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Old October 18th, 2011, 04:31 AM   #1341
Woonsocket54
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is Vladivostok Aeroexpress an underground terminal, and will the line be ready for the Pacific Rim summit?
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Old October 18th, 2011, 09:17 AM   #1342
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Woonsocket54 View Post
Is Vladivostok Aeroexpress an underground terminal?..
No, ground-level.

Project of the Aeroexpress station near Rail Terminal. View from the Aleut street:

Black_Diamond

View from the rail platform:

Black_Diamond

Quote:
Originally Posted by Woonsocket54 View Post
... and will the line be ready for the Pacific Rim summit?
Yes, of course. It included into list of large city objects, which should to be ready to the 24th APEC Summit.
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Old October 18th, 2011, 07:28 PM   #1343
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YEKATERINBURG METRO

October 18, 2011. Construction of the Metro stations. Bus Terminal near future Metro station "Chkalovskaya" ("Valery Chkalov"):

ekburg

"Metrobuilding" headquarters. 44 days remains:

ekburg

Construction of entrances:

ekburg

Uncompleted escalators. It was officially declared that mounting works will be started in January 2012, and the station will be opened next spring:

ekburg


ekburg


ekburg
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Old October 18th, 2011, 07:31 PM   #1344
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City officials at the station "Botanicheskaya" ("Botanical"):

ekburg


ekburg


ekburg

Honeycombs:

ekburg


AlMax


AlMax
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Old October 18th, 2011, 07:51 PM   #1345
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CHELYABINSK METRO

October 14, 2011. Restoration of the Lenin Avenue near Komsomol Square. Backfilling of foundation pit after completion of the "Komsomolskaya Ploshchad" ("Komsomol Square") station:

URA


URA


URA


URA


URA


URA
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Old October 18th, 2011, 08:01 PM   #1346
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO

October 15, 2011. Construction of the vestibule of the future Metro station "Admiralteyskaya" ("Admiralty"), which planned to be open in December 2011:

goodspeedy


goodspeedy


goodspeedy


goodspeedy


goodspeedy


goodspeedy
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Old October 18th, 2011, 08:21 PM   #1347
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD

October 17, 2011. Construction of the Metro station "Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky"), which planned to be open on November 4, 2012:

fedpress


fedpress

Metrobridge across Oka River. Mounting of constructions for glazing of the bridge (glazing will be done during last stage of construction):

fedpress


fedpress
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Old October 18th, 2011, 08:23 PM   #1348
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fedpress


fedpress


fedpress


fedpress
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Old October 18th, 2011, 08:24 PM   #1349
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Site of the future station "Gorkovskaya":

fedpress


fedpress


fedpress


fedpress
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Old October 18th, 2011, 08:38 PM   #1350
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New project of the Metro station "Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky"):

niann


niann


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Old October 18th, 2011, 08:39 PM   #1351
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Old October 19th, 2011, 06:52 AM   #1352
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Those are some excellent murals of Gorky writing by the light of the moon.
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:18 AM   #1353
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II) FIRST ELECTRIC TRAMWAY IN RUSSIA

In what city opened the first Russia's electric tram line? This is not a such simple question, as it may seem. The matter in that the borders of Russia have changed dramatically over the last 120 years. There are four candidate cities for that to be named "city of first Russian electric tram". I'll write about the history of the electric tram in those four cities with all the "pros and cons". Let everyone decide this question for yourself.

1) JUNE 13, 1892 - KYIV, UKRAINE
(including 1901 - Svyatoshin and 1909 - Demiyivka, now parts of Kyiv)

The first electric tram line on the territory of former Russian Empire was opened in Kyiv, that now capital of Ukraine. Amand Struve was initiator of this construction.

Amand Struve (30 May 1835 - 12 September 1898) was a Baltic German engineer who worked in Kyiv. He is not known much outside of Kyiv, and mostly to specialists. He is now famed for constructing the: Struve Railroad Bridge in Kyiv; central sewerage and gas-powered street lighting systems in Kyiv; horse-drawn tramway in Kyiv and the Kyiv tram - the first electric tramway in the Russian Empire.

His relatives, which consisted of diplomats, engineers, government officials, military personnel, and others, moved into Russia in the 17th century. When he finished the main artillery school, he entered the army service. But the army career didn't satisfy him and he went off to study at the Niсholas Engineer Academy in St. Petersburg. During three years he worked as an engineer at construction of the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod railway. In 1860 he was invited to work in the "Society of the Moscow-Saratov Railroad".

He built a temporary railroad bridge (245.4 km) across Moscow-River in Kolomna for Moscow-Kazan route. On August 1, 1862 was opened railroad between Moscow and Kolomna (124 km) - 19th railway in Russian Empire. In 1863 Amand Struve won a contract for construction of a bridge across the Oka River. For this purpose, he built temporary workshops on the Oka left bank near the confluence of two rivers: the Moscow-River and the Oka. He rented over 10.9 hectares of area from peasants in Bobrovo village and received a permission for building various buildings including for a factory or a plant. This laid the foundation of one of the largest Russian plants - Kolomna Plant, which became one of the main symbols of intensive development of railway transport in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century.

Amand Struve managed Kolomna Plant till 1866, when he handed management to his older brother Gustav (1834-1882), and also since 1882 after Gustav's death. After a bridge across the Oka River (which was built in 1863-1864) other bridges followed for regions from Kolomna to Voronezh and from Serpukhov to Kursk and Kyiv. The bridge across the Dnieper River in Kyiv (1868-1870) was built based on a new principle (with "piers of the pneumatic system") and contemporaries called it the largest in Europe as it was a kilometer long. On order of the Moscow City Council, Kolomna Plant built in Moscow: Borodino Bridge (1868), Red Hills Bridge (1872), Moscow-River Bridge (1872) and Crimean Bridge (1873). Foundry Bridge across the Neva-River in St. Petersburg, which was opened on October 1, 1879, is still considered to be the most graceful. Palace Bridge, which was opened on December 23, 1916 in St. Petersburg (a large engineering construction), was the last bridge of Kolomna Plant. It includes 5 flights and the central one opens rapidly. A lot of attention was paid to its architecture and décor at the stage of design and construction.

Demand for railway transport was growing with each main line put into operation. In 1865 production of the first freight platforms and later on of railway cars of various types was organized in Kolomna and preparation for production of steam locomotives began. Locomotive production at Kolomna Plant dates back to 1869. It was then that the first freight steam locomotive, one of the first steam locomotives constructed in Russia left the plant. In the pre-revolutionary period Kolomna Plant was one of the few locomotive producers in Russia. During this period 139 types of steam locomotives were designed.

In 1870s Amand Struve worked in Kyiv. According to his projects were built Railroad Bridge across the Dnieper River in Kyiv (1868-1870), central sewerage system (1871-1872) and a gas-powered street lighting system (1871-1872). Struve was also author of project of horse-drawn tram system in Kyiv.

Kyiv omnibuses were put into operation only in June 1879. However, it was closed in autumn 1880 due to unsatisfactory technical condition of omnibuses. Before 1886, projects for the construction of a horse-drawn tramway were planned. For example, in 1869-1873 city authorities negotiated with the group of Kyiv merchants. However, none of these plans had ever proceeded to the construction stage. On October 11, 1886, engineer Amand Struve's project was approved for construction. The contract between Struve and city authorities was signed on July 19, 1889. According to the contract, Struve should to built 25 km of tramlines and exploit it during 45 years, from 1889 till 1934. He was should to give city authorities part of profit from exploitation every year. Since 1934 city authorities should be owners of tram network, but they had right to buy it after 25 years of exploitation, from 1914 till 1916.

In December 1890 Amand Struve registered "Joint stock company of the Kyiv urban railway" for the managment of tram network. The main shareholders were Struve and Kyiv enterpreneur (main assets - sugar and flour milling industry) Lazar Brodsky. On July 30, 1891, the first horse-drawn tram wagon was set on a track for experimental trip. On August 11, 1891 was opened first horse-drawn tram line - from station "Lybid" (near present-day Metro station "Lybidska") to the crossing of Big Vasylkiv street (now Red Army street) and Maria-Annunciation street (now Saksaganski street). After seven days, the tram line was extended along Khreschatyk street to the Tsar's Square (now European Square). On November 7, 1891 was opened second line - from St. Cyril street (now Frunze street) to the Alexander Square (now Contract Square), which was later extended to the Post Square. Some later were opened two more routes: Khreschatyk street - Hay Square (now Lviv Square) and Khreschatyk street - Cadet Highway (now Air Forces Avenue). Time intervals were 9 minutes, the passenger capacity of tramcar was 22 seats and 18 standing. Each line was divided on segments (the average lenght - 2.3 km). Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles for the trip at each segment and 3 kopecks more for the trip at additional segment (with right of one transfer). The discount travel price for students and soldiers was 3 kopecks (it was price of two loafs of rye bread). However, only first tramline was profitable (gross income - 158997 rubles, expense - 142538 rubles, profit - 16459 rubles).

Soon after tram operations were started, many problems arose. The hilly terrain of Kyiv presented the largest problem. There was steep Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) between two horse-drawn tram lines - from Tsar's Square (now European Square) to the Post Square. On Fundukley street (now Bohdan Khmelnytsky street), a pair of horses was not enough to pull the trams uphill. Therefore, another two pairs of horses were added, which did not improve the situation. Thus, mechanizing the tram using a steam-powered engine was attempted as a solution to the problem. On February 19, 1892 the first line of steam-driven tram was put into operation. Those steam trams were made at Kolomna Plant. However, the steam engines produced a lot of noise, which scared the horses and people, as well as a lot of air pollution.

The slew of problems experienced by the trams shocked Struve, who in April 1890 had written a letter to the City Administration of Kyiv suggesting that for increased safety and easier use, the trams would need to be powered using electric motors. The administration of the Kyiv Telegraph service opposed this move since, in their opinion, the electric motors would interfere with the telephone and telegraph systems. Nevertheless, Struve's petition was granted. The construction works at Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) were began on September 21, 1891 and were finished in the spring of next year. The grooved rails were made in Bryansk Plant. On May 13, 1892, the first two trams with electric motors arrived in Kyiv. They were built by Amand Struve in Kolomna Plant, based on American designs. On May 19, the electric engines were tested on the flat Alexander street (now Sahaydachny street), and once more, on May 20, on the track from Podil street to Khreschatyk street. The first 1.5-km single-track electric tram line in Russian Empire was put into operation on June 13, 1892 along Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent), between Tsar's Square (now European Square) and Alexander Square (now Contract Square). The spectators expected to see the fall of tramcar. However, electric tram passed this difficult route without any problems. Therefore, electric tram became popular kind of transport.

In 1893, the money earned by these electric trams exceeded the cost to maintain the trams. The profit from exploitation of electric tram was 18436 rubles, while profit from exploitation of the routes of horse-drawn and steam-driven tram - only 4517 rubles. Furthermore, the electric trams were used whenever the horse-drawn or steam-powered trams had difficulty. By 1893, the city's trams easily climbed the many steep streets of Kyiv. In 1893 was opened line to Pechersk District. On June 13, 1894 was electrified line from Maria-Annunciation street (now Saksaganski street) to the Tsar's Square (now European Square), along Khreschatyk street. After one month was electrified line along Big Zhytomyr street to the Hay Square (now Lviv Square). Some later was electrified branch line to the Kyiv Rail Terminal, along the Bezak street (now Symon Petliura street). In February 13, 1895 was opened horse-drawn tramline from Karavayev Square (now Leo Tolstoy Square) to St. Andrew's Church, along the Karavayev street (now Leo Tolstoy street), Big Vladimir street (now Vladimir street) and Tithes street (now Vladimir street) - it was electrified in October 1895. The profit from exploitation of electric tram lines was 192.5 thousand rubles in 1896, and this number increased every year. In 1893, the journal "Electrician" wrote: "If Kyiv's terrain had not been so unique, then it would have taken many years before electricity would have been used to power the trams".

Nevertheless, the system's horse-drawn trams were in use until February 1, 1896, and the last steam-powered cars ran until 1904, when a diesel electric station, on the so-called Cottage Line to Puschya-Vodytsia climate resort was built. These trams required very little power, which caused any electric trams, which used the line, to move so slowly that the passengers could get on and off the tram, while the tram remained in motion. By 1900 total length of Kyiv tram lines was 66.2 km, 49.2 km of which was electrified.

In 1901 was opened electric tram line (length - 9.6 km) to Svyatoshin resort, near the Kyiv. This line was popular during summer. On August 26, 1905 was opened line along the Circular University street. A long petrol-driven tram line, about 17 versts (18 kilometres) long, was laid from the Post Square in the Podil neighbourhood, over the Dnieper on the Nicholas Chain Bridge, through the Peredmostna and St. Nicholas Settlement neighbourhoods, and to the neighbouring town of Brovary. This line was built in 1911-1913, was used until the mid-1930s, and was a one-way line with side-skirts for oncoming trams to drive into. This had made the trip even longer than it really was. The cost was 35 kopecks, a fair amount of money at the time. Nevertheless, the trams were always packed with passengers.

A major problem of the tram drivers at the time was the rolling stock used. When the city's railroad stock holder Lazar Brodsky died, the stocks were transferred in January 1905 to the Belgian auction firm "Societé anonyme Belge des tramways de Kieff", and the tram system began running on the Belgian "Pullman" wagons, with soft, sail-type cloth seats. But not these, nor the earlier seats on the German wagons, gave the tram drivers any comfort while standing in wind, rain, or snow, on the driver's platform on the tram. Since May till October 1913 in Kyiv was held All-Russian Trade and Industrial Exhibition. As result, passenger traffic increased in two times, and profit was 1.6 mln. rubles.

By 1913 in Kyiv were 20 tram routes and one "summer route", as well as separate narrow-gauge Svyatoshin Line, petrol-driven Darnytsia (Slobodskaya) Line, private Demiyivka and Cadet Lines (the last two lines were built by Kyiv enterpreneur David Margolin). The total length of the tram lines was 172 km. There were 224 tramcars, which carried more than 64 mln. passangers per year. In 1913 city authorities planned to build tramline from Kyiv to Zhytomyr (Ukrainian city, located 131 kilometres west of Kyiv), but it was cancelled due to beginning of WWI. According to the contract, in 1912 city authorities started negotiations with the Belgian shareholders about buying of the tram network. However, the parties could not agree on a price of enterprise. But in 1918, after Russian Revolution, the negotiations were terminated. Belgians lost everything, and city authorities became new owners of Kyiv tram.

Amand Struve (1835-1898) - the author of project of Kyiv tram:

Link

1891, spring-summer. Khreshchatyk street. Construction of line of the horse-drawn tram:

Олександр

1891-1894. Horse-drawn tram at Big Vasylkiv street (now Red Army street):

Maksim93

1894-1895, Vladimir street. Horse-drawn tramcar near St. Vladimir University (now Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv):

Олександр

Steam-driven tram at Tsar's Square (now European Square):

Олександр

Last edited by AlekseyVT; September 10th, 2012 at 08:11 PM.
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:19 AM   #1354
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June 13, 1892. Opening of the first electric tram line at Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent):

[Книга]

First electric tramcar in Russian Empire. Constructed by Amand Struve at Kolomna Plant (1892), based on American designs:

kraevid

1890s. Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent):

kraevid

1890s. Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) in winter:

kraevid

1890s. Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) in summer:

kraevid

1907-1917. Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent). Belgian "Pullman" tramcar:

Олександр
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:21 AM   #1355
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Upper end of the first electric tram line in Russian Empire - Tsar's Square (now European Square):

retromoscow

Tsar's Square (now European Square):

Олександр

Tsar's Square (now European Square):

kraevid

1907-1913. View to Khreshchatyk street from Tsar's Square (now European Square). Route #2:

Олександр

1910s. View to Khreshchatyk street from Tsar's Square (now European Square):

kraevid
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:21 AM   #1356
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City Hall at the City Council Square (now Independence Square), central square of Kyiv:

retromoscow

Khreshchatyk street, main street of Kyiv:

retromoscow

1895. Khreshchatyk street:

Олександр

1900s, Khreshchatyk street. Belgian "Pullman" wagons:

kraevid

1910s, Khreshchatyk street. Tramcar near Bessarabian Market:

varjag-2007

Branch line to Khreshchatyk street:

kraevid
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:22 AM   #1357
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1890s-1900s. Post Square and corps of the Alexander tram depot (worked in 1892-1904), the first electric tram depot in Russian Empire:

Олександр

1890s-1900s. Lviv street (now Artyom street):

Олександр

1890s-1900s. Maria-Annunciation street (now Saksaganski street), crossing with Karavayev street (now Leo Tolstoy street):

Олександр
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:23 AM   #1358
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Fundukley street (now Bohdan Khmelnytsky street):

retromoscow

Fundukley street (now Bohdan Khmelnytsky street). Tramcar near building of Fundukley Female Gimnasium:

varjag-2007

The crossing of Fundukley street (now Bohdan Khmelnytsky street) and Vladimir street:

varjag-2007

1890s-1900s. Vladimir street:

Олександр

1890s-1900s, end of the Big Vasylkiv street (now Red Army street), near present-day Metro station "Lybidska". Terminus station:

Олександр

1900s, Big Vasylkiv street (now Red Army street). Tramcar near St. Nicholas church:

Олександр

Tramline to Pechersk District:

kraevid
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:23 AM   #1359
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1900s-1910s. St. Nicholas Square (now Arsenal Square), crossing of St. Nicholas street (now Ivan Mazepa street) and Moscow street:

Олександр

1900s, St. Michael Square. Belltower of St. Sophia Cathedral on the background:

Олександр

1904-1916, Hosea street (now Herzen street). Terminus station "St. Theodore Church":

Олександр

1905-1916, Bank street. Tramcar near "House with Chimaeras":

Олександр
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:24 AM   #1360
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1900s, Alexander Square (now Contract Square). Tram routes #1 and #2:

Олександр

1911-1916, Alexander street (now Mykhailo Hrushevsky street). Tramcar (route #3) going to the Tsar's Square (now European Square):

Олександр

Alexander street (now Mykhailo Hrushevsky street):

kraevid

Monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky at St. Sophia Square:

varjag-2007

1912. Petrol-driven tram of the Slobodskaya Line in the depot:

Олександр

1908-1918. Cadet Tramline:

Олександр

1908. St. Constantine street:

Олександр
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