooks, failed to raise the necessary capital. In another version, Hallidie was the instigator, inspired by a desire to reduce the suffering incurred by the horses that hauled streetcars up Jackson Street, from Kearny to Stockton Street.

There is also doubt as to when exactly the first run of the cable car occurred. The franchise required a first run no later than August 1, 1873, however at least one source reports that the run took place a day late, on August 2, but that the city chose not to void the franchise. Some accounts say that the first gripman hired by Hallidie looked down the steep hill from Jones and refused to operate the car, so Hallidie took the grip himself and ran the car down the hill and up again without any problems. The line involved the use of grip cars, which carried the grip that engaged with the cable, towing trailer cars. The design was the first to use such grips.

The Clay Street line started regular service on September 1, 1873 and was a financial success. In 1888, it was absorbed into the Sacramento-Clay line of the Ferries and Cliff House Railway, and it subsequently became a small part of the San Francisco cable car system. Today none of the original line survives. However grip car 8 from the line has been preserved, and is now displayed in the San Francisco Cable Car Museum.

Currently cable car system is an icon of San Francisco, California. The cable car system forms part of the intermodal urban transport network operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, or "Muni" as it is better known. Cable cars operate on two routes from downtown near Union Square to Fisherman's Wharf, and a third route along California Street. While the cable cars are used to a certain extent by commuters, their small service area and premium fares for single rides make them more of a tourist attraction. They are among the most significant tourist sites in the city, along with Alcatraz Island and Fisherman's Wharf.

It is the only transportation system listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The second city to operate cable trams was Dunedin in New Zealand, from February 24, 1881 to March 2, 1957. In Dresden, Germany, in 1901 an elevated suspended cable car following the Eugen Langen one-railed floating tram system started operating. Cable Cars operated on Highgate Hill in North London and Kennington to Brixton Hill in South London. They also worked around "Upper Douglas" in the Isle of Man, Cable Car 72/73 being the sole survivor of the fleet.

Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since an expensive system of cables, pulleys, stationary engines and vault structures between the rails had to be provided. They also require strength and skill to operate, to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be dropped at particular locations and the cars coast, for example when crossing another cable line. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a cable route, while the cable was repaired. After the development of electrically powered trams, the more costly cable car systems declined rapidly.

Cable cars were especially effective in hilly cities, because the cable laid in the tracks physically pulled the car up the hill at a strong, steady pace, as opposed to the low-powered steam dummies trying to chug up a hill at almost a crawl, or worse a horse-drawn trolley trying to pull a load up a hill. This concept partially explains their survival in San Francisco. However, the most extensive cable system in the U.S. was in Chicago, a much flatter city (since January 28, 1882 till October 21, 1906). The largest cable system in the world, in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, had at its peak 592 trams running on 74 kilometres of track (it worked since November 11, 1885 till October 26, 1940).

The San Francisco cable cars, though significantly reduced in number, continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being a tourist attraction. A single line also survives in Wellington, New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 as a funicular but still called the "Wellington Cable Car").

Powell-Hyde line cable car passing by Lombard Street on Russian Hill, San Francisco:

Wikipedia
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Old August 10th, 2011, 06:10 PM   #1240
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III) PETROL-DRIVEN TRAMS IN RUSSIA

In few Russian cities were used petrol-driven trams.

1) April 4, 1912 - Yekaterinodar (now Krasnodar)-Pashkovskaya stanitsa (closed in 1914):

Pashkovsky is a microdistrict at the south-east of Krasnodar city. The main international airport serving Krasnodar is known as Pashkovsky Airport. It's located north-east of Pashkovsky microdistrict.

Pashkovsky kurin (settlement) of a Black Sea Cossack Host was founded in 1794. In 1821 there were 165 houses in the settlement. In 1842 Pashkovsky kurin was renamed into Pashkovskaya stanitsa (Cossack settlement). Since 1940 till 1953 stanitsa was centre of Pashkovsky District. On April 15, 1958 Pashkovskaya stanitsa was transformed into the workers’ settlement Pashkovsky. In 2004 urban-type settlement Pashkovsky became the microdistrict of Krasnodar city.

In 1908 was established "First Russian partnership of the electric-motor tram Yekaterinodar-Pashkovskaya" and was approved the project of construction of a new line between Krasnodar (which was known as Yekaterinodar till December 7, 1920) and Pashkovskaya stanitsa. On July 14, 1910 City Council signed contract with "Russian partnership". After this was started construction of single-track Pashkovskaya Line (1 meter wide) from the Red street to the Pashkovsky Deadend, along the Gogol street, Railway street, Mountain street (now Vishnyakova street), Stavropol street and Peter the Great street (now Yevdokia Bershanskaya street). It was opened on April 4, 1912. The lenght of this line was 12.8 km, including 10.7 km of suburban part. There were used 4 tram cars, which were serving by Pashkovskoe depot.

On July 30, 1914 City Council signed new contract with "Russian partnership", which established specific dates for the electrification of existing Pashkovskaya Line, for construction of branch to the rail station and for the organization of two urban routes. The urban part of this line was electrified on December 27, 1914. This day was opened two-track line from Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) to the Wide street (now Shevchenko street). In 1915 was electrified suburban part of Pashkovskaya Line and petrol-driven trams were replaced with electric trams. On August 3, 1915 was opened branch of this line to the rail terminal.

There were three routes:
1) Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) - Pashkovskaya stanitsa (suburban route);
2) Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) - Wide street (now Shevchenko street) (urban route);
3) Nicholas Avenue (now Red street) - rail terminal (urban route).

On June 2, 1920 Pashkovskaya Line was municipalized and was included in the urban tram system of Yekaterinodar. In 1948-1949 the gauge of this line was changed from 1000 mm to 1524 mm.

1911. Nuremberg, Germany. MAN petrol-driven tram for Pashkovskaya Line:

Solar

1912. Petrol-driven tram in Yekaterinodar (now Krasnodar):

Андрей Кравчук

1912-1914. Pashkovskaya Line, Mountain street (now Vishnyakova street):

Solar

Krasnodar, tram route #5 to Pashkovsky microdistrict:

Александров Николай

Terminus station "Pashkovsky settlement":

Ищенко Никита
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