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Old October 14th, 2011, 06:45 PM   #1321
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO

October 7, 2011. Construction of the trade store, where will be located vestibule of the station "Bukharestskaya" ("Bucharest"; 2012):

sergeant-1

October 9, 2011. Construction of the trade store, where will be located vestibule of the neighboring station "Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International"; 2012):

Инженер


Инженер


Инженер


Инженер


Инженер


Инженер


Инженер
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Old October 14th, 2011, 07:00 PM   #1322
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KAZAN METRO

October 10, 2011. Construction of the station "Dekabristov" ("Decembrists"), which planned to be open on May 9, 2013:

Zufar


Zufar


Zufar


Zufar


Zufar


Zufar


Zufar
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Old October 14th, 2011, 07:13 PM   #1323
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KAZAN METRO

October 11-12, 2011. Dismantling of the TBM "Aisylu" at the station "Moskovskaya" ("Moscow"), which planned to be open on May 9, 2013:

kemal

After prevention work, this TBM will be mounted again and sent on the construction of another tunnel:

kemal


kemal
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Old October 14th, 2011, 08:19 PM   #1324
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SAMARA METRO

October 8, 2011. Meanwhile, the uncompleted station "Alabinskaya" ("Pyotr Alabin") become a place of shooting of the disaster film "Metro":

sv-bob

The film will be based on the novel of Dmitry Safonov (2005). According to the screenplay, the action takes place in Moscow Metro. Due to the construction works in Moscow, will be damaged existing Metro tunnel. As a result, it will be flooded with water of Moscow-River. The passengers will be escape from the stopped train to the "ghost-station" with the name "Borodinskaya" (Borodino is a village near Moscow, where in 1812 happened largest and bloodiest battle between Russian Army and French aggressors):

sv-bob

The imitation of the fictional station "Borodinskaya" ("Borodino"):

sv-bob

Those boxes are nothing more than parts of decoration for the filming:

sv-bob

Artificial aging of the station. According to screenplay, abandoned station "Borodinskaya" exist for many years:

sv-bob

Artificial pool, simulating the flooded track ways:

sv-bob
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Old October 14th, 2011, 08:22 PM   #1325
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The boiler for heating of water in the artificial pool. It's necessary for the creating of comfortable situation for the actors. Due to loud noise, it will be switch off at the moment of filming:

sv-bob

The episodes with flooding of "Borodinskaya" station were already filmed in Moscow. In Samara will be filmed episodes of the arrival of passengers from the tunnel on the station, before its flooding:

sv-bob


sv-bob


sv-bob


sv-bob

This disaster film will be released on December 20, 2012. As it well known, on next day will be end of the world (according to Maya Long Count calendar):

sv-bob
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Old October 14th, 2011, 08:40 PM   #1326
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CABLEWAY NIZHNY NOVGOROD-BOR ACROSS VOLGA RIVER

September 25, 2011. Construction of the Nizhny Novgorod station:

L1zard


L1zard


L1zard


L1zard


L1zard


L1zard


L1zard
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Old October 14th, 2011, 08:41 PM   #1327
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October 8, 2011. Construction of the Bor station:

mpetrov-nn


mpetrov-nn


mpetrov-nn


mpetrov-nn


mpetrov-nn


mpetrov-nn
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Old October 14th, 2011, 08:53 PM   #1328
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VLADIVOSTOK AEROEXPRESS

October 12, 2011. Vladivostok Rail Terminal. Construction of the Aeroexpress station:

kasvl85


kasvl85


kasvl85


kasvl85


kasvl85


kasvl85


kasvl85
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Old October 14th, 2011, 09:28 PM   #1329
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
[B]

This disaster film will be released on December 20, 2012. As it well known, on next day will be end of the world (according to Maya Long Count calendar):

sv-bob
How creative, a 2012 apocalypse movie, I bet nobody thought of that before
It's nice that it is Russian, though, what's it gonna be called?




They are still building these Khruschev-era coaches for the Russian metro? What is the name/maker of this style of train, commonly found in former commie countries?
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Old October 14th, 2011, 10:23 PM   #1330
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mopc View Post
How creative, a 2012 apocalypse movie, I bet nobody thought of that before
This film is not about 2012 apocalypse, it just PR-campaign for the premiere. Read again.

Quote:
Originally Posted by mopc View Post
It's nice that it is Russian, though, what's it gonna be called?
This film will be called "Metro". I wrote it in first post

Quote:
Originally Posted by mopc View Post
They are still building these Khruschev-era coaches for the Russian metro?
I wrote own opinion about those trains many times in different threads. So, I don't want to repeat it again.

Quote:
Originally Posted by mopc View Post
What is the name/maker of this style of train, commonly found in former commie countries?
Type 81-717/714.5M. Made by "Metrovagonmash" company, which located in Mytishchi town near Moscow (part of "Transmashholding").
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Old October 16th, 2011, 11:14 PM   #1331
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Quote:
Originally Posted by historyworks View Post
You have nothing to apologise for AlekseyVT, this is absolutely fantastic, like a book that we are privileged to have on the internet. You are obviously one of the great Russian writers and perhaps you should turn it into a book! I feel guilty for interrupting your fantastic monologue with my post but someone has to thank you. Please carry on, we are transfixed .....
Quote:
Originally Posted by Windblower View Post
+1
Well, it seems that two people of 1047 liked to read this very specific thread. So, I decided to continue.

The first two parts were only preludes to the major part of story. The third part is very large, much more than first two. It's devoted to the pre-Revolutionary period of the development of electric tram systems in Russia. In beginning, I will write some word about early development of tram systems in all world. After this, I will totally switch on the Russian history.

This material is very large. For this reason, I will not post all it for one day. Instead of this, I divided third part into few subparts. Each subpart devoted to one city. I'll gradually post these subparts in chronological order, with a periodicity one subpart in two-four days. I will also write short preliminary information about Russian cities, which are less-known worldwide (i.e. about 86% of all cities ). This information will be include geographic location and economical status of cities at this period. Thus, it will be easier to read this material.

During my work, I used different maps and sources of information. But, of course, I can't know cities better than its residents. Therefore, unfortunately, I'm not immune from mistakes.

So, any questions, corrections, recommendations, additions will be welcomed.
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Old October 16th, 2011, 11:14 PM   #1332
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HISTORY OF TRAM IN RUSSIA

(DEVOTED TO THE BRIGHT MEMORY OF RUSSIAN TRAM)

PART THREE - THE APPEARANCE OF AN ELECTRIC TRAM

I) ELECTRIC TRAM AND RAILWAYS IN THE WORLD (1880-1895)

EUROPE

FIRST WORLD'S EXPERIMENTAL ELECTRIC TRAM LINE

Fyodor Pirotsky's experimental tram line in St. Petersburg, Russia (1880):

The inventor of the world's first railway electrification system and electric tram was Fyodor Pirotsky (1845-1898), Russo-Ukrainian engineer. The first electrically powered railway cars were put into operation in 1875 on the Sestroretsk railway Miller's line (not far from the station "Miller's pier"), near St. Petersburg. The electricity was transferred over a distance of approximately one kilometer. In his design rails were connected to a Gramme generator. Both rails were isolated from the ground, one rail served as a direct conductor and one as a reverse conductor. In 1880 Pirotsky modified a city two-decker horse tramway to be powered by electricity instead of horses, and on September 3, 1880 the unusual form of public transport started to serve residents of Saint Petersburg amid the vocal protests of the owners of the horse-cars. The car (capacity - 40 persons) was equipped with a 2.94 kW electric engine supplied with 100 Volt direct current via the rails. The speed of car was 10-12 km/h. The experiments continued until the end of September 1880. While the commercialization of his inventions in Russia was relatively slow, Pirotsky is known to met with Carl Heinrich von Siemens and to influence the Siemens's eventual introduction of the first regular electric tram line (for the Berlin Straßenbahn).

FIRST WORLD'S PERMANENT ELECTRIC TRAM LINE

Groß-Lichterfelde Tramway in Lichterfelde, a suburb of Berlin, Germany (1881):

The first electric passenger train was presented by Werner von Siemens at Berlin in 1879. The locomotive was driven by a 2.2 kW series wound motor and the train, consisting of the locomotive and three cars, reached a maximum speed of 13 km/h. During four months, the train carried 90.000 passengers on a 300 metre long circular track. The electricity (150 V DC) was supplied through a third, insulated rail situated between the tracks. A contact roller was used to collect the electricity from the third rail. The world's first electric tram was built in Lichterfelde, a suburb of Berlin, Germany, by "Siemens & Halske AG", and went into service on May 16, 1881. It was built along a derelict railway. The 2.4 km (1.5 miles) long line started at Berlin-Lichterfelde Ost station on the Anhalt Railway line. Each car was originally equipped with a 4 kW electric motor supplied with 180 Volt direct current via the rails, similar to most present-day model railways. Therefore the metre gauge tracks were generally separated from driveways and trespassing was prohibited.

Initially, the route was intended merely as a testing facility. Siemens named it an "elevated line taken down from its pillars and girders", because he wanted to build a network of electric elevated lines in Berlin. But the sceptical town council did not allow him to do this until 1902, when the first elevated line opened. At railroad crossings the rails were dead or switched on only briefly before the approach of the tramcar. Nevertheless persons and horses frequently received electrical shocks. It is also believed that young persons caused short circuits which shut down the operation by putting wire mesh on the tracks, in order to enjoy the sight of glowing metal. In 1891 the track was equipped with an overhead wire and the line was extended to Berlin-Lichterfelde West station. The route was refitted to standard gauge in October 1925. After several extensions, operation finally discontinued in 1931.

On June 9, 1882 was put into operation electric tramline in beach resort Zandvoort near Haarlem, Netherlands. This line (1240 m of length, 1000 mm gauge) was owned by "Siemens & Halske AG" and technical equal to the Groß-Lichterfelde Tramway. The tram was supposed to transport guests between the railway station (which was opened near the coast) and their hotels. Major technical problems and no engineers nearby, like in Lichterfelde, caused that the tram had a short life. It operated only during one summer season and was closed on September 30, 1882.

FIRST IN UK, OLDEST IN THE WORLD

Volk's Electric Railway in Brighton, Great Britain (1883):

In 1883, Magnus Volk constructed his 2 feet (610 mm) gauge Volk's Electric Railway along the eastern seafront at Brighton, England. This two kilometer line, re-gauged to 2 feet 9 inches (840 mm) in 1884, remains in service to this day, and is the oldest operating electric tramway in the world.

Magnus Volk (1851–1937) was a pioneer British electrical engineer. He is most notable for having built Volk's Electric Railway, the world's oldest extant electric railway. He also built the unique, but short lived, Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway, together with its unusual Daddy Long Legs vehicle. In 1888, he built an electric car.

Magnus Volk was the son of a German clockmaker and was born on 19 October 1851 in Brighton. He lived at 38 Dyke Road in Brighton. On 8 April 1879, he married Anna Banfield in Burgess Hill. George Herbert Volk, his second son, is noted as a pioneer builder of seaplanes, whilst another son, Conrad Volk, wrote a biography of his father. His Great Grandson is the musician Joe Volk. Magnus Volk died in Brighton on 20 May 1937, and is buried at St Wulfran's churchyard in Ovingdean near Brighton.

Volk's Electric Railway (VER) is the oldest operating electric railway in the world. It is a narrow gauge railway that runs along a length of the seafront of the English seaside resort of Brighton. It was built by Magnus Volk, the first section being completed in August 1883. It was put into operation on August 4, 1883.

In 1883 Magnus Volk opened a short 2ft gauge electric railway running for 1⁄4 miles (402 m) between "Swimming Arch" (opposite the main entrance to Brighton Aquarium, and adjacent to the site of the future Palace Pier) and "Chain Pier". Electrical power at 50 V DC was supplied to the small car using the two running rails. In 1884 the line was extended a further 1/2 mile beyond the "Chain Pier" to "Paston Place", and regauged to 2 feet 9 inches (838 mm). The electrical supply was increased to 160 V DC and the power plant was installed in the arch built into the cliff face at Paston Place. In 1886 an off-set third rail was added to minimise current leakage, and the gauge was reduced to its current 2 feet 8 1⁄2 inches (825 mm).

In 1896 the unusual Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway was built by Volk. It was a unique coastline railway in Brighton, England that ran through the shallow waters of the English Channel between 1896 and 1901. Magnus Volk, its owner, designer and engineer, had already been successful with the more conventional Volk's Electric Railway, which had then not been extended east of Paston Place. Facing unfavourable geography, Volk decided to construct a line through the surf from a pier at Paston Place to one at Rottingdean. This was also home to Volk's Seaplane Station which was used by his son George Herbert Volk.

The railway itself consisted of two parallel 2 feet 8 1⁄2 inches (825 mm) gauge tracks, billed as 18 feets (5.5 m) gauge, the measurement between the outermost rails. The tracks were laid on concrete sleepers mortised into the bedrock. The single car used on the railway was a 45 by 22 ft (13.7 by 6.7 m) pier-like building which stood on four 23 ft (7.0 m)-long legs. The car weighed 45 long tons (50 ST; 46 t). Propulsion was by electric motor. It was officially named "Pioneer", but many called it "Daddy Long-Legs". Due to regulations then in place, a qualified sea captain was on board at all times, and the car was provided with lifeboats and other safety measures.

Construction took two years from 1894 to 1896. The railway officially opened 28 November 1896, but was nearly destroyed by a storm the night of 4 December. Volk immediately set to rebuilding the railway including the "Pioneer", which had been knocked on its side, and it reopened in July 1897. Its lenght was 4.5 km. The railway was popular, but faced difficulties. The car was slowed considerably at high tide, but Volk could never afford to improve the motors. In 1900, groynes built near the railway were found to have led to underwater scouring under the sleepers and the railway was closed for two months while this was repaired. Immediately afterward, the council decided to build a beach protection barrier, which unfortunately required Volk to divert his line around the barrier. Without funds to do so, Volk closed the railway. In 1901 the right-of-way was broken up for construction of the barrier. One further attempt was made to raise money for a conventional over-water viaduct along roughly the same route. The track, car and other structures were sold for scrap, but some of the concrete sleepers can still be viewed at low tide. Eventually Volk's Electric Railway was extended onshore, covering a portion of the same distance; it remains in operation.

Due to problems concerning the construction of lengthened groynes to the east of Paston Place this fascinating railway closed in 1901, although it was not finally dismantled until 1910. Following the closure Volk's original electric railway was extended from "Paston Place" to "Black Rock". Paston Place was also the home of Volk's Seaplane Station, which was used by Volk's son George Herbert Volk. In 1930 the line was cut back 200 yards (183 m) from Palace Pier to its present terminus, still known as Aquarium, and in 1937 the Black Rock end was also shortened by around 200 yards (183 m). (In 1935 a lido had been built at Black Rock).

In 1940 the "Brighton Corporation" took control of the line. It was closed during World War II, but reopened in 1948. Winter operation ceased from 1954, although the line did reopen temporarily in the winter of 1980 to cash in on the large numbers of sightseers who had come to look at the "Athina B", a freighter that had beached near the Palace Pier. 2-car multiple operation was introduced in 1964. In recent years there has been a decline in visitor numbers due to package holidays. In 1995 the "Volk's Electric Railway Association" was formed to help the operator of the line (Brighton & Hove City Council) promote and operate the line.

In the late 1990s the Black Rock end of the line was again shortened by a 100 yards (91 m) or so to permit a storm water storage scheme to be built in the marina area, the new station retaining the name of the original. The single platform station, which shares a building with a new Southern Water pumping station, opened in 1998 and is not quite centred with the ornamental terraces above and behind it, causing the view of the area (from out at sea) to be asymmetrical.

Today the line runs between terminal stations at "Aquarium" (a short distance from the Palace Pier) and "Black Rock" (at Black Rock, not far from Brighton Marina), with an intermediate station and depot at "Paston Place". The line has a gauge of 2 feet 8 1⁄2 inches (825 mm). It is electrified at 110 V DC using a third rail, and is just under 1+1⁄4 miles (2 km) long. Operated as a historical seafront tourist attraction, the railway does not usually run during the winter months, and its service is also occasionally liable to suspension due to severe weather or maintenance issues. Information on any current service changes is available from the railway office. A model of a yellow Volks carriage in on show in the foyer of the Brighton Toy and Model Museum.

The line speed of the railway is low enough that it is essentially operated as a tramway. The line is single throughout with a passing place at Half Way Station (known variously as Half Way, Peter Pans Playground or Kemp Town). There are also two passing loops roughly midway between each terminal and Half Way, although the western loop has been temporarily removed. Usually two trains operate from end to end, passing at Half Way station. In general, there is only one train on each single track at any one time. However, in busy periods the railway is permitted to operate with two trains on one single track section with one train following almost immediately behind the other. Drivers are now equipped with radios which allow communication between themselves, stations and control.

There are warning lights at pedestrian crossing points to the beach with a warbling siren to warn of the approach of a train. A following train is required to signal its approach to a pedestrian crossing point by sounding its klaxon horn.

"Aquarium" station of the Volk's Electric Railway - the oldest operating electric railway in the world (opened on August 4, 1883):

Wikipedia

"Paston Place" half-way station:

Wikipedia

Carriages:

Wikipedia
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Old October 16th, 2011, 11:15 PM   #1333
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"Pioneer" on the 18 ft (5.5 m)-gauge Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway (built in 1894-1896, closed in 1901):

Wikipedia


Wikipedia


Wikipedia


Wikipedia
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Old October 16th, 2011, 11:16 PM   #1334
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FIRST WORLD'S ELECTRIC TRAM WITH USING OF OVERHEAD LINES

Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram in Austria (1883):

The early electric tramlines were electrified by direct current using a third rail. However, this system proved unworkable - using of third rail led to the electric short circuits during rains, direct voltage killed many animals (dogs and cats) and was dangerous for pedestrians. The supply with direct current via the two parallel rails has the same drawbacks. In addition, it's need to isolate wheel pairs with using of this system to avoid short circuit through the axis.

In 1881 the first tram with overhead lines was presented by Werner von Siemens on the International Electric Exposition in Paris. This experimental/demonstration line for an exposition was built between Place de la Concorde and Palais del'Industrie, but the installation was removed after that event. On August 25, 1883 experimental/demonstration 350-meters line was put into operation in the Prater park, Vienna, Austria. This was powered by 150 V, but was also removed later. In October 1883, the first permanent tram service with overhead lines was started on Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram in Austria. These trams had bipolar overhead lines, consisting of two U-pipes, in which the pantographs hung and ran like shuttles. In April to June 1882, Siemens had tested a similar system on his Electromote, an early percursor of the trolleybuses.

Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram or Mödling and Hinterbrühl Local Railway was an electric tramway in Austria, running 4.5 km (2.8 miles) from Mödling to Hinterbrühl, in the southwest of Vienna. The gauge was 1000 mm. Opened in October 1883, it was the first tram and railway in the world that was run with electricity served by an overhead line in permanent service. It was the first electric tram and railway in Austria, and it was the second one installed for definitive service. The operation ceased in March 1932.

The approval had been granted by the Imperial and Royal Ministry of Commerce in 1882. The tram was built and run by the "Südbahngesellschaft" (the private "Austrian Southern Railway Company") that operated the main line from Vienna to Trieste, including the standard gauge railway station at Mödling. The electric traction was chosen due to the condition, as for lack of space parts of the trackway had to be laid on public roads. The metre gauge single track rail of the tram had several turn outs. The overhead line was bipolar and consisted of two downwards open tubes, in which the two pantographs hang like aerial trams. This technique had been introduced by Ernst Werner von Siemens in his experimental Elektromote trolleybus concept. After a test on October 18, 1883, the regular service in the first section between Mödling and Vorderbrühl Valley started on October 22, 1883. As a condition for permitting the traffic through the narrow part of the valley in 1884, the authorities ordered the availability of a steam engine as emergency traction. On July 14, 1885 the line was accomplished to Hinterbrühl.

In 1903, the line was modernized and the bipolar overhead line was replaced by an unipolar wire. The new pantographs were lyra-shaped. Since 1912, the revenues had exeeded the expenses. In 1927 a bus service was installed in the valley. The competition became dangerous for both. In 1932 the Austrian federal Ministry for Trade and Traffic decided, that the tramline had to be closed down. The last tram on the line ran on March 31, 1932.

1882, Berlin. The "Elektromote", the world's first trolleybus. Werner von Siemens's bipolar overhead line:

Link

1883. First type of Mödling and Hinterbrühl tramcars, bipolar overhead line:

Wikipedia

1903. Second type of Mödling and Hinterbrühl tramcars, unipolar wire:

Wikipedia

1925. Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram - first world's permanent tramway with overhead lines:

Wikipedia

Last edited by AlekseyVT; June 3rd, 2012 at 02:19 AM.
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Old October 16th, 2011, 11:18 PM   #1335
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FIRST WORLD'S LONG ELECTRIC TRAMWAY

Giant's Causeway Tramway in Northern Ireland, Great Britain (1883):

The Giant's Causeway Tramway, operated by the "Giant's Causeway, Portrush and Bush Valley Railway & Tramway Company Ltd", was a pioneering 3 ft (914 mm) gauge electric narrow gauge railway operating between Portrush and the Giant's Causeway on the coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland. The line, 9.25 miles (14.8 km) long, was hailed at its opening as "the first long electric tramway in the world". The Giant's Causeway and Bushmills Railway today operates steam tourist trains over part of the Tramway’s former course.

The Giant's Causeway Tramway came about through the enthusiasm of William Atcheson Traill, M.A.Ing., of Ballylough (1844–1934), together with his brother Dr Anthony Traill, who between them undertook most of the promotion and fundraising for the line. William Atcheson Traill was a man with not only an interest in railways but also a keen interest in technological developments in engineering. At the Berlin Trade Fair of 1879 Werner von Siemens was demonstrating the first railway electrification system and it was that which led the British branch of the firm to be commissioned to incorporate this new technology into the Giant’s Causeway Tramway venture. Sir William (Wilhelm) Siemens (1823–1883), Werner's brother, was briefly a Director and "Siemens Bros. of London" were appointed electrical engineers to the company, their representative being Dr Edward Hopkinson, who later went on to work on the "Bessbrook and Newry Tramway" and the "City & South London Railway".

The line was the world’s first to be powered by hydroelectricity, something that was later developed at Bessbrook, NI, and in Switzerland. Traill built a generating station at Walkmill Falls, Bushmills, installing water turbines to produce the electrical power for his line. This building, although without its equipment, is still in existence. There was auxiliary generating equipment at the Portrush depot. Because of legal problems over water rights, erection of the Bushmills turbines was delayed and when the first section of the tramway, from Portrush to Bushmills, was opened on January 29, 1883 the timetabled passenger traffic was handled by steam tram engines which were in any case necessary on the town section in Portrush where it was impossible to provide electric power since this was originally fed to the trains via an elevated third rail which ran alongside the line. The ceremonial opening, using electric traction, took place on September 28, 1883 although a full scheduled electric service did not begin until 5 November and steam locomotives remained available for use until at least 1926.

The section from Bushmills to the Giant's Causeway opened on July 1, 1887. In 1895 a cyclist died of electric shock after coming into contact with the conductor rail. At the subsequent enquiry it was revealed that the line voltage varied from an average of 290 V up to 360 V, and the company agreed to a temporary reduction in the voltage, which limited the number of services that could be electrically worked. The third rail was replaced by overhead electric wire using side poles from 26 July 1899, apparently initially at 250 V. Voltage drop remained a problem and the tram was the subject of a song by the "Irish Rovers" which comments on its slow speed. After upgrading of the Bushmills generating station in 1907 it was possible to produce a 550 V output.

Traill, a former geological surveyor, expected a considerable mineral traffic between quarries along the line and Portrush harbour, and there was originally a goods branch into the main square of Bushmills. However this traffic fell away by about 1900, and for most of its life the line primarily served tourists visiting the Causeway. From 1925/26 the line was closed down during each winter. Increased patronage, partly from military traffic, during World War II meant a brief revival of winter services, but receipts were becoming inadequate to support maintenance of the company’s ageing assets, and the line did not reopen after the end of the 1949 season on 20 September, and was subsequently dismantled. The Giant's Causeway and Bushmills Railway was later constructed over the final two miles (3.2 km) of the Tramway and carried its first passengers at Easter 2002.

The line was single track with passing loops throughout and was laid on sleepers apart from the first 0.75 mile (1 km) of street running through Portrush. The route began in Eglinton Street alongside Portrush railway station. After passing the main depot on the edge of the town, it took up a position on the seaward side of the coast road, passing the White Rocks and Dunluce Castle before reaching Bushmills station (the main building of which still stands). There was a subsidiary depot here. Beyond the crossing of the road to Portballintrae the line left the roadside; this is the section occupied by the present-day railway. The route crossed Bushfoot Golf Course and crossed the River Bush by the Victoria Jubilee Bridge, which had a lattice girder superstructure. This has been replaced, but some of the ornamental ironwork is preserved at the present Giant’s Causeway station. From here the line passed by the dunes alongside Bushfoot Strand and climbed to the terminus just below the Causeway Hotel. The station facilities consisted of little more than a corrugated-iron shelter.

The original cars were built by the "Midland Railway Carriage and Wagon Company" and were later followed by examples from "GEC", and also a "Peckham car". There were a maximum of six electric power cars owned at any one time, all being single-truck, single-deck vehicles with both enclosed and "toast rack" examples; typically these would haul several "toast rack" trailers. There were four steam tram engines, ordered from Wilkinson of Wigan. A power car and trailer are restored at the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, Cultra and another power car is in the care of the Irish Transport Museum Society at Howth.

1890s. The terminus beside Portrush Rly Station:

Wikipedia

1890s. The Causeway Hotel terminus:

Wikipedia

1890. Dunluce Castle:

Wikipedia

Giant's Causeway & Bushmills Railway providing a passenger link between the historic town of Bushmills and the famous stone columns of the Giant’s Causeway World Heritage Site. The railway has been built to the Irish narrow gauge of three feet (0.915m) and runs for two miles along the track bed of the former Giant’s Causeway Tramway:

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Old October 16th, 2011, 11:19 PM   #1336
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FIRST WORLD'S PERMANENT STREET-OPERATING ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

Tramway in Frankfurt am Main (1884):

On February 18, 1884 was built electric interurban tram route between Sachsenhausen and Oberrad near Frankfurt am Main by the "Frankfurt-Offenbacher Trambahn-Gesellschaft" (FOTG), second in Germany. It was extended to Offenbach in July 1885. This was the first permanent street-operating electric tramway in the world. It had metre gauge all on road and a bipolar overhead line. In 1905 it was changed to standard gauge, and the overhead line became unipolar. The western part of this line is still working. Now it has the longest period of continuous electric street tramway operation anywhere in the world (conventional overhead wire has been used since 1906).

Blackpool Tramway (1885):

The first electric street tramway in Great Britain, the Blackpool Tramway, was opened on September 29, 1885 using conduit collection along Blackpool Promenade; in 1899 it was changed to overhead power supply. After 1960, this remained the only first-generation operational tramway in the UK; it remains in operation today. It regarded in UK as the first practical electric tramway in the world.

The Blackpool tramway runs from Blackpool to Fleetwood on the Fylde Coast in Lancashire, England, and is the only surviving first-generation tramway in the United Kingdom. The tramway dates back to 1885 and is one of the oldest electric tramways in the world. It is run by "Blackpool Transport" (BTS) as part of the Metro Coastlines network, owned by Blackpool Borough Council. The tramway runs for 11 miles (18 km) and carries 6.500.000 passengers each year. It is also one of only a few operational tramways in the world that operate using double-deck tram systems, others including the Hong Kong Tramways system and Alexandria Tram in Egypt. They are, however, slightly outnumbered by single-deck trams, but the double deckers see the most use during the tourist season, with single deckers playing a much smaller role. Some of the single deckers are only used occasionally during the busier parts of the season to boost capacity Blackpool was the only town in the UK that retained its trams, and between 1962 and 1992 Blackpool had the only urban tramway in the UK. The last English city to lose its conventional trams was Sheffield in 1960. The last in the UK was Glasgow, Scotland in 1962. The 1992 opening of the Metrolink in Manchester heralded a revival.

The first part of the tramway opened on 29 September 1885, a conduit line running from Cocker Street to Dean Street on Blackpool Promenade. It was one of the first practical electric tramways in the world, just six years after Werner von Siemens first demonstrated electric traction. The inauguration was presided over by Holroyd Smith, the inventor of the system, and Alderman Harwood, the Mayor of Manchester. The line was operated by the "Blackpool Electric Tramway Company" until 1892 when its lease expired and "Blackpool Corporation" took over the line. A further line was added in 1895 from Manchester Square along Lytham Road to South Shore. The tracks were extended to South Pier and a line on Station Road connecting Lytham Road to the promenade in 1897.

The system originally used the conduit system, in which trams took electricity from a conduit situated below and between the tracks. Electrical resistance was greater than anticipated and the voltage in portions of the conduit was far less than that generated at Blundell Street—230 V dropped to 210 V at the junction with the main line on the Promenade, 185 V at Cocker Street and 168 V at South Pier (then Victoria Pier). In addition there were difficulties during floods. Despite the difficulties, the conduit line was extended to Station Road in 1897. Overhead wiring was installed in 1899, and the conduit removed. Currently tramcars are powered by 550 V overhead wire with electricity transmitted to the tramcars by pantograph and a few by trolley pole.

In 1900 the line was extended north to Gynn Square where it linked up with the "Blackpool & Fleetwood Tramroad". In 1901 The Marton loop was opened, connecting Talbot Square and Central Station along Church Street, Devonshire Square, Whitegate Drive, Waterloo Road and Central Drive. A new depot was built on Whitegate Drive in Marton. A line was added from Talbot Square along Talbot Road to Layton in 1902. By 1903 the promenade line had reached the Pleasure Beach.

In 1920 "Blackpool Corporation" took over the "Blackpool & Fleetwood Tramroad Company" gaining eight miles (13 km) of track and three depots, two in Fleetwood and one in Bispham. The small Bold Street Depot in Fleetwood was closed and a loop constructed at Fleetwood Ferry. The original Blundell Street Depot was replaced by a larger depot on Rigby Road in 1920. Along the line to Fleetwood, between Rossall and Broadwater a more direct line was built in 1925. The final tramway extension was in 1926, along the promenade to Clifton Drive at Starr Gate where a connection was with Lytham St Annes tracks.

In 1936 route closures began with the Central Drive and Layton routes. Lytham Road closed in 1961, Marton in 1962, and the tramroad line on Dickson Road to North Station in 1963. Marton and Copse Road Depots closed in 1963 and Bispham Depot in 1966. This left the track running from Starr Gate to Fleetwood, which still remains. Blackpool Borough Council transferred the operation of the tramway and buses to Blackpool Transport Services Limited in 1986.

THE OTHER ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

Budapest Tramway (1887):

The first 1 km experimental line along Grand Boulevard in Budapest was put into operation on November 28, 1887. It was a glorious day! "Siemens & Halske AG" designed a meter-gauge tram system with underground conduit (hiding between the two halves of one of the running rails) specially for Budapest. The line was in fact a real-life experiment founded by the company itself to promote the usage of electric trams. It was operated between Nyugati station and Király utca with three cars (two power cars and one trailer) using 145V AC, running at 10 km/h max. Stops: Nyugati tér (tér = square), Szondi utca, Oktogon, Oktogon II, Király utca. People were first scared of the fact that the current comes from underground. Some people fear the risk of electric shock if they step on the tracks. Older people also fear that the new trams could mean the end of horse buses. However these will remain on roads where new tramlines cannot be laid. But later people fell in love with the "electric railway" as they have called it back then, quickly. What's more important, the good reception convinced the City Convention that electric trams work (although they still ruled out the usage of overhead wires). A new company called BVV was set up (again by "Siemens & Halske AG") to build the first normal-gauge (1435 mm) tram in Europe in Baross utca, between Egyetem tér and Orczy tér. They also completed the Grand Boulevard line of the company (later renamed to BVVV when bought out by investors) by 1892, this time using normal-gauge tracks. With this, the core of a tram network was laid down. The original line was regauged to 1435 mm, and survives today.

Montreux Tramway (1888):

The first permanent electric tram in Switzerland was put into operation on June 8, 1888 in Montreux. In 1878, Adolphe Dupraz, a notary public, and Henri Chaudet, an architect and businessman, applied for a concession from the Vaud Cantonal Government to use waters from the Baye de Montreux at Taulan to supply power for a tramway that would link the towns of Vevey and Montreux. After several years of feasibility studies, construction work started in September 1886 and the first tram was put into service in 1888. The tramway between Vevey and Chillon Castle along the lakeshore was the first tram line in Switzerland. It was replaced on April 18, 1957 with trolleybus line.

1884. Tram in Frankfurt am Main:

Wikipedia

Blackpool Tramway. Double-deck Balloon trams 700 (green) and 720 (black) at Bispham:

Wikipedia
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Old October 16th, 2011, 11:20 PM   #1337
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NORTH AMERICA

The development of tram in North America was regardless of Europe. During the nineteenth century, particularly from the 1860s to the 1890s, many streetcar operators switched from animals to other types of motive power. Before the use of electricity the use of steam dummies, tram engines, or cable cars was tried in several North American cities. A notable transition took place in Washington, D.C. in the United States where horsecars were used on street railways from 1862 to the early 1890s. From about 1890 to 1893 cable drives provided motive power to Washington streetcars, and after 1893 electricity powered the cars. The advantages of eliminating animal drive power included dispensing with the need to feed the animals and clean up their waste. A North American city that did not eliminate its cable car lines was San Francisco and much of its San Francisco cable car system continues to operate to this day. In this transition period some early streetcar lines in large cities opted to rebuild their railways above or below grade to help further speed transit. Such system would become known as rapid transit or later as heavy rail lines.

EXPERIMENTAL ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

On May 13, 1880 was put experimental/demonstration line Menlo Park (New Jersey, USA). Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) demonstrated an electric locomotive fed by electricity through the rails, hauling a carriage on a 400 m length of track. The line was reconstructed in 1882, and a second locomotive pulled a standard Stephenson horse tram. In August 1882 Joseph Finney built an experimental line in a depot yard at Allegheny (Pennsylvania, USA), but without a public service. The first electric street car in America was put into service at experimental line on Michigan Street in South Bend (Indiana, USA) in 1882.

In 1883 Leo Daft built "Ampčre", an experimental 2 ton electric locomotive in Newark (New Jersey, USA) that was intended to pull passengers through the city's streets. Leo Daft (1843–1922) was an English professor and builder of early American urban railroads. He led the construction of an electrical railroad in Newark, New Jersey, in 1883, of the Baltimore and Hampden Electric Railway in the Hampden neighborhood of Baltimore in 1885, and of the Los Angeles Electric Railway, the first one in that city, in the 1880s. Daft's locomotive used one rail to supply and the other rail to return current to the generator. One of the wheels on each axle was insulated from the axle with "vulcanized fiber".

In 1883-1884 were built experimental/demonstration lines at expos in Toronto (Ontario, Canada) and Chicago (Illinois, USA). In 1884 was built an experimental line in Kansas City (USA), which was a fiasco. The World Cotton Centennial was held in New Orleans, Louisiana from December 16, 1884 to June 2, 1885. It featured displays with a great deal of electric light illumination, an observation tower with electric elevators, and several prototype designs of electric streetcars.

PERMAMENT ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

On July 27, 1884 was opened tram line in East Cleveland (Ohio, USA). This was built as the first permanent street-operating electric tramway outside Europe, but used a primitive conduit system. It lasted for just over a year. This has also been reported as 1883, converted from a horse tramway, and using overhead power supply. It had many problems, and was removed in 1884.

On January 15, 1885 was opened tram line in South Bend (Indiana, USA), the first permanent electric tramway in USA. It was built by Charles Joseph Van Depoele. Charles Joseph Van Depoele (27 April 1846 - 18 March 1892) was an electrical engineer, inventor, and pioneer in electric railway technology. Van Depoele was born in Lichtervelde, Belgium. At a tender age he dabbled in electricity, and became so thoroughly infatuated with the subject that he entered upon a course of study and experiment at Poperinghe. In 1861, while at college, he produced his first light with a battery of forty Bunsen cells. Later, he moved to Lille, France, where he attended regularly the lectures and experiments of the Imperial Lyceum, from 1864 to 1869.

In 1869 he moved to the United States and took up his residence in Detroit, where he made a living by manufacturing furniture. He did not abandon his electrical pursuits, experimenting with electric lighting, electric generators and electric motors, and eventually forming the "Van Depoele Electric Manufacturing Company". As early as 1874, Van Depoele began investigations into the field of electric locomotion. Van Depoele's first electric railway was laid in Chicago early in 1883, and he exhibited another at an exposition in that city later in the same year. Near the end of 1887, thirteen North American cities had electric railways in operation; nine of these systems were designed by Van Depoele, and used overhead lines to transmit electric current from an electrical generator to the electric locomotives on the rails.

Van Depoele sold his electric motor business and related patents to the "Thomson-Houston Electric Company" in early 1888. He briefly thereafter devoted his efforts to his electric lighting business, until he sold that concern also to "Thomson-Houston" in mid-1889. A prolific inventor, Van Depoele was granted at least 243 United States patents between 1881 and 1894 for various electric inventions including railway systems, lights, generators, motors, current regulators, pumps, telpher systems, batteries, hammers, rock drills, brakes, a gearless locomotive, a coal-mining machine, and a pile-driver. He received the most recognition for his role in the development of electric railways; George Herbert Stockbridge wrote in 1891, "It is probably only just to Mr. Van Depoele to say that he is entitled to more credit than any other one man for the exploitation of electricity as a motive power". Van Depoele died at 46 years of age in Lynn (Massachusetts, USA) leaving a wife and several children.

In 1886 was put into operation tram line in Appleton (Wisconsin, USA), claimed in USA to be the world's first mass-transit electric system. On April 15, 1886 Montgomery (Alabama, USA) established its electric streetcar system nicknamed the "Lightning Route". The Capital City Street Railway, also known as the "Lightning Route", was the first city-wide system of streetcars established in Montgomery (Alabama, USA) on April 15, 1886. This early technology was developed by Belgian-American inventor Charles Joseph Van Depoele. James Gaboury was the owner of the horse drawn system that was converted to electricity. One trolley route ended at the Cloverdale neighborhood. This early public transportation system made Montgomery one of the first cities to "depopulate" its residential areas at the city center through transportation-facilitated suburban development. The system operated for exactly 50 years, until April 15, 1936 when it was retired in a big ceremony and replaced by buses.

Another early electrified streetcar system in the United States was established in Scranton, Pennsylvania by November 30, 1886, giving Scranton the nickname "The Electric City". In 1887 an electric streetcar line opened between Omaha and South Omaha, Nebraska. The "Omaha Motor Railway Company" began operation in 1888. In September 1887 Charles Van Deopole built experimental interurban line in St. Catharines & Thorold (Ontario, Canada). Vehicles had to be assisted by horse up one steep grade. For 2 months of each year, when hydroelectricity was unavailable, horse traction was used.

INVENTION OF TROLLEY POLE

Richmond Union Passenger Railway (1888):

In 1888 the trolley pole was devised by Frank Julian Sprague, and was pioneered in Richmond (Virginia, USA) on February 2, 1888. Frank Julian Sprague (July 25, 1857 - October 25, 1934) was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. His contributions were especially important in promoting urban development by increasing the size cities could reasonably attain (through better transportation) and by allowing greater concentration of business in commercial sections (through use of electric elevators in skyscrapers). He became known as the "Father of Electric Traction". Sprague was born in Milford, Connecticut in 1857. He attended Drury High School in North Adams, Massachusetts and excelled in mathematics. In 1874, he won an appointment to the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. There, he graduated seventh (out of thirty-six) in the Class of 1878.

He was commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Navy. During his ensuing naval service, he first served on the "USS Richmond", then the "USS Minnesota". While his ship was in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1881, Sprague invented the inverted type of dynamo. After he was transferred to the "USS Lancaster", flagship of the European Squadron, he installed the first electric call-bell system on a U.S. Navy ship. Sprague took leave to attend the Paris Electrical Exhibition in 1881 and the Crystal Palace Exhibition in Sydenham, England in 1882, where he was on the jury of awards for gas engines, dynamos and lamps. In 1883, Edward Hibberd Johnson, a business associate of Thomas Edison, persuaded Sprague to resign his naval commission to work for Edison. One of Sprague's significant contributions to the Edison Laboratory at Menlo Park, New Jersey was the introduction of mathematical methods. Prior to his arrival, Edison conducted many costly trial-and-error experiments. Sprague's approach was to calculate using mathematics the optimum parameters and thus save much needless tinkering. He did important work for Edison, including correcting Edison's system of mains and feeders for central station distribution. In 1884, he decided his interests in the exploitation of electricity lay elsewhere, and he left Edison to found the "Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company".

By 1886, Sprague's company had introduced two important inventions: a constant-speed, non-sparking motor with fixed brushes, and a method to return power to the main supply systems of equipment driven by electric motors. His motor was the first to maintain constant speed under varying load. It was immediately popular, and was endorsed by Edison as the only practical electric motor available. His method of returning power to main supply systems was important in the development of the electric train and the electric elevator.

Sprague's inventions included a system on streetcars for collecting electricity from overhead wires. His spring-loaded trolley pole, invented in 1880, used a wheel to travel along the wire. In late 1887 and early 1888, using his trolley system, Sprague installed the first successful large electric street railway system, the Richmond Union Passenger Railway in Richmond (Virginia, USA). Long a transportation obstacle, the hills of Richmond included grades of over 10%, and were an excellent proving ground for acceptance of his new technology in other cities, in contrast to the cable cars which climbed the steepest grades of Nob Hill in San Francisco at the time.

The Richmond Union Passenger Railway, in Richmond, Virginia, was the first practical electric trolley (tram) system, and set the pattern for most subsequent electric trolley systems around the world. It is an IEEE milestone in engineering. The Richmond system was not the first attempt to operate an electric trolley. According to the IEEE, there were at least 74 earlier attempts to provide electric trolley service in over 60 communities in North America, the United Kingdom, and continental Europe. However, these earlier attempts were not reliable enough to replace the existing animal-powered trolleys.

The Richmond system was designed by Frank Julian Sprague. After trials in late 1887, it began regular operation on February 2, 1888, with 10 streetcars. Electric power was supplied through overhead trolley wires (450 volts) for two 7.5 horsepower (5.6 kW) motors on each car. Large cars weighed 3130 kg, provided 40 seats, and carried up to 100 passengers; small cars weighed 3039 kg with 22 seats and up to 65 passengers. Running speed was 12 km/hour, with 24 km/hour as a maximum speed. By June 1888 the system contained 40 cars running on some 12 miles (19 km) of track, including steep grades, and with 30 curves.

Its success proved that electric traction was both safe and reliable. The Boston City Council, after inspecting Richmond's system on September 7, 1888, approved construction the second such project by the West End Street Railway. Boston's trolley was closely patterned upon Richmond's, and again demonstrated its practicality. By 1895 almost 900 electric street railways and nearly 11,000 miles (18,000 km) of track had been built in the United States, and in a little over a decade animal-powered street railways had essentially vanished. Richmond's electric trolley service ended on November 25, 1949.

Within a year, electric power had replaced more costly horsecars in many cities. By 1889 110 electric railways incorporating Sprague's equipment had been begun or planned on several continents. In 1890, Edison, who manufactured most of Sprague's equipment, bought him out, and Sprague turned his attention to electric elevators. Sprague's system of electric supply was a great advantage in relation to the first bipolar U-tube overhead lines, in everyday use since 1883 on Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram. This is accepted in USA as the turning point for electric traction on street tramways, exploiting all the technologies necessary for a practical working electric tramway which was adaptable to a wide variety of circumstances. Sprague took electric traction from one-off by one-off experimental examples into a repeatable, reliable production technology phase which spread like wildfire around the world. This was also a network (40 trams on 19 km of routes), and not just an individual line.

The effect of Sprague's developments in electric traction was to permit an expansion in the size of cities, while his development of the elevator permitted greater concentration in cities' commercial sections and increased the profitability of commercial buildings. Sprague's inventions over 100 years ago made possible modern light rail and rapid transit systems which still function on the same principles today. Sprague was awarded the gold medal at the Paris Electrical Exhibition in 1889, the grand prize at the St. Louis Exhibition in 1904, the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1904, the Edison Medal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, now IEEE, in 1910 'For meritorious achievement in electrical science, engineering and arts as exemplified in his contributions thereto', the Franklin Medal in 1921 and the John Fritz Gold Medal (posthumously) in 1935.

"All through his life and up to his last day, Frank Sprague had a prodigious capacity for work", his son Robert wrote in 1935. "And once having made up his mind on a new invention or a new line of work, he was tireless and always striving for improvement. He had a brilliantly alert mind and was impatient of any half-way compromise. His interest in his work never ceased; only a few hours before the end, he asked to have a newly designed model of his latest invention brought to his bedside". Frank and Harriet Sprague had two sons, Robert and Julian. Robert founded the "Sprague Electric Company" which became a leading manufacturer of capacitors and other electronic components. The company was later bought by Vishay in the 1990s. After Sprague died in 1934, his widow Harriet turned over a substantial amount of material from his collection to the New York Public Library, where it remains today accessible to the public via the rare books division. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, and she was interred beside him after her death in 1969.

Early 1880s. Leo Daft's "Ampčre" in Newark (New Jersey, USA) - experimental electric locomotive:

Wikipedia

1900s. "Lightning Route", the first city-wide system of streetcars established in 1886 in Montgomery (Alabama, USA):

Wikipedia

1923, Theatrical District in Richmond (Virginia, USA). Richmond Union Passenger Railway (1888) - the first practical electric trolley (tram) system:

Wikipedia

Frank Julian Sprague (1857-1934), American inventor of trolley-pole:

Link
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THE FIRST CONTINENTAL ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

LATIN AMERICA

FIRST WORLD'S INTERNATIONAL ELECTRIC TRAMWAY (1890):

The first electric tram line in Latin America was opened on March 12, 1890. Mexico had two international streetcar lines which crossed the Río Bravo between Mexico and cities in Texas, USA (The river is called Rio Grande in Texas). The first, which opened in 1882 between Ciudad Juárez and El Paso, was the first international tramway in the world; it was electrified in 1902. The second, which was built as an electric line, began operation between Nuevo Laredo (Tamaulipas state) and Laredo (Texas, USA) in 1890. It was the world's first international electric tramway and the first electric railway of any kind in Latin America.

Nuevo Laredo was part of the territory of the original settlement of Laredo (now in Texas) which was founded in 1755 by the Spaniard Don Tomás Sánchez in the northern part of the Rio Grande. Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was founded in 1755 while the area was part of the Nuevo Santander region in the Spanish colony of New Spain. Villa de San Agustin de Laredo got its name from Laredo, Cantabria, Spain and in honor of Saint Augustine of Hippo. The settlement's territory was granted to Spanish Indian-fighter José de Escandķn by the King of Spain, and the settlement's territory and population remained unified for 100 years. In 1840, Laredo was the capital of the independent Republic of the Rio Grande, set up in opposition President of Mexico Antonio Lķpez de Santa Anna and brought back into Mexico by military force. In 1846, during the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848 the town was occupied by the Texas Rangers. In 1848, after the war, Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty divided the territory attached to Laredo between Texas and Mexico. A referendum was taken in the town, which voted to petition the American military government in charge of the area to return the town to Mexico. This petition was rejected, and the bulk of the population moved over the river into Mexican territory to found Nuevo Laredo. Nuevo Laredo was founded on May 15, 1848, by seventeen Laredo families who wished to remain Mexican and therefore moved to the Mexican side of the Rio Grande. They identified with Mexico, its history and cultural customs, and decided to keep their Mexican citizenship. The founders of Nuevo Laredo even took with them the bones of their ancestors so they continued to rest in Mexican ground.

Currently Nuevo Laredo is connected to Laredo, Texas, across the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo) river by three international bridges and a rail bridge. The city is larger than its U.S. counterpart, but is younger, having been established after the Republic of Texas broke away from Mexico. It is the largest inland port in Mexico, just as its counterpart across the border is the busiest inland port in the United States. As an indication of its economic importance, one of Mexico's Banderas monumentales is located in the city (these flags have been established in state capitals and cities of significance).

Nuevo Laredo is 228 km north of Monterrey and 1291 km (by rail) from Mexico City. The 914 mm (3 ft) gauge Ferrocarril Mexicano reached Nuevo Laredo in 1883 and a horsecar line from the railroad station to Plaza Hidalgo opened on 19 November 1886. The "Street Railway Gazette" reported 1.58 km of 1280 mm (50.5 in) gauge track in 1888.

The Texan city across the river never had a horsecar line. The "Laredo Improvement Company" was chartered in 1888 to develop public utilities and build a tramway system. Eager to outdo the "one horse town" across the river, "Laredo Improvement Company" contracted the "Sprague Electric Railway" and "Motor Co." in New York and built an electric streetcar system in Laredo in 1889. Track gauge was 1219 mm (4 ft) and seven new electric cars built by J. G. Brill in Philadelphia inaugurated the first trolley system in Texas on January 27, 1890. Three months later, on 12 March, "Laredo Improvement Company" extended the tramway over a bridge to Nuevo Laredo in Mexico.

The electric line ran 12 blocks south down Avenue Guerrero, passing Plaza Hidalgo, then 10 blocks west on Calle Arteaga to the Aduana (Customs House) at Plaza de Mayo - a distance of about 2.5 km. It was the first electric railway in the Americas south of the United States, preceding the first lines in all other Latin American countries including Brazil (1892), Panama (1893), Trinidad (1895) and Argentina (1897). The pioneer Nuevo Laredo line also opened 10 years before the first electric tramway in Mexico City.

Engraving of 1892. Nuevo Laredo, Mexico:

Link

But what happened after that is unclear. The international line was operated by "Laredo Improvement Company" but owned by a Mexican firm called "International Bridge and Tramway Co". The electric line presumably replaced the Nuevo Laredo horsecar route, but Mexico's Anuario Estadístico recorded 1.5 km of narrow gauge animal tramway in Nuevo Laredo in the 1890s, and 2.3 km in the early 20th century. Mexican surveys never acknowledged the existence of an electric tramway in Nuevo Laredo. A history of the Laredo streetcar system says that the international line closed on October 1, 1900, but the "McGraw Electric Railway Directory", published annually in the United States, indicates that operation continued until about 1918. The international bridge burned in 1920 and a new bridge opened in 1922. The postcard below shows track and wire in Nuevo Laredo in 1923.

1923. Track and wire at Avenue Guerrero, Nuevo Laredo, Mexico:

Link

The spot above is three blocks north of Plaza Hidalgo and the view is north toward Texas. The fact that the track is cut off suggests that an electric tramway continued to operate on the Mexican side after international service was interrupted by the fire. But the other postcard below shows track on the new bridge constructed in 1922. The view again is north, toward Texas. Does the track stop at the border in the middle of the river? Did international service resume? Was track laid on the bridge but never used? These questions may forever remain unanswered. Both the 1933 and 1937 editions of the "World Survey of Foreign Railways" and the "Mass Transportation" list of 1935 report a 4 ft gauge horsecar system operated by the "Compaņía de Tranvías de Nuevo Laredo".

Track on new bridge, constructed in 1922:

Link
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SOUTH AMERICA

The first electric tramway in South America was opened on October 8, 1892 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The first horse-drawn tram in Rio de Janeiro, which seems to have been the second tramway in South America, was built by an English homeopathic physician named Thomas Cochrane. Cochrane and a Brazilian, Irenéo Evangelista de Souza, the Baron of Mauá, were the railway pioneers in Brazil. Tests began in 1858 and passenger service on Cochrane's tramway was inaugurated on January 30, 1859: Brazil may have been the fifth country in the world to operate a tramway, preceded only by the United States (1832), France (1855), Chile (1857) and Mexico (1858). Scheduled operation began the next day and the cars were christened by Emperor Dom Pedro II on March 26, 1859. The line was 7 km long and the public called the trams maxambombas: this was the nickname for the coaches on the Dom Pedro II Railroad that had opened part of its route to São Paulo (Cochrane's first concession) on 29 March 1858. Population of the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1859 was 150.000.

The first attempt at electric tramway operation in Rio de Janeiro took place during the Brazilian Railway Exposition of 1887. The Ferro-Carril do Jardim Botânico (Botanical Garden Railway) outfitted one of its cars with a Julien storage battery and transported guests from the exposition grounds to the Largo dos Leões on the evening of 2 July. This was the second experiment with battery trams in Brazil - the first was in Niterķi - and the press called the invention "one of the greatest accomplishments of the 19th century". Unfortunately, a second Jardim Botânico excursion two weeks later failed: the gears overheated, the axles froze and the car could not reach the end of the line. Storage batteries were used successfully to power buses in Rio de Janeiro after World War I, but they were not tried again on trams.

The electric tramway era in Rio de Janeiro started officially in 1891 with the simultaneous construction of two separate street railway systems using overhead wires. Both were engineered by the "Thomson-Houston Company" of Lynn, Massachusetts, USA, which became the "General Electric Company" in 1892, and which built a third electric tramway in Rio de Janeiro in 1896. The first electric tramway built in Rio, oddly, was not the first to operate.

The first trials of the new tramway took place on August 12, 1892. At 1:00 PM on Saturday October 8, 1892, Marshall Floriano Peixoto, the Vice-President of the newly-established Republic of Brazil, rode on Jardim Botânico tram 104 which inaugurated the first electric streetcar line in Rio de Janeiro. It was not only the first electric tramway - it was the first electric railway of any kind to operate in the Western Hemisphere outside Canada and the United States.

Jardim Botânico ordered five more electric cars from Stephenson and five bodies from the "Companhia Forjas e Estaleiros", a foundry in Niterķi, in 1893. In the company's 1894 "Annual Report", James Mitchell describes problems with the radial trucks, so the new cars presumably had two axles. On May 13, 1894 electric traction was inaugurated on Rua do Catete - the original horsecar route to Largo do Machado - and two more electric lines opened in the Flamengo area in 1896. By the end of that year, there were 25 electric streetcars operating in Rio de Janeiro. The company began to build its own electric trams in 1897 and had a fleet of 85 trolleys by 1903. On November 1, 1901 Jardim Botânico ran its first electric car through a tunnel to Copacabana (Horsecars had opened the tunnel in 1892). Within a few years electric trams helped transform the barren sandy strip along the Atlantic Ocean into the most densely populated beach resort on earth.

ASIA

EXPERIMENTAL ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

The first electric traction demonstrated at exhibition in Ueno Park, Tokyo, from May 3 till July 1, 1890; introduction of electric traction to Japan. First electric tramway within Tokyo was opened on August 22, 1903. Last lines of historic “municipal” system closed on November 11, 1972. Current line is one of the company systems taken into municipal ownership from February 1, 1942. These served areas that were outside of the Tokyo municipal boundary until annexations in 1932.

In Japan modernization and the adoption of Western technology became national policy via an imperial edict after the Meiji Restoration. Imported foreign specialists helped launch Japan's unprecedented economic and industrial growth. Unsurprisingly, the first electric tram line in Asia was built for an industrial exhibition in Tokyo's Ueno Park in 1890, years before many European or American cities saw an electric tram. Eventually electric tram lines and interurban railways covered the island kingdom from Hokkaido to Kyushu. Japan also imitated the West by invading neighboring countries and establishing imperial colonies and protectorates in Okinawa, Taiwan, Korea, Manchuria and Eastern Siberia. Tram systems were were installed in the major cities of all their colonies.

Experiments with an electrically-powered tram were conducted at the docks in Singapore in September 1891, and along a mile of track on the Kranji suburban steam-tramway line to Johor (in a suburb in northwestern Singapore) in September, 1892.

PERMANENT ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

On January 1, 1893, Bangkok became the first city in Asia with a permanent electric tram system.

Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, spanning the Chao Phraya River, is a port and transport and manufacturing center. There are several hundred Bhuddist temples in the old section of the city, which is built on piles and pontoons with canals like Venice. The city was originally a fishing village and fort before becoming the imperial capital in 1782. A horse tramway opened on September 22, 1887. The electric tram system that was inaugurated by "Bangkok Tramways Co." on January 1, 1893, was the first in Asia. "Bangkok Electric Light Syndicate" opened another electric line in September 1901 and "Siamese Tramways Co." opened a third on October 1, 1905. The three companies merged on May 5, 1927, as "Siamese Electricity Corporation", which eventually operated eight routes, 48.7 km of track and 206 trams. Bangkok's urban system closed on Oct. 1, 1968.

As the 19th century drew to a close, electric trams made their first appearances in: India - Madras, now Chennai (May 7, 1895); Ceylon, now Sri Lanka - Colombo (September 1898); Java, now Indonesia - Djakarta (April 10, 1899); Korea - Seoul (May 1, 1899); China - Beijing (June 24, 1899).

Bangkok Tram - the first electric tram system in Asia (1893):

Link

AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA

EXPERIMENTAL ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

The earliest electric tram in Melbourne was operated by a group of land developers from Box Hill railway station along Tram Road to Doncaster from Octiber 14, 1889 using equipment left over from the Great Exhibition of 1888. The venture failed and the service ceased on January 6, 1896. After this ultimately failed experiment, electric trams first returned on October 11, 1906, operated by the "North Melbourne Electric Tramway and Lighting Company". Currently trams in Melbourne are a major form of public transport and Melbourne is home to the largest tram network in the world. Melbourne's network consists of 250 km (155.3 miles) of track, 487 trams, 28 routes, and 1773 tram stops.

On November 9, 1890 an experimental line in Sydney ran from Waverley to Randwick, with power supplied from Randwick Workshops. It had three trams, but no crossing loops. The line reverted to steam operation on April 20, 1892.

PERMAMENT ELECTRIC TRAM LINES

Electrification was quickly adopted in Australian systems, with Hobart and Brisbane the first systems to be electrified on September 21, 1893 and in 1897 respectively. Hobart thus has been claimed as the first city in the Southern Hemisphere to operate a successful electric tramway system, but was preceded by Rio de Janeiro. It was also the only Australian city to use the European-style "bow collector", instead of Frank Sprague's trolley pole system. Hobart was also the first city outside Europe to employ electric double-decker trams. The Hobart system retained a distinctly "English" appearance throughout its existence. Hobart's tram system closed on October 21, 1960.

As the 19th century drew to a close, permanent electric tram lines made their first appearances in Perth (September 28, 1899), Sydney (December 8, 1899).

AFRICA

On August 6, 1896, Cape Town became the first city in Africa with a permanent electric tram system. After few days were opened electric tram lines in Cairo, Egypt (August 12, 1896) and Algiers, Algeria (October 16, 1896). Some later were opened electric tram lines in Port Elizabeth, South Africa (June 16, 1897); Oran, Algeria (1898); East London, South Africa (January 25, 1900) and Tunis, Tunisia (1900).

RESULTS OF THE FIRST 15 YEARS

I'm decided to pay such close attention to the early development of electric tramways in various world regions to be able to compare it with the early history of electric trams in Russia (this is the last time when I pay so much attention to foreign tram systems). It can be seen that during 15 years after the invention of the electric tram, this kind of transport became very developed and widely distributed in the world. The first model of an electric tram was tested in St. Petersburg in 1880. However, its development in Russia was extremly slow. During 15 years (1881-1895) almost 900 electric street railways and nearly 11000 miles (18000 km) of track had been built in the United States, and in a little over a decade animal-powered street railways had essentially vanished. Many hundreds of kilometers of electric tram tracks were also built in Europe - mainly in Germany, Austro-Hungary, Great Britain and France. In contrast, during this 15-years period in Russian Empire were built only one permanent and one temporary electric tram system. Early development of the electric tramway in the Russian Empire almost had no differences from same development in South America, Australia or colonial Asia, although it was a some better than in Africa.

Here I tried to make a full list of electric tram systems which were put into operation in the world during the first 15 years. Most likely, this list is not complete and not quite correct. Nevertheless, it looks impressive.

LIST OF THE WORLD ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS, WHICH WERE PUT INTO OPERATION IN 1881-1895:

(Italic font - experimental and original tram systems, which were closed in less than 10 years after its opening)

May 16, 1881 - Berlin, Germany;
June 9, 1882 - Zandvoort, Netherlands (closed on September 30, 1882);
August 4, 1883 - Volk's Electric Railway, Brighton, Great Britain;
October 18, 1883 - Mödling–Hinterbrühl, Austro-Hungary (now Austria);
November 5, 1883 - Portrush-Bushmills-Giant's Causeway, Northern Ireland, Great Britain;
February 18, 1884 - Frankfurt am Main, Germany;
January 15, 1885 - South Bend, Indiana, United States (experimental operation in 1882);
September 29, 1885 - Blackpool, Great Britain;
April 16, 1886 - Montgomery, Alabama, United States;
June 6, 1886 - Windsor, Ontario, Canada (closed in April 1888);
July 19, 1886 - Lima, Ohio, United States (experimental line);
September 1, 1886 - Detroit, United States;
November 30, 1886 - Scranton, Pennsylvania, United States;
1886 - Port Huron, Michigan, United States
1886 - Appleton, Wisconsin, United States
January 4, 1887 - Los Angeles, United States (closed in June 1888);
May 31, 1887 - Binghamton, New York, United States;
August 7, 1887 - Mansfield, Ohio, United States;
September 1887 - St. Catharines, Canada;
November 28, 1887 - Budapest, Austro-Hungary (now Hungary);
December 31, 1887 - San Diego, California, United States (closed in June 1889);
December 1887 - Council Bluffs, Iowa, United States
1887 - Battle Creek, Michigan, United States (experimental line);
1887 - New York, United States;
1887 - Omaha, Nebraska, United States;
January 2, 1888 - Ithaca, New York, United States (closed in May 1892);
February 2, 1888 - Richmond, Virginia, United States;
March 15, 1888 - Wheeling, West Virginia, United States;
March 1888 - Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, United States;
May 16, 1888 - San Jose, United States;
June 8, 1888 - Montreux, Switzerland;
June 16, 1888 - Syracuse, New York, United States;
August 6, 1888 - Davenport, Iowa, United States;
October 2, 1888 - Akron, Ohio, United States;
October 16, 1888 - Rostock, Germany;
October 17, 1888 - Washington, United States;
October 30, 1888 - Lafayette, Indiana, United States;
November 19, 1888 - Lynn, Massachusetts, United States;
November 26, 1888 - Reading, Pennsylvania, United States;
1888 - Hartford, Connecticut, United States;
1888 - Wilmington, Delaware, United States;
1888 - Jeffersonville, Indiana, United States;
1888 - Des Moines, Iowa, United States;
1888 - Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, United States;
1888 - Alliance, Ohio, United States;
1888 - Dayton, Ohio, United States;
1888 - Steubenville, Ohio, United States;
1888 - Pittsburgh, United States;
1888 - Woonsocket, Rhode Island, United States;
February 1, 1889 - Asheville, North Carolina, United States;
April 29, 1889 - Bangor, Maine, United States;
June 20, 1889 - Buffalo, New York, United States;
June 23, 1889 - Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States;
June 25, 1889 - Erie, Pennsylvania, United States;
July 4, 1889 - New Philadelphia–Dover, Ohio, United States;
July 20, 1889 - Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States;
July 26, 1889 - Augusta, Maine, United States;
August 7, 1889 - Newport, Rhode Island, United States;
August 16, 1889 - Dover, New Hampshire, United States;
August 23, 1889 - Atlanta, Georgia, United States;
September 1, 1889 - Rochester, New Hampshire, United States;
September 6, 1889 - Richmond, Indiana, United States;
October 14, 1889 - Box Hill-Doncaster, Melbourne, Australia (closed on January 6, 1896);
November 4, 1889 - Portland, Oregon, United States;
November 15, 1889 - Eau Claire, Wisconsin, United States;
December 23, 1889 - Minneapolis, United States;
December 25, 1889 - Dubuque, Iowa, United States;
1889 - Ottawa, Illinois, United States;
1889 - Rockford, Illinois, United States;
1889 - Louisville, Kentucky, United States;
1889 - Adrian, Michigan, United States;
1889 - Rochester, New York, United States;
1889 - Cincinnati, United States;
1889 - Greensburg, Pennsylvania, United States;
1889 - New Castle, Pennsylvania, United States;
1889 - Madison, Wisconsin, United States;
1889 - Merrill, Wisconsin, United States;
January 7, 1890 - Clermont-Ferrand, France;
January 27, 1890 - Laredo, Texas, United States;
February 22, 1890 - Victoria, Canada;
March 12, 1890 - Nuevo Laredo, Mexico - Laredo, Texas, United States;
March 1890 - Canton, Ohio, United States;
April 3, 1890 - Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States;
April 6, 1890 - Sioux City, Iowa, United States;
April 1890 - Muskegon, Michigan, United States;
May 3, 1890 - Tokyo, Japan (experimental line; closed on July 1, 1890);
May 23, 1890 - Salem, Ohio, United States;
May 25, 1890 - Helena, Montana, United States;
May 30, 1890 - Sunbury, Pennsylvania, United States (experimental operation in 1885);
June 6, 1890 - Pueblo, Colorado, United States;
June 6, 1890 - Springfield, Massachusetts, United States;
June 18, 1890 - Indianapolis, United States;
June 22, 1890 - Bremen, Germany;
June 28, 1890 - Vancouver, Canada;
July 1, 1890 - Superior, Wisconsin, United States;
July 12, 1890 - Roma, Italy (closed later);
August 24, 1890 - Lexington, Kentucky, United States;
August 26, 1890 - Lansing, Michigan, United States;
August 26, 1890 - Butte, Montana, United States;
August 30, 1890 - Keokuk, Iowa, United States;
August 30, 1890 - Elmira, New York, United States;
September 1, 1890 - Anaconda, Montana, United States;
September 5, 1890 - Brockton, Massachusetts, United States;
September 28, 1890 - Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States;
September 1890 - Florence, Italy;
October 4, 1890 - Shreveport, Louisiana, United States;
October 20, 1890 - Pittsburg, Kansas, United States;
October 21, 1890 - Chicago, Illinois, United States;
October 1890 - Newark, New Jersey, United States;
November 9, 1890 - Sydney, Australia (closed on April 20, 1892);
November 27, 1890 - Sandusky, Ohio, United States;
December 20, 1890 - Amsterdam, New York, United States;
December 27, 1890 - Zanesville, Ohio, United States;
1890 - Sacramento, United States;
1890 - Clinton, Iowa, United States;
1890 - Covington, Kentucky, United States;
1890 - Duluth, Minnesota, United States;
1890 - Albany, New York, United States;
1890 - Cohoes, New York, United States;
1890 - Utica, New York, United States;
1890 - Hamilton, Ohio, United States;
1890 - Toledo, Ohio, United States;
1890 - Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States;
1890 - Sharon, Pennsylvania, United States;
1890 - Dallas, United States;
January 27, 1891 - Winnipeg, Canada;
April 24, 1891 - Halle an der Saale, Germany;
May 12, 1891 - Oakland, California, United States;
May 12, 1891 - Berkeley, California, United States;
May 18, 1891 - Charlotte, North Carolina, United States;
May 20, 1891 - Watertown, New York, United States;
May 30, 1891 - Burlington, Iowa, United States;
June 11, 1891 - Jamestown, New York, United States;
June 14, 1891 - Houston, Texas, United States;
June 20, 1891 - Portland, Maine, United States;
June 29, 1891 - Ottawa, Canada;
July 1, 1891 - Los Angeles, United States;
July 1, 1891 - Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States;
July 18, 1891 - Prague, Austro-Hungary (now Czech Republic);
July 29, 1891 - San Francisco, United States;
August 15, 1891 - Windsor, Ontario, Canada;
August 18, 1891 - Great Falls, Montana, United States;
September 1, 1891 - Raleigh, North Carolina, United States;
September 8, 1891 - Vincennes, Indiana, United States;
September 9, 1891 - Palma (Majorca), Spain;
September 19, 1891 - Jackson, Michigan, United States;
September 1891 and September 1892 - Singapore (experimental lines);
October 1, 1891 - Logansport, Indiana, United States;
October 7, 1891 - New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada;
October 10, 1891 - Birmingham, Alabama, United States;
November 11, 1891 - Leeds, Great Britain;
December 12, 1891 - Defiance, Ohio, United States;
December 15, 1891 - Kokomo, Indiana, United States;
December 23, 1891 - Little Rock, Arkansas, United States;
December 25, 1891 - Lincoln, Illinois, United States;
1891 - Americus, Georgia, United States (closed in 1893);
1891 - Boise, Idaho, United States;
1891 - Aurora, Illinois, United States;
1891 - Danville, Illinois, United States;
1891 - Freeport, Illinois, United States;
1891 - Kankakee, Illinois, United States;
1891 - Streator, Illinois, United States (closed in 1896);
1891 - Elkhart, Indiana, United States (closed in 1891);
1891 - New Albany, Indiana, United States;
1891 - Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States;
1891 - Marquette, Michigan, United States;
1891 - International Falls, Minnesota, United States (closed in October 1895);
1891 - Glens Falls, New York, United States;
1891 - Columbus, Ohio, United States;
1891 - Findlay, Ohio, United States;
1891 - Put-in-Bay, Ohio, United States;
1891 - Springfield, Ohio, United States;
1891 - Lebanon, Pennsylvania, United States;
1891 - Galveston, Texas, United States;
1891 - Bellingham, Washington, United States;
1891 - Marinette, Wisconsin, United States;
January 20, 1892 - Providence-Pawtucket, Rhode Island, United States;
January 22, 1892 - Winona, Minnesota, United States;
February 20, 1892 - St. Peter Port, Guernsey, Great Britain;
February 22, 1892 - Gera, Germany;
March 2, 1892 - Fort William, Ontario, Canada;
March 1892 - Bradford, Great Britain (closed in March 1892);
April 9, 1892 - Ashtabula, Ohio, United States;
May 1892 - Yonkers, New York, United States;
June 13, 1892 - Kyiv, Russian Empire (now Ukraine);
June 18, 1892 - Naumburg (an der Saale), Germany;
June 24, 1892 - Janesville, Wisconsin, United States;
June 30, 1892 - St. Cloud, Minnesota, United States;
June 30, 1892 - Saratoga Springs, New York, United States;
July 2, 1892 - Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;
July 13, 1892 - Stockton, California, United States;
July 20, 1892 - Waterville, Maine, United States;
July 21, 1892 - Bozeman, Montana, United States;
August 1, 1892 - Rockland, Maine, United States;
August 6, 1892 - Hornell, New York, United States;
August 7, 1892 - Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States;
August 16, 1892 - Toronto, Canada;
August 22, 1892 - Independence, Iowa, United States;
August 26, 1892 - Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada;
August 27, 1892 - Beacon, New York, United States;
September 1, 1892 - Muncie, Indiana, United States;
September 15, 1892 - Evansville, Indiana, United States;
September 21, 1892 - Montréal, Canada;
September 21, 1892 - San Diego, California, United States;
October 8, 1892 - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;
October 22, 1892 - La Plata, Argentina (experimental line);
November 1892 - Racine, Wisconsin, United States;
December 10, 1892 - Chester, Pennsylvania, United States;
December 15, 1892 - Philadelphia, United States;
December 31, 1892 - Marshalltown, Iowa, United States;
1892 - Tampa, Florida, United States;
1892 - Centralia, Illinois, United States;
1892 - Harvey, Illinois, United States;
1892 - Columbus, Indiana, United States;
1892 - Fall River, Massachusetts, United States;
1892 - Benton Harbor, Michigan, United States;
1892 - Escanaba, Michigan, United States;
1892 - Manistee, Michigan, United States;
1892 - Missoula, Montana, United States (closed in 1897);
1892 - Cape May, New Jersey, United States;
1892 - Oswego, New York, United States;
1892 - Wilmington, North Carolina, United States;
1892 - East Liverpool, Ohio, United States;
1892 - Massillon, Ohio, United States;
1892 - Easton, Pennsylvania, United States;
1892 - York, Pennsylvania, United States;
January 1, 1893 - Wednesbury, Great Britain;
January 1, 1893 - Bangkok, Thailand;
January 18, 1893 - Mobile, Alabama, United States;
January 22, 1893 - Ashland, Wisconsin, United States;
January 28, 1893 - Ithaca, New York, United States;
February 1, 1893 - New Orleans, United States;
February 24, 1893 - Jacksonville, Florida, United States;
March 31, 1893 - Brantford, Ontario, Canada;
April 6, 1893 - Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States;
April 12, 1893 - Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada;
May 3, 1893 - Columbia, South Carolina, United States;
May 7, 1893 - Alameda, California, United States;
May 15, 1893 - Hammond, Indiana, United States;
May 19, 1893 - Hannover, Germany;
May 30, 1893 - Muscatine, Iowa, United States;
June 1, 1893 - Port Arthur, Ontario, Canada;
July 3, 1893 - Everett, Washington, United States;
July 6, 1893 - Dresden, Germany;
July 21, 1893 - Norristown, Pennsylvania, United States;
July 1893 - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, United States;
August 1, 1893 - Marion, Indiana, United States;
August 23, 1893 - Essen, Germany;
August 28, 1893 - Stans, Switzerland;
September 3, 1893 - Taunton, Massachusetts, United States;
September 6, 1893 - Elwood, Indiana, United States;
September 7, 1893 - Manx Electric Railway, Isle of Man, Great Britain;
September 21, 1893 - Hobart, Australia;
September 26, 1893 - Kingston, Ontario, Canada;
September 28, 1893 - Phoenix, Arizona, United States;
October 1, 1893 - Panama City, Colombia (now Panama), closed ca. 1900;
October 6, 1893 - Coronado, California, United States;
October 20, 1893 - Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, United States (closed in 1894);
November 1, 1893 - Milano, Italy;
December 19, 1893 - Chemnitz, Germany;
1893 - Genova, Italy;
1893 - Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland);
1893 - Pasadena, California, United States;
1893 - Springfield, Illinois, United States;
1893 - Ishpeming, Michigan, United States;
1893 - Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States;
1893 - Brainerd, Minnesota, United States (closed on June 2, 1898);
1893 - Staten Island, New York, United States;
1893 - Ossining, New York, United States;
1893 - Painesville, Ohio, United States;
1893 - Hanover, Pennsylvania, United States;
1893 - La Crosse, Wisconsin, United States;
March 1, 1894 - Dortmund, Germany;
March 5, 1894 - Hamburg, Germany;
March 8, 1894 - Zürich, Switzerland;
March 13, 1894 - Oslo, Norway;
April 16, 1894 - Wuppertal, Germany;
May 1, 1894 - Brussels, Belgium;
May 3, 1894 - Gotha, Germany;
May 6, 1894 - Zwickau, Germany;
May 8, 1894 - Middletown, New York, United States;
May 12, 1894 - Lübeck, Germany;
May 15, 1894 - Elkhart, Indiana, United States;
May 31, 1894 - Lviv, Austro-Hungary (now Ukraine);
June 1, 1894 - Erfurt, Germany;
June 8, 1894 - Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States;
June 9, 1894 - Newburgh, New York, United States;
July 4, 1894 - Calais, Maine, United States - St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada;
July 16, 1894 - Baden (bei Wien), Austro-Hungary (now Austria);
August 4, 1894 - Canandaigua, New York, United States;
August 13, 1894 - Gmunden (am Traunsee), Austro-Hungary (now Austria);
August 26, 1894 - Lyon, France;
September 25, 1894 - Le Havre, France;
November 17, 1894 - Plauen (im Vogtland), Germany;
December 15, 1894 - Poughkeepsie, New York, United States;
December 19, 1894 - Bucharest, Romania;
1894 - Mulhouse, France;
1894 - Roubaix, France;
1894 - Tourcoing, France;
1894 - Beograd, Serbia;
1894 - Stamford, Connecticut, United States;
1894 - Washington, Indiana, United States;
1894 - Phillipsburg, New Jersey, United States;
1894 - Kingston, New York, United States;
1894 - Niles, Ohio, United States;
1894 - Warren, Ohio, United States;
January 1, 1895 - Dijon, France;
February 1, 1895 - Kyoto, Japan;
March 27, 1895 - Geneva, New York, United States;
April 1, 1895 - Cortland, New York, United States;
April 18, 1895 - Altenburg, Germany;
May 1, 1895 - Sarajevo, Austro-Hungary (now Bosnia and Herzegovina);
May 6, 1895 - Basel, Switzerland;
May 7, 1895 - Madras (now Chennai), India;
May 1895 - Strasbourg, France;
May 18, 1895 - Kitchener and Waterloo, Ontario, Canada;
May 31, 1895 - Königsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia);
June 13, 1895 - Oshawa, Ontario, Canada;
June 23, 1895 - München , Germany;
June 26, 1895 - Port of Spain, Trinidad (closed in 1902);
July 15, 1895 - Aachen, Germany;
July 26, 1895 - Teplice, Austro-Hungary (now Czech Republic);
July 31, 1895 - Brattleboro, Vermont, United States;
August 3, 1895 - Belleville, Ontario, Canada (closed on September 12, 1901);
August 20, 1895 - Lockport, New York, United States;
August 24, 1895 - Varese, Italy;
August 24, 1895 - Carthage, Missouri, United States;
August 27, 1895 - Bratislava, Austro-Hungary (now Slovakia);
September 1, 1895 - Ogdensburg, New York, United States;
September 2, 1895 - Roma, Italy;
September 12, 1895 - Porto, Portugal;
September 12, 1895 - London, Ontario, Canada;
September 17, 1895 - Guelph, Ontario, Canada;
September 26, 1895 - Stuttgart, Germany;
October 1, 1895 - White Plains, New York, United States;
October 14, 1895 - Bristol, Great Britain;
November 1, 1895 - Corning, New York, United States;
November 23, 1895 - Elbing, Germany (now Elbląg, Poland);
November 27, 1895 - Sheboygan, Wisconsin, United States;
December 5, 1895 - Coventry, Great Britain;
December 11, 1895 - Bielitz-Biala, Austro-Hungary (now Bielsko-Biała, Poland);
1895 - Paris, France;
1895 - Bromberg, Germany (now Bydgoszcz, Poland);
1895 - Danzig, Germany (now Gdańsk, Poland);
1895 - Gatineau, Quebec, Canada;
1895 - Belvidere, Illinois, United States;
1895 - Fort Madison, Iowa, United States;
1895 - Manchester, New Hampshire, United States;
1895 - Port Townsend, Washington, United States (closed in late-1890s).
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Old October 18th, 2011, 12:44 AM   #1340
historyworks
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
Well, it seems that two people of 1047 liked to read this very specific thread. So, I decided to continue.
That just shows that there are 1045 not very bright people on SCF.

Thanks for private viewing Mr Tolstoy of trams. I'll go and get a cup of coffee and packet of biscuits and read!
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Last edited by historyworks; October 23rd, 2011 at 02:10 AM.
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