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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:25 AM   #1381
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Kremlin funicular:

Link


Link


NN

View at the Lower Market Line and Volga River:

Maxim Dmitriev

Portal of the tunnel:

Link


Link
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:26 AM   #1382
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1900s, tramcar on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. Archangel Michael Cathedral:

tramnn

1900s. Tramcar near Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin:

tramnn

Big Intercession street. Dmitry Tower of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin on the background (this tower was rebuilt during adapting for Art Museum on the eve of All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896):

Maxim Dmitriev

1900s, Kremlin-Monastery Line. Big Intercession street:

ЁжикНН

1900s. Kremlin-Monastery Line, Big Intercession street. The building of Gentry Assembly at right side (now Palace of Culture named after Yakov Sverdlov):

TatroNik555

1913, Kremlin-Monastery Line. Big Intercession street:

Wikipedia
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:27 AM   #1383
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1900s, Big Intercession street:

retromoscow

1900s. Big Intercession street:

yahooeu

1900s, Big Intercession street. Nicholas Drama Theatre (now State Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky) at left. The new building was built for the All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896:

yahooeu

1913. Gentry Assembly at the crossing of Big Intercession street and Gentry street (now October street):

nizhnyfoto

1913. State Bank at Big Intercession street:

nizhnyfoto

1900s. Tramcar at the crossing of Big Intercession and Small Intercession streets:

yahooeu

1900s, New Market Square (now Gorky Square):

Maxim Dmitriev
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:29 AM   #1384
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1996, Nativity street. Historical parade devoted to the 100-anniversary of Nizhny Novgorod tram:

Rave Speeder

2004, City Day. The replica of "Oerlikon" tram at Belinsky street:

Евгений Хвалынский

It was made for the Gleb Panfilov's film "Forbidden people" based on Maxim Gorky's novel "Mother" (1990 Cannes Film Festival's Award for Best Artistic Contribution):

Евгений Хвалынский

2005, replica of "Oerlikon" tram in tram depot №1. Salon of tramcar:

Сергей Орлов

2006. Trailer for 2-car "Oerlikon" tram:

Антон Буслов
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Old October 27th, 2011, 12:32 AM   #1385
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2011, Nativity street. On May 20, 2011, to the 115-anniversary of Nizhny Novgorod tram, MTV-82 four-axle tramcar (was been in production since 1947) was put into operation by "excursion route" №1E (from Staple area along Nativity street to the Annunciation Square). It planned to be used during summer of 2011:

Антон Буслов

May 20, 2011. Museum tram at Gunpowder Descent. View at Volga River:

TatroNik555

May 20, 2011. First day of museum tram at excursion route:

Антон triangel

May 20, 2011. Museum tram at Nativity street:

Лайонел

May 20, 2011. Museum tram at People's Unity Square. Monument to Minin and Pozharsky in the centre of square (nearly exact copy of the Moscow's monument near the St. Basil Cathedral at Red Square):

TatroNik555

The historical site - Nativity of St. John the Baptist Church. Here in 1611 Kuzma Minin appealed to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a Volunteer Army against the Polish-Lithuanian aggressors. It led to creation of Volunteer Army, cleaning of the Moscow and other Russian cities from Polish-Lithuanian occupants in 1612, end of the "Time of Troubles" and the establishment the rule of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613:

71-605
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Old October 28th, 2011, 02:20 AM   #1386
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Thanks for posting this info. I had seen one of the posted photos of the Frozen River Trolley in a very old newspaper several years ago and had always wanted to see more info on this very interesting subject. The fact that it was narrow gauge is also very interesting.

Thanks for sharing!
Andy
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Old October 28th, 2011, 05:20 AM   #1387
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How about posting some pictures of how they look today, instead of just history?
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Old October 28th, 2011, 09:16 AM   #1388
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Andy, many thanks!

Quote:
Originally Posted by MareCar View Post
How about posting some pictures of how they look today, instead of just history?
1) I wrote in my first post that this topic is about the history of the tram. If forumers do not like this format (what is very understandable), they can ignore this thread.
2) I'm plan to describe actual (sad) picture of Russian tram transport in the last chapter (part). After this, I will switch on actual news. Before this, we can post present-day pictures in the RUSSIA | Urban Transport Compilation (thread about actual transport news).
3) For me, it's interesting history of development of tram in general. However, if such format is not interesting to anybody, let's stop and close this thread.

Point.
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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:04 PM   #1389
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It is interesting, and you can do what ever you want, it's not up to anyone to decide. I just figured a few pictures of how they look like today could be interesting.
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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:09 PM   #1390
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MareCar View Post
How about posting some pictures of how they look today, instead of just history?
Specially for you:

Majority of tramcars in Nizhny Novgorod are old Tatra T3SUs:

Антон triangel


Rai


АЛЕКСАНЧЕГ

Also, there are many KTM models from Ust-Katav Tram Mechanical Factory (Chelyabinsk Region). Here is 71-619КТ:

TatroNik555

Since 2007 about 40 Tatra T3SUs were upgraded in Moscow Repair Plant and turned into Tatra T3SU КВР ТРЗs:

дмитрий из нн
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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:11 PM   #1391
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However, in recent years in Nizhny Novgorod arrived few new models:

1) 71-154 (LM-2008) from St. Petersburg Tram Mechanical Factory (one of newest Russian-made models):

Сергей Филатов


KIRILLZ90


KIRILLZ90


KIRILLZ90


KIRILLZ90


РаРиТет


tsl946


Антон triangel
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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:13 PM   #1392
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2) 71-407 (made in 2009) from "Uraltransmash" (IMHO - not bad):

IAGSoft


АЛЕКСАНЧЕГ


Владислав Александров


tsl946
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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:15 PM   #1393
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3) Ohhhh, guys.... It's my love 71-623 from Ust-Katav Tram Mechanical Factory (Chelyabinsk Region). The most perfect among all Russian models:

Сергей Филатов


Сергей Филатов

I'm, however, more love this tramcar in its traditional orange color. It's look more perfectly. But red-white option is also not bad:

Антон triangel


Антон triangel
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Old October 28th, 2011, 08:16 PM   #1394
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ode of bund View Post
Please post some pictures of Moscow trolley-buses on bridges, overpasses, underpasses, via-ducts, and tunnels, I am really interested in seeing those.
And specially for trolleybus fans - new models of trolleybus, which were started to run in Nizhny Novgorod in 2010:

BKM-321 (Belkommunmash manufacture in Minsk, Belarus):

BlackShark


BlackShark

TrolZa-5265 "Megapolis" (JSC "Trolza" in Engels, Russia):

BlackShark

VMZ-5298.01-50 "Avangard" (VMZ Mechanical Plant in Vologda, Russia):

BlackShark
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Old October 28th, 2011, 11:09 PM   #1395
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MareCar View Post
It is interesting, and you can do what ever you want, it's not up to anyone to decide. I just figured a few pictures of how they look like today could be interesting.
You need to be patient and wait perhaps several months. As the OP said it is a chronological project. Don't give up AlekseyVT, some of us are following this with great interest.
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Old October 30th, 2011, 11:51 PM   #1396
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III) DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRIC TRAMWAY IN RUSSIA (1896-1920)

So, in 1895 there were only two electric tram systems in Russian Empire - the permanent in Kyiv and seasonal "on-ice tram" in St. Petersburg. After opening of electric tram in Nizhny Novgorod (1896), this number began to increase.

3) June 26, 1897 - Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), Ukraine;
4) July 25, 1897 - Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad), Ukraine;
5) April 30, 1898 - Kursk:


Kursk is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Region, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers. Archaeology indicates that the site of Kursk was settled in the 5th or 4th century BCE. The settlement was fortified and included Slavs at least as early as the eighth century CE. The first written record of Kursk is dated 1032. It was mentioned as one of Severian towns by Prince Igor in "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" (end of 12th century): "As to my Kurskers, they are famous knights — swaddled under war-horns, nursed under helmets, fed from the point of the lance; to them the trails are familiar, to them the ravines are known, the bows they have are strung tight, the quivers, unclosed, the sabers, sharpened; themselves, like gray wolves, they lope in the field, seeking for themselves honor, and for their prince, glory".

The seat of a minor principality, Kursk was raided by the Polovtsians in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and destroyed by Batu Khan around 1238. The city was rebuilt no later than 1283. It was ruled by Grand Duchy of Lithuania between 1360-1508. Kursk joined the centralized Russian state in 1508, becoming its southern border province. It was an important center of the corn trade with Ukraine and hosted an important fair, which took place annually under the walls of the monastery of Our Lady of Kursk. Kursk was raided frequently by hordes of Polish–Lithuanian aggressors (in 1612, 1616, 1617 and 1634) and Crimean Khanate until late of 17th century. However, Kursk fortress was never seized by aggressors. In 1616 Kursk garrison had more than 1.3 thousand people. There were resettled residents of the Oryol and other southern Russian cities (in 1678 there were already 2.8 thousand inhabitants in Kursk).

The city developed thanks to its favorable geographical position (the shortest route from Moscow to the Crimea, road from Kursk to Kyiv). It was bounded to successively Kyiv Governorate (1708–1727), Belgorod Governorate (1727–1779) and Kursk Viceroyality (1779–1797). It was finally become center of Kursk Governorate in 1797. Town status was granted to Kursk in 1779.

In the beginning of 19th century Kursk became not only trade center, but also an industrial center. In 1780 was opened first school, in 1808 - male gymnasium, in 1817 - theological seminary, in 1870 - female gymnasium. In 1797 was put into operation printing house, in 1792 was opened private theatre. In 1846 the city had 70 factories. In the early 19th century, the city already had a hotel. On October 12, 1868 was opened Moscow-Kursk railway. Some later was opened Kyiv-Kursk railway. In 1874 began construction of the branch rail line to the city. On June 18, 1878 was opened rail station "Kursk" in the central part of city - at General street (now Alexander Nevsky street). In the end of 19th century Kursk became an important center of food industry (flour and sugar). In 1874 was put into operation water supply. In 1883 was opened a candle factory (since 1935 - chemical-pharmaceutical plant). In the end of 19th century the population of Kursk was 76 thousands people. There were 2799 houses and 83 large industrial enterprises, where worked 1942 people.

Kursk is located at hilly terrain. By this reason, there was difficult to move around the city. Travel by coach was too expensive for majority residents (travel prices were from 0.5 to 1 ruble). After opening of horse-drawn tram in neighboring Voronezh (August 23, 1891), in Kursk began to discuss issue about construction of horse-drawn tram.

Delivering their goods to other cities of Russia and world, Kursk merchants saw the tramlines in Europe, including Kyiv. Returning home, they met with the Head of City and the Kursk Governor, and persuaded them to build the tramline in their hometown. In beginning of 1895, after visiting of Voronezh, Kursk Governor Alexey Milyutin instructed to Head of City to develop the issue about construction of tram system in Kursk. Since the city authorities had no own money for construction of tram system, in spring 1895 was announced a contest for the best cheap project of tram network. During three months, authorities received two bids. According to both projects, horse-drawn tram and omnibus were unsuitable kinds of transport in Kursk due to hilly and rugged terrain, the presence of deep valleys of the Kur and Tuskar Rivers, and steep climbs and descents at the two main city magistrals - Moscow street (now Lenin street) and Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street). Therefore, they opted for an electric tram.

One of them was developed by Ivan Likhachov, Moscow engineer of Railways. According to this project, tramlines were to be laid along the main streets - Moscow street (now Lenin street) and Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street). This choice was not accidental: along these streets were housed the goverment buildings of the Kursk Governorate and majority of commercial enterprises, and life here has been more intense. In this area travelled many residents due to their business. It's mean that it was possible to get profit from exploitation of tramline.

The second project was presented by German company "Siemens & Halske AG", which took part in construction of tramlines in Nizhny Novgorod and Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine). According to the project of German company, tramlines were to be laid not only along the main streets, but also near rail station.

HERE ARE THE MAIN PROVISIONS OF BOTH BIDS

Streets for the laying of tramways:
Ivan Likhachov: Moscow and Kherson streets;
"Siemens & Halske AG": Moscow, Kherson, Peaceful and Highway streets;
The term of the concession:
Ivan Likhachov: 49 years;
"Siemens & Halske AG": 40 years;
The financial sources:
Ivan Likhachov: Own capital or establishment of joint stock company;
"Siemens & Halske AG": Own capital;
Terms municipalization:
Ivan Likhachov: free after 49 years or repurchase after 25 years of exploitation;
"Siemens & Halske AG": free after 40 years or repurchase after 20 years of exploitation;
Annual contributions to the city treasury:
Ivan Likhachov: 1000 rubles after 15 years of exploitation, 2000 rubles - after 20 years and 3000 rubles - after 30 years;
"Siemens & Halske AG": 2% of gross revenue every year;
Collateral for the implementation of the contract:
Ivan Likhachov: 5000 rubles;
"Siemens & Halske AG": 6000 rubles;
Number of tracks:
Ivan Likhachov: two-track line;
"Siemens & Halske AG": single-track line;
Gauge:
Ivan Likhachov: 1524 mm;
"Siemens & Halske AG": at the discretion of the company;
Travel prices:
Ivan Likhachov: 5 kopecks (trip by one street) and 8 kopecks (trip by two streets), for the students - 3 and 5 kopecks respectively;
"Siemens & Halske AG": 10 kopecks, for the students - 5 kopecks;
Time intervals:
Ivan Likhachov: 20 minutes;
"Siemens & Halske AG": in agreement with the City Council;
Working time:
Ivan Likhachov: 7:00am-11:00pm (summer), 8:00am-9:00pm (winter);
"Siemens & Halske AG": possibly 24 hours per day;
Average speed of tramcars:
Ivan Likhachov: 14 km/h;
"Siemens & Halske AG": in agreement with the City Council;
Organisation of cargo transportation:
Ivan Likhachov: according to separate contract;
"Siemens & Halske AG": possibly cargo transportation 24 hours per day;
Term of construction of the first electric tramline:
Ivan Likhachov: 12 months except winter period;
"Siemens & Halske AG": 24 months;
Term of construction of the additional electric tramlines at the order of City Council:
Ivan Likhachov: 6 months;
"Siemens & Halske AG": according to separate contract.

The first public presentation of projects in the City Council was been in early June 1895. After this, majority of members of City Council opted for the Likhachov's project. On June 30, 1895 this project was approved by the City Council and sent to the Kursk Governor. On October 2, 1895 Kursk Governor sent this project to Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. Together with project, he sent personal letter to Ivan Durnovo (Minister of Interior), in which he asked not to rush with approval, since the project of "Siemens and Halske AG" was more profitable for city treasury. However, Likhachov's project was almost immediately selected and approved by Ministry of Internal Affairs. The reason for such fast decision is unknown. According to one version, Likhachov was personally acquainted with the Minister, who patronized him.

On October 31, 1895 Ivan Likhachov established in Brussel "Joint stock company of the electric railroad in Kursk" ("Tramways de Koursk (société anonyme)"). Board of Governors was located in Brussels. The basic capital of the company was 3500000 francs, which was divided into 35.000 shares at 100 francs each. Those shares were sold on foreign stock exchanges. On March 3, 1896 Likhachov's project was officially approved in Ministry of Internal Affairs.

According to Russian law, foreign capital could not be directly used at the territory in country. By this reason, on July 10, 1896 was established representation office of Belgian company in Russian Empire. Thus, Ivan Likhachov become representative of the company in Russia. Since city authorities has not allocated money for construction of tramline, it was necessary to spread the bonds of local loans. These bonds were purchased by local merchants and entrepreneurs. In summer 1896 was begun construction of the power station and tram depot. The capacity of first station at Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street) was 250-300 kW, that supplied 160-230 V. The tram depot for 10 cars was built at Pasture street (now 50 Years of October street). In July 1896 were ordered 12 motor tramcars and 6 trailers. Those tramcars were produced at Belgian plants "Ragueneau" and "Franco-Belges". The equipment for tramcars was made at "Electricite et Hudraulique" plant. In spring 1897 was begun construction of tram tracks and overhead lines, which was mainly finished in September 1897.

On April 23, 1898 tramcars were tested at the route from Kherson Gate to the St. George Square (now Proletarian Square), and later - along whole Kherson street to the Moscow street. The official ceremony of opening was held on April 30, 1898. There was put into operation 4.9-km two-track tramline from Moscow Spires to Kherson Spires. According to local tradition, the celebration was started from religious procession. Orthodox priests consecrated a tramcars. The famous icon Our Lady of Kursk was used in the consecration ceremony. Thus were debunked prejudices of the some religious citizens, who were convinced that riding in an electric tram is a sinful.

From the first day tram became a popular kind of transport in the city. During first year of exploitation tramcars carried 0.5 mln. passengers. At beginning of 20th century this number increased till 2.5 mln. passengers per year. There were 13 stops at the line. The travel time by whole route was 25 minutes. There were daily used 8-9 motor tramcars, while trailers were used only during summer period. Time intervals were 20 minutes. The average speed was limited till 12 km/h. The capacity of tramcar was 48 persons: 24 seats + 10 standing (inside the tramcar) and 7+7 standing at the opened sites in front and back of the tramcar. The tram system was operated from 7:00am till 10:00pm (during summer period) and from 8:00am till 9:00pm (during winter period). The tramcars were illuminated by two kerosene lamps, while streets - by gaslight. Sometimes only passing tramcars served for orienteering for pedestrians at the dark urban streets. The travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (trip by one street) and 8 kopecks or 0.08 rubles (trip by two streets), that was no cheap at those times. Tram drivers worked during 10-12 hours per day. The monthly salary was 23-30 rubles for drivers and 40 rubles for controllers. However, due to rigid system of fines, monthly salary could be reduced by half.

Belgian shareholders were the principal owners of the tram network in Kursk. According to the contract, Belgians should not pay anything in the town treasury during first decade. They had big profit from the tram exploitation, Therefore, they didn't care about repairment of existing equipment or about improving the living standards of workers. All it led to the first strike in summer 1901. The protesters demanded reduction of working hours, reduction of fines and warm clothing for the work during winter periods. However, this strike ended without result.

After beginning of WWI, many tram workers gone to the front. According to the order of the Kursk Governor, tramcars became used for transportation of wounded people into hospitals. For this purpose, was built short branch line from Rail Terminal to the Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street). The number of passengers greatly reduced. On December 9, 1917 Bolsheviks took power in the city. In 1917 tram drivers organized another strike. As result, in March 1918 they achieved introduction of eight-hour working day and significant increase of salary. However, on April 27, 1918, due to severe deterioration of the tracks and lack of fuel for power station, tram exploitation was stopped. Belgian owners decided to go home. On the eve of departure, they ordered to disassemble tram engines, the overhead lines, tram rails, and to send this equipment to Belgium. However, workers refused to do it. They stated that they have earned it by their toil. Belgians were forced to leave city empty-handed. On September 20, 1919, during Russian Civil War, Anton Denikin's White Army captured city, but they forced to leave it on November 19, 1919.

1897, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street). Construction of the electric tramline:

Anubis

1897, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street). Construction of the electric tramline:

tkursk

Workers in tram depot:

TKursk

April 30, 1898. Power station at Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street):

tkursk

April 30, 1898. Opening of the electric tram system. Moleben and consecration of tramcars:

Anubis

Share of the Belgian joint stock company "Tramways de Koursk":

tkursk

Scheme of the tramline in Kursk. The tram stops:
1 - Kherson Spires;
2 - Kherson Gate;
3 - Theological seminary;
4 - Rtishchev street;
5 - Bridge across Kur River;
6 - General street (rail station);
7 - City Square;
8 - Post office;
9 - Golden street;
10 - State Bank;
11 - Garden street;
12 - Moscow Gate;
13 - Moscow Spires.



tkursk
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Old October 30th, 2011, 11:53 PM   #1397
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1902, Tramcar in Kursk:

Anubis

1900s, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street) and Kherson Gate:

Anubis

1914, Kherson Gate:

TKursk

1900s, Kherson Gate:

Anubis
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Old October 30th, 2011, 11:55 PM   #1398
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1900s, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street):

Anubis

1900s, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street):

Ааре Оландер

1900s, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street):

Anubis

1900s, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street):

Anubis

1914, Kherson street (now Dzerzhinsky street) near bridge across Kur River:

Anubis
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Old October 30th, 2011, 11:56 PM   #1399
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1902, Red Square:

Anubis

1900s, Red Square:

Ааре Оландер

1914, Red Square. Our Lady of the Sign Cathedral on the background:

JaReD

1917, strike of tram workers:

TKursk
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Old October 30th, 2011, 11:57 PM   #1400
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1900s, 2nd Female Gymnasium at the Moscow street (now Lenin street):

retromoscow

1909, Moscow street (now Lenin street):

Anubis

1900s, Moscow street (now Lenin street):

Wikipedia

1900s, Moscow street (now Lenin street):

Anubis

1916, Moscow street (now Lenin street) and Teacher seminary:

Anubis

1907, Highway street. Spires near Moscow Gate:

Anubis

1908, Moscow street (now Lenin street):

Anubis

1910s. Moscow Gate:

Anubis
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