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Old November 3rd, 2011, 12:53 AM   #1421
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1900s, Bolkhov street (now Lenin street). View from the Alexander Bridge across Orlik River:

Киреев Андрей

1900s, Bolkhov street (now Lenin street):

NovSer

1900s, Bank at Bolkhov street (now Lenin street):

NovSer

1900s, Garden street (now Maxim Gorky street). Nicholas Female Gymnasium:

Link
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Old November 3rd, 2011, 12:54 AM   #1422
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November 1983. Celebrations devoted to the 85-anniversary of Oryol Tram:

Сергей Сергеев из Орла

1998. Emblem of the 100-anniversary of Oryol Tram:

Киреев Андрей
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Old November 3rd, 2011, 12:56 AM   #1423
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November 5, 2008. Celebrations devoted to the 110-anniversary of Oryol Tram in the City Centre of Culture:

Павел Зюзин

November 5, 2008. Celebrations devoted to the 110-anniversary of Oryol Tram in the City Centre of Culture:

Павел Зюзин

2008. Emblem of the 110-anniversary of Oryol Tram:

Киреев Андрей
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Old November 4th, 2011, 09:37 PM   #1424
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YEKATERINBURG METRO

November 3, 2011. Station "Botanicheskaya" ("Botanical"), which planned to be opened on December 1, 2011:

Umformer


Umformer

Exit to the city:

Umformer


Umformer


Umformer


Umformer
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Old November 4th, 2011, 09:38 PM   #1425
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Umformer

Tunnel between "Botanicheskaya" and "Chkalovskaya" ("Valery Chkalov") stations:

Umformer


Umformer

Service passage between the tunnels:

Umformer
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Old November 4th, 2011, 09:39 PM   #1426
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Station "Chkalovskaya", opening of which was postponed till next spring:

Umformer


Umformer


Umformer


Umformer


Umformer
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Old November 4th, 2011, 09:39 PM   #1427
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Uncompleted escalators. The plant, which produce escalator for Russian Metro stations, could not send necessary parts for mounting in time:

Umformer

Unfortunately, there is only one such plant in Russia. It's great problem. Escalators for deep-level Russian Metro station should to be faster than in the rest of world. Therefore, without creating additional centres of manufacturing in Russia it will be impossible to greatly increase temps of Metro construction:

Umformer


Umformer
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Old November 6th, 2011, 09:24 PM   #1428
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Good photos.
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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:08 PM   #1429
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LarisaCh, many thanks!
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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:09 PM   #1430
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9) December 24, 1898 - Łódź, Poland;
10) April 6, 1899 - Moscow:


After the opening of the temporary electric "on-ice" tramlines in the capital of Russian Empire and permanent electric tram networks in such large industrial centres as Kyiv, Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), Kursk, Oryol and Łódź; electric tram system was put into operation in the old quiet provincial Moscow

Early history (1872-1891)

The first horse-drawn tramline in Moscow was put into operation on June 22, 1872, to the All-Russian Technical Exhibition. It was built between Brest Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal) and Iberian Gate (near which were temporary pavilions of exposition) along Tver street, the main and probably best-known radial street of Moscow. In 1874 "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow" (founded by Count Uvarov) began construction of horse-drawn tram network at main radial urban streets. In 1891 there were 11 lines with total lenght 48 km and five horse-tram depots. On January 17, 1885 Councilor of State, engineer Andrey Gorchakov founded in Brussel joint stock company "Main company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow and Russia", which was known as "Belgian company" or "Second company of horse-drawn railways". During 1885-1891, Belgian company built second horse-drawn tram network at minor radial urban streets, at Boulevard Ring and Garden Ring, as well at some suburban districts. In 1891 the total length of the second tram network was 46 km (13 lines, including two lines of steam-driven tram; three horse-tram depots).

In 1890-1891 two companies agreed with city authorities to merge two networks into one and to exploit it together. "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow" was responsible for the exploitation of all network, while Belgian company received 1/3 of total proceeds for the year. Such common exploitation was started since November 13, 1891. All pre-existing routes of horse-drawn trams were revised and from that day began to operate 25 new lines. Common tram network had lenght 94 km, 9 horse-tram depots, serviced by 2000 horses and 400 tramcars.

Scheme of the horse-driven tram network during common exploitation (1891-1901). Red arrows - Sparrow Line of steam-drawn tram, Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-drawn tram:

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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:10 PM   #1431
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1890s, horse-driven tramline near St. Elijah Gate. Plevna Chapel in the centre of square:

Link

1900s. Horse-driven tramcar near New Maidens Convent:

philatelist

1898-1899, horse-drawn tram at Kremlin Embankment:

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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:11 PM   #1432
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"Experimental" electric tramlines (1898-1899)

Despite of big popularity of horse-drawn tram, its shortcomings were evident. However, the owners of horse-drawn tram network strenuously objected to the process of electrification of tramlines, because it required large financial investments and in fact did not bring any additional profit. Despite of this, in Moscow the first sentence of the transition to electric traction was made by the concessionaires of the horse-drawn tram. In early-1890s passenger traffic increased, it was necessary to replace equipment (tram tracks and tramcars). Fearing that it would lead to municipalization of tram, in 1895 "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow" appealed to the City Council with a proposal to start "experimental" electrification of one of 25 existing tramlines.

Having obtained the required permit, in July 1898 "First company" started electrification of Dolgorukovskaya horse-drawn tramline from Passions Square along the Small Dmitrov street to the Butyrskaya Outpost (i.e. from present-day Pushkin Square, along the Small Dmitrov street, Dolgorukov street, New Settlement street and Sushchovsky Rampart street). Also, there was began electrification of Petrovskaya Line (from Tver Outpost to the Petrovsky Palace) and Butyrskaya Line (from Butyrskaya Outpost to the Petrovsky Palace, along the Upper Maslovka and Lower Maslovska streets). In addition, there was began construction of traction substation near Butyrskaya Outpost. For the transportation of tramcars from Miusy tram depot, was built single-track tramline along the Forest street (from Tver Outpost to the New Settlement street).

In summer of 1898, "First company" ordered electric equipment to the Moscow plants of "Siemens & Halske AG". The tramcars were made in Germany at "Falkenried" Plant. In June 1898 was began construction of "electric" tram depot at Bashilov area. By winter, there was built traction substation (capacity - 320 kW, ~2000V/=600V). Cable line for its substation was been laid under ground from the Central Moscow power station, located at Raushskaya Embankment. The capacity of tram depot was 30 tramcars. In 1898 at "Falkenried" Plant in Hamburg (Germany) were built 23 electric tramcars and one accumulator tramcar. The electric equipment was been made at "Siemens & Halske AG" plants. There were two engines at 10 tramcars and one engine at 13 tramcars. The tramcars were biaxial (length - 8.41 m, width - 2.45 m, gauge - 1.524 m). The capacity of tramcars was 20 seats during winter period and 18 seats during summer period.

In the end of January 1899 were finished construction works at Butyrskaya Line. The first experimental trip was been on February 16, 1899, at 2:00pm. The results were satisfactory. The official ceremony of opening was been held at "electric" tram depot on April 6, 1899, at 4:00 pm. There was held religious moleben and consecration of tramcars before the icon of Divine Savior. After the religious ceremony, the first 2.35-km electric tramline was put into operation from Butyrskaya Outpost to the Petrovsky Palace, along the Upper Maslovka and Lower Maslovska streets. At next day tramcars were opened for passengers. This tramline was operated from 8:00am till 8:00pm, time intervals were 14 minutes. The travel price by whole line was 6 kopecks or 0.06 rubles.

The first electric tramline was put into operation in the Moscow outskirt. According to rumors, Dolgorukovskaya Line in the central part of Moscow also was ready on April 6, 1899. However, Police Master of Moscow Dmitry Trepov ordered to delay its opening, because he considered it obscene that the electric trams will be run ahead of his horse-drawn carriage. More likely, there were other reasons for delaying of opening. But even after succesful opening of Butyrskaya Line, some members of City Council insisted only on the use accumulator tramcars in the centre of Moscow.

In June-July 1899 all construction works at Dolgorukovskaya Line, Petrovskaya Line and service tramline along Forest street were completed. On July 26, 1899 was put into test operation Dolgorukovskaya Line (from Monastery of Christ's Passions at present-day Pushkin Square to the Butyrskaya Outpost). On August 8, 1899, at 12:00 noon, was held official ceremony of opening of two routes. Dolgorukovskaya Line (Monastery of Christ's Passions - Butyrskaya Outpost - Petrovsky Park) had 17 stops. Its length was 5.6 km. There were used 10 tramcars at this line. This line was operated from 7:30am till 10:00pm. The travel prices were 10 kopecks (by whole line) or 5 kopecks (by one of two tariff sections: Monastery of Christ's Passions - Butyrskaya Outpost and Butyrskaya Outpost - Petrovsky Park). Petrovskaya Line (Brest Rail Terminal, now Belarus Rail Terminal - Petrovsky Park) had 3 stops: "Tver Outpost", "Descent to the Hippodrome" and "Petrovsky Park". Its length was 2.38 km. This line was operated from 7:45am till 10:00pm. The travel price was 5 kopecks. There was also single-track service tramline along Forest street for linking of Petrovskaya Line and "electric" tram depot.

The first "experimental" electric tramlines (1899). Red arrows - Petrovskaya Line of electric tram, Green arrows - Dolgorukovskaya Line of electric line, Purple arrows - service Forest line of electric tram; Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-drawn tram:

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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:12 PM   #1433
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The first stage (1903-1905)

The exploitation of the first electric tramlines was successful. Within one year, the profit from its exploitation increased in 2.17 times comparing with horse-drawn tram. Thus, the benefits of electrification became evident. On March 20, 1900 City Council decided to municipalize tram network. It was done big work on the inventory and valuation of assets of the "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow". On September 26, 1901 city authorities municipalized tram network of the "First company", including electric Petrovskaya and Forest tramlines. However, other horse-drawn tramlines, electric Dolgorukovskaya Line, "electric" tram depot and traction substation became belong to Belgian "Second company". In August 1902 City Council considered and adopted the project of the first stage of the construction of electric tram.

The first stage included construction of the four electric tramlines. Half of them were former lines of horse-drawn tram:
1) Sukharev Tower - Red Gate - Falconers Outpost (with branch line from Red Gate to Kursk Rail Terminal);
2) Falconers Outpost - Stromynka street - Transfiguration Outpost;
3) Triumphal Gate (Brest Rail Terminal, now Belarus Rail Terminal) - Monastery of Christ's Passions - Big Dmitrov street - Hunting Row;
4) Mary's Grove - Alexander street (now October street) - Alexander Driveway (now October Lane) - St. Catherine Square (now Suvorov Square) - Old Bozhedomka street (now Durov street) - 3rd Philistine street (now Shchepkin street) - Sukharev Square.

In July 1903 were ordered tramcar and other equipment. The ceremonial laying of tracks of the electric tram of first stage was held on August 16, 1903, at 12:00 noon, at the Alexander Square (now Struggle Square). In September 1903 were laid tram tracks at 1st Tver-Yam street, Sukharev Square and, partly, - at Tver street, Forest street and Palikha street. Also began construction of Miusy traction substation and Red Pond traction substation. The rails were made at Hughes Metal Works in Yuzovka (now Donetsk, Ukraine). The equipment for Central tram power station was made by Moscow "Society of Electric Lighting" and "Siemens & Halske AG" electrotechnical plant in St. Petersburg. The tramcars were made at Russo-Baltic wagon-building plant in Riga and at MAN machine-building plant in Augsburg, Germany. The equipment for tramcars was made by Russian electric society "Union".

The construction work of the first stage were resumed on May 3, 1904. In summer 1904 was finished construction of Miusy traction substation (capacity - 2*400 kW, ~6500V/=600V). In August 1904 was built new hangar for 20 four-axial and 20 biaxial tramcars, which were made in Augsburg and Riga. On September 22, 1904, at 10:45am, was opened Maryinskaya Line (Mary's Grove - Sukharev Square). It was first electric tramline in Moscow, which was built by the city authorities. In September 1904 was put into operation Terminal Line from Tver Outpost (Brest Rail Terminal) to the Sukharev Square, along the Forest street and Old Bozhedomka street (now Durov street). On January 24, 1905, after commissioning of the Red Pond traction substation, this line was extended to Falconers Outpost and later - to the Boevskaya Almshouse. Also in February was put into operation Petrovskaya Line (from Petrovsky Palace to the Hunting Row, along the Petersburg Highway, 1st Tver-Yam street, Tver street and Big Dmitrov street).

Therefore, first stage of construction of electric tram network was mainly completed during August 1903-February 1905. There were three lines - Maryinskaya, Petrovskaya and Terminal tramlines. There were 77 tramcars in the Miusy tram depot: 20 four-axial, 37 biaxial motor tramcars and 20 trailers. Since September 22, 1904 till January 14, 1905 tramcars carried 2.257.693 passengers.

The lines of the Belgian company in the end of 1901. Green arrows - Dolgorukovskaya Line of electric line, Red arrows - Sparrow Line of steam-drawn tram, Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-drawn tram, other lines - lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge

The municipalized tramlines in August 1904. Red arrows - lines of electric tram, Blue arrows - common lines of horse-drawn tram, other lines - municipalized lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of all tramlines in February 1905. Bold lines - municipalized lines of electric tram, Blue arrows - Dolgorukovskaya Line of electric tram (Belgian company), Red arrows - uncompleted electric lines of the first stage, dashed lines - lines of horse-drawn tram and steam-driven tram:

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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:14 PM   #1434
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The second stage (1905-1907)

In the second half of 1903 has begun projecting of the second stage. In 1904 was prepared project documentation, providing almost full electrification of the horse-drawn tram network of the former "First company of horse-drawn railways in Moscow". However, the construction of the new tramlines was suspended because of economic crisis and the deteriorating political situation, due to defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Within two years, in 1905-1907, there were 11 long-term strikes of tram workers in Moscow. The main demands of the strikers were: permanent level of salary and its increasing, annual leave, issuance of uniforms, payment of the full contents during illness, providing of the cheap apartments. City officials created a special commissions to investigate and resolve those problems.

Tram workers were participants of the Moscow Uprising in December 1905. In Miusy tram depot was created combat brigade under leadership of Pyotr Shchepetilnikov. For participation in uprising, in April 1907 Shchepetilnikov was exiled to Siberia, whence he fled abroad. In 1925 Miusy tram depot was named after him. The most famous strike was held from March 7 till March 22, 1907. It occurred after the engineer F. Krebs, chief of workshops, fired a few locksmiths. City officials decided to remove Krebs from post and start an investigation. But on June 4, 1907 Krebs was shot and killed by the locksmith Sergey Zuyev. As a result, Sergey Zuyev and his accomplices were sentenced to death. In 1928 newly-built Workers' Club at Forest street was named after Zuyev.

The construction of second stage was started in 1905. In April 1906 were opened two lines:
1) Transfiguration Line (Sukharev Tower - Red Gate - Razgulyay Square - Intercession street - Lavrentyev street, now Electricity Factory street - General street, now Electricity Factory street - Transfiguration Outpost);
2) Semyonovskaya Line (Razgulyay Square - Intercession Bridge, now Electricity Factory Bridge - Semyonovskaya Outpost).

In June 1906 was opened Yaroslavskaya Line (Yaroslavl Rail Terminal - Red Gate - Sukharev Tower). In August 1906 was opened line from 1st Tver-Yam street to the St. George Square (now Georgian Square), along the Big Georgian street.

By the end of 1906, there were 7 electric tramlines in Moscow:
1) Petrovskaya Line (Petrovsky Park - Tver Outpost - Monastery of Christ's Passions - Hunting Row);
2) Falconers Line (Sukharev Tower - Red Gate - Fire Watchtower Square, now Komsomol Square - Falconers Outpost);
3) Maryinskaya Line (Mary's Grove - Old Bozhedomka street, now Durov street - Sukharev Tower);
4) Terminal Line (Tver Outpost - Forest street - Old Bozhedomka street, now Durov street - Sukharev Tower - Red Gate - Fire Watchtower Square, now Komsomol Square);
5) Transfiguration Line (Transfiguration Outpost - Intercession Bridge, now Electricity Factory Bridge - Razgulyay Square - Red Gate - Sukharev Tower);
6) Semyonovskaya Line (Razgulyay Square - Intercession Bridge, now Electricity Factory Bridge - Semyonovskaya Outpost);
7) Georgian Line (Hunting Row - Monastery of Christ's Passions - Tver street - Big Georgian street - St. George Square, now Georgian Square).

In addition, there were: Dolgorukovskaya Line and 10 horse-drawn tramlines (which belonged to Belgian company), as well as 13 horse-drawn tramlines (which belonged to the city). For the second stage were ordered 105 motor tramcars and 28 trailers. By the end of 1906, there were: 22 four-axial, 150 biaxial motor tramcars and 66 trailers, as well as two watering tramcars and two snowplows.

For the second stage, were built: Falconers tram depot (1905), Central tram power station (1906; ~6600V, 25 Hz) near Small Stone Bridge and Lubyanka traction substation (1906). On February 16, 1907 were opened three lines through Butcher street: Transfiguration Line (Transfiguration Outpost - Razgulyay Square - Red Gate - Lubyanka Square); Semyonovskaya Line (Semyonovskaya Outpost - Razgulyay Square - Red Gate - Lubyanka Square) and Falconers Line (Falconers Outpost - Fire Watchtower Square, now Komsomol Square - Red Gate - Lubyanka Square). Therefore, Moscow outskirts were connected with the centre, and Butcher street became one of the most attractive streets in Moscow. Time intervals at Butcher street were 2 minutes. Despite of it, tramcars were overcrowded.

At Lubyanka Square was built big circular line around famous fontain for turnover of tramcars. On February 25, 1907 was opened tramline from Sukharev Tower to Lubyanka Square, along the Sretenka street and Big Lubyanka street. On February 28, 1907 was opened tramline from Hunting Row to Lubyanka Square, along the Theatre Square and Theatre Driveway. Therefore, instead of four radial lines, there were formed two diametral directions:
1) Petrovsko-Falconers Line (Petrovsky Park - Tver Outpost - Monastery of Christ's Passions - Hunting Row - Lubyanka Square - Butcher street - Red Gate - Fire Watchtower Square, now Komsomol Square - Falconers Outpost);
2) Georgian-Semyonovskaya Line (Semyonovskaya Outpost - Intercession Bridge, now Electricity Factory Bridge - Razgulyay Square - Red Gate - Butcher street - Lubyanka Square - Hunting Row - Monastery of Christ's Passions - Tver street - Big Georgian street - St. George Square, now Georgian Square).

On February 28, 1907 was formed Ring tramline (Tver Outpost - Forest street - New Bozhedomka street, now Dostoevsky street - Old Bozhedomka street, now Durov street - 3rd Philistine street, now Shchepkin street - Sukharev Square - Sretenka street - Big Lubyanka street - Lubyanka Square - Theatre Driveway - Big Dmitrov street - Passions Square, now Pushkin Square - Tver street - Tver Outpost). On April 9, 1907 was opened tramline from Monastery of Christ's Passions to the Arbat Gate, along the Tver Boulevard and St. Nicetas Boulevard. Therefore, was formed new Arbatsko-Falconers Line (Arbat Gate - St. Nicetas Boulevard - Tver Boulevard - Monastery of Christ's Passions - Big Dmitrov street - Theatre Driveway - Lubyanka Square - Big Lubyanka street - Sretenka street - Sukharev Tower - Red Gate - Fire Watchtower Square, now Komsomol Square - Falconers Outpost).

On April 16, 1907 was put into operation tramline from Hunting Row to the Arbat Gate, along the Moss street and Exaltation street. Therefore, were formed two lines:
1) Arbatsko-Maryinskaya Line (Arbat Gate - Exaltation street - Moss street - Hunting Row - Lubyanka Square - Sretenka street - Sukharev Tower - Old Bozhedomka street, now Durov street - Mary's Grove);
2) Arbatsko-Stromynskaya Line (Arbat Gate - Exaltation street - Moss street - Hunting Row - Lubyanka Square - Butcher street - Red Gate - Fire Watchtower Square, now Komsomol Square - Stromynka street - Boevskaya Almshouse).

In the summer of 1907 was electrified line from Red Gate to the Kursk Rail Terminal, along the Garden Ring and was formed Kursk-Brest Line (Kursk Rail Terminal - Red Gate - Butcher street - Lubyanka Square - Theatre Driveway - Big Dmitrov street - Tver street - Brest Rail Terminal, now Belarus Rail Terminal). In September 1907 Arbatsko-Stromynskaya Line was extended from the Boevskaya Almshouse to Transfiguration Outpost and renamed into Arbatsko-Transfiguration Line. Therefore, second stage of construction was completed.

After completion of second stage, passenger traffic of electric tram became in three times more than traffic of horse-drawn tram. There worked 181 tramcars at electric lines every day. In 1907 were produced 40 tramcars for Moscow Tramway at Mytischi and Kolomna Plants. By the end of 1907, Miusy tram depot became fully electrical. By 1908, there were 20 four-axial, 192 biaxial motor tramcars and 66 trailers. There worked 247 tram drivers and 506 controllers at electric tramlines, while at horse-drawn tramlines - 284 coachmen and 258 controllers.

The scheme of municipalized tramlines in December 1906. Bold lines - lines of electric tram, dashed lines - lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge

The scheme of municipalized tramlines in March 1908. Bold lines - lines of electric tram, dashed lines - lines of horse-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge
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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:15 PM   #1435
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The third stage (1908-1909)

In the spring 1908 began third stage of construction. According to plan, all horse-drawn tramlines must be electrified and few new lines must be built. In July 1908 was electrified horse-drawn tramline at Arbat street. On July 29, 1908 Arbatsko-Transfiguration Line and Arbatsko-Maryinskaya Line were extended from Arbat Gate to the Smolensk Market (now Smolensk Square). In July 1908 there were 13 electric tramlines and 10 horse-drawn lines (which belonged to the city officials) as well as Dolgorukovskaya Line and horse-drawn lines (which belonged to the Belgian society).

In 1908 were built 44.8 km of electric tramlines - at Big Georgian street, German street (now Bauman street), Ascension street (now Radio street), Neglinka Driveway (now Neglinka street), Manege street, Passions Boulevard, St. Peter Boulevard, Pipe Square, Swamp Square, Salt street, Big Field street, Maroseyka street, Intercession street, Old Basmannaya street, Plyushchev steet, Earthen Rampart street, Big St. Nicetas street, etc. By 1909, there were 115.2 km of electric tramlines and 19 routes, at which worked 330 tramcars. In the end of 1909 was finished construction of Zamoskvoretsky and Zolotorozhsky tram depots. In addition, there was started re-equipment of Uvarov horsecar depot for electric exploitation and construction of Presnensky tram depot in Vagankovo. There was finished construction of the three traction substations and enlargement of the Central tram power station. In 1909 were put into operation 60 km of electric tramlines as well as 250 electric tramcars and 150 trailers, which were made at Mytischi Plant near Moscow, Kolomna Plant, Baltic Plant in Riga and Sormovo Plant in Nizhny Novgorod.

By the end of 1909, there were 22 routes of electric tram, which exploited by the city authorities and 2 routes, which belonged to the Belgian company. In 1909 electric tramline was built at Red Square. There was necessary to build more diagonal lines. However, Greater Stone Bridge was overcrowded and horse-drawn tramline at Mouth Bridge (near the mouth of Yauza River) belonged to Belgian company. Therefore, it was decided to built tramline at Big Moscow-River Bridge near St. Basil Cathedral and to open tramline at Red Square. This line was laid in summer of 1909. However, this decision led to protests of leading archeologists, historians and artists, who were convinced that the historical image of the Red Square will be spoiled by the tram and overhead lines. On October 5, 1909, during experimental trip by this line, special comission found a compromise solution and decided to remove this line close to the Kremlin wall.

By 1910, there was only one horse-drawn tramline (Falconers Outpost - Bogorodskoe settlement), which belonged to the city authorities and horse-drawn tram network, which belonged to Belgian company. There were 6 tram depots - Miusy tram depot, Falconers tram depot, Zamoskvoretsky tram depot, Zolotorozhsky tram depot, Uvarov tram depot and Bogorodskoe tram depot. The electric tramcars exploited in 5 of them. Therefore, own tram network of the city authorities was almost electrified. The main purpose was purchase of the tram network of Belgian company and its electrification. It was made in 1910.

The scheme of municipalized electric tramlines in December 1909. Blue arrows - line of horse-drawn tram:

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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:17 PM   #1436
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The fourth stage (1910-1912)

By this time tram network of the Belgian company gradually fell into decay, the rolling stock on these lines has not been updated, and passenger traffic greatly decreased due to construction of electric tramlines at parallel streets. In 1910 Belgian company had 2 electric tramlines and 10 horse-drawn tramlines. In 1907 electric tramcars at Dolgorukovskaya Line carried 7.745 mln. passengers, that was 40% of the passanger traffic at all lines of the Belgian company. After completion of third stage, city authorities decided to purchase profitable Dolgorukovskaya Line and horse-drawn tramlines along Garden Ring. This decision was made on April 17, 1911. In June 1911 city authorities signed contract with Belgian company about municipalization of second tram network since November 14, 1911. City authorities ordered 200 electric tramcars and 100 trailers. The official ceremony devoted to beginning of electrification of second tram network was held on July 8, 1911.

The pace of electrification was very high even according by modern standarts. On September 27, 1911 was put into operation Philistine Line. On October 23, 1911 were opened three tramlines: from Sukharev Tower to Smolensk Market along the Garden Ring; from Pipe Square to St. Catherine Square (now Suvorov Square) along the Flower Boulevard; from St. Clement Lane to Serpukhov Square along the St. Paraskeva Pyatnitsa street. On November 9, 1911 was put into operation Prechistenskaya Line. On November 11 was opened tramline from Pipe Square to Mouth Bridge along the Boulevard Ring, two days later - from Kaluga Square to Kaluga Outpost (now Gagarin Square). On November 14, 1911 was opened tram movement at Garden Line from Smolensk Market to Crimean Bridge, from Taganka Square to Big Red Hills Bridge, from Crimean Bridge to Small Red Hils Bridge.

Therefore, almost whole second tram network was electrified. By 1912, there were only three non-electrified tramlines - Gardeners horse-drawn tramline (from Saratov Rail Terminal, now Pavelets Rail Terminal to the Mouth Bridge, along the Gardeners street), Sparrow steam-drawn tramline (Kaluga Outpost, now Gagarin Square - Sparrow Hills) and Petrovskaya steam-drawn tramline (Butyrskaya Outpost - Petrovskaya Agricultural Academy). In 1911 were opened two historical tram routes. On November 11, 1911 (or January 9, 1912) was opened tram route "A" (which became known as "Annushka" - "Annie") along the Boulevard Ring (also known as "A" Ring, hence the name of route). On October 23, 1911 was opened tram route "B" (which became known as "Bukashka" ~ "Beetle") along the Garden Ring (also known as "B" Ring, hence the name of route).

On December 13, 1911 was opened new line from Petersburg Highway (now Leningrad Avenue) to the Soldatyonkov Hospital (now Botkin Hospital). On February 17, 1912 was opened new line from Red Pond street to the Yelokhovo Square, along the Lower Maslovka street. By 1912, there were 267.7 km of tramlines, 24 tram routes and two steam-drawn tramlines. There operated 587 tramcars per day. During 1910-1912 were built or reconstructed three tram depots. In 1912 there were 7 tram depots, Central tram power station and 9 traction substations in Moscow.

In 1912 was fully reconstructed old Dolgorukovskaya Line and part of Petrovskaya Line (from Tver Outpost to Petrovsky Park, along the Petersburg Highway, that now is Leningrad Avenue). There were electrified: Sparrow steam-drawn tramline, Gardeners horse-drawn tramline; and was built line to the Bogorodskoe settlement. Prior to WWI, there were 38 tram routes in Moscow, including circular routes "A" and "B". There was also steam-drawn tramline from Butyrskaya Outpost to Petrovskaya Agricultural Academy. By 1914, there were 821 electric tramcars and 435 trailers in Moscow.

The scheme of electric tramlines in January 1914. Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-drawn tram:

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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:18 PM   #1437
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Military time (1914-1920)

After beginning of WWI, 2000 tram workers were mobilized on front. As result, in September 1914 there operated 600 instead of 900 tramcars every day. For the first time, it was decided to take women for the tram work. By March 1915 there worked 500 women-controllers in Moscow Tramway. According to decision of City Council, soldiers and workers of hospitals were entitled to free trips. Tramcars became to use for transportation of wounded and for cargo transportation (mainly firewoods). It was decided to adapt reserve Presnensky tram depot for urban military hospital. There was built tramline from Alexander Rail Terminal (now Belarus Rail Terminal) to Presnensky tram depot. This hospital was opened on October 14, 1914. In 1914 there were also built two other tramlines for transportation of wounded. For this purpose, were rebuilt 30 tramcars. In January 1915 was opened military hospital in Miusy tram depot.

The new tram staff, who replaced mobilized workers, had low professional qualification. As result, within half of year, from August 1914 till February 1915, there happened five serious accidents. In 1915, due to the increase of level of prices in Moscow, were started strikes of workers. They demanded to increase of own salary on 25%. As result, their demands were met. However, despite of the steady increasing of salary, living conditions in the country became incompatible with it. City officials have attempted to improve working and living conditions of tram workers to avoid further strikes. In 1917, due to February and October Revolutions, tram operation was suspended for short periods many times. Many tram workers took part in October Revolution of 1917. The leaders of the combat brigades were tram driver Pyotr Apakov (brigade of Zamoskvoretsky tram depot), locksmith Ivan Artamonov (brigade of Uvarov tram depot) and doctor-pediatrician Ivan Rusakov (brigade of New Falconers tram depot). Later these leaders were killed during Civil War. In Soviet times those tram depots, brigades of which they were headed, were named in their honour.

In January 1918 there were operated only 200 tramcars per day. During 1919-1921, tramcars were opened for passengers only during summer period, while at other seasons it worked only for cargo transportation. In 1916 there operated only 51 tramcars for cargo transportation per day, in 1917 - 63, in 1918 - 118, in 1919 - 167. Some passenger tramcars were rebuilt for cargo transportation. Within two years, from January 1917 till January 1919, the number of tram workers decreased from 16475 till 7960. In 1920, due to lack of fuel for power station, tram movement in Moscow was almost stopped. There were built new lines, but it were used only for cargo transportation. During first half of 1920 tramcars carried 169 mln. kg. of cargo, 70% of which was fuel (firewood, coal, peat, mazut). In December 1920 there were 777 motor tramcars and 309 trailers. 571 of 777 motor tramcars and 289 of 309 trailers were out of work. It was worst period in the history of Moscow Tram.

Historical data (Year - Total length of tramlines - Average number of used tramcars - Annual passenger traffic):
1913 - 301.0 km - 782 tramcars - 290.823 mln. passengers;
1914 - 305.0 km - 835 tramcars - 319.179 mln. passengers;
1915 - 311.0 km - 923 tramcars - 382.230 mln. passengers;
1916 - 320.1 km - 877 tramcars - 395.741 mln. passengers;
1917 - 320.1 km - 670 tramcars - 288.903 mln. passengers;
1918 - 323.0 km - 593 tramcars - 236.491 mln. passengers;
1919 - 325.0 km - 330 tramcars - 71.148 mln. passengers;
1920 - 335.0 km - 202 tramcars - 23.640 mln. passengers.

The scheme of electric tramlines in 1916. Blue arrows - Petrovskaya Line of steam-drawn tram:

Click to enlarge
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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:19 PM   #1438
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”Old Moscow” (1908):


1907-1911. Mounting of overhead lines at Theatre Square:

zyalt

1912. Laying of cabel at St. Sophia Embankment:

energymuseum

1913, Central tram power station (built in 1906) near Small Stone Bridge. Cathedral of Christ the Saviour on the background:

energymuseum
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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:20 PM   #1439
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1912. Boiler room of a Central tram power station:

energymuseum

1912. Turbine hall of a Central tram power station:

energymuseum

Lubynka traction substation:

Ysh
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Old November 6th, 2011, 11:21 PM   #1440
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Moscow Uprising of December 1905. Barricade of tramcars at Forest street near Miusy tram depot:

Link

1912, Miusy tram depot at Forest street:

Wikipedia

1914. Zamoskvoretskaya traction substation (№ 9):

energymuseum

1916. New Falconers tram depot:

energymuseum
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