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Old November 17th, 2011, 01:09 AM   #1521
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February 6, 2002. Excursion tram (made in 1931) in the Eastern tram depot:

Kubtransport

December 18, 2010. Celebrations dedicated to the 110-anniversary of Krasnodar Tram:

Kubtransport

December 10, 2010. Celebrations dedicated to the 110-anniversary of Krasnodar Tram:
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Old November 17th, 2011, 01:14 PM   #1522
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nice photos!
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Old November 17th, 2011, 07:03 PM   #1523
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VLADIVOSTOK AEROEXPRESS

November 15, 2011. Construction of the Aeroexpress Terminal:

Black Diamond

Testing trip planned to be on December 29, 2011. It planned to be opened for passengers in summer 2012:

Black Diamond
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Old November 17th, 2011, 07:04 PM   #1524
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Construction of the platform:

Black Diamond


Black Diamond


Black Diamond


Black Diamond

The opposite part:

Black Diamond
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Old November 17th, 2011, 09:43 PM   #1525
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VOLGOGRAD METROTRAM

TV report about the future opening of the new stations:
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:10 PM   #1526
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felix2011,
thanks for the comment!
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:11 PM   #1527
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17) December 30, 1900 - Yaroslavl:

Yaroslavl is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Region, located 250 kilometres (160 miles) northeast of Moscow. The historical part of the city, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Kotorosl Rivers. It is one of the Golden Ring cities, a group of historic cities northeast of Moscow that has played an important role in Russian history.

Yaroslavl lies at the intersection of several major highways, railways, and waterways. Preceded by Viking sites such as Timerevo from the 8th or 9th centuries, the city is said to have been founded in 1010 by Yaroslav the Wise (c. 978-1054), Grand Prince of Rus', as an outpost of the Principality of Rostov Veliky. Yaroslavl (literally, "Yaroslav's") was first mentioned in 1071. Capital of an independent Principality of Yaroslavl from 1218, it was incorporated into Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1463. In the 17th century it was Russia's second largest city, and for a time (during the Polish occupation of Moscow in 1612), the country's de facto capital.

Early history (1010-1463)

If taken by its date of first foundation, Yaroslavl is the oldest of all the currently existing towns on the Volga. Yaroslavl was founded by a Grand Prince of Rus' Yaroslav the Wise during the period of his ruling the Principality of Rostov (988—1010) when he stepped ashore for the first time near the area now known as "Strelka", a favourite contemporary park. On this spot which was well protected from attack by the high, steep banks of the Volga, Kotorosl and Medveditsa Rivers, Yaroslavl and his men began to set about building the first Yaroslavl Kremlin. The first recorded event of Yaroslavl occurred as a result of famine, it was recorded as the Rostov Uprising of 1071. The name of the city is traditionally linked to that of its founder: Yaroslav.

By the 12th century the Saints Peter and Paul Monastery and Saviour Transfiguration Monastery of Yaroslavl had already come into existence, however at that time they were located well beyond the city limits. During the first two centuries of its existence Yaroslavl remained a minor fortified city of the Rostov-Suzdal lands. From the beginning of the 13th century, Yaroslavl found itself under the lordship of Grand Prince of Rostov Konstantin and became one of his primary residences. As, just before his death in 1218, Konstantin broke up his land between his various sons, his second son Vsevolod came into possession of the Yaroslavl land, which he from thence onwards ruled as the Principality of Yaroslavl. This principality, of which Yaroslavl became the capital included a number of territories to the north and existed up until its eventual absorption into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1463.

During the 13th and 14th centuries, Yaroslavl was a city largely built from wood, as a result of which it often found itself plagued by disastrous fires, which in some cases almost destroyed the entire city, a good example of which would be that which took place just before the transfer of power in the city to Vsevolod on 1221. Another constant source of danger for the city and for the many Russian Princes of the time came from the East and the many foreign aggressors, usually from the Mongol Horde. A particularly successful attack took place in 1257, when troops from the Golden Horde under Möngke Khan overran the Principality of Yaroslavl and murdered both the larger population of the area and the Prince's close family. On the site of that unfortunate event, on the right bank of the Kotorosl, there is now a memorial church and cross. In 1293 and 1322 there were further disastrous attacks on Yaroslavl launched by the Golden Horde, and in 1278 and 1364 the Plague struck. On many an occasion Yaroslavl had to be completely rebuilt, both in terms of residential buildings which no longer exist, to those larger more permanent structures which remain to this day, such as the Saviour Transfiguration Monastery and Monastery of Maria of Tolga (1314), which is located on the left bank of the Volga River. In 1463 the Principality of Yaroslavl was finally absorbed into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, with the area it once covered becoming a region within the new structure of the Muscovite state. From this point onwards the history of the city and its lands became completely inseparable from that of Moscow and eventually Russia.

16th century and the Time of Troubles

Even in the 16th century Yaroslavl continued to suffer from large scale fires and the damage they did to the city's developing economy and infrastructure. As a result the age old tradition of building in wood was abandoned and a new city built of stone began to appear; unfortunately this meant that very little of the Yaroslavl of the Middle Ages remained unchanged. The most prominent example of this is the Saviour Transfiguration Monastery which was destroyed in 1501 and rebuilt in just under a few years. As a result, the monastery's cathedral was built up in the years 1506-1516, a building which remains, to this day, the oldest unchanged building in the city. By the middle of the 16th century a number of other building works had been completed in the monastery, also, other than this, for the first time in its history, Yaroslavl gained a stone-built wall with a number of large watch towers which were intended to be used to spot attackers from miles away. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, when all the Russian principalities gave up their traditional rights and submitted to the Russian state, the two large monasteries of Yaroslavl profited very much from rich gifts from the court of the Tsar, largely because Ivan the Terrible made a number of pilgrimages to Yaroslavl over the course of his life. New building works were also made affordable by a large upswing in Yaroslavl's economic fortunes which the city experienced in the middle part of the 16th century. The main reason for this largely unexpected improvement in Yaroslavl's fortunes came largely from the city's position on the Volga which allowed trade to be brought from and to Moscow via the river, linking the new Russian capital with the port of Arkhangelsk. As a result, Yaroslavl became an important place for the conduct of international trade and a number of shipping berths and warehouses grew up around the city for the use of merchants, especially those from England and Germany.

The economic prosperity of Yaroslavl during the late 16th century was put to an end by the unsteady Time of Troubles which lasted from around 1598 until 1613. Like most Russian cities of the time, Yaroslavl was devastated by famine and became a potential target city for Polish-Lithuanian aggressors acting in their capacity as interventionists in the troubled Russian state. The Polish-Lithuanian-supported pretender to the Russian throne False Dmitry II captured Karachev, Bryansk, and other towns, was reinforced by the Poles, and in the spring of 1608 advanced upon Moscow, routing the army of Tsar Vasily Shuisky at Bolkhov. Promises of the wholesale confiscation of the estates of the boyars drew many common people to his side. The village of Tushino, 13 km from the capital, was converted into an armed camp where False Dmitry II gathered his army. As the result, this pretender won the appreciation of the powers in Yaroslavl and thus their loyalty. However, despite having promised to pay a higher rate of taxes and dues to the Polish occupants, Yaroslavl was on numerous occasions plundered by the forces of the pretender False Dmitry II. This led to a number of popular uprisings. Thus in early 1609 a Russian Volunteer Army was formed to free as many of the Volga's cities as possible, including, amongst others, Vologda and Yaroslavl.

In May 1609 another Polish army under the command of Aleksander Józef Lisowski tried to bring the strategically important city of Yaroslavl under the power of the invaders. However, the majority of the city's citizens had withdrawn into the tradition centre of the city and found refuge behind the protective earthen wall, thus denying the Poles entry without a fight. Yet even when Litowski successfully (through deceit) managed to get behind this wall, he found that the citizens of Yaroslavl had retreated into their ancient wooden Kremlin and the two stone-built monasteries. The ensuing siege of Yaroslavl lasted until May 22, but despite constant attempts to take the city, the Poles had to return to Moscow, having not fulfilled their duty to bring Yaroslavl under direct control of their command. Despite their failure at Yaroslavl, Polish forces remained in control of Moscow, and despite an attempt in 1611 by the Russian Volunteer Army to unseat the Poles from the Moscow Kremlin, little was accomplished and their seemed no end in sight for the occupation of the Russian state. However, one year later Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky founded yet another Volunteer Army in Nizhny Novgorod, that on the way to Moscow, found itself stationed in Yaroslavl for many months. In this time from April to June 1612 Yaroslavl became the de-facto capital of the Russian state, since in this place the most important matters of state were settled until the eventual liberation of Moscow came. After its time in Yaroslavl the Volunteer Army moved on towards Moscow, and with thanks to the rest and help they had received voluntarily from the people of Yaroslavl, the army was able to liberate Moscow and finally put an end to the Polish-Lithuanian intervention in the affairs of the Russian state.

Yaroslavl as a trading post and government centre

With the general economic revival of the Russian state's economy after the end of the Time of Troubles, Yaroslavl continued to be an important trading post and retained its place on the route of numerous traditional trading routes from the West to East and vice versa. By way of the Volga trade was carried out with the lands of the Orient, and it was not unheard of to see ships from India and China bringing goods to Europe by way of Yaroslavl. The northern trade route through the city ran to the port of Arkhangelsk in Russia's Far North, whilst other Eastern trade lines ran East over the Urals to Siberia. The town benefited very much from its geographical location over the years and the wealth which business produced for the town helped ensure its prosperous future. In fact, in the 17th century a number of early industrial concerns were set up in the city, including a number of leather-working shops, in which around 700 people eventually came to work. Other trades for which Yaroslavl became a centre over the years were in the production of textiles, cosmetics (fragrances) and silver work. As a result of the prosperity enjoyed by the city, Yaroslavl saw a huge expansion in the size of its population over the course of the 17th century, and by the end of this century, the town had a population of around 15.000 people, making it the second largest city of the Russia after Moscow. This period was also particularly important for the urban development of the city, because during the 17th century a multitude of stone-walled churches were built in the city; today these churches still form a major part of the old town's city centre. Work on most of these churches was begun with funds gifted to the city by rich local merchants, and thus they had a large say in what form the buildings would eventually take.

In 1658 Yaroslavl endured a disastrous fire which destroyed most of the city's few remaining wooden buildings, including the ancient Kremlin. From this point onwards the city began to develop in the same way as it has done up to this very day, as a city built almost exclusively out of brick and mortar. At the beginning of the 18th century Yaroslavl finally began to transform itself from a trading post into a major industrial town; this largely came about because with the foundation by Peter the Great of Saint Petersburg in 1703, the importance of Arkhangelsk as a port on the Arctic Ocean was drastically decreased, and the amount of trade being channeled through the city for export fell accordingly. Luckily, the wealth which Yaroslavl had amassed over its many years as an important trading post allowed it to invest great amounts of money into the development of the city's new industrial base, and thus make the city very attractive to new investors. In 1722 the textiles factory of Ivan Zatrapezny opened on the right bank of the Kotorosl. This plant was not only Yaroslavl's first major industrial enterprise, but also one of Russia's largest textiles producers. Amazingly this famous establishment still exists today under the name Textile combine "Red Perekop". In addition to the rise in textile manufacturing, Yaroslavl's traditional position as a centre for skilled leatherwork remained unchanged.

The most ancient building in the city is the Saviour Transfiguration Cathedral of the Saviour Transfiguration Monastery constructed in 1506–1516 on the foundations of the original edifice dating back to 1216–1224. In the 16th century, the first stone wall is built around the Monastery. It is from this Monastery that an army of volunteers led by Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky set out to liberate Moscow from Polish aggressors. In 1787, the Monastery was closed and converted into a residence of the Yaroslavl and Rostov bishops. At that time, Monastery buildings began to be reconstructed. New cells and the prior's chambers were built. Apart from the Saviour Transfiguration Monastery, the oldest churches in the city date back to the 17th Century and belong to the so-called Yaroslavl type (built of red brick, with bright tiled exteriors). Those of St. Nicholas Nadein and Elijah the Prophet have some of the Golden Ring's most impressive frescoes. Yaroslavl is the site of the Volkov Theatre (built in 1750), the oldest theatre in Russia.

In the 1770s, as a result of the city's economic development and ever rising population, the city became a major provincial centre, thus in the course of the Russian Empire's administrative reforms under Catherine the Great Yaroslavl, in 1777, became the centre of its own viceroyalty, and in 1778 received its own grant of arms. In 1796 the city finally became the administrative centre from one of the empire's new governorate. As an administrative centre of the highest order, Yaroslavl, in 1778, received its own specially drawn out plan for urban development. This led to another wave of building works in the city, the results of which are still visible in the city today. With the St. Elijah Square and Church of Elijah the Prophet at its centre, the new plan called for the development of a network of long boulevards and streets which would be bordered by large classical style buildings and numerous city parks. A prominent example of this later development is the former House of Charity (built in 1786), which is now one of the buildings of the Yaroslavl State University named after Pavel Demidov.

Urban development in the 19th century

For Yaroslavl the 19th meant a period of intensive building work, infrastructural development and industrialisation. In 1803 Pavel Demidov established the "School of Higher Sciences", this was the city's first educational institute and is recognised as the forerunner to the city's current state university. In 1821 the first permanent bridge (built near the Saviour Transfiguration Monastery) over the Kotorosl River was finished. In 1873 it was replaced with iron "American-type" bridge. By 1820 the city's Volga Embankment was stabilised and turned into a large shaded promenade. Also, other major classicist building works were started, amongst which was the Governor's House (1821–1823) (today location of the city's gallery). In 1860 Yaroslavl was finally connected, through Moscow, via telegraph to the other major cities of Russia.

On August 30, 1862 was been opened railway between Moscow and Sergiyev Posad (where is located Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, most important Russian monastery). On March 2, 1870 this railway was extended to Yaroslavl. Specially for it, in Yaroslavl was opened Moscow Rail Terminal, and Trinity Rail Terminal (built in 1860-1862) in Moscow was renamed into Yaroslavl Rail Terminal. Therefore, since 1870 Yaroslavl was connected with Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kostroma. In 1898 was opened Vspolye rail station, which later became Main Rail Terminal of the Northern Railway (1870-1913), linking Moscow with Arkhangelsk on the coast of the Arctic Ocean. On June 3, 1913, to the 300-anniversary of Romanov Royal Dynasty, was opened rail bridge across Volga River. Russian Emperor Nicholas II took part in the opening ceremony. Therefore, construction of the Northern Railway was completed.

In 1883 was built first water conduit in the city. By the beginning of 20th century, there were 66 schools and 10 thousands students in Yaroslavl. In 1865 was founded first Yaroslavl museum, in 1894 was put into operation telephone line. The population of Yaroslavl was 71616 residents in 1897. There were 50 industrial enterprises and 15 thousands workers. Today, Yaroslavl remains an important industrial center (petrochemical plant, tire manufacturing plant, diesel engines plant and many others).

1911, St. John Chrysostom Church (left) and Vladimir Church (right) in Yaroslavl (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1911, St. John Chrysostom Church. View from the south-east (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1911, "summer" St. Theodore Church in Yaroslavl (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):
Link

1911, entrance to the "summer" St. Theodore Church (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1911, "winter" St. Theodore Church in Yaroslavl (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1911, entrance to the "winter" St. Theodore Church (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1911, Iconostasis of the "winter" St. Theodore Church (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:12 PM   #1528
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Construction of electric tram network

The idea of construction of urban rail line for connection of Rail Terminal and Volga piers was appeared in 1890s. The main purpose was improvement of the cargo transportation through central part of city. On July 25, 1895 City Council made a decision to introduce horse-drawn tram lines in Yaroslavl. They wanted to built following tramlines: Moscow Rail Terminal - Volga piers, Centre of the city - Grand Manufactory, St. Elijah Square (now Soviet Square) - future Main Rail Terminal. During 1895 city authorities received few proposal for construction of tram network. In 1896 in Yaroslavl arrived representatives of the "Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Russia", which built horse-drawn tram network in Tula (1888), Voronezh (1891), Minsk (1892), Vilnius (1893) and Samara (1895). Together with local authorities, they toured the city and began planning of Yaroslavl tram system. At same time, Frenchman Édouard Denis, the director of the "French-Russian Company of Mechanic Workshops", presented own project of electric tram to the City Council. As result, on March 6, 1896 city officials chose this project because it was more profitable for them. Édouard Denis gave 10.000-rubles pledge (comparing with 5.000-rubles pledge of "Joint stock company of horse-drawn railways in Russia"). According to the contract, tram network should be transferred in the city property after 42 years of exploitation and city authorities had rights to purchase it after 20 years (comparing with 48 and 25 years respectively according to proposal of opponents).

On May 25, 1897 was signed contract between city authorities and Édouard Denis, allowing him to build the tram system on Yaroslavl’s roads. Later Denis gave all the rights to the Belgian JSC "Compagnie de traction et d’electricite" ("Company of traction and electricity"), which continued the construction work. On July 1, 1898 Belgian company got right on construction at the territory of the Russian Empire (they also built tram system in Yekaterinodar, now Krasnodar at same years). The one of lines should to be built at the "American" bridge across Kotorosl River, which belonged to Ministry of Railways. It was necessary to have special permit for construction at this bridge. Belgian company had the right to destroy the contract, if it will not be done. On March 14, 1899 contract was approved in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The construction of electric tram network began in summer of 1899 and was finished in autumn of 1900. In the end of August 1899 was laid tramline at Big St. Theodore street, in September 1899 - at Marksmen street (now Ushinsky street). In the winter of 1900 were built buildings for tram depot, workshops and power station near Ascension Ponds (now square at Tchaikovsky street). In April 1900 steam-engines and a dynamo-machine for the power station were delivered to Yaroslavl.

In the spring of 1900 Ministry of Railways gave permission to build a tram line at the "American" bridge with condition of its strengthening. On May 27, 1900 began construction of tramline at Moscow street (now Moscow Avenue), on June 2 - reconstruction of the bridge. On June 9 were completed St. Theodore Line and Nativity Line. For construction of Moscow Line was been strengthened "American-type" bridge across Kotorosl River and was expanded neighboring dam. At the Vspolye rail station (terminus station of Nativity Line) tram network was been linked with railroad. The majority of construction works was finished by beginning of September. The testing trip was been made on December 23, 1900. On December 30, 1900 solemn opening of the Yaroslavl tram took place. At this day was made trip from power station to Moscow Rail Terminal.

Tram launching allowed to proceed with solution of another problem - the electric illumination organization. In 1900 the first city power station was installed in Yaroslavl and began to produce the energy to provide tram operation and illumination of Yaroslavl streets. In 1903 first electric lanterns were lighted up on Yaroslavl streets. At that moment there were only 12 of them in the whole city. Three years later there were already 38 electric lanterns, by 1910 - 250. Vast majority of lanterns were placed in city's center, while suburbs were still illuminated with kerosene lanterns. The Yaroslavl power station constantly increased own capacities. Originally there were 6 coppers and 4 dynamo-machines of 200 horsepowers (147 kW) each at station. In addition to that the diesel engine of 300 horsepowers (220.5 kW) has been established in 1906. Besides the capacity gain it brought essential economy of fuel.

The tramlines were built at the right-bank part of the city. The first tramlines had the gauge of 1524 mm for the possibility of cargo transportation and consisted of 5 single-track lines with several passing loops. There were such lines:
1) Moscow Line: Epiphany Square - Moscow street (now Moscow Avenue) - Moscow Rail Terminal;
2) Volga Line: Epiphany Square - Big Line (now Komsomol street) - St. Blaise Square (now Volkov Square) - Marksmen street (now Ushinsky street) - St. Simeon Square (now Red Square) - Dovecote street (now Tereshkova street) - Exaltation Descent (now Fleet Descent) - Volga pier;
3) Nativity Line: Epiphany Square - Big Nativity street (now Big October street) - Vspolye rail station (now Main Rail Terminal);
4) St. Theodore Line: Moscow street (now Moscow Avenue) - Big St. Theodore street - Grand Manufactory (now "Red Perekop" textile combine);
5) St. Blaise Line: St. Blaise Square (now Volkov Square) - St. Blaise street (now Freedom street) - tram depot - Hay Square (now Labour Square).

Initially there were 19 tramcars, which were made by "Walker" company (Belgium). Its speed was 12.5 km/h and each tramcar had 22 seats plus space for 16 people to stand. Each tramcar had removable window frames so that in summer trams could be transformed into open ones. There were no stops and the conductor was to halt the tram on the passenger’s request. The original travel prices for the trip by one line were 6 kopecks or 0.06 rubles (first-class) and 4 kopecks or 0.04 rubles (second-class). Travel prices for the trip by two lines were 10 and 7 kopecks respectively. In September 1901 were introduced discount tram tickets for students for one month (1.5 kopecks - one line; 2.5 kopecks - two or more lines). On July 16, 1904 were introduced new prices: 5 kopecks (any class) for adults and 3 kopecks for students and military persons.

In May 1901 began construction of the "summer" tramline at the lower terrace of the Volga Embankment, along the piers. This line was opened on July 14, 1901. In the autumn of 1901 tramline near the Vspolye rail station (terminus station of Nativity Line) was been connected with railroad. In 1903 began extension of St. Blaise Line to the City Rampart and later - along the Uglich street to the St. Leonty cemetery. Tramline: Hay Square (now Labour Square) - Uglich street - St. Leonty cemetery was opened on May 22, 1904. Also there was built new tramline along the City Rampart, which connected Nativity Line and St. Blaise Line. On January 15, 1908 was opened line from Hay Square (now Labour Square) to the Hospital, along the Mologa street (now Victory street) and Gentry street (now October Avenue). After this development of Yaroslavl tram network was stopped for many years.

Difficulties in exploitation of single-track lines led to the numerous derailments. Very soon Belgian company ceased to develop marginally profitable tram network and started to expand electric lighting instead of this. During July 1-5, 1908 occured flooding in Yaroslavl, which led to brief termination of tram exploitation and electric lighting. In 1909 occurred gas explosion of diesel engine at the power station. Tram operation was stopped, losses amounted 12 thousand rubles. The total length of tramlines in 1910 was 18.1 km, there operated 18 tramcars per day.

In 1914 were ordered 10 new tramcars, but it didn't arrived in Yaroslavl due to beginning of WWI. Due to mobilization, women began to work in tram enterprise for first time. As result of increasing numbers of refugees, tramcars became overcrowded. In 1917 tram network became unprofitable. On November 5, 1917 tram workers started strike. Few days later Bolsheviks took power in Yaroslavl and municipalized tram network on February 24, 1918.

Right up until the beginning of the First World War Yaroslavl remained a large industrial city with a well-developed municipal infrastructure. However, the effects of the 1917 October Revolution were wide-reaching, and after the Russian Civil War the city's economy suffered rather drastically; this led to a significant contraction on the city's population. On July 6, 1918 began armed rebellion against the Bolsheviks in Yaroslavl, and tram operation was suspended. The Yaroslavl Rebellion, which lasted till July 21, 1918 had particularly grave consequences. In this event a group of conservative activists tried to remove the newly-installed Bolshevik municipal authorities through an armed intervention. The rebels managed to secure a number of large parts of the city, however this led only to an assault by the Red Army which saw the city surrounded, cut off from supplies and bombarded day and night with artillery and air forces. The rebellion was brutally suppressed, and the city was heavily damaged after artillery fires and air bombings. There was burned warehouse, some tramcars were damaged, 75% of overhead lines was destroyed. The rebellion was eventually put down, and ended with official figures putting the number of deaths amongst the city's residents at about 600, in addition to which around 2.000 of the city's buildings were either destroyed or badly damaged. On July 21, 1918 Red Army captured city, what led to beginning of Red Terror in Yaroslavl.

Major part of tram system was restored after three weeks since Red Army's victory. However, passenger operation was been only at three lines - Moscow Line, St. Theodore Line and St. Blaise Line. Other lines were used only for cargo transportation - in particular, from Main Rail Terminal to the storage warehouses in the centre of city. During 1919-1921 tram operation was been interrupted several times, tramcars were used mostly for cargo transportation. By 1922, there were only 3 tramcars in working condition in Yaroslavl.

Scheme of Yaroslavl tram network (1900). Black lines - railways, Red arrows - Moscow Line (Epiphany Square - Moscow Rail Terminal), Green arrows - Volga Line (Epiphany Square - Volga piers), Blue arrows - Nativity Line (Epiphany Square - present-day Main Rail Terminal), Purple arrows - St. Theodore Line (Big St. Theodore street - Grand Manufactory), Orange arrows - St. Blaise Line (St. Blaise Square, now Volkov Square - Hay Square, now Labour Square), X - tram depot:

Юрий Маллер

Scheme of Yaroslavl tram network (1901). Brown arrows - new "summer" line along the Volga Embankment:

Юрий Маллер

Scheme of Yaroslavl tram network (1904). Green lines - new tram lines:

Юрий Маллер

Scheme of Yaroslavl tram network (1908). Green line - new tram line:

Юрий Маллер

Map of Yaroslavl (1911). Blue lines - tram network:

Wikipedia
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:16 PM   #1529
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December 30, 1900. Opening of the power station and tram network in Yaroslavl:

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The building of the first power station in Yaroslavl:

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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:16 PM   #1530
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Moscow Highway (now Moscow Avenue):

yarportal

1913, Tramline to the Moscow Rail Terminal (now crossing of Moscow Avenue and Suzdal Highway):

Дмитрий Васильев

1900s, crossing of Moscow street (now Moscow Avenue) and Big St. Theodore street:

Дмитрий Васильев

1913, Moscow street (now Moscow Avenue). Saints Peter and Paul Church near Cadet Corps:

Дмитрий Васильев

1900s, St. Andrew of Crete Church at the Wide street (now Strikes street). "Walker" tramcar at the line in direction to Grand Manufacture:

Алексей Волков

1900s, living quarters near Grand Manufacture:

Link
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:18 PM   #1531
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1900s, Moscow Line. "American" bridge across Kotorosl River:

Link

1900s, tramcar on "American" bridge across Kotorosl River. The watermelon sellers:

etoretro

1919, "American" bridge across Kotorosl River. View from belltower of Saviour Transfiguration Monastery:

etoretro
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:19 PM   #1532
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1900s, central part of Yaroslavl. St. Blaise Church at the St. Blaise Square (now Volkov Square):

kvk-foto

1900s. Tramcar near Volkov Theatre, the most oldest theatre in Russia:

kvk-foto

1910s, tramline at St. Blaise street (now Freedom street):

kvk-foto

1900s, St. Blaise street (now Freedom street):

kvk-foto
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:20 PM   #1533
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1912, St. Blaise Square (now Volkov Square). View at the St. Blaise street (now Freedom street):

Дмитрий Васильев

1910s, crossing of the St. Blaise street (now Freedom street) and Vologda street (now Komsomol street). St. Blaise Church:

Link

1900s, St. Blaise street (now Freedom street):

etoretro
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:21 PM   #1534
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1900s, Marksmen street (now Ushinsky street):

kvk-foto

1900s, Male Gymnasium at the St. Simeon Square (now Red Square):

Link

1913, St. Simeon Square (now Red Square). General view of Yaroslavl:

Дмитрий Васильев
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Old November 20th, 2011, 11:22 PM   #1535
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1910s, Volga Embankment. Railroad bridge of the Northern Railway (opened in 1913) on the background:

kvk-foto

1900s, Volga piers at Yaroslavl:

kvk-foto

1900s, Kashinka pier at Yaroslavl:

Дмитрий Васильев

1913, Volga Embankment:

Дмитрий Васильев

1910s, Volga Embankment. Exaltation Descent (now Fleet Descent):

Дмитрий Васильев
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Old November 24th, 2011, 12:24 AM   #1536
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18) July 23, 1901 - Riga, Latvia;
19) August 28, 1901 - Tver:


Tver is a city and the administrative center of Tver Region. Tver, which is north of Moscow, was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 53.5 thousands residents in 1897. It is situated at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa Rivers.

Early history

The first written record of Tver is dated 1135. Originally a minor settlement of Novgorodian traders, it passed to the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1209. In 1238 Tver was devastated by Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan, but it was quickly rebuilt. In 1247, Alexander Nevsky granted it to his younger brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich (died in 1271), from whom a dynasty of local princes descended. Four of them were killed by the Golden Horde and were proclaimed saints by the Russian Orthodox church. Formerly a land of woods and bogs, the Principality of Tver was quickly transformed into one of the richest and most populous Russian states. As the area was hardly accessible for Tatar raids, there was a great influx of population from the recently devastated South. By the end of the century, it was ready to vie with Moscow for supremacy in Russia. Both Tver and Moscow were young cities, so the outcome of their rivalry was far from being certain.

Mikhail of Tver, who ascended the throne of Vladimir in 1305, was one of the most beloved of medieval Russian rulers. His policy of open conflict with the Golden Horde led to his assassination there in 1318. His son Dmitry "the Terrible Eyes" succeeded him, and, concluding an alliance with the mighty Grand Duchy of Lithuania, managed to raise Tver's prestige even higher. Exasperated by Dmitry's influence, Prince Ivan Kalita of Moscow engineered his murder by the Mongols in 1326. On hearing the news of this crime, the city revolted against the Horde. The Horde joined its forces with Muscovites and brutally repressed the rebellion. Many citizens were killed, enslaved, or deported. This was the fatal blow to Tver's pretensions for supremacy in Russia.

In the second half of the 14th century, Tver was further weakened by dynastic struggles between its princes. Two senior branches of the ruling house, those of Kashin and Kholmsky, asserted their claims to the grand ducal throne. The claimants were backed up by Moscow and eventually settled at the Moscow Kremlin court. During the Great Feudal War in Grand Duchy of Moscow, Tver once again rose to prominence and concluded defensive alliances with Lithuania, Novgorod Republic, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. Grand Prince Boris of Tver sent one of his men, Afanasiy Nikitin, to search for gold and diamonds as far as India. Nikitin's travelogue, describing his journey from 1466 to 1472, is probably the first ever firsthand account of India by a European. A monument to Nikitin was opened on the Volga Embankment in 1955. At last, on September 12, 1485, the forces of Ivan the Great, Grand Prince of Moscow, seized the city. The principality was given as an appanage to Ivan's grandson, only to be abolished several decades later. Last scions of the ruling dynasty were executed by Ivan the Terrible in 1569 during the Oprichnina. At that turbulent time, Tver was ruled by Simeon Bekbulatovich, a former khan of Kasimov. The only remnant of his ephemeral reign is a graceful tent-like church in the village of Kushalino, 28 km north-east of Tver.

In 1612 Tver was greatly devastated by hordes of Polish-Lithuanian aggressors. The city's decline was not irrevocable, however. With the foundation of St. Petersburg in 1703, Tver gained importance as a principal station on the highway (and later railway) from Moscow to St. Petersburg. It was much visited by Russian royalty and nobility travelling from the old capital to the new one and back. In 1708, Tver was included as a part of Ingermanland Governorate (since 1710 - St. Petersburg Governorate); in 1719, Tver Province was created within St. Petersburg Governorate. In 1727 Tver Province was transferred to the newly created Novgorod Governorate. In 1775 Tver became administrative center of Tver Vice-Royalty, which was transformed into Tver Governorate in 1796.

Following a great fire of 1763, the city was rebuilt in Neoclassical style. Under Catherine the Great, the downtown was thoroughly reconstructed. Crumbling medieval buildings were razed and replaced with imposing Neoclassical buildings. The most important of these are the Travel Palace of the Empress (designed by the celebrated Matvey Kazakov, built in 1764-1766), and the Ascension Cathedral (designed by architect Lvov and consecrated in 1833).

On November 13, 1851 was opened famous Nicholas Railway (now part of October Railway), which was built between Moscow and St. Petersburg through Tver. In 1860s were opened first public library and museum in the city. In the second half of 19th century in Tver were opened: steamship society, weaving manufactory, cotton factory, sawmill, textile mills, many schools and institutes, etc. On September 21, 1900 in Tver was opened first permanent bridge across Volga River, which was built in 1897-1900 according to the project of Russian engineer V. Tochinsky and Czech engineer L. Mašek (now it known as Old Volga Bridge).

1910, centre of Tver. Old Volga Bridge and Resurrection Church on the background (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, centre of Tver. Resurrection Church on the background (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, site of confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa Rivers. St. Catherine Church on the background (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, view at Volga River from the Old Volga bridge. Upper Volga Plant of the Railway Materials on background (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, general view of Tver from the south (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, Zhyoltikov Monastery in Tver (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, Kaulin's Cotton Factory on Tmaka River (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, St. Nicholas Church in Kapustniki (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910. Icon of St. Mikhail, Prince of Tver, at the southern side of Transfiguration Cathedral (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link

1910, Transfiguration Cathedral. Shrine with relics of St. Mikhail, Prince of Tver (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link
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Old November 24th, 2011, 12:27 AM   #1537
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Construction of electric tram network

In 1898 City Council signed contract with nobleman S. Vernatovich, representative of foreign companies, for construction of electric tram network. The owner of tram network was Franco-Swiss "Company of urban railways and electric lighting in Tver", which was founded in 1899. On May 26, 1900 they signed contract with City Council for the construction of the tram network and system of electric lighting in Tver. In 1900 began construction of power station and tram depot for 16 tramcars. The tram depot was built on the bank of Tmaka River, at the 2nd St. Nicholas street (now Bebel street), near 1st St. Nicholas street (now Sophia Perovskaya street). Currently headquarters of "Tverenergo" company is located on this place.

The tram network in Tver was put into operation on August 28, 1901. There was opened single-track City Line (1 meter wide) with several passing loops (length - 4.43 km). It was built in western direction from Octagonal Square (now Lenin Square) to the Morozov's textile manufacture, along the Millionnaya street (now Soviet street), 1st St. Nicholas street (now Sophia Perovskaya street) and present-day Kalinin Avenue. After this, began construction of the second single-track line (Rail Terminal Line) in southern direction from Octagonal Square (now Lenin Square) to the Rail Terminal, along the Three Holy Hierarchs street (length - 2.87 km). This line was opened some later. Later City Line was extended in eastern direction from Octagonal Square (now Lenin Square) to the Governorate Hospital at the Vauxhall street, and Rail Terminal Line was extended in northern direction from Octagonal Square (now Lenin Square) to the Volga Embankment. Therefore, Octagonal Square (now Lenin Square) became the centre, where two tramlines crossed.

1902 is considered to be the beginning of the Tver power industry when the first Tver municipal power station has begun to work (capacity of 920 kW) providing electro supply of the tram, water pipe and houses of the city nobility. Initially there were 13 motor tramcars and 4 trailers, which were made by "Brill" company. Its maximal speed was 10.7 km/h in the centre of city and 16 km/h in suburbs. The capacity of each tramcar was 32 passengers, including 24 seats (salon - 16 seats, front site - 4 seats + 2 standing, back site - 4 seats + 6 standing). The capacity of trailers was 38 passangers, including 22 seats (salon - 14 seats, front site - 4 seats + 8 standing, back site - 4 seats + 8 standing).

There were no stops and the conductor was to halt the tram on the passenger’s request. The tram system operated since 7:30am till 10:00pm during "summer" season and from 8:00am till 8:00pm during "winter" season. The travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles for the trip within one zone, 7 kopecks - for the trip within two zones, 10 kopecks - for the trip within three zones (for comparing, loaf of bread cost 2 kopecks). The students had 50% discount. The average price was 5.2 kopecks from each passenger. The passenger traffic steadily increased. In 1902 passenger traffic was more than 1 mln. people, in 1917 - 4.165 mln. people. Like in many other Russian cities, tram system in Tver was profitable (net profit in 1910 was more than 20 thousands rubles).

Since the beginning of the First World War, Russia has experienced problems sharing information with allies - France and Great Britain, as major part of European communication lines were on German soil. A key role in sharing information between Allies played Tver Radio station of Special Purpose, which belonged to the War Departament of Russia. Its purposes were receiving coded messages of Allies, direction finding of enemy radio stations and intercept of enemy messages with further retranslation to the General Staff. In 1916 engineer Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich, who worked at the Tver radio station, began to produce the first Russian vacuum tubes for radio receivers. During WWI, in Tver from Riga were evacuated Russo-Baltic Wagon Works and aviation park.

In February 1918 tram network was municipalized. In 1918 were delivered seven more tramcars in Tver. In November 1920 tram operation was stopped.

1910s, Scheme of tram network in Tver.
Blue line - City Line;
Red line - Rail Terminal Line;
Purple square - territory of tram depot and power station;
I - Road to the Morozov's textile manufacture;
II - Governorate Hospital;
III - Volga Embankment;
IV - Tver Rail Terminal:


history-tver
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Old November 24th, 2011, 12:29 AM   #1538
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1901, tram workers at territory of the tram depot:

Linkk

1901, tram depot at 2nd St. Nicholas street (now Bebel street):

Alexey Kholmogorov

1901, "Brill" tramcars at tram depot:

Alexey Kholmogorov

August 28, 1901. Opening of the Tver Tram:

Alexey Kholmogorov
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Old November 24th, 2011, 12:31 AM   #1539
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1900s, Transfiguration Cathedral and Municipal Garden at the beginning of Millionnaya street (now Soviet street):

elenkadem

1900s, Transfiguration Cathedral:

elenkadem

1900s, Millionnaya street (now Soviet street):

Link

1900s, Transfiguration Cathedral and the eastern pavilion of Travel Palace at the Cathedral Square (now Revolution Square):

Link

1900s, Commercial Women's College and Theological Seminary at the beginning of Millionnaya street (now Soviet street):

elenkadem

1900s, perspective of 1st St. Nicholas street (now Sophia Perovskaya street). Avayev Hospital:

history-tver

1900s, Morozov's Textile Manufacture near terminus station of City Line:

elenkadem
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Old November 24th, 2011, 12:33 AM   #1540
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1900s, Millionnaya street (now Soviet street):

elenkadem

1900s, Realschule at the Millionnaya street (now Soviet street):

elenkadem

1900s, Realschule at the Millionnaya street (now Soviet street). The view from the belfry of the Transfiguration Cathedral:

Link
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