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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:25 AM   #1361
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1906-1918, present-day Podil Descent. One of the most picturesque tramline, which was known as "Kyivan Switzerland":

Lnk

1900s. Tramline at the present-day Podil Descent:

Олександр

1900s-1910s. Lukyanovka District:

Lnk

1900s-1910s. Puschya-Vodytsia climate resort:

Олександр
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Old October 20th, 2011, 12:26 AM   #1362
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Undoubtedly, Kyiv was the first city in the former Russian Empire where was opened electric tram system. However, today Kyiv is capital of an independent Ukraine. Therefore, it's incorrect to call Kyiv Tramway as "the first Russia's electric tram". In this regard, it's interesting the story of the monument to electric tram in Kyiv.

Monument to Kyiv electric tram at the Post Square, near beginning of Vladimir Descent:

Снежана Малышева

This monument was built by sculptor Yury Kiselyov and architect V. Sobtsov to the 100-anniversary of Kyiv electric tram. It was opened in 1992, a year after declaring of Ukrainian independence. Due to these political reasons, city authorities didn't wish to write on a pedestal - "First electric tram in Russia" or "First electric tram in Russian Empire". Instead of this, they found a more suitable phrase in the diplomatic sense - "First electric tram in Eastern Europe" (although the term "Eastern Europe" is also controversial).

Another inaccuracy in the inscription refers to the date. Here is written: "Here, at Alexander Descent, on July 1 (14), 1892, first time in Eastern Europe, electric tram was put into operation". The first date (June 1) is the date according to the Julian calendar, which was used in the Russian Empire before the Revolution of 1917 and is still used by Russian Orthodox Church. The second date is the date according to the Gregorian calendar, which is now used in almost all countries, including Russia and Ukraine. But in 19th century the difference between those calendars was 12 days, and only in 1900 it was increased till 13 days. So, the correct date of opening of Kyiv electric tram is June 13 (not June 14), 1892 according to present-day calendar.

geocaching

The tramline at Vladimir Descent was closed on April 11, 1977. During the recent repair work remains of the rails have been found:

Аксенов Дмитрий
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Old October 22nd, 2011, 11:07 PM   #1363
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This is absolutely fascinating.Congratulations.Please continue.
Historyworks;make that 1044.
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Old October 24th, 2011, 12:42 AM   #1364
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JANUARY 31, 1895 - ST. PETERSBURG

Saint Petersburg saw the arrival of street rail transport during the 1860s in form of horse-drawn rail carriages. The first, freight-only 3.5-km street railway track was opened in 1854 to serve one of the industrial city suburbs (near Smolensk Settlement, engineer - A. Polezhaev). In 1863, three passenger lines in the city centre came into operation. Several private companies were formed, and the horsecar network eventually expanded to 26 routes covering over 90 kilometres of track (1877). Carrying 57.781.582 passengers in 1893, the street rail network in Saint Petersburg proved a successful commercial venture.

The first demonstration of an electric tram in the world occurred on September 3, 1880 in St. Petersburg. Fyodor Pirotsky, an engineer who demonstrated the tram to the public, hoped that the Joint-stock "Horse-railway society", which possessed a monopoly on all rail transportation in the city, would consider replacing traditional horse-drawn rail carriages with electric-powered ones. Despite the fact that all tests were successful, Pirotsky's proposal was dismissed on the grounds that equipping existing tram tracks for electric traction and purchasing or building compatible tram vehicles would be too expensive. St. Petersburg entrepreneurs have already spent a lot of money on construction of lines of horse-drawn tram. They had long-term contracts with city authorities and wanted to have profit from the exploitation of tram network. Therefore, the new kind of tram would be competitor for them. It's need to add that some shareholders were members of State Council. Therefore, monopolistic rights of the Joint-stock "Horse-railway society" on the exploitation of urban rail transport looked unshakable.

In 1880s and early 1890s electric tram systems were opened in many world cities. Then newly-founded "Partnership for exploitation of electricity of Mikhail Podobedov and Co" decided: "They forbid us to build electric tram lines on St. Petersburg ground! So, we will build it on St. Petersburg waters!!!

RETURN OF THE ELECTRIC TRAM

By this time, there were some non-ordinary kinds of transportation across the frozen Neva River. In 1894 "Finnish Society of Light Shipping" organized rail transportation on ice of Neva River, from Senate Square to Vasilyevsky Island. The wagons ran on inclined rails under the influence of gravity. The principle of action of this so-called "gravitational tram" was very similar to the roller coaster (popular amusement ride, which is also called as "Russian Mountains" in many languages and "American Mountains" in Russian). There were five small minecarts, which could carry 20 passangers per carriage. Travel price was 2 kopecks or 0.02 rubles. This system operated during two winters.

In preparation for the launch of a electric tram on the ice of the frozen Neva River were spent 28 thousand rubles. In the winter of 1894/1895, electric tramways came back to Saint Petersburg. This time, however, they ran on tracks over ice (during winter season) covering the Neva River. An electric public transit company was formed, and several routes crossing the river in various places began regular operation. Even though the Joint-stock "Horse-railway society" still possessed absolute rights on city street railways, and hence filed a lawsuit against the electric tram operators, it eventually lost the case because the judge claimed that the horsecar company's monopolizing agreement with the city authorities did not cover laying tracks on ice.

On January 31, 1895 were put into operation two or three electric lines, later this number was increased till four. There were four lines: Senate Square - Imperial Academy of Arts at Vasilyevsky Island, Palace Enbankment - Tax Enbankment, Suvorov Square - Vyborg Side, Suvorov Square - Petersburg Side (latter was laid last). The total length was 3.3 km.

One century ago winters in Russia were much more severe, so safely operation of "on-ice tram" was possible. Every winter from 1895 to 1910, electric tramways were laid on the ice of the river, connecting various parts of the city. The power was supplied through the rails and a top cable supported by wooden piles frozen into the ice. The voltage of electric circuit was 225V. The service was highly successful and ran without major accidents except for a few failures in the top electrical wires. Travel price was 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (~ 6 US cents). The trams ran at the speed of 20 km/h and could carry 20 passengers per tramcar. The carriages were converted from the used horsecars. There were four single-track lines with gauge either 1000 or 1067 mm.

The tram-on-ice system got very popular in the Russian capital due to low cost compared to other means of on-ground transportation and short time needed to cross the river and was in use for a few years consequently. About 900.000 passengers were transported over a regular season between 20 January and 21 March. The sparking of contacts at the top wires amused spectators in the night.

It was so popular that visitors from other Russian cities told stories about it in their local places and some time later the same "on-ice tram" was launched in Nizhny Novgorod and Arkhangelsk. The last time electric tram lines were laid on the ice of Neva River in the winter of 1909/1910. By this time the electric tramway appeared in St. Petersburg not only on the ice, but also on the city streets.

1894, "gravitational tram". St. Isaac Cathedral on the background:

isl


Сергей Бабушкин
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Old October 24th, 2011, 12:43 AM   #1365
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"On-ice tram". Episode from documentary film about St. Petersburg tram (time 0:00-0:30)


1904, Palace Enbankment. Winter Palace:

periskop

March 1904, ticket office. Palace Line from Palace Enbankment to Tax Enbankment:

periskop

1890s, Palace Line. Tram stop near Palace Embankment:

Oldsp

1900s, Palace Line. Tramcar on the ice of Neva River:

periskop

1900s, Palace Line:

periskop


ru-uzd


periskop

1900s, tramcars:

ru-uzd

1900s, tramcars near Spit of Vasilyevsky Island:

ru-uzd

1900s, Palace Line. Peter and Paul Fortress on background:

periskop
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Last edited by AlekseyVT; May 31st, 2012 at 02:20 AM.
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Old October 24th, 2011, 12:43 AM   #1366
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1895, Senate Line. Tram stop near Senate and Synod Building (now headquarters of the Constitutional Court of Russia):

billy-red

1895. View at the Senate Line from the University Enbankment:

billy-red

1900s, tram stop near Senate and Synod Building:

ru-uzd

1900s, Senate Line. Temporary bridge and electric tram:

billy-red

1900s, perspective of Senate Line. Imperial Academy of Arts on the background:

billy-red


ru-uzd

1900s. Imperial Academy of Arts:

Oldsp

1900s, Senate Line. Panorama of Admiralty Enbankment:

billy-red

1900s, Senate Line. Wing of Admiralty building:

Николай Роговиков
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Old October 24th, 2011, 01:09 AM   #1367
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AlekseyVT, is Komsomolskaya station in Chelyabinsk a side platform or an island platform? The renders show island platform, but construction photos suggest otherwise:
http://metroblog.ru/post/3865/
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Old October 24th, 2011, 10:06 AM   #1368
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Woonsocket54 View Post
AlekseyVT, is Komsomolskaya station in Chelyabinsk a side platform or an island platform? The renders show island platform, but construction photos suggest otherwise:
http://metroblog.ru/post/3865/
Platform will be island-type. It's not ready yet. Its level will be increased.

Look at the left tunnel on background:
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Old October 24th, 2011, 05:00 PM   #1369
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
Platform will be island-type. It's not ready yet. Its level will be increased.

Look at the left tunnel on background:
OK, now I see it. Strange-looking, though.
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Old October 25th, 2011, 12:17 AM   #1370
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MAY 31, 1895 - KÖNIGSBERG (now KALININGRAD)

"On-ice tram" in St, Petersburg became the first electric tram system on the territory of present-day Russia. But it was temporary system, which operated only during two months in year.

The oldest permanent electric tram system on the territory of present-day Russia is located in Kaliningrad. Formerly known as Königsberg, it was the capital of East Prussia from the Late Middle Ages until 1945. It was founded by the Teutonic Knights just south of the Sambian peninsula in 1255 during the Northern Crusades and named in honour of King (German: König) Ottokar II of Bohemia (the German-language name Königsberg literally means "King's mountain"). The city successively became the capital of their monastic state, the Duchy of Prussia, and East Prussia. The Baltic port developed into a German cultural center, being the residence of, among others, philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), author Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann (1776-1822), composer Richard Wagner (1813-1883) and mathematician David Hilbert (1862-1943).

In 1819 Königsberg had a population of 63.800. It served as the capital of the united Province of Prussia from 1824–1878, when East Prussia was merged with West Prussia. It was also the seat of the Regierungsbezirk Königsberg, an administrative subdivision. Königsberg became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. A sophisticated for its time series of fortifications around the city that included fifteen forts was completed in 1888.

The extensive Prussian Eastern Railway linked Königsberg to German towns: Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland), Thorn (now Torun, Poland), Insterburg (now Chernyakhovsk, Russia), Eydtkuhnen (now Chernyshevskoye, Russia), Tilsit (now Sovetsk, Russia) and Pillau (now Baltiysk, Russia). In 1860 the railroad connecting Berlin with St. Petersburg was completed and increased Königsberg's commerce. Regular steamers plied to German ports - Memel (now Klaipėda, Lithuania), Tapiau (now Gvardeysk, Russia), Labiau (now Polessk, Russia), Cranz (now Zelenogradsk, Russia), Tilsit (now Sovetsk, Russia), and Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland).

The completion of a canal to Pillau (now Baltiysk, Russia) in 1901 increased the trade of Russian grain in Königsberg, but, like much of eastern Germany, the city's economy was generally in decline. By 1900 the city's population had grown to 188.000, with a 9.000-strong military garrison. By 1914 Königsberg had a population of 246.000; Jews flourished in the culturally pluralistic city.

The first horse-drawn tram in Königsberg was put into operation on May 26, 1881. Later private companies built some more lines in the city. By 1895, there were five horse-drawn tram lines:
1) Vorstadt — Steindammer Tor (Steindamm Gate);
2) Kronenstraße — Hintertragheim (now Kalinin Avenue - Sergeyev street);
3) Königstor (King's Gate) — Ostbahnhof (Eastern Rail Terminal) (now Yury Gagarin street - Polotsk street);
4) Steindammer Tor (Steindamm Gate) — Hinterrossgarten (now Victory Square - Clinical street);
5) Poststraße — Julchental (now Shevchenko street - Central Park of Culture and Leisure).

The first electric tram line in Königsberg was opened on May 31, 1895. It was built between Pillauer Bahnhof or Pillau Rail Terminal (not preserved, was located near present-day Mariupol street) and Neuen Markt or New Market (near present-day supermarket "Moscow"). But horse-drawn tram system was continued to develop even after opening of electric tram. By 1900, were opened two more lines of horse-drawn tram:
6) Ostbahnhof (Eastern Rail Terminal) — Kalthof suburb;
7) Stadtzentrum (Center of city) — Hufen suburb.

But very soon the history of Königsberg horse-drawn tram came to a close. It ceased to exist in June 1901, when all lines within the city borders (except for some routes in Hufen) were sold by the municipality. Last time horse-drawn tram ran on urban streets on October 30, 1901. After this horse-drawn tram lines were electrified. During electrification, tramlines were re-gauged from 1435 mm ("standart gauge") to 1000 mm ("narrow gauge").

In 1899 there were four electric tram routes in Königsberg, in 1902 this number increased till eight, in 1904 - till 11. By 1937 there were 15 tram routes. Each tram route had own color. Königsberg tram was operated from 6:20am till 11:30pm.

Königsberg was heavily damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 during World War II and was subsequently conquered by the Red Army after the Battle of Königsberg in 1945. The city was annexed by the Soviet Union according to the Potsdam Agreement and largely repopulated with Russians. Briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg, it was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin (1875-1946). German was replaced by Russian as the language of everyday life. The city was rebuilt, and went through industrialisation and modernisation. It's now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Region.

Currently Kaliningrad Tramway is an oldest and most western tram system in the Russia. It's also one of two Russian tram systems with "narrow gauge" - 1000 mm (the other system is Pyatigorsk Tramway). However, in 1895 Königsberg became only next in the long row of German cities, in which since 1881 electric tram lines were put into operation. Therefore, to name it as "first Russia's electric tram" is also not quite correct. So, I'm think it would be better to write about the history of Kaliningrad tram in details (with schemes and photos) in subsequent parts.

End of 19th century. Horse-drawn tram near Königsberg Castle:

Wikipedia

1900s. Electric tramcar near Steindammer Tor (Steindamm Gate):

Калининградский ПАДОНАК

1900s. Electric tramcar near Steindammer Tor (Steindamm Gate):

Калининградский ПАДОНАК
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Old October 25th, 2011, 08:45 PM   #1371
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I am just curious, are there any trams in Russia that have to cross a river by ferry boat?
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Can you also start a thread of the history of Russian trolley-bus?
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Old October 25th, 2011, 10:18 PM   #1372
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ode of bund View Post
I am just curious, are there any trams in Russia that have to cross a river by ferry boat?
No.

Quote:
Originally Posted by ode of bund View Post
Can you also start a thread of the history of Russian trolley-bus?
Only after finishing of the history of Russian tram (not earlier than 2013). Searching for information took a lot of free time.
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:12 AM   #1373
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2) MAY 20, 1896 - NIZHNY NOVGOROD

Speaking without any reservations or restrictions, the first Russia's electric tram was put into operation in Nizhny Novgorod, to the All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896. Unlike "on-ice tram" in St. Petersburg, it was permanent line, which was built in Russian Empire (unlike Kaliningrad Tram) and now is located on territory of Russian Federation (unlike Kyiv Tram). It's also interesting that originally there were four tram systems in Nizhny Novgorod, which were built by three separate companies and had different gauge.

Early history

Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is the economic and cultural center of the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and also the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Region and Volga Federal District. The city is an important economic, transport and cultural center of the Russian Federation.

The city was founded in 1221 by Grand Duke Yuri II of Vladimir at the confluence of Volga and Oka Rivers, two most important rivers of his principality. Its name literally means Lower Newtown, to distinguish it from the older Veliky Novgorod. Along with Moscow and Tver, Nizhny Novgorod was among several newly-founded towns that escaped Mongol devastation on account of their insignificance, but grew into (great) centers in vassal Russian political life during the period of the Tatar Yoke. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in 1264. After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich (1323–1383) sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; he built a stone citadel and several churches and was a patron of historians. The earliest extant manuscript of the "Russian Primary Chronicle", the "Laurentian Codex", was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377.

After the city's incorporation into Grand Duchy of Moscow (1392), the local princes took the name Shuisky and settled in Moscow, where they were prominent at the court and briefly ascended the throne in the person of Vasily IV. After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan. The enormous red-brick Kremlin, one of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in 1508–1515 under the supervision of Peter the Italian. The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in 1521, 1536 and 1574.

In 1612, the so-called national militia, gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Minin, and commanded by Prince Dmitry Pozharsky expelled the hordes of Polish aggressors from Moscow, thus putting an end to the "Time of Troubles" and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty (1613-1917). The main square before the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is named after Minin and Pozharsky, although it is locally known simply as "Minin Square". Minin's remains are buried in the citadel. (In commemoration of these events, on October 21, 2005, an exact copy of the Moscow's Red Square statue of Minin and Pozharsky was placed in front of St. John the Baptist Church, which is believed to be the place from where the call to the people had been proclaimed). In the course of the following century, the city prospered commercially and was chosen by the Stroganovs (the wealthiest merchant family of Russia) as a base for their operations. A particular style of architecture and icon painting, known as the Stroganov style, developed there at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

In 1817, the Makaryev Fair, one of the liveliest in the world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, which thereupon started to attract millions of visitors annually. This fair held annually every July near Makaryev Monastery (St. Macarius Monastery) on the left bank of the Volga River from the mid-16th century to 1816. It was one of the most famous and important merchant fairs in Eastern Europe. Many merchants from Europe and Asia arrived in July to exchange goods. From the 1620s the fair was an important event in the Russian economy. By 1800, there were over three thousand government and private buildings to house the millions of rubles worth of trade goods. In 1816, a huge fire burned most of the buildings and millions of rubles were lost. The fair was then (in 1817) moved to Nizhny Novgorod, where it became even more famous. However, for some decades thereafter it still was commonly referred to as Makaryev Fair. It attracted many foreign merchants from India, Iran, and Central Asia. This fair was a commerce centre to sell up to half the total production of export goods in Russia. By the mid-19th century, the city on the Volga was firmly established as the trade capital of the Russian Empire.

The largest industrial enterprise was the Sormovo Plant. The factory was established in 1849 by companies "Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory" and "Volga Steam Navigation". It was originally called the Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory. In 1851, the factory began the construction of solid metal steamers. Three years later, it developed the production of screw schooners. In 1858, the Nizhny Novgorod Machine Factory produced the first Russian steam dredger. In 1870, the first Russian open hearth furnace was built at the factory, followed by a two-decked steamship "Perevorot" just a year later. In 1913, it produced a dry bulk cargo ship Danilikha. The factory built 489 ships between 1849 and 1918. It also produced steam engines, carriages, steam locomotives, bridges, diesel engines, cannons, pontoons, projectiles as well as tramcars. According to the Russian Imperial Census of 1897, there were 90.100 residents in Nizhny Novgorod.

However, in the late 19th century, commodity circulation of Nizhny Novgorod Fair began to decline. In addition, began ousting of Russian producers of bread at the traditional European markets. This caused serious concern of the Russian government. Nizhny Novgorod was "bread capital" and major trading center of Russia. Therefore, in July 1893 Emperor of Russia Alexander III (1845-1894) decided to organize All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod. It was made for stimulate of Russian economic development, revival of interest in the Russian grain abroad as well as for emergence of new products, introducing of new technologies and new markets.

It was one of the remarkable events in the history of Nizhny Novgorod and whole Russia. The exhibition should to demonstrate the economic power of the country. Therefore, in 1893-1896 was carried out large-scale modernization of the city. The famous Russian entrepreneurs (like Savva Morozov and Savva Mamontov) took part in organisation of exhibition. The curator of All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition was Sergey Witte (1849-1915), Finance Minister of Imperial Russia in 1892-1903. He was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire.

The All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod was held from June 9 till October 13, 1896. The 1896 exhibition was the biggest pre-revolution exhibition in Russian Empire and was organized with the money allotted by Nicholas II, new Emperor of Russia. The All-Russia industrial conference was held together with the exhibition.

The exhibition demonstrated the best achievements of the industrial development in Russia that began in the latter part of the 19th century:
1) the world’s first radio receiver (thunderstorm register) designed by Alexander Popov (1859-1906).
It was firstly presented to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society in St. Petersburg State University on May 7, 1895. On April 5, 1896 Alexander Popov publicly demonstrated transmission of radio waves (between different campus buildings of univercity) for the first time in world's history. It is an IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) milestone in engineering;

Movie trailer for the Soviet film "Alexander Popov" (1949). (You can't implement innovations and save people without making a one "Marconi"):


2) the first Russian automobile designed by Yevgeny Yakovlev (1857-1898) and Pyotr Freze (1844-1918);
3) the world’s first hyperboloid steel tower-shell and the world’s first steel lattice hanging and arch-like overhead covers-shells (8 exhibition pavilions with the total area of more than 25 thousand square meters, including the unique rotunda of Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939) (Russian Empire patents №№ 1894, 1895, 1896 dated March 12, 1899));
4) many other technical inventions, technologies and artistic achievements.

The suburb of Kanavino, on the left bank of Oka River, was chosen as the place for the exhibition. It occupied the territory of around 84 hectares within a few hundreds meters southwest of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair. Nearly 70 buildings and constructions were built in Nizhny Novgorod and at the exhibition with the money allotted by the Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia. Also, more than 120 pavilions of private companies were built on the territory of the exhibition. About 1 million people (991.013) visited All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896.

19th century, Main Hall of Nizhny Novgorod Fair:

Wikipedia

Plan of Nizhny Novgorod in the late 19th century (from Brockhaus & Efron Dictionary). Orange square - site of traditional Nizhny Novgorod Fair, blue square - site of All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896:

Wikipedia

1896. First Russian automobile:

Wikipedia

The world's first hyperboloid lattice 37-meter water tower by Vladimir Shukhov (1896):

Wikipedia
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:16 AM   #1374
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Electric tram network

To the opening of All-Russia Exhibition, there were built four tram systems in Nizhny Novgorod.

Early precursor of the Nizhny Novgorod tram can be conditionally regarded horse-drawn railway, which was opened in 1864 at the left bank of Oka River, near Moscow Rail Terminal (railway Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod was opened on August 13, 1862). This horse-drawn line was used only for cargo transportation from the piers of Oka River to the Nizhny Novgorod Fair. Later it was extended to the rail cargo station.

In 1890 was proposed a project of construction of horse-drawn tramline, but it was rejected. The problem was that the right part of Nizhny Novgorod is located on the high bank of the Oka River, and horse-drawn carriages struggled to cope with this altitude difference.

The idea of a funicular railway in Nizhny Novgorod arose before the All-Russia Exhibition. The first project of funicular-type elevator of own design was proposed in 1885 by the famous Nizhny Novgorod engineer Vladimir Kalashnikov. According to his project, the funicular was supposed to link the coast of the Oka River and Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. However, it was never realized.

In 1888 the city government has announced a contest to the best project of funicular system. In 1889 Moscow firm "F. I. Görle and Co." submitted its project. In addition to the funicular, the firm offered to build horse-drawn tramlines at the left and right banks of the Oka River. This project was approved in August 1892. On February 1, 1893 Nizhny Novgorod architect Robert Kilevein, companion of F. Görle, offered to built electric tram system instead of horse-drawn tramlines. The City Council has organized a contest for construction of an electric tram network and electric lighting. On April 4, 1894 city authorities chose the project of German company "Siemens & Halske AG". However, on July 3, 1894 the company refused the contract, arguing that it was unprofitable and exigeant due to steep route. Instead of this, Germans preferred to build a tramline on the left bank of Oka River. At spring 1895 was signed contract for construction of electric tramline from Nizhny Novgorod Fair to the site of All-Russia Exhibition. This line seemed to be temporary for the period of the All-Russia Exhibition. Therefore, "Siemens & Halske AG" signed contract not with city authorities, but with Emil Ziegler-von Schaffhausen, Head Constructor of All-Russia Exhibition. At same time "Partnership for exploitation of electricity of Mikhail Podobedov and Co" (the same company, which built "on-ice tram" in St. Petersburg few months ago) start the construction of electric circular tramline inside the territory of All-Russia Exhibition.

On May 28, 1895 St. Petersburg Kammerjunker Rafael von Hartmann signed contract with City Council for construction of the two tramlines and two funicular lines on the right bank of Oka River. According to contract, before opening of All-Russia Exhibition there must be built two funicular lines and two electric tramlines - Upper Market Line (along the streets on the hills on the right bank) and Lower Market Line (along the low-lying coastal streets on right bank and later across temporary pantoon bridge to the Kanavino district on the left bank). Need to build funiculars was due to the fact that the exploitation of the electric tramlines on steep inclines seemed unsafe.

On May 20, 1896, few days before opening of All-Russia Exhibition, "Siemens & Halske AG" put into operation 4.3-km single-track Kanavino tramline (gauge - 1524 mm), which was seemed to be temporary. This line was built at Kanavino district between main entrance of All-Russia Exhibition and the pontoon bridge, via territory near Moscow Rail Terminal and Nizhny Novgorod Fair. There were used lantern tramcars of Putilov Plant in St. Petersburg (model "F", length - 8.5 m, width - 1.7 m, gauge - 1.524 m, capacity - 14 seats + 16 standing, max. speed - 20 km/h).

On June 21, 1896 was put into operation temporary circular 3.7-km single-track tramline (gauge - 750 mm). This line was built by Mikhail Podobedov's company for transportation of visitors in the exhibition area. The electricity was supplied through a third, insulated rail situated between the tracks. There was special tramcar for royal family in the tram depot.

In 1895-1896 firm "Hartmann & Co" built Upper Market and Lower Market Lines. Those lines on the right bank of Oka River were put into operation simultaneously with the exhibition line on June 21, 1896. The tramlines were single-track (1 meter wide). The 3.7-km Upper Market Line was built between Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin and Smirnov Garden (near present-day Hotel "Nizhny Novgorod"), along the Big Intercession street, Small Intercession street and Praise street (now Zalomov street). The 1.4-km Lower Market Line was built between the Staple area to the area near pontoon bridge, along the Nativity street. There were used Belgian "Oerlikon" tramcars at those two lines (length - 8 m, width - 1.6 m, gauge - 1 m, capacity - 14 seats + 16 standing, max. speed - 20 km/h).

According to the proposal of Rafael von Hartmann, the terminus stations of those two tramlines were linked by the two funiculars (which were known as elevators in these times) on the slopes - Kremlyovsky (Kremlin) and Pokhvalinsky (Praise). Those funicular lines were opened on July 15, 1896. It were first funicular lines in Russian Empire. Kremlin funicular line was built between Staple area (present-day People's Unity Square) and the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. This route was partly located under ground (under the Kremlin wall). Praise funicular line was built between the area near pontoon bridge across Oka River and the former Smirnov Garden. As result, von Hartmann's system has become look as a closed loop.

Technical parameters of Nizhny Novgorod funiculars:
one track with a siding;
water-ballast;
gauge - 1000 mm;
length - 143 m (Kremlin), 173 m (Praise);
altitude difference - 45 m (Kremlin), 63 m (Praise);
gradient - 36%.

On June 28, 1896 Kanavino tramline was extended via temporary pontoon bridge across Oka River to the Praise funicular. Initially, this line was continued along the embankment to Sofronov Square (now Markin Square). But later the city authorities ordered to dismantle this "excessive" part of Kanavino Line, because factually it duplicated von Hartmann's Lower Market Line.

The ticket prices were different at various lines. The ticket prices at Podobedov's circular line were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles until 7:00 pm and 10 kopecks since 7:00 pm. The ticket price at Siemens's Kanavino Line was 10 kopecks. The travel prices at von Hartmann's tram and funicular lines were 5 kopecks (first-class places) and 3 kopecks (second-class places). The discount price for students was 3 kopecks (first-class places) and free (second-class places). Policemen and post workers also had right on free tickets.

According to the original plans, Podobedov's circular line and Siemens's Kanavino Line were built as temporary for the period of the All-Russia Exhibition. For this reason, Podobedov's line was closed and dismantled on October 14, 1896, next day after closing of exhibition. Also there was started dismantling of Kanavino Line. However, Siemens's Line was purchased by firm "Hartmann & Co". In 1897 this line was reopened at the route from the area on right bank near temporary pontoon bridge to the Rail Terminal on the left bank. However, due to lack of a permanent connection between two banks of the Oka River (pontoon bridge operated only during summer time), the connection between Kanavino and Nizhny Novgorod was interrupted during every floating of ice, sometimes for very long period. In winter 1899 was put into operation first "on-ice" tramline in Nizhny Novgorod, similar to St. Petersburg lines.

In 1897 Rafael von Hartmann handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting", which became owner of the whole tram network. Von Hartmann became chairman of this company.

In 1901 were built two more tramlines on the right bank:
1) to the Exaltation of the Cross Monastery - via New Square (now Gorky Square), along the Field street (now Gorky street) and Big Yam street (now St. Elijah street);
2) to the Prison Square (now Freedom Square) - via New Square (now Gorky Square), along the Field street (now Gorky street) and Veal street (now Gogol street).

Therefore, Upper Market Line was transformed into Kremlin-Monastery Line and Praise-Prison Line. Its total length was increased from 5.1 to 7 km. In 1901 was signed the "Additional tram treaty", according to which part of the profit from exploitation of tramlines began to arrive in the city treasury. Also there have been arranged issues of the opening of new lines. There were changed rules of fare: instead of separating on the classes was introduced difference in the fare by seasons, and the system of discounts for students has been changed. City officials gave 150 free tickets to the students. The students who lived in Kanavino and studied on the right bank, had right on 50%-discount for trip on Kanavino Line. The transfer between Lower Market and Upper Market Lines was free. The tram operated from 7:00am till 10:00pm during "summer season" (June-Sepember) and from 8:00am till 8:00pm during October-May. The passenger traffic increased each year and reached 7.5 mln. passangers by 1909.

Working and living conditions of tram workers were extremly difficult (severe and prolonged work at open air, absence of conditions for the lunch and short rest between trips, bad hostel, rigid system of penalties, frequent accidents and disease). For this reason, during Russian Revolution of 1905, tram workers organized two long-term strikes, but it finished without result for them. In 1905 the tram system was not working for a long time. As a result, city officials severely punished "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting", forced them to pay a large fine in city treasury.

In 1906 city authorities planned to expand tram network with construction of three new lines. However, the relationships between city officials and "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" were severely damaged. As result, city officials decided to built three own horse-drawn tramlines. It was a project of I. Kemarsky, Member of City Council. On October 26, 1906 City Council created the special comission headed by Kemarsky, who developed project of horse-tram network. It was discussed at the meeting of City Council on March 22, 1907. This project has caused objections of the merchant members of City Council. Their Head, Yakov Bashkirov, was not able to understand why it's necessary to built horse-drawn tram, while in other cities it was replaced with electric tramlines. Their opponent replied that horse-drawn tram is much cheaper than electric lines and it's necessary to develop horse-tram for the poorer residents of the city suburbs. As a result, merchants were in the minority, and was built only one horse-drawn tramline (1 meter wide). Therefore, Nizhny Novgorod became only city in Russian Empire, where horse-drawn tramline was put into operation after launching of electric tramlines. The testing trip at horse-drawn tramline was on May 12, 1908. This line was put into operation on July 28, 1908. This route linked St. Tikhon street (now Ulyanov street) and Trinity Square (now territory of Linguistic University); along the Small Pechersk street (now Piskunov street) and Big Pechersk street. The lenght of this line was 2.5 km. The tramcars were made by Belgian company "Oerlikon". In 1908 and 1909 horse-drawn tram was unprofitable, but later it became popular and started bring the profit. However, the era of horse-drawn tram was coming to the end. Comparing with electric lines, this line proved its ineffective. The quality of tram ways was bad, and derailment of tramcars was very common thing. According to unconfirmed information, it operated till 1918.

In 1910 "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" re-gauged Lower Market Line along Nativity street (from 1000 mm to 1524 mm) and combined it with Kanavino Line. After this, it's became possible (in the presence of a temporary pontoon bridge or "on-ice" tram line) to ride by tram from Staple area to the Moscow Rail Terminal through territory of Nizhny Novgorod Fair.

According to the Main Tram Treaty of 1895, city authorities had rights to buy tram enterprise in 1914, after 18 years since opening of tram network. Expolitation of tram network was very profitable, and "Russian joint stock company of electric railways and electric lighting" exploited tram network to the limit. For this reason, quality of equipment and rails was constantly deteriorating. In 1914 city authorities municipalized tramlines on the right bank of Oka River, while rights on exploitation of tramline on the left bank were given to Nizhny Novgorod Fair, on territory of which was 1.28-km segment of this line.

During World War I passenger traffic increased due to refugees and military persons. Due to the difficulties of war time - lack of materials, personnel, and coal for power stations - the tram network began to decline. Revolution and the Civil War led to economic ruin, which completed the decay of the Nizhny Novgorod Tramway. On May 1, 1919 tram network in Nizhny Novgorod was closed.

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1896:
Green line on the left bank of Oka River - "Siemens & Halske AG"'s Kanavino line, 1524 mm gauge; opened on May 20, 1896; built as an exhibit for the All-Russia Exhibition; initial intent was to be dismantle the line after the Exhibition; extended on the right bank of Oka River via pontoon bridge on June 28, 1896.
Blue line on the left bank of Oka River - Mikhail Podobedov's Exhibition circular line, 750 mm gauge with third rail; opened on June 21, 1896; exact alignment is unknown; dismantled after the Exhibition on October 14, 1896.
Red line on the right bank of Oka River - Rafael von Hartmann's Upper Market line, 1000 mm gauge; opened on June 21, 1896.
Dark-red line on the right bank of Oka River - Rafael von Hartmann's Lower Market line, 1000 mm gauge; opened on June 21, 1896.
Purple line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise funicular, linking Upper and Lower Market lines; opened on July 15, 1896.
Brown line on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin funicular, linking Upper and Lower Market lines; opened on July 15, 1896.
Black lines on the left bank of Oka River - Railroads.


Wikipedia

THE SCHEME OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD TRAM AND FUNICULAR LINES IN 1917:
Green line on the left and right banks of Oka River - Kanavino line, 1524 mm gauge.
Dashed green line - Seasonal river crossing (pontoon bridge in summer, track laid on ice in winter).
Blue line on the right bank of Oka River - Praise-Prison line, 1000 mm gauge.
Red line on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin-Monastery line, 1000 mm gauge.
Dark-red lines on the right bank of Oka River - Kremlin and Praise funicular lines;
Orange line on the right bank of Oka River - Horse-drawn tramline, 1000 mm gauge.
Black lines on the left and right banks of Oka River - Railroads.


Wikipedia
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:18 AM   #1375
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1896. Tramcar on Mikhail Podobedov's circular line at All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition:

Медоваров Евгений (колл.)

1896, Mikhail Podobedov's circular tramline near Asian pavilion:

Link

1896. View at the Art pavilion and weather station:

Link

1896, Mikhail Podobedov's circular tramline near Central and Machine pavilions:

Link

1896. Mikhail Podobedov's circular tramline:

Медоваров Евгений (колл.)

1896. Tram stop near pavilion "Sormovo" of the Society of Steelworks:

Медоваров Евгений (колл.)

1896. Mikhail Podobedov's tramline at All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition:

Медоваров Евгений (колл.)

1896. Mikhail Podobedov's tramline near oval pavilion of Vladimir Shukhov:

Wikipedia
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:20 AM   #1376
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1910s. Kanavino Line near Moscow Rail Terminal:

Maxim Dmitriev

1911, Kanavino Line. Alexander Nevsky Monastery near Moscow Rail Terminal:

Maxim Dmitriev
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:20 AM   #1377
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1910. The temporary pontoon bridge across Oka River:

yahooeu

1910s. The temporary (summer) pontoon bridge. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral on the Nizhny Novgorod Spit (site of confluence of Volga and Oka Rivers):

nizhnyfoto

1896. The temporary pontoon bridge across Oka River:

yahooeu

1900s, The temporary pontoon bridge across Oka River:

tramnn

1910s, Kanavino Line:

nizhnyfoto
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:22 AM   #1378
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1896, Kanavino Line on the pontoon bridge across Oka River:

TatroNik555

Tramcar of Putilov Plant on the temporary pontoon bridge across Oka River:

Wikipedia

During winters there was used "on-ice tram" for the crossing of Oka River:

yahooeu

1890s. Tramcar of Putilov Plant:

yahooeu

1890s. Praise funicular on the background:

yahooeu
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:23 AM   #1379
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Praise funicular, lower station:

Link

Praise funicular, upper station:

Link

1910s. Line of the Praise funicular:

nizhnyfoto
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:24 AM   #1380
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1890s, Lower Market Line. Beginning of Nativity street near pontoon bridge:

tramnn

1890s, Lower Market Line. Nativity street:

yahooeu

1890s, Lower Market Line. Sts. Cosmas and Damian Church:

TatroNik555

1890s, Lower Market Line. Nativity street:

ЁжикНН

1890s, Lower Market Line. End of Nativity street:

TatroNik555

1890s. End of the Lower Market Line near station of the Kremlin funicular:

Maxim Dmitriev

1900s. Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin and Kremlin funicular:

Yurka52rus
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