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Old November 9th, 2011, 10:58 PM   #1481
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1900s, traction substation №1 on Lake Nizhny Kaban:

Rustik68

Obligation of the Belgian "Joint stock company of urban railways in Kazan":

Rustik68
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Old November 9th, 2011, 10:59 PM   #1482
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1900s, Kazan. View from St. John Hill:

Rustik68

1900s. Resurrection street (now Kremlin street) and St. John Square (now May Day Square):

Dimar Sagdeev

1900s, St. John Square (now May Day Square). Monument to Russian Emperor Alexander II:

Rustik68

1900s. Resurrection street (now Kremlin street). Saviour Tower of Kazan Kremlin on the background:

Dimar Sagdeev
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:01 PM   #1483
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1910s, St. John Square (now May Day Square). St. John Monastery (left):

Rustik68

1910s, St. John Square (now May Day Square) near entrance to Kazan Kremlin:

Link

1910s, crossing of Ressurection Line and Georgian Line. Alexandrov Passage (left):

Link
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:02 PM   #1484
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1900s, crossing of Big Prolomnaya street (now Bauman street) and Sts. Peter & Paul street (now Musa Cälil street):

rukazan

1900s, crossing of Big Prolomnaya street (now Bauman street) and Guest Court street (now Chernyshevsky street):

insros

1900s. Big Prolomnaya street (now Bauman street), electric tramcar with two trailers (the first two-floor trailer is redone horsecar). The belltower of Epiphany Church on the background:

Rustik68
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:03 PM   #1485
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1900s. Big Prolomnaya street (now Bauman street):

Rukazan

1900s, Exchange building at Big Prolomnaya street (now Bauman street):

Rustik68
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:04 PM   #1486
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1900s, Theatre Square (now Freedom Square):

Link

1910s. Theatre Square (now Freedom Square). Gentry Assembly (right):

Boris Dudenkov
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:05 PM   #1487
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1900s, Monument to the Russian poet and statesman Gavrila Derzhavin (a native of Kazan Governorate) near the Derzhavin Garden. View from the Theatre Square (now Freedom Square):

Dimar Sagdeev

1900s, Derzhavin Garden:

Rustik68

1900s, crossing of the Left Black Lake street (now Dzerzhinsky street) and Lobachevsky street:

rukazan
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:06 PM   #1488
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1900s, Gentry Assembly (left) and Georgian Church (right) at Georgian street (now Karl Marx street):

Rustik68

1900s, Telegraph building at Georgian street (now Karl Marx street):

Rustik68
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:07 PM   #1489
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1900s, 1st Imperial Gymnasium (now State Technical University named after Andrey Tupolev) at Georgian street (now Karl Marx street):

Link

1900s, Pedagogical Institute at Georgian street (now Karl Marx street):

Link

1900s, Art School at the end of Georgian street (now Karl Marx street):

Link
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:08 PM   #1490
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1900s. Crossing of the Moscow street and Evangelists street (now Tatarstan street):

Dimar Sagdeev

1910s, Moscow street. Hay Market Mosque (now Nurulla Mosque):

Link
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:09 PM   #1491
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1900s, tramline near St. Eudokia Church at Lower St. Theodore street (now Fedoseev street):

Rustik68

1900s, electric tramcar with open-type trailer on the bridge across Bolaq canal:

Rustik68

1900s, electric tramcar on the bridge across Bolaq canal:

Abdulla Dubin

September 1918. The Red Army marching in Kazan after the victory:

Wikipedia
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:10 PM   #1492
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History of the Kazan tram:

March 31, 2009. Replica of the Belgian "Nivelles" tramcar in the tram depot №1 named after Ivan Kabushkin. It was made in 1999 to the 100-anniversary of Kazan tram:

Niko

April 21, 2010. Replica of the "Nivelles" tramcar during restoration and painting:

Иванов Олег
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Old November 9th, 2011, 11:11 PM   #1493
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July 6, 2010. Replica at the new museum site in Kazan (this site was opened in May 2010):

Димар Сагдеев

July 7, 2010. Salon of replica. Replica №125 of horse-driven tram on the background:

Рома

November 20, 2010. Salon of replica:

Димар Сагдеев

November 20, 2010. Museum site:

Димар Сагдеев
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Old November 10th, 2011, 10:09 PM   #1494
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YEKATERINBURG METRO

November 10, 2011. Construction of the station "Botanicheskaya" ("Botanical"), which planned to be open on December 1, 2011:

Владимир Тищенко

Pre-WWI turnstiles:

Владимир Тищенко

Here are used tokens and E-cards:

Владимир Тищенко

Exit to the city:

Владимир Тищенко

Officials:

Владимир Тищенко
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Old November 10th, 2011, 10:10 PM   #1495
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Platform of the station:

Владимир Тищенко

Motorized draisine:

Владимир Тищенко


Владимир Тищенко


Владимир Тищенко

Officials in the draisine:

Владимир Тищенко

Trip to the neighboring "Chkalovskaya" station:

Владимир Тищенко
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Old November 10th, 2011, 10:11 PM   #1496
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Station "Chkalovskaya" ("Valery Chkalov"), which planned to be opened in February-March 2012 due to the problems with delivery of escalator parts:

Владимир Тищенко


Владимир Тищенко

Uncompleted escalators:

Владимир Тищенко

Scheme of existing and projected Metro lines:

Владимир Тищенко

18 days remains:

Владимир Тищенко
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Old November 12th, 2011, 02:30 AM   #1497
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post

Pre-WWI turnstiles:

Владимир Тищенко
I have to commend the Yekaterinburg metro for incorporating recycled materials into new stations. They're doing their part to make the world a greener place.
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Old November 12th, 2011, 11:35 PM   #1498
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AlekseyVT View Post
[SIZE="3"]
Pre-WWI turnstiles:

Владимир Тищенко
They bought some scrap in Moscow? Looks bad...
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Old November 13th, 2011, 11:59 PM   #1499
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14) June 24, 1900 - Astrakhan:

Early history

Astrakhan is a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Region. The city lies on the left bank of the Volga River, close to where it discharges into the Caspian Sea at an altitude of 28 meters below sea level. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, rich in sturgeon and exotic plants. The fertile area formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan' itself was first mentioned by travellers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan. Tamerlane burnt it to the ground in 1395. From 1459 to 1556, Xacitarxan was the capital of Astrakhan Khanate. The ruins of this medieval settlement were found by archaeologists 12 km upstream from the modern-day city.

In 1550s Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible conquered Kazan Khanate and Astrakhan Khanate. In 1552 his army defeated the Kazan Khanate, whose armies had repeatedly devastated the northeast of Russia; and annexed its territory. Russian chronicles record about forty attacks of Kazan Khans on Russian territories (mainly the regions of Nizhniy Novgorod, Murom, Vyatka, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Galich) in the first half of the 16th century. In 1521, the combined forces of Khan Mehmed Giray and his Crimean allies attacked Russia, captured more than 150.000 slaves.

In 1556, Ivan the Terrible annexed the Astrakhan Khanate and destroyed the largest slave market on the Volga River. Ivan the Terrible had a new fortress, or Kremlin, built on a steep hill overlooking the Volga River. These conquests complicated the migration of the aggressive nomadic hordes from Asia to Europe through Volga and transformed Russia into a multinational and multiconfessional state. In 1569, Astrakhan was besieged by the Cossack Ottoman army, which had to retreat in disarray. A year later, the Sultan renounced his claims to Astrakhan, thus opening the entire Volga River to Russian traffic. Astrakhan Kremlin was built from the 1580s to the 1620s from bricks pillaged at the site of Sarai Berke. Its two impressive cathedrals - Trinity Cathedral and Assumption Cathedral - were consecrated in 1700 and 1710, respectively. Built by masters from Yaroslavl, they retain many traditional features of Russian church architecture, while their exterior decoration is definitely baroque. In the 17th century, the city was developed as a Russian gate to the Orient. Many merchants from Armenia, Persia, India and Khiva settled in the town, giving it a multinational and variegated character.

For seventeen months in 1670–1671 Astrakhan was held by Stepan Razin and his Cossacks. Early in the following century, Russian Emperor Peter the Great constructed a shipyard here and made Astrakhan the base for his hostilities against Persia, and later in the same century Russian Empress Catherine II accorded the city important industrial privileges. The city rebelled against the Tsar once again in 1705, when it was held by the Cossacks under Kondraty Bulavin. A Kalmuck Khan laid an abortive siege to the Astrakhan Kremlin several years prior to that. In 1717, it became the administrative center of a governorate, whose first governors included Artemy Volynsky and Vasily Tatishchev. Six years later, Astrakhan served as a base for the first Russian venture into Central Asia. It was granted town status in 1717. In 1702, 1718, and 1767, it suffered severely from fires; in 1719 it was plundered by the Persians; and in 1830 the cholera swept away a large number of its people. The population of Astrakhan was 74 thousands people in 1888 and 122 thousands people in 1900.

Foreign capital played the leading role in Astrakhan economics at all times. In the 18th century trade turnover of Indian and Armenian merchants in Astrakhan was 10 times more than that of Russian merchants. They ran most of Russian trade with oriental countries. Indian merchants occupied leading positions in Astrakhan loan financing market. Wide development of silk and cotton manufacturing in the region was also directly connected with foreign capital – first factories were launched by Armenian merchants in the first half of the 18th century. Foreign specialists and companies also participated in the revival and development of many branches, important for regional economics. Thus, the development of shipbuilding in the 18th century, launched by the emperor Peter the Great, was directly connected with experience of Dutch shipbuilders: vessels from the Netherlands were most widely spread in the Volga-Caspian Region. Heyday of gardening in Astrakhan (second half of the 18th century) is connected with such names as the Hungarian Ivan Parobich and the Italian Giacinto Riсo. Astrakhan was also the place where the largest German colony Sarepta appeared in the 18th century. In the 19th century Greek merchants and agents of Warsaw companies dealt with promoting traditional Astrakhan fish products to European and Middle-East markets. During the last quarter of the 19th century Astrakhan fishery managers studied the possibility of artificial fish reproduction, based on technologies, elaborated by the American fishery company for artificial reproduction of fish with the use of floating fish breeding plants. In the 19th century Astrakhan was famous for the activities of "Partnership of Weiner beer-brewing factories in Astrakhan", who produced beer brands well known in Europe, such as "Viennese", "Nuremberg", "Bohemian", "Bavarian", "Munich" and others. Beer, produced by this partnership, was awarded at many exhibitions. Besides beer, they produced other alcoholic beverages, selling them in adjacent regions of Russia, in the Volga region, Northern Caucasus and Central Asia.

Creation of the Russian oil industry – Nobel and Shukhov’s inventions

At the end of the 19th century industrial development of Astrakhan by efforts of foreign capital stepped up onto a new level. The leading role belonged to "Partnership for oil production of the Nobel brothers" ("Branobel"), established in 1876 by famous inventors and businessmen from Sweden - Ludwig, Alfred and Robert Nobels. The partnership carried out oil extraction works at the Apsheron peninsula (Russian Empire) and exported oil products to Europe. Ludwig Nobel (1831-1888), older brother of Alfred Nobel (founder of the Nobel Prize), is credited with creating the Russian oil industry. He invented oil tankers, and better refineries, pipelines. Before 1880 the United States was Russia's teacher in most aspects of the oil business. The roles were reversed in some respects by Nobel. The oil business lacked technical know-how and scientific methodology. To rectify this, Nobel established technical chemical research labs in Baku. These research centers were very active and when something of commercial interest was found, Nobel was fast in trying the new products out on a large scale.

Dozens of scientists were employed, finding ways to treat oil, developing new uses for oil, and developing products derived from oil. Creation of first oil tankers for the Caspian Sea is also connected with the Nobels. Ludwig Nobel successfully developed the idea of the Artemyev brothers, Astrakhan ship owners, who were the first to transport oil and oil products not in tanks, but in cargo holds of their vessels. But unlike them Ludwig Nobel built metal tankers. The world's first successful oil tanker was Nobel's "Zoroaster". Ludwig designed this in Lindholmen-Motala in Sweden with Sven Almqvist. The contract to build it was signed January 1878, and it made its first run later that year from Baku to Astrakhan. Ludwig Nobel died in 1888 and was buried in the Smolensk Lutheran Cemetery in St. Petersburg.

In 1878 great Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939) invented first world’s cylindric oil depot in Baku. Such form was a more optimal for oil storage as well as more economical and simplier for mounting. Today modern cylindrical depots are being built worldwide according to the basic principles, developed by Vladimir Shukhov. His projects were instrumental in constructing of oil pipeline, the first in the Russian Empire, between Balkhany and Cherny Gorod near Baku (12 km, 1878 complete, used by the "Branobel"). By 1883 the total length of Shukhov-designed oil pipelines in Baku exceeded 94 km, transporting 30 thousands barrels of oil per day. In 1894 a similar pipeline network was built in Grozny. Shukhov designed the first Trans-Caucasian kerosene pipeline between Baku and Batumi (835 km long) and Grozny-Tuapse pipeline (618 km long). A superior design for oil-tanker barges (less than half of the metal previously required), 150-meters long barges were built (mostly for the Volga River) as well as the first Russian seaworthy oil tanker ship. His approach to the ship strength analysis (using the model of a shell on an elastic foundation) was absolutely novel for that time. Shukhov designed inexpensive oil tanks with the bottom calculated as a membrane on elastic foundation. They became very popular among oil-producers of the Imperial Russia.

By 1881, 130 such tanks were built in Baku alone. Shukhov made important contributions to the chemical industry. He designed and built an oil cracking plant. His patents (Shukhov cracking process - patent of Russian empire No. 12926 from November, 27th, 1891) on cracking were used to invalidate "Standard Oil"'s patents (Burton process – Patent of USA No. 1,049,667 on January 7, 1913) on oil refineries. He designed an original oil pump. Shukhov's pumps revolutionized Baku's oil industry allowing to increase its oil output. He designed one of the first furnaces that used the residual oil: before his works the residual oil was considered a waste and was discarded, due to his works it became recognized as an important technical product known as a fuel oil.

These engineering solutions were revolutionary in oil industry, allowing for a long-distance transportation of oil products, including transportation across the Atlantic Ocean. In Astrakhan the Nobels built a base for oil products storage and shipping, for servicing marine and river tanker fleet. The settlement of oilmen was considered the most comfortable in Astrakhan. City authorities were proud to show it to high-ranked guests, who visited Astrakhan, including Persian Shah Nasir-ed-Din. Success of the Nobels’ industrial activities was to a large extent provided for by highly qualified staff of the partnership. Thus, in 1896 former employee of Nobel partnership, Swedish engineer A.K. Noren started his own business in Astrakhan, producing small-sized steam and heat vessels, where he built the first ichthyologic vessel for Astrakhan. Here he also reconstructed oil engine, which was later widely spread in shipbuilding. Already at the turn of 19th-20th centuries Astrakhan was a large industrial and trading center in the South of Russia. The population of Astrakhan was 74 thousands people in 1888 and 122 thousands people in 1900. Cargo traffic of Astrakhan port was the second in the country after Odessa on the Black Sea. By this time economic interests of many European countries were focused in the Caspian Region, which was the basis for opening of unofficial consular representations of some European countries in Astrakhan. Later public transport of Astrakhan also became the pride of local authorities. The first tram appeared in Astrakhan in 1900 thanks to the cooperation of local authorities with a Belgian company.

Construction of tram network

The construction of tram network began in the end of 19th century. The decision was made by the City Council. After learning experience of the other cities, there was made project and the scheme of the tram network in Astrakhan. By the appointed date (April 27, 1896), City Council received several proposals from foreign and domestic entrepreneurs for the construction of the Astrakhan tram. Finally it was chosen project of Belgian entrepreneur Mass. The contract between Mass and city authorities was signed on May 16, 1896. After completion of tram network, Mass handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to the Belgian joint-stock company - "Tramways d'Astrakhan" (established in 1896), administration of which was in Paris.

Electric tram network was put into operation on June 24, 1900. There were opened four single-track lines (1 meter wide):
1) River Terminal (Volga Embankment) - Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Steamship street (now Admiralteyskaya street) - Simbirsk street (now Henri Barbusse street) - 3rd Steppe street (now Tatishchev street) - Bolda piers (near present-day Central Stadium);
2) Big Demidov street (now Sverdlov street) - Big Isady Market - St. John Bridge across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal) - 2nd Bakaldinskaya street (now Baku street) - Earthern Bridge across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal) - Alexander Boulevard (now Lenin Square) - Cathedral street (now Vasily Trediakovsky street) - Old Hagrites street (now Admiralteyskaya street);
3) Old Hagrites street (now Admiralteyskaya street) - Big Demidov street (now Sverdlov street) - Exaltation Bridge across Kutum River - Nativity street (now Kalinin street) - Turgenev street (now Karl Marx street) - Pleasant Garden (near former tram depot);
4) Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Kutum Embankment (now Red Embankment) - Tobacco Row street (now Kirov street) - Police street (now Kirov street) - Police Bridge across Kanava Canal (now May Day Canal) - Parobich Hillock street (now Kirov street and Kuban street) - Hospital on Parobich Hillock.

There were built 9.23 km of tramlines, which were served by 15 tramcars. The capacity of each tramcar was 20 seats and 24 standing. Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (first-class places) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second-class places). The students and policemen had rights on free ticket. Time intervals were 5 minutes, the maximal speed was 12.8 km/h. In 1908 were built additional tramlines from Helling (dockyard) to Tsaryov River and from Big Isady Market to cemetery (along New Isady street, now Nogin street - Red Bridge across Kutum River - Pentecost street, now Nozdrin street - Garden street, now Sophia Perovskaya street). Later, after construction of railway between Saratov and Astrakhan, there were built tramline to the Rail Terminal. By 1916, there were 45 motor tramcars and 21 trailers in Astrakhan. In February 1918, after October Revolution 1917, there were street battles in Astrakhan, which continued for two weeks. It were finished by Bolshevik victory over anti-Bolshevik Cossacks and establishment of Soviet power. The tram network was municipalized by the City Council on December 16, 1918. The tram operation was stopped in April 1919 due to Civil War. During Civil War, in the summer-autumn of 1919 there were fierce battle near Astrakhan. In November 1919 Red Army started offensive operations against the Whites.

Pre-Revolution tramlines at the Astrakhan Map of 1926:
Red line: River Terminal (Volga Embankment) - Bolda piers;
Green line: Big Demidov street (now Sverdlov street) - 2nd Bakaldinskaya street (now Baku street) - Old Hagrites street (now Admiralteyskaya street);
Blue line: Old Hagrites street (now Admiralteyskaya street) - Pleasant Garden;
X - tram depot near Pleasant Garden;
Orange line: Commercial Bridge across Kutum River - Hospital on Parobich Hillock;
Purple line: Helling (dockyard) - Tsaryov River;
Yellow line: extension to the Rail Terminal;
Black line: extension from Big Isady Market to cemetery:


Vladislav Prudnikov

Last edited by AlekseyVT; November 24th, 2013 at 06:33 PM.
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Old November 14th, 2011, 12:00 AM   #1500
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June 24, 1900. Opening of electric tram in Astrakhan:

astrakhan-electro

June 24, 1900. Opening of electric tram in Astrakhan. Tram stop "Kremlin":

astrakhan-electro
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