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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:03 PM   #1621
AlekseyVT
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21) January 2, 1902 - Rostov-on-Don:
January 4, 1903 - Nakhichevan-on-Don:

Early history - A Tale of Two Towns

Rostov-on-Don is a city and the administrative center of Rostov Region and the Southern Federal District of Russia, located on the Don River, just 46 kilometers (29 miles) from the Sea of Azov. It was founded on December 15, 1749, as a customs house was set up on the Temernik River (a tributary of the Don) to control the trade with Turkey. The custom house was built according to the edict of the Russian Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great. In 1760-1763 there was built fortress not far from the customhouse. On April 6, 1761, according to the order of Empress Elizabeth, this fortress was named after Saint Dimitry of Rostov (1652-1709), a newly-glorified bishop from the old Northern town Rostov the Great. This fortress played a significant role during the Russian-Turkish wars of the second half of 18th century. In particular, it served as a base for an attack on Azov during Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774. However, by beginning of 19th century, this fortress lost its military significance. As Azov gradually declined, a settlement near the new fortress superseded it in importance as a chief commercial centre of the region. In 1807 it was officially granted town status. In 19th century it was known as St. Dimitry of Rostov fortress, Rostov fortress and Rostov town (1806). Finally, in 1811 it was officially renamed into Rostov-on-Don. This name is used to distinguish it from Rostov the Great, ancient Russian town (founded in 862), which located in Yaroslavl Region.

In the neighborhood there developed another town, founded in 1779 by the Crimean Armenians, who were granted shelter in the South of Russia. It was Nor Nakhichevan, a town on the right bank of Don River. In 1778, Russian Empress Catherine the Great invited Armenian merchants from the Crimea to Russia. After moving to the area, they established a settlement on the Don, which they named "Nor Nakhichevan", after one of the ancient areas of Armenia, Nakhichevan. In Armenian "Nakhichevan" means "the first halt". A wheat field was the border between two towns. Nowadays the central square of Rostov-on-Don, Theatre Square, is situated directly on the place of the former town border. In 1838 Nor Nakhichevan was renamed into Nakhichevan-on-Don. This name was used to distinguish it from ancient Caucasian town Nakhchivan (founded ca. 1539 BC), which now in Azerbaijan.

In 1797 Rostov fortress and Nor Nakhichevan were included into Rostov uezd of Novorossiysk Governorate, in 1802 - into Yekaterinoslav Governorate. Rostov's favorable geographical position on the crossing of trade routes promoted the rapid economic development of the city. The Don River that the city is named for is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with regions to the north, and Rostov-on-Don is an important river port in both passenger-oriented and industrial shipping. Rostov-on-Don became a busy trading port, which was visited by Russian, Italian, Greek, Turkish, as well as other foreign merchants.

The population of Rostov-on-Don was 3 thousand in 1809, 8318 residents in 1833, 13200 residents in 1856 and 17574 residents in 1860. The city was one of the major points of bread and iron export in Russian Empire. By 1880, there were 12 steam flour mills, 32 brick factories, 3 large tobacco factories, 8 iron foundries, 3 breweries, 6 mechanical plants, 7 printing houses, dockyard, etc. In 1865 was put into operation first water-conduit, in 1886 - first telephone lines. On September 27, 1896 Big Garden street became the first street in Rostov-on-Don, illuminated by electric lights. On September 9, 1901 great Russian inventor of radio Alexander Popov constructed radio stations, which connected port of Rostov-on-Don and distributary of the Don River. By beginning of 20th century there were more than 100 enterprises, one third of which belonged to foreign shareholders. In 1887 Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don were included into Don Voisko Province, which was official name of the territory of Don Cossacks.

In 1869 in Rostov-on-Don was built railway from the side of Kharkiv and Taganrog, in 1871 - from the side of Voronezh. In 1875 was opened Rostov-Vladikavkaz railway as well as first moveable rail bridge across Don River (1873-1874) and first Rail Terminal in Rostov-on-Don. In addition, in Rostov-on-Don were built railway workshops (1872-1874). There was not only repairs, but also producing of locomotives and wagons. However, even after completion of construction of railways, Don River has not lost its value of a major traffic artery. There was expanded Rostov port, and number of steamships increased from 91 in 1884 till 189 in 1900.

As Rostov-on-Don was located on the intersection of three railroads and the Don River, its territory was expanded and its population increased from 17.5 thousand people in 1860 till 100 thousand in 1893. In 1897 population of Rostov-on-Don was 119476 residents, including 2500 foreigners. It was 14th most populated city in Russian Empire. By 1914, there were consulates of 17 states in Rostov-on-Don, including United States, Great Britain and France.

By beginning of 20th century, population of neighboring Nakhichevan-on-Don was 30 thousands people in 1897. There were theological seminary, male and female gymnasiums, vocational and commercial schools as well as industrial enterprises. The largest enterprise was mechanical casting plant "Aksay". In 1928 two cities were united and Nakhichevan became part of Rostov-on-Don. Thousands of descendants of the Crimean Armenians still live in Rostov-on-Don.

Horse-drawn tram

In early 1880s in Rostov-on-Don were horse-drawn omnibuses (since 1867) and carriages, but it were too bulky and heavy to use. In 1886 two entrepreneurs (councilor of State, engineer Andrey Gorchakov and candidate of law Leonid Blummer) drafted to the City Council a project: to build in Rostov-on-Don a horse-drawn railway, or rather a horse-drawn tram system.

The tram network in Rostov-on-Don was opened on September 11, 1887. Therefore, Rostov-on-Don became 10th city in Russian Empire and fifth in present-day Russia, where was built horse-drawn tram network. The opening ceremony was been at Big Garden street, the major street in Rostov-on-Don. Later were built tramlines at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue), 6th Street (now Varfolomeyev street), Bogatyansky Lane (now Kirov Avenue) and Nakhichevan-on-Don.

The horse-drawn tram in Rostov-on-Don was unique in Russia for two reasons. Firstly, it belonged to the Belgian Joint stock company. For this reason it had so-called "standart" lenght of gauge - 1435 mm, which common in Western Europe. By the way, currently electric tramline in Rostov-on-Don still have 1435 mm-gauge. The other tramlines in Russia are have or had either "narrow gauge" (1000 mm) or "broad gauge" (1519-1524 mm).

Secondly, there worked only one horse-tram intercity line in Russian Empire. It was built between two cities - Rostov-on-Don and neighboring Nakhichevan-on-Don. This line was opened on May 21, 1890. In 1900 there were four lines:
1) Taganrog Line: New Settlement District - 6th Street (now Varfolomeyev street) - Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) - Moscow street - Post street (now Stanislavski street) - Bogatyanovsky Descent;
2) City Council Line: Hay Market - Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue) - Post street (now Stanislavski street) - Old Market - Police street (now Turgenev street) - Smirnov Descent;
3) Bogatyanskaya-Garden Line: Bogatyanskoe tram depot - Bogatyansky Lane (now Kirov Avenue) - Big Garden street;
4) Rostov-Nakhichevan Line: Rostov Rail Terminal - Big Garden street - city border - 1st Cathedral street (now Soviet street) - Catherine Square (now Karl Marx Square) - Market Square - Police Square (now Leo Tolstoy Square) - Boulevard Square (now Freedom Square) - 2nd Cathedral street (now Yerevan street) - Nakhichevan-on-Don tram depot.

There were two horse-tram depot - Bogatyanskoe depot in Rostov-on-Don (at Bogatyansky Lane, now Kirov Avenue) and Nakhichevan depot in Nakhichevan-on-Don (at 2nd Cathedral street, now Yerevan street). The speed of horse-drawn tram was 5-7 km/h. There were used 2 horses for each tram. At the hilly Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) one horse was fastened to the harness. The travel time from Rostov Rail Terminal to Nakhichevan-on-Don was about one hour, with three intermediate stops for exchange of tramcar. The capacity of each tramcar was 12 persons. Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (seats) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (standing). There were used strong horses (breed - Russian Bityugs and Belgian Ardennes), but after one-two years of such difficult work they turned into sick miserable nags, who lived no more than 5-6 years. However, tram owners no hurry to replace them with new, trying to squeeze out all the forces of the poor animals in order to achieve benefits and economy of money.

1890s, horse-drawn tram at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

forumrostov

1900s, horse-drawn tram at crossing of Moscow street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1896, Big Garden street. Horse-drawn tramline near New Market:

temernik

1899, Town Hall of Nakhichevan-on-Don. Crossing of Police Square (now Leo Tolstoy Square) and 2nd Cathedral street (now Yerevan street):

temernik

1890s, Nakhichevan-on-Don. Fontain at the corner of Police Square (now Leo Tolstoy Square) and 2nd Cathedral street (now Yerevan street):

oldtaganrog

1900, scheme of horse-tram lines (bold). Thin lines - railways;
X - Taganrog Line;
X - City Council Line;
X - Bogatyanskaya-Garden Line;
X - Rostov-Nakhichevan Line;
Brown line - city border:


rostov-tram
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:05 PM   #1622
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Construction of the electric tram network

Very soon slow tramcars, driven by sick nags with bad smell, become annoying people. For this reason, it was decided to electrify tramlines. In other cities of Russian Empire there were many long discussions in City Councils about possible damage from electric tram. The opponents tried to prove that the electric current would kill people, will cause wildfires, the tramcars will crush pedestrians, scare the horses and so on. Unlike them, city authorities in Rostov-on-Don agreed on the fast and widespread introduction of this technical innovation without long discussions.

On January 27, 1899 city officials signed contract with Belgian joint stock company (owners of horse-drawn tram in Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don) for the electrification of their tram network and construction of new electric tramlines. According to this contract, Belgians had rights for exploitation of tram network for 38 years, till May 23, 1939. After this tram network should be transferred to the city property. The representative of Belgian company in Rostov-on-Don was Joseph Fain, son of merchant and hereditary honorary freeman. For electrification of whole tram network, on the bank of Don River, at the crossing of Riverside street and Derzhavin Lane, was been built power station (=500 V, total capacity - 1650 kW). In September 1901 this power station was put into operation and was been made first testing trip of electric tram. Electric tram network was put into operation on January 2, 1902. The first trip was been made from the crossing of Big Garden street and Bratsky Lane to the Rostov-Nakhichevan border. There were opened tramlines at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) and Post street (now Stanislavski street). Later were installed electric tramlines at Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue), Hay street (now Maxim Gorky street) and Moscow street. On January 4, 1903 was electrified tramline at Nakhichevan-on-Don. Therefore, the only one intercity horse-drawn tramline in Russian Empire became the first intercity electric tramline. Two horse-tram depots in Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don were rebuilt into electric depots. Like former horse-drawn tramlines, electric lines of Rostov-on-Don were only one in Russian Empire, which had "standart European" gauge - 1435 mm. This feature of Rostov-on-Don tram exists to this day. Almost all tramlines in Rostov-on-Don were single-track, except tramlines at Big Garden street.

There were used Belgian "Nivelles" tramcars in Rostov-on-Don, which previously had been in operation at the streets of Belgium. The capacity of tramcars was 12-15 persons, maximal speed - 12.8 km/h. "Nivelles" tramcars were known in Rostov-on-Don as "small boxes" due to its compact sizes and low capacity. The former horse-drawn tramcars were used as trailers. The work places of drivers were open-type. As result, their continuous daily work was very difficult, especially during rainy or cold weather. All it led to the numerous strikes of tram workers. It's need to say that at these times Rostov-on-Don was one of the centres of revolutionary movement. In November 1902 workers of workshops of Vladikavkaz Railway organized the famous Rostov Strike, which spread throughout the city and was supressed by police and Cossack troops. In 1905 began series of strikes of tram workers and workers of other enterprises in Rostov-on-Don. The strikers demanded better working conditions and civil rights. Finally those actions led to the Temernik Uprising in December 1905, which was brutally supressed again.

Travel price was 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles, during WWI it increased till 5 kopecks. Since 1913, in Rostov-on-Don became used new tramcars, which were made in Mytishchi Plant near Moscow. Residents of Rostov-on-Don respectfully named new tramcars as "cruisers" - its capacity was in two times bigger than capacity of Belgian "small boxes". By beginning of WWI, there were 40 km of tramlines, at which operated 86 tramcars. The annual traffic was 38 mln. passengers in 1916. The average daily traffic was almost 100 thousands people - almost every second resident of Rostov-on-Don or Nakhichevan-on-Don used tramcar everyday! In 1917 there were 7 routes in Rostov-on-Don, including intercity tramline.

Before WWI, only men worked by tram drivers. During WWI, majority of them were mobilized on front and the owners were forced to hire women. In 1916 tram system was municipalized. As the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia, Rostov-on-Don was a bone of contention between the Whites and the Reds during the Civil War. During the Russian Civil War the city changed hands several times, many Don Cossacks were committed anti-Bolsheviks who supported the White Movement. On November 8, 1917, after Bolsheviks capture Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, there was established Soviet power in Rostov-on-Don. On December 9, 1917 near Nakhichevan-on-Don was held one of the first battles of the Civil War between Cossack troops and Bolshevik supporters. On December 15 Rostov-on-Don was taken by Cossack troops of Alexey Kaledin, Full General of Cavalry. The loss of Taganrog and the ensuing Ice March led Kaledin to believe that the whole situation had been hopeless. On February 11, 1918, he resigned from his post and committed suicide. On February 23 Red Army captured Rostov-on-Don. A one month later, the was established Don Soviet Republic of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

However, on May 8, 1918 Cossack troops of Lieutenant-General Pyotr Krasnov with support from 20th German Reserve Division recaptured Rostov-on-Don. Therefore, Don Soviet Republic ceased to exist. In the Summer and Fall of 1918, the White Don Army controlled the Don territory, severed Red Army communications between Moscow and the Caucasus (allowing the White Volunteer Army to defeat the Red Army of the Northern Caucasus). By the middle of June, a Don Army was in the field with 40.000 men, 56 guns and 179 machine-guns. In the second half of 1918, Pyotr Krasnov advanced towards Povorino-Kamyshin-Tsaritsyn, intending to march on Moscow, but was defeated. After Germany's defeat in World War I, he set his sights on the Entente powers in his search for allies. In January 1919, Krasnov was forced to acknowledge Lieutenant-General Denikin's authority over the White movement, despite animosity towards him. Anton Denikin led one final assault of the southern White forces in their final push to capture Moscow in the summer of 1919. For a time, it appeared that the White Army would succeed in its drive, but in October 1919 Denikin's army was decisively defeated at Oryol, some 360 km south-southwest of Moscow. After this defeat, White forces in southern Russia would be in constant retreat. On January 10, 1920 troops of 1st Cavalry Army under the command of Semyon Budyonny entered in Rostov-on-Don. On February 7 began offensive of White Army and Rostov-on-Don was recaptured again. However, three days later Whites were forced to leave the city without a fight. On March 27, 1920 last troops of White Army retreated from Novorossiysk to Crimea, and whole Don Region with surrounding territories came under Soviet control.

It's amazing that despite of all those changes of political power, tram operation in Rostov-on-Don was never suspended during Civil War (unlike many other regional cities). Moreover, at this period there was opened separate tram system at the right bank of Temernik River, at the workers' settlement, which now known as Lengorodok (Lenin's town).

Belgian "Nivelles" tramcar for Rostov-on-Don:

Ааре Оландер

1901, opening of tram network in Rostov-on-Don:

alexis6510

Map of Rostov-on-Don in 1902. Blue lines - tramlines; X - power station of tram network; XX - tram depot of Rostov-on-Don:

temernik
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Map of Rostov-on-Don in 1913. Blue lines - tramlines:

Clickable
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Scheme of tramlines of Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don in 1917:

rostov-tram
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Scheme of tramlines of Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don in 1921:

rostov-tram
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Scheme of tram routes of Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don in 1921. List of routes:
1 - Rostov Rail Terminal - Nakhichevan tram depot;
2 - Bratsky Lane - Catherine Square (now Karl Marx Square);
3 - New Settlement - Rostov-Nakhichevan border;
4 - Smirnov Descent - slaughterhouses;
5 - New Settlement - clinics;
6 - Market Square - Selmash District;
7 - Workers' Town - New Market;
8 - Catherine Square (now Karl Marx Square) - New Settlement;
9 - Rostov-on-Don tram depot - Engels street (now Big Garden street);
Without number - Lenin's town (near present-day Lenin Palace) - Olympiadovka District:


Сергей Максимов
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:06 PM   #1623
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1900s, Rostov Rail Terminal:

keynessa

1910s, Rostov Rail Terminal. Terminus station of tramline:

oldtaganrog

1900s, crossing of Big Garden street and St. Nicholas Lane (now Khalturin Lane). View to the side of Rail Terminal:

etoretro
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:09 PM   #1624
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1900s, crossing of Big Garden street and Post Lane (now Ostrovsky Lane):

temernik

1900s, Apartment house (now Southern Federal Pedagogical University) at the crossing of the Post Lane (now Ostrovsky Lane) and Big Garden street:

temernik

1910s, Warsaw Imperial University (now Southern Federal Pedagogical University) at Big Garden street:

alexis6510

1910s, Warsaw Imperial University (now Southern Federal Pedagogical University) at Big Garden street:

keynessa
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:13 PM   #1625
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1900s, Nikolay Kuznetsov's "Grand Hotel" at the corner of Big Garden street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue). View from the Big Garden street:

temernik

1900s, Nikolay Kuznetsov's "Grand Hotel". View at the Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, Nikolay Kuznetsov's "Grand Hotel" at the corner of Big Garden street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:14 PM   #1626
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1900s, Nikolay Kuznetsov's "Grand Hotel" at the corner of Big Garden street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, Nikolsy Kuznetsov's "Grand Hotel" at the corner of Big Garden street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

etoretro

1900s, Nikolsy Kuznetsov's "Grand Hotel" at the corner of Big Garden street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, crossing of Big Garden street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:15 PM   #1627
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1900s, crossing of Big Garden street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, crossing of Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) and Moscow street. Nativity Cathedral on the background:

temernik

1900s, crossing of Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) and Moscow street. Nativity Cathedral on the background:

temernik

1900s, Post street (now Stanislavski street):

temernik

1900s, Nativity Cathedral at Moscow street:

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:16 PM   #1628
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1910s, Hotel "Astoria" at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1910s, Hotel "Astoria" at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1910s, Hotel "Astoria" at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, crossing of Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) and Pushkin street:

temernik

1900s, Asmolov Theatre at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, Asmolov Theatre at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

etoretro

1900s, Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, crossing of Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) and Pushkin street:

temernik

1900s, Pushkin street. View from Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) to the side of Rail Terminal:

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:18 PM   #1629
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1910s, Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue) from Hay street (now Maxim Gorky street) to Pushkin street. Kushnarev factory (left) and Mashonkin Theatre (right):

temernik

1900s, Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1900s, Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue). Vision of the future:

temernik

1900s, Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

alexis6510

1900s, Commercial Club:

etoretro

1900s, Mashonkin Theatre at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

etoretro

1916-1918, Palace Hotel at the crossing of Pushkin street and Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:19 PM   #1630
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1900s, Central entrance to the Municipal Garden from the Big Garden street:

oldtaganrog

1900s, Central entrance to the Municipal Garden from the Big Garden street:

etoretro

1900s, Central entrance to the Municipal Garden from the Big Garden street:

temernik

1900s, Grand Moscow Hotel at Big Garden street:

oldtaganrog

1900s, Grand Moscow Hotel at Big Garden street:

etoretro

1900s, Grand Moscow Hotel at Big Garden street:

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:20 PM   #1631
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1900s, City Hall at Big Garden street:

etoretro

1916, Realschule and City Hall at Big Garden street:

temernik

1910s, City Hall at Big Garden street:

keynessa
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:22 PM   #1632
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1900s, Big Garden street:

alexis6510

1900s. Cinematograph "Soleil" and cafe "Empire" at Big Garden street:

temernik

1900s, Kotlyarov House at the crossing of Big Garden street and Kazan Lane (now Newspaper Lane):

forumrostov

1900s, Big Garden street from Kazan Lane (now Newspaper Lane) to Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue). Chernov House (right):

temernik

1910s, crossing of Big Garden street and Kazan Lane (now Newspaper Lane). Rostov branch of Volga-Kama Bank:

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:23 PM   #1633
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1900s, Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue):

temernik

1900s, crossing of Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue) and Moscow street. First electric tramcar in Rostov-on-Don (right):

temernik

1900s, crossing of Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue) and Kazan street (now Serafimovich street):

temernik

1900s, Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue). View from St. Dimitry of Rostov street (now Shahumyan street):

temernik

1900s, crossing of Big Garden street and Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue). Chernov House:

oldtaganrog

1910s, crossing of Big Garden street and Big Stolypin Avenue (former Grand Avenue, now Voroshilov Avenue). Chernov House (left) and Melkonov-Ezenkov House (right):

temernik

1910s, Melkonov-Ezenkov House (after last reconstruction) at Big Garden street:

temernik

1900s, Grand Avenue (now Voroshilov Avenue):

retromoscow

1900s, general view of Rostov-on-Don:

etoretro

1900s, Moscow street. Monument to Alexander II at Cathedral Square:

temernik

1900s, Moscow street. Monument to Alexander II at Cathedral Square:

etoretro
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:25 PM   #1634
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1910s, New St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral at Big Garden street:

oldtaganrog

1900s, New St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral:

etoretro

1910s, New St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral at Big Garden street:

temernik

1916, Big Stolypin Avenue (former Grand Avenue, now Voroshilov Avenue). New St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral:

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:26 PM   #1635
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1900s, Big Garden street:

temernik

1900s, Big Garden street:

etoretro

1900s, Big Garden street:

oldtaganrog

1900s, Big Garden street:

temernik

1900s, Big Garden street:

temernik

1910s, tramcar in Rostov-on-Don:

Ааре Оландер
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:28 PM   #1636
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1900s, crossing of Big Garden street and Bogatyansky Lane (now Kirov Avenue). Intercession Church on the background:

oldtaganrog

1900s, crossing of Big Garden street and Bogatyansky Lane (now Kirov Avenue). Intercession Church on the background:

etoretro

1916-1918, New Intercession Church at the crossing of Big Garden street and Bogatyansky Lane (now Kirov Avenue):

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:28 PM   #1637
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1910s, Nakhichevan-on-Don. Alexander Garden near Rostov-Nakhichevan border:

temernik

1900s, Rostov-Nakhichevan border:

temernik

1900s, Armenian-populated town Nakhichevan-on-Don:

temernik

1900s, Nakhichevan-on-Don. Merchant Bank at Catherine Square (now Karl Marx Square):

temernik

1900s, Alexander III street (former 2nd Cathedral street, now Yerevan street) in Nakhichevan-on-Don. St. Alexander Nevsky Church on the background:

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:30 PM   #1638
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1900s, Nakhichevan-on-Don. View at Catherine Square (now Karl Marx Square) and 1st Cathedral street (now Soviet street):

temernik

1900s, Nakhichevan-on-Don. Monument to Catherine the Great at Catherine Square (now Karl Marx Square):

keynessa

1900s, Nakhichevan-on-Don. View of Police Square (now Leo Tolstoy Square) from south:

temernik

1910s, tramline in Nakhichevan-on-Don:

oldtaganrog

1900s, Nakhichevan-on-Don. 1st Cathedral street (now Soviet street):

keynessa
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:31 PM   #1639
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1914, Big Garden street. The first day of military mobilization in Rostov-on-Don:

temernik

1914, Big Garden street. The first day of military mobilization in Rostov-on-Don:

Ааре Оландер

1914, Big Garden street. The first day of military mobilization in Rostov-on-Don:

Юрий Мадорский

1917-1918, Tram bons (1 and 2 kopecks):

temernik

June 1917. Demonstration of tram workers in Rostov-on-Don:

temernik

June 1917, Demonstration of tram workers at present-day Theatre Square. St. Sophia Church in Nakhichevan-on-Don on the background:

temernik

1918, German armored car Ehrhardt E-V-4 M1917 in Rostov-on-Don:

temernik

1920, destroyed Hotel "Astoria" at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik

1920. Red Army troops at Big Graden street:

temernik

1920, temporary plywood "Triumphal Arch" at Taganrog Avenue (now Budyonny Avenue):

temernik
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Old December 4th, 2011, 11:33 PM   #1640
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December 2006. Celebrations dedicated to the 105-anniversary of Rostov-on-Don Tramway:

rostov-gorod

January 23, 2007. 105 years to the Rostov-on-Don Tramway:

Denis

February 12, 2007. 105 years to the Rostov-on-Don Tramway:

Юрий Мадорский

November 26, 2011. Stanislavski street. Preparations to the celebration dedicated to the 110-anniversary of Rostov-on-Don Tramway:

Сергей Максимов

November 26, 2011. Stanislavski street. Preparations to the celebration dedicated to the 110-anniversary of Rostov-on-Don Tramway:

Сергей Максимов

November 26, 2011. Budyonny Avenue. Preparations to the celebration dedicated to the 110-anniversary of Rostov-on-Don Tramway:

Сергей Максимов
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