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Old December 10th, 2011, 03:17 PM   #1641
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VLADIVOSTOK AEROEXPRESS

December 8, 2011. Construction of the Aeroexpress terminal in Vladivostok:

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Old December 10th, 2011, 03:20 PM   #1642
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO

December 9, 2011. Construction of the station "Admiralteyskaya" ("Admiralty"), which planned to be opened on December 26, 2011:
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Old December 11th, 2011, 07:49 AM   #1643
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some photos from Novosibirsk metro
source: gelio-nsk livejournal account
full thread here: http://gelio-nsk.livejournal.com/159051.html



























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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:00 AM   #1644
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22) May 5, 1904 - Pyatigorsk:

Early history

Pyatigorsk is a city in Stavropol Region on the Podkumok River, about 20 kilometers (12 miles) from Mineralnye Vody (lit. Mineral Waters) town. Since January 19, 2010 it has been the administrative center of the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. The name Pyatigorsk is derived from the fused Russian words "pyat gor" ("five mountains") and the city is so called because of the five peaks of the igneous mountain Beshtau (which also means "five mountains" in Turkic) of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. The city is charmingly situated on a small plateau, 1680 feets above sea-level, at the foot of the Beshtau, Mashuk and three other outliers of the Caucasus range, which protect it on the north.

The region of Five Mountains (Bish-Dag) with hot water spring is first mentioned in the chronicles in 1334, when famous Arabian traveler Ibn Batutta visited the place. Russian manuscripts start mentioning the site in the middle of the 16th century, giving some information about Bish-Dag’s (Pyatigorsk) population. Scientific interest in them was first shown by Russian Emperor Peter the Great, but the information collected on his expedition has since been lost. New data on the spot appear only in 1773, when Russian scientist Johann Anton Güldenstädt briefly describes the Hot Mountain (southern ridge of the Mashuk Mountain), where hot sulphuric spring wells out of its slope. In 1774, according to peace agreement with Turkey, states Kabarda and Bish-Dag became belong to Russia.

Interest to this site was revived at the end of the 18th century when the first Russian settlement was founded. In 1780 a small fortress is erected not far than 4 kilometers from the Mashuk Mountain, The fortress is called Konstantinogorskaya, and soon a settlement appear near it, sheltering soldiers, who finished their military service. The soldiers noticed hot mineral springs, coming form the Mashuk Mountain, and when world famous Russian traveler Peter Simon Pallas visits the site in 1793, local population was already well aware of healing waters, good for skin problems, rheumatism, gout and etc. The sulphur springs, about fifteen in number, come from a great depth, and vary in temperature from 24° to 36° С (75° to 96° F); they are used both for drinking and for bathing. Scientists come and study the springs, spreading news about wonderful waters around the country and welcoming patients from most distant Russian cities.

The value of the Caucasian mineral waters led to the construction of a resort in 1803, and the first studies of their medical properties began thereafter: on May 6, Russian Emperor Alexander I signed a decree which made the mineral waters state property. There are now many settlements near the springs. The first such settlement was Goryachevodsk ("town of hot waters", now part of Pyatigorsk) at the bottom of Mashuk Mountain, then Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, Zheleznovodsk. The first buildings in Goryachevodsk were erected in 1812. During next decades there were built hotels, verdant parks, baths, elegant spa buildings and glass galleries. In 1830 the name of Pyatigorsk ("town of the five mountains") was given to the new settlement.

The whole region is also connected with the name of Mikhail Lermontov (1814-1841), great Russian poet, who lived here for some time. His family probably descended from the Scottish Learmonths, one of whom settled in Russia in the early 17th century. The beauty of the Caucasian region was certainly not lost on him. A fearless soldier and inveterate dueler, Lermontov was possessed of a fluid lyrical gift and a particularly black, fatalistic brand of Romanticism. He chose Caucasus as the setting for his influential novel, "A Hero of Our Time" (1838-1840), a tale of danger, passion, machismo and emotional alienation. The author’s own life was no less turbulent than that of his protagonist Grigory Pechorin. Lermontov was only 26 when he died in Pyatigorsk on July 27, 1841, shot in a duel with a fellow soldier Nikolay Martynov whom he had offended. Now Pyatigorsk is strongly associated with his name. Many local sites tell about the poet and his life in the Caucasus. There is a museum in the city devoted to his memory. On August 28, 1889 there was opened monument to Mikhail Lermontov, the first in Russian Empire. People collected money for its construction during 18 years. Many famous people visited Pyatigorsk health resort – great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, great Russian music composers Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Alyabyev and Sergey Rakhmaninov, great Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov, great Russian painter Ilya Repin, great Russian opera singer Fyodor Shalyapin, great Russian theatre director Constantin Stanislavski and others.

In 1861 doctor Semyon Smirnov becomes the head of Russian resorts, which has positive effect on Pyatigorsk. Dr. Smirnov founds "Russian Balneal Society", first Russian science establishment dealing with natural healing factors. In 1863 was installed telegraph line between Stavropol and Rostov-on-Don. When in 1875 railway connects Rostov-on-Don with Vladikavkaz, amount of health-resort visitors rapidly grows. In 1894 was completed construction of railway for direct connection with Moscow. In the beginning of the 20th century Pyatigorsk authorities opened hot mineral spring, well-rooms for sulphureous water, install electrical equipment, build Lermontov Gallery with a stage and hotels. The town outskirts are rapidly encumbered with comfortable villas. The population of Pyatigorsk was 13670 residents in 1882 and 18638 - in 1897.

Giant Eagle Sculpture (1901) on the Hot Mountain in Pyatigorsk is a official symbol of Caucasian Mineral Waters:

behtau

20th-century postcard with a view of Pyatigorsk:

Wikipedia

Beshtau Mountain:

lebede-tat

Beshtau Mountain:

lebede-tat
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:01 AM   #1645
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Pyatigorsk, the first of the numerous Russian monuments to Mikhail Lermontov (1814-1841):

lastur

Monument to Mikhail Lermontov and Saviour Cathedral:

lastur

Site of the Lermontov's fatal duel:

lastur


lastur
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:03 AM   #1646
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Construction of electric tram network

The discussions about construction of electric transport in Pyatigorsk were started in 1898 according to initiative of group of progressive-minded Pyatigorsk residents. Among this group was Rudolf Leizinger (1843-1910) - Swiss man, who moved from Netstal to Russia when he was 19-years old. On December 27, 1901 he and his supporters established "Caucasian mountain society" in Pyatigorsk. Leizinger was sure that Pyatigorsk Tram is necessary for connection between town center and resort area.

The history of Pyatigorsk Tram began in 1902, when joint stock company "Siemens & Halske AG" (which took part in the construction of the first tramlines in Nizhny Novgorod, Dnipropetrovsk, Moscow and Zhytomyr) commited themselves to construct tramlines in Pyatigorsk. The contract between "Siemens & Halske AG" and regional authorities was signed in December 1902. The same company also has commited to supply the rolling stock, to built a power station, high-voltage electric power transmission lines and depot for the tramcars. The construction works began in February 1903. The cost of whole project was 493 thousand rubles.

The project of power station was drafted by engineer Samuil Friedmann in 1902. On May 24, 1903 began construction hydroelectric plant "White Coal" on the Podkumok River in Yessentuki resort (17 kilometers west of Pyatigorsk). It was put into operation in August 1903. "White Coal" (~8000 V / =550 V; 727.65 kW) was first industrial hydro power station of the Russian Empire. It was also largest in Imperial Russia before 1909, when was completed Hindu Kush hydro power plant on the Murgab River in Turkmenistan (1.35 MW). "While Coal" generated electric energy for the four resort towns of Caucasian Mineral Waters Region and, in particular, for tramlines in Pyatigorsk and Kislovodsk. The total cost of "White Coal" hydro power station was about 0.5 mln. rubles, including: cost of equipment for the functioning of station - 0.175 mln. rubles; cost of electric system for street lighting of resort towns - 0.05 mln. rubles; cost of electric system for exploitation of Kislovodsk Tram - 0.035 mln. rubles, cost of electric system for exploitation of Pyatigorsk Tram - 0.225 mln. rubles.

Pyatigorsk tram system was mostly completed in April 1903, but its opening was postponed because "White Coal" hydro power station was not finished. According to original plans, tram system in Pyatigorsk should be put into operation on August 28, 1903, but it was delayed on few days. Pyatigorsk Tram was put into operation on September 14, 1903. At this day in the newly-built Lermontov Gallery (1900-1902) in the Nicholas Flower Garden was opened first solemn session of the Second All-Russian Congress of the activists of climatology, hydrology and balneology, which was devoted to the centenary of foundation of the Caucasian Mineral Waters health resorts. In the opening ceremony took part Duke Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg and Alexey Yermolov, Minister of Agriculture and State Properties of Russian Empire. The first tramcar, driven by Samuil Friedmann, arrived to the Lermontov Gallery from the Rail Terminal. Tram exploitation began after two weeks. However, due to technical reasons, regular operation was started only on May 5, 1904.

The tram system was built for transportation of the patients. According to the project of engineer Samuil Friedmann, tramlines were built from the Rail Terminal and central part of Pyatigorsk to the resort area near piedmont of Mashuk Mountain, where were located majority of hospitals, sanatoriums, boarding houses and hotels. The main two-track section was been from Rail Terminal to the Nicholas Flower Garden; along the Tsar's street (now Kirov Avenue), main street of Pyatigorsk. It had continued from Nicholas Flower Garden to the New Sabaneyev baths (now Pushkin baths) and Elizabeth Gallery (now Academical Gallery) - this section was single-track. The other single-track line has been built from Nicholas Flower Garden to the Mashuk Mountain; along the Gentry street (now Karl Marx street) and Lermontov street; through Emmanuel Park; near the gazebo "Aeolian Harp". This branch line was completed in August 1904. Its terminus station was near Drop, famous cavern (depth - 20 m) on the southern slope of Mashuk Mountain. "A narrow path cut in the cliff led to a conical drop. At the end of the path was a parapet from which one could see a puddle of stinking malachite at the bottom of the Drop. This Drop is considered one of the sights of Pyatigorsk and is visited by a large number of tourists in the course of a day..." (Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov, "The Twelve Chairs" novel, 1928).

All tramlines were 1 meter wide. Currently Pyatigorsk Tramway is one of only two Russian tram systems with "narrow gauge" (the other is Kaliningrad Tramway).

Therefore, there were two tramlines in Pyatigorsk.
1) Rail Terminal - Municipal Garden - Nicholas Flower Garden - New Sabaneyev baths (now Pushkin baths);
2) Nicholas Flower Garden - Gentry street (now Karl Marx street) - Lermontov street - Emmanuel Park - Drop cavern.

The total length of tramlines was 8.2 km. There were operated 11 motor tramcars and 7 trailers (former horse-drawn tramcars), which were known as "Sandals" among local residents and visitors. Those tramcars were made by Russian company "Wl. Gostyński and Co" in Warsaw. The motor tramcars were closed-type, its capacity was 16 seats and 12 standing. The capacity of trailers was 20 persons. After 1905, in Pyatigorsk were arrived 3 motor tramcars and 2 trailers (made in 1889), which previously were used in Zurich, Switzerland. Four more motor tramcars were built in Pyatigorsk tram depot, which was located near Rail Terminal.

Tram system operated from 6:30am till midnight. During winter seasons there operated less tramcars, and branch line to the Drop was closed. Travel price was 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles. The discount price for students was 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (but only from 7:00am till 9:00am and from 1:00pm till 3:00pm). Policemen and postmen had rights on free tickets. The daily profit from exploitation of tram system was 100-150 rubles in 1904. The passenger traffic greatly increased during summer seasons. For example, the profit in 1911 was 97092 rubles, including: January - 2434 rubles, February - 2542, March - 3356, April - 5542, May - 9862, June - 18046, July - 22255, August - 17304, September - 6657, October - 4452 and November - 3367 rubles. Annual traffic was 1.838 mln. passengers in 1911.

Tram stops were close enough to each other for the comfort of patients. The majority of tram stops had roofed pavilions for protection of passengers from sun and rain. At Rail Terminal, tramlines were built close to the railway platform. So, it was enough to make just a few steps for the transfer from tram to train.

The owners of Pyatigorsk tram system was Department of Caucasian Mineral Waters health resorts. Its exploitation has been loaned to an entrepreneur Leizerovich for 25 years. Before October Revolution of 1917, there were plans for construction of tramlines in the other resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters. In 1904 they planned to built tramline from Pyatigorsk to Zheleznovodsk along the Yermolov Avenue (now Kalinin Avenue), around the Mashuk Mountain. In 1909 were developed projects for construction of tram system in Zheleznovodsk, Yessentuki as well as tramline Kislovodsk-Bermamit. In 1917 was drafted project of tramline Pyatigorsk-Yessentuki-Kislovodsk. However, all those projects remained unrealized.

The October Revolution of 1917 had violated the measured life of transportation facilities. In 1918 Pyatigorsk Tram was municipalized. Its operation was suspended during Russian Civil War. In 1918, according to initiative of Sergey Kirov, on the base of workshops of Pyatigorsk tram depot, was created cartridge-bullet arms plant, which produced about 30 million cartridges for Red Army. By 1920, there were 15 motor tramcars and 8 trailers in Pyatigorsk. However, only 11 motor tramcars and one trailer were in working condition. Passenger services were resumed in March 1920.

1905, Yessentuki. "White Coal", the first industrial hydro power station of the Russian Empire:

dr-basilfz/

1900s, motor tramcar with two trailers in Pyatigorsk:

lebede-tat

1912, tram workers near open-type trailers (so-called "Sandals"):

trampark

Planned tramline at the Pyatigorsk Map (1902):
Red line: Rail Terminal - New Sabaneyev baths (now Pushkin baths), along the Tsar's street (now Kirov Avenue);
Blue line: Nicholas Flower Garden - Drop (Proval) cavern on the slope of Mashuk Mountain:


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Tramlines at the Pyatigorsk Map (late 1900s):

okavkaze
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:04 AM   #1647
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1900s, Pyatigorsk Rail Terminal:

RISHA

1900s, Pyatigorsk Rail Terminal and stop of electric tram:

lastur

1900s, tram stop near Rail Terminal:

okavkaze
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:06 AM   #1648
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1900s. Tsar's street (now Kirov Avenue), the main street of Pyatigorsk:

behtau

1900s. Tsar's street (now Kirov Avenue):

lastur

1900s. Tsar's street (now Kirov Avenue):

lastur

1910s, Hotel "Bristol" at the Tsar's street (now Kirov Avenue):

lastur

1910, State hotel at the Tsar's street (now Kirov Avenue):

RISHA
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:06 AM   #1649
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1900s, Nicholas Flower Garden:

RISHA

1900s, New Sabaneyev baths (now Pushkin baths):

lebede-tat

1900s, Elizabeth Gallery (now Academical Gallery):

lastur
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:08 AM   #1650
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1900s, tramcar at Gentry street (now Karl Marx street):

Wikipedia

1900s, "Aeolian Harp" gazebo in the Emmanuel Park:

lastur
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:09 AM   #1651
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1900s, Drop cavern on the southern slope of Mashuk Mountain:

behtau

1900s, Drop cavern and cafe:

lastur

1900s, Drop cavern:

RISHA

1900, tram stop near Drop cavern:

lastur

1900s, Restaurant "Drop":

lastur

1900s, tram stop "Drop":

etoretro
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Old December 12th, 2011, 12:10 AM   #1652
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Pyatigorsk, biaxial trailer near old tram depot:

Shurik


Shurik


Шпекавыг


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Old December 13th, 2011, 06:52 AM   #1653
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Currently, the deepest station in Russia is Park Pobedy in Moscow at 84m. Admiralteyskaya, scheduled to open later this month in St Petersburg, is also listed as 84m. Are more precise numbers available to determine which is deeper, and thus can claim to be the second deepest in the world (after Arsenal'naya in Kiev), keeping in mind that rankings will likely be readjusted after Korean reunification to account for currently classified Pyongyang Metro station depths?
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Old December 13th, 2011, 11:16 AM   #1654
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Woonsocket54 View Post
Currently, the deepest station in Russia is Park Pobedy in Moscow at 84m. Admiralteyskaya, scheduled to open later this month in St Petersburg, is also listed as 84m.
Really? I was sured that depth of "Admiralteyskaya" is 86 meters (depth of big escalator tunnel - 68 meters, depth of small escalator tunnel - 15 meters, incline intermediate corridor between escalators ~ 2-3 meters).
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Old December 14th, 2011, 03:06 AM   #1655
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OK, you would know better. I must have gotten confused because Wikipedia lists 84 meters in the infobox of the station article, but also mentions 86 meters in the body text. It appears 86m is the correct depth.
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Old December 14th, 2011, 03:43 AM   #1656
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What is the story behind this?

http://www.railjournal.com/newsflash...scow-1419.html

Quote:
Huge light rail network planned for southern Moscow PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, December 13, 2011

PLANS have been unveiled for a network of four light rail lines totalling 214km serving an area to the south of Moscow. The Southern Chord network will extend the reach of the Moscow metro and connect the airports of Domodedovo to the south and Vnukovo to the west.

The project is being developed by Domodedovo Trans Development (DTD) with the support of the Municipal District of Domodedevo and the Ministry of Transport of the Moscow Region. DTD in cooperation with Russia's Ministry of Transport is developing a public-private partnership for the project.

A feasibility study for the first 27km section (Line 2) from Domodedovo Airport to Krasnogvardeiskaya metro station should be completed during the first half of 2012 with a view to launching it as a pilot project in 2015. The longest line in the network will be the 102km Line 1 which will connect the two airports.

DTD will set up a light rail scientific research and design institute to study and systemise foreign light rail expertise, and conduct research, feasibility studies and design work.
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Old December 14th, 2011, 10:57 AM   #1657
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Quote:
Originally Posted by historyworks View Post
There is nothing comment. Our new Mayor has a lot of plans for the development of transport infrastructure (eg, 15 km of new Metro lines per year). Well, thanks to God, if at least half of these plans will be realized as result of it.
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Old December 15th, 2011, 12:08 AM   #1658
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1904 - Kislovodsk:

Speaking about Pyatigorsk Tramway, it's also need mentioned tram system in Kislovodsk. It was only one electric tram system in Russia, which was used exclusively for cargo transportation during all period of its existance. This cargo was the famous mineral water "Narzan".



Early history

Kislovodsk (literally meaning "city of sour waters") is a city in Stavropol Region, which lies in the North Caucasian region of the country, between the Black and Caspian Seas. It lies along the Podkumok River in the Caucasus foothills just southwest of Pyatigorsk. Kislovodsk is a spa town, there located almost one-third of the all hospitals and sanatoriums of Caucasian Mineral Waters. Other notable spa towns in the vicinity include Yessentuki and Pyatigorsk. Currently Kislovodsk is the most largest resort in the group of the Caucasus Mineral Waters and the second among most popular resorts in all Russia after Sochi.

Kislovodsk is a splendid place for vocation with its mountainous air (its height above sea level is 800 – 1200 m), beautiful scenery and the richest park. The Kislovodsk park is the real pearl of the resort. Its space is 1340 hectares. Shady groves, cozy glades and alleys are not only favourite places for tourists, but also the original museum of the Caucasian flora. There are more than 250 breeds of trees and bushes here. There are a lot of flowers in the park which decorate it from early spring till late autumn. The climate in Kislovodsk is wonderful. The air is fresh and pure. The sun shines about 300 days a year (for comparison, in Zheleznovodsk - 117 sunny days, in Yessentuki - 112, in Pyatigorsk - 98). Many people prefer to come here in winter when the weather is usually sunny and dry. The holiday season lasts all year round. But the main riches and proud of the resort is mineral springs. Narzan – the largest spring of Caucasian Mineral Waters - made Kislovodsk world-famous. From Turkic "nart sane" is translated as "bogatyr’s water" or "water of valiant warriors".

The valley of Kislovodsk was not settled in the end of 18th century. Chemist Jacob Reineggs was the first who described Kislovodsk narzan in 1784. In 1793 famous Russian traveler Peter Simon Pallas visited this site. He was first man, who made detailed studies of narzan sources. The discoverer of resort seasons in Kislovodsk was Count Irakly Morkov, Russian Lieutenant-General, who in 1798 placed own military camp on the Cross Mountain over the narzan source. Morkov regularly took a baths of the heated narzan for cure asthma.

On March 19, 1803 Russian Emperor Alexander I signed a rescript for construction of the military fortress on the site of mineral sources. Kislovodsk, originally a military outpost and stanitsa (Cossack settlement) of the Terek Cossack Host, was founded in 1803. The town got its name thanks to mineral springs of curative carbonic acid water "Narzan" which is called "kislaya voda" ("sour water").

The first residents of Kislovodsk were Russian soldiers, who settled here after finishing of the term of military service in the fortress. The first official visit of sick men was carried out in 1808–1809. The first wooden bathhouses were built in 1812, people took a bath of undiluted cold narzan. According to the order of Russian General Alexey Yermolov, intensive construction of the resort was begun in the 19th century. A magnificent restoration of that time with a colonnade and wide stairs, descending to the park, was built by project of brothers Bernardazzi in 1822 on money, which were budgeted by the government. Building of a state hotel began near the spring and a resort park was laid in 1823. Later there were built baths (1827–1832; rebuilt in 1901–1903 by architect Andrey Klepinin), the pseudo-English Gothic Narzan Gallery (1848–1858, architect Samuil Upton), and the recreation hall - an eclectic imitation of the Late Renaissance style (1895). Number of bathes in Narzan Gallery increased in 1880.

Enlivening of resort building and increase of afflux of sick men in Kislovodsk was at the end of 19th century, when was completed construction of highway between Kislovodsk and Mineralnye Vody (Mineral Waters) station of the newly-built Vladikavkaz Railway (1875); and mainly after completion of a branch railway (1893) from Mineralnye Vody, which directly connected Kislovodsk with major cities of Russian Empire. During 10 years, from 1881 till 1891, the population of Kislovodsk increased from 1551 to 6000 residents.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Kislovodsk as a fashionable spa attracted many musicians, artists, and members of the Russian aristocracy. Many famous people visited Pyatigorsk health resort – great Russian poets Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov, great Russian music composers Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Alyabyev and Sergey Rakhmaninov, great Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov, great Russian painter Ilya Repin, great Russian opera singer Fyodor Shalyapin, great Russian theatre director Constantin Stanislavski and others. Several of the events in Mikhail Lermontov's novel "A Hero Of Our Time" (1838-1840) are set in Kislovodsk and Pyatigorsk.

Town status was granted to Kislovodsk in 1903, to the centenary of foundation of the Caucasian Mineral Waters health resorts. Intensive private building was carried out in Kislovodsk at the beginning of 20th century (dachas, rest homes, hotels). Kislovodsk becomes the famous resort which, however, was visited only representatives of privileged classes. Over 25000 people received treatment in Kislovodsk already in 1904.

During World War I visiting the waters stopped at all and the resort was turned into a huge hospital for wounded men and disabled veterans. On December 11, 1918 in Kislovodsk was born Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, famous Russian writer and Nobel Prize Laureat (1970). A museum is planned in the house, where he was born. It is set to undergo renovations in 2011 in preparation.

1900s, Kislovodsk Rail Terminal and Kursaal (Recreation Hall):

Wikipedia

1900s, Fontain "Frogs" and Leonid Zipalov's Hotel:

philatelist

Former Kursaal (now Kislovodsk State Philharmonia named after Vasily Safonov):

fototerra

Narzan Gallery:

kislovodsk-lux

"Boiling well" (a spring of narzan):

starostaklassa
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Old December 15th, 2011, 12:10 AM   #1659
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The unique tram system

The first primitive bottling of narzan water was produced in 1793. Sealed jars with narzan water were supplied to the Georgievsk town, on the table of General Ivan Gudovich (1741-1820). Narzan Gallery in Kislovodsk was built in medieval English style in 1848-1858 by architect Samiul Upton. In it there is "Boiling well" (a spring of narzan), drinking well-rooms, a resort library with reading-room. In 1864 was made the next attempt of bottling, but it was less productive. In 1894 began industrial bottling of narzan water. According to the project of engineer Ivan Baykov, in the right wing of Narzan Gallery was installed mechanism for bottling. The factory for bottling of mineral water was put into operation on June 13, 1894. In 1896 here were poured and sent out 47906 water "semi-bottles" (0.4 litres). It was awarded Gold Medal at the All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod. In 1900 industrial output was 2 millions water "semi-bottles", in 1901 - 4 millions. "Narzan" became popular in Russia, its "semi-bottles" were supplied in Rostov-on-Don, Moscow and other cities. In 1900-1903 bottling factory was reconstructed and extended. Industrial output increased till 20 million water "semi-bottles" per year.

In 1902 "Narzan" mineral water won Gold Medal at an international exhibition in Reims, France. In 1903 "Narzan" begins to be exported to Greece, Turkey and other states. This mineral water was also supplied for the private persons, to the pharmacies of Moscow and St. Petersburg, as well as to Kuban, Terek, Don, Ural and Orenburg Cossack Hosts.

Therefore, during 1894-1903 popularity of "Narzan" greatly increased. There was a big demand for production of bottling factory in the country. For this reason, owners of factory rented area near cargo rail station "Minutka", on the territory of which was built warehouse for the water "semi-bottles". The warehouse was been at the crossing of Highway street (now Kirov street) and Forest street (now Nelyubin street). "Minutka" rail station was located at 1.5-km distance from the factory. Originally water "semi-bottles" from the "Narzan" factory were transported to this warehouse on the ordinary carts. In 1903 entrepreneur Evangulov decided to modernize the process of delivering "semi-bottles" at own warehouse and built narrow-gauge line of horse-drawn tram for this purpose.

In August 1903 was put into operation hydroelectric plant "White Coal" on the Podkumok River in Yessentuki resort, almost in the middle of distance between Pyatigorsk and Kislovodsk. This hydroelectric plant was built by German company "Siemens & Halske AG". "White Coal" generated electric energy for electric lighting in the four resort towns of Caucasian Mineral Waters Region and, in addition, for Pyatigorsk tram system. Then the entrepreneur had the idea to electrify the existing line and use it for transportation of water "semi-bottles". The cost of electrification was 35000 rubles.

In 1904 this unique electric tram began to operate in Kislovodsk. It was run from Narzan Gallery to the railway station; along the Emir street (now Comintern street), Poplar Alley (now Resort Boulevard) and Highway street (now Kirov street). The length of this single-track line (1 meter wide) was 2 km. There was used only one small tramcar with trailer-platforms for mineral water. The rails were laid at urban streets, the pillars for overhead lines were set at the municipal lands. In 1911-1913 it led to the judicial process between Department of Caucasian Mineral Waters and Kislovodsk society, the latter demanded to dismantle tramline. The production at "Narzan" factory was suspended in 1918 due to Russian Civil War, but it was resumed in 1922.

Kislovodsk freight-only tram system was unique in Russian Empire and Soviet Union. Of course, electric tramlines in many Soviet cities were used for cargo transportation, somewhere were built branch tramlines to the rail stations, warehouses, shops and directly to industrial enterprises. Majority of such branch tramlines ceased to exist in 1950s-1960s, but in some cities (for example, in St. Petersburg) it were used during more longer period. However, only Kislovodsk tram system was built and was used exclusively for cargo transportation.

Mid-20th century, Kislovodsk cargo tram:

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Tramline at the Kislovodsk Map of 1914:

discusmedia

Tramline at the Kislovodsk Map of 1903:

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Old December 15th, 2011, 05:07 PM   #1660
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December 12, 2011. Construction of the "Zarechnaya" ("Beyond the River") station:

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