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Old December 15th, 2011, 05:19 PM   #1661
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VOLGOGRAD METROTRAM

Panorama of station "Profsoyuznaya" ("Labor Unions"):

evian

Panorama of "Yelshanka" station:

evian


YEKATERINBURG METRO

"Ghost" station "Chkalovskaya" ("Valery Chkalov"):

metropts
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Old December 15th, 2011, 05:45 PM   #1662
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD METRO

December 2011. Construction of the Metro station "Gorkovskaya" ("Maxim Gorky"):

Link


Link


Link


Link
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Old December 15th, 2011, 05:47 PM   #1663
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Eastern exit:

Link


Link


Link


Link

Long-awaited station:

Link
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Old December 15th, 2011, 05:56 PM   #1664
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NIZHNY NOVGOROD-BOR CABLEWAY ACROSS VOLGA RIVER

December 12, 2011. They are still testing it:

Izhl


Izhl


Izhl
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Old December 15th, 2011, 05:57 PM   #1665
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Old December 15th, 2011, 06:24 PM   #1666
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ST. PETERSBURG METRO

December 13, 2011. Construction of the own exit of the station "Spasskaya" ("Saviour"):

USSR Man


USSR Man


USSR Man


USSR Man
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Old December 15th, 2011, 06:40 PM   #1667
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December 12, 2011. Active construction of the trade store, where will be located vestibule of "Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International") station - planned to be open next year. South-eastern corner:

Инженер

Eastern facade:

Инженер

North-eastern corner:

Инженер

Northern facade from Bla Kun street:

Инженер

North-western corner and western facade:

Инженер
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Old December 15th, 2011, 06:48 PM   #1668
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December 15, 2011. Construction of the vestibule of the "Admiralteyskaya" ("Admiralty") station, which planned to be open on December 27, 2011:

karpovka


karpovka


karpovka


karpovka


karpovka


karpovka
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Old December 15th, 2011, 07:05 PM   #1669
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mr7


mr7


mr7


An_ToxA


An_ToxA
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:42 AM   #1670
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23) August 16, 1904 - Vladikavkaz:

Vladikavkaz (Russian: lit. Ruler of the Caucasus; Ossetic: Dzwdžyqw, lit. Dzaug's settlement) is the capital city of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania in Southern Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic at the foothills of the Caucasus mountains, situated on the Terek River. Vladikavkaz is one of the most populous cities in the northern Caucasus.

In mid-18th century Georgian monarch Erekle II, king of Kartli-Kakheti from 1762 to 1798, turned towards Russia for protection against Ottoman and Persian attacks. The Treaty of Georgievsk was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783. The treaty established Georgia as a protectorate of Russia, which guaranteed Georgia's territorial integrity and the continuation of its reigning Bagrationi dynasty in return for prerogatives in the conduct of Georgian foreign affairs. Georgia abjured any form of dependence on Persia or another power, and every new Georgian monarch would require the confirmation and investiture of the Russian Emperor. Russian and Georgian emissaries officially signed the treaty at the Russian fortress of Georgievsk in the North Caucasus on July 24, 1783. It was then formally ratified by the Georgian King Erekle II and Russian Empress Catherine the Great in 1784.

Vladikavkaz was founded on May 17, 1784 as result of the Treaty of Georgievsk. It was military fortress near Osetin settlement of Dzudzhikau at the entrance to the Darial Gorge on the Terek River - the gorge on the border between Russia and Georgia. Russian Empress Catherine the Great named the new fortress Vladikavkaz ("the town owning Caucasus"). After Treaty of Georgievsk began construction of Georgian Military Road crossing the mountains near Vladikavkaz to link it with Tbilisi, Georgia to the south. This road, now part of European route E117, was completed in 1799. Vladikavkaz was designed as the key fortress to hold the Georgian Military Road through the Terek River valley and the Ossetian Military Road along the Ardon Valley, the two main routes across the Caucasus. It was for many years the main Russian military base in the region. On April 12, 1860 it became a town. Vladikavkaz became an administrative centre of newly-established Terek Region. More than once the town was visited by great Russian writers Alexander Griboyedov, Alexander Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Leo Tolstoy and Alexander Ostrovsky. During 1872-1875 was built railway between Vladikavkaz and Rostov-on-Don, that now part of North Caucasus Railway. Vladikavkaz has become an important industrial centre for the region, with smelting, refining, chemicals and manufacturing industries. Its population was 43740 residents in 1897.

1910s, Terek River and Sunni Mukhtarov Mosque in Vladikavkaz (color photo of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky):

Link
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:43 AM   #1671
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By January 1, 1903 territory of Vladikavkaz was 808 hectares, there were 103 streets with total length 68 km. The population of the city was 53143 residents (1903). There were 919 cabmen and 225 carts in Vladikavkaz. The cost of trip by cart was 20 kopecks or 0.20 rubles within the city and 0.3-1.0 rubles (depending on the distance) for the trips outside the city. However, the average daily salary of Vladikavkaz residents was only 0.80 rubles, and maximal monthly salary was 30 rubles. Therefore, there was a need for cheaper kinds of transport.

The first project of tram system in Vladikavkaz could become a reality in 1890. Engineer Nigrovsky signed contract with city authorities for construction of the horse-drawn tram lines at the five streets. However, this project was never realized. In 1896 Belgian "Joint stock company of urban and suburban tramways in Russia" (which previously took part in construction of horse-drawn tram systems in Voronezh, Minsk, Vilnius and Samara) proposed own project horse-drawn tram in Vladikavkaz. According to this project, tramline should be built within two years from Rail Terminal to the Red Row Square, along the Moscow street (now Kirov street) and Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue). They also planned to built long tramline at the left bank of Terek River.

This project was discussed at the meeting of City Council on July 13, 1896. On October 20, 1896 City Council took decision for construction of electric lighting and tram system. In January 1897 first contenders arrived in Vladikavkaz for negotiations - engineer Kovelev and Paris firm "Sautet, Varlet and Co". Trading for 40-years tram concession was held on February 26, 1897. The invitation to participate in the contest for the tram concession with the conditions have been published in all major Russian newspapers. The winner of contest was Greek citizen Egor Scaramanga. On May 15, 1897 he signed contract with city authorities for construction of three electric tramlines in Vladikavkaz. However, in mid-1899 Scaramanga handed the agreement with all rights and liabilities to Belgian "Joint stock company of electric tram and electric lighting in Vladikavkaz", with participation of French and Belgian capital. Its headquarters were located at Rue de Naples, 48 in Brussels, Belgium. Louis Perrault was a head of this company.

The preparation works were been made since summer 1899 till 1902. In summer 1899 was been made photoshooting of locations for the power station, tram depot and for future tram lines. After this, were made drawings of buildings, tramcars as well as plan of the future tramlines. In September 1899 all documentation was sent into Belgium. In 1900 were finally approved terms of the concession. On March 15, 1900 it was declared that term of concession is 38 years since the launch of the tram enterprise.

In January 1902 in Vladikavkaz arrived Belgian and German engineers. In September 1902 they began construction of tram system and laying of tramlines on the Olga Bridge (now Cast-iron Bridge) across Terek River. The subcontractor of works was German electric company "Helios" from Cologne (in 1904 this company made electrification of horse-drawn tram lines in Tbilisi, Georgia). The task of German company was delivery and installation of electrical equipment for power station and tram system.

Tram depot was been built in 1903 at General street (now Pashkovsky street). Specially for the tram, there was built concrete bridge across Terek River, between Sleptsov street (now Mayakovsky street) and General street (now Pashkovsky street). The majority of construction works were completed in first half of 1903. They planned to open tram system in Autumn 1903, but it was postponed to next year. The testing trip was made on August 6, 1904, from tram depot to the concrete bridge and later by the route.

The tram system in Vladikavkaz was put into regular operation on August 16, 1904. All profit from tram exploitation during first two days was transferred to Russian Far East, for the members of Russian Army and Navy as well as their families (at that time lasted Russo-Japanese War). Originally there were 3 routes with total length 8.5 km by the axis of streets. The tramlines were 1 meter wide. All tramlines were single-track with several passing loops, except 2.4-km two-tracks tramline from the Rail Terminal to the Olga Bridge (now Cast-iron Bridge).

There were 3 tram routes:
1) Vladikavkaz Rail Terminal - Moscow street (now Kirov street) - Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue) - Olga Bridge (now Cast-iron Bridge). The length - 2.4 km;
2) Market Square - Grozny street (now Kuybyshev street) - Crafts street (now Vladimir Ballayev street) - Sleptsov street (now Mayakovsky street) - concrete tram bridge across Terek River - General street (now Pashkovsky street) - Michael street (now Karl Marx street) - Olga street (now Pliyev street) - Olga Bridge (now Cast-iron Bridge) - Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue). The length - 3.2 km;
3) Market Square - Maria street (now Markus street) - Hospital street (now Titov street) - Exaltation street (now August Events street) - Hospital Settlement (now Kursk Settlement). The length - 2.8 km.

The tramcars were known as "magic carts" among residents. Originally there were 12 biaxial tramcars, which previously were used at European streets. By 1914, this number increased till 19 motor tramcars (12 closed-type and 7 open-type) and 5 trailers. The 15 tramcars were equipped with motors of "Helios" company (100 V DC, 3.3 kW), the other four - with "Siemens-Schuckert" motors. The length of tramcars was 8 m, width - 1.8 m, capacity - 40 persons (including 12 seats), maximal speed - 12 km/h. The places for driver were at the both open-type sites of tramcar. Time intervals were 10 minutes. Tram system was operated from 6:00am till 11:00pm. Its working speed was 7.2 km/h in 1904 and 8.8 km/h in 1913. The cost of trip in the salon was 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (it was cost of 570 grams of bread or 200 grams of meat) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles at the open sites of tramcar. The discont price for students was 2 kopecks. The cost of season tickets was 2 rubles (50 trips) and 3 rubles (100 trips).

The equipment of tram network was very old and primitive. As result, the conditions of tram work were very difficult. It led to the first strike of tram workers on May 19-20, 1905, during Russian Revolution. Among their demands was introducing of 8.5-hours working day. Nevertheless, the popularity of tram was very high among Vladikavkaz residents.

In 1908 began projecting of new tramline to the Cadet Corps, at the other bank of Terek River, near beginning of Georgian Military Road. In 1909 was built 1.7-km tramline along the Hospital street (now Titov street) for the supply of fuel to power station. There began projecting of new tramlines to Olginskoe and Bazorinskoe settlements. In 1913 was opened fourth 1.7-km route from Olga Bridge (now Cast-iron Bridge) to the Cadet Corps, along the Olga street (now Pliyev street) and Tbilisi street (now Kosta Avenue). Total length of tramlines was 12 km in 1913. In 1910-1914 was made large project of 216-km intercity tramline between Vladikavkaz and Tbilisi along the famous Georgian Military Road, but it was never realized due to beginning of WWI. In 1915 City Council tried to purchase tram enterprise, but this attemp was unsuccessful due to lack of necessary money.

The annual traffic was 1.557 mln. passengers in 1905, 2.348 mln. - in 1911 and 3.315 mln. - in 1913. The profit from tram exploitation was 75.842 rubles in 1911, 94.344 rubles in 1912 and 100.130 rubles - in 1913. However, the capacity of power station decreased from 935 kW to 120 kW due to wear and tear of old equipment. For this reason, further extension of tram network as well as full electrification of the city were stopped. By 1914, only 50 of 170 street lights were electric. In 1918, after October Revolution of 1917, tram system was nationalized. Vladikavkaz fought during Russian Civil War. In February 1919, the anti-Communist Volunteer Army under leadership of Lieutenant-General Anton Denikin seized the city, but it was expelled by the Red Army in March 1920. By the mid-1920, situation with supply of fuel extremely deteriorated. The equipment of power station came into disrepair, but there was no money for its repairs and renovations. Since Autumn 1920 tram operation was stopped.

Scheme of tram routes at the Vladikavkaz Map (1911):
Red line - First route (Vladikavkaz Rail Terminal - Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge);
Blue line - Second route (Market Square - Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge);
Green line - Third route (Market Square - Hospital Settlement, now Kursk Settlement);
Orange lines - branch service tramlines (to the railway and tram depot):


Link
CLICKABLE

Scheme of passenger tram routes (1913) at the modern map of the city:
Red line - First route (Vladikavkaz Rail Terminal - Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge);
Blue line - Second route (Market Square - Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge);
Green line - Third route (Market Square - Hospital Settlement, now Kursk Settlement);
Light-blue line - Fourth route (Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge - Cadet Corps):


Link
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:44 AM   #1672
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Scheme of tram routes (1913):
1) Vladikavkaz Rail Terminal - Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge;
2) Market Square - Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge;
3) Market Square - Hospital Settlement, now Kursk Settlement;
4) Olga Bridge, now Cast-iron Bridge - Cadet Corps;
Orange lines - branch service tramlines (to the railway and tram depot):


Link
CLICKABLE

1900s, Tram concrete bridge across Terek River. Tram depot and power station on the background:

Laser

1900s, Tram concrete bridge (right). Tram depot and power station on the background:

railman

1900s, concrete bridge. It was built specially for the tram system:

Link

1900s, Tram bridge:

Laser

1900s, Olga Female Gymnasium at Maria street (now Markus street):

Laser

1900s, Olga Female Gymnasium at Maria street (now Markus street):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Olga Female Gymnasium at Maria street (now Markus street):

oldvladikavkaz

1910s, Maria street (now Markus street):

Link

1910s, 2nd Female Gymnasium at Michael street (now Karl Marx street):

oldvladikavkaz
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:45 AM   #1673
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1900s, Vladikavkaz Rail Terminal:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, City Theatre:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Theatre Square (now Lenin Square):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Theatre Square (now Lenin Square):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Monument to the Private Arkhip Osipov (1802-1840) at the crossing of Moscow street (now Kirov street) and Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Monument to the Private Arkhip Osipov:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Monument to the Private Arkhip Osipov:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Realschule and Staff of 21st Infantry Division:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Grand Hotel at the crossing of Moscow street (now Kirov street) and Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, crossing of Moscow street (now Kirov street) and Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:48 AM   #1674
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1900s, Monument to the Private Arkhip Osipov at the crossing of Moscow street (now Kirov street) and Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue), main street of Vladikavkaz:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue). View at the Table Mountain (mesa):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

alanius
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:49 AM   #1675
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1900s, Grand Hotel at the crossing of Moscow street (now Kirov street) and Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Grand Hotel at the crossing of Moscow street (now Kirov street) and Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Hotel "Europe" at the crossing of Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue) and Grozny street (now Kuybyshev street):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Hotel "Imperial" at Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue). Vladikavkaz Department of Post-Telegraph District:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Hotel "Paris" at the crossing of Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue) and Yevdokimov street (now Gorky street):

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, crossing of Alexander Avenue (now Peace Avenue) and Yevdokimov street (now Gorky street):

Link
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:49 AM   #1676
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1910s, Cadet Corps near beginning of Georgian Military Road:

oldvladikavkaz

1910s, Vladikavkaz. Beginning of the Georgian Military Road:

oldvladikavkaz

1900s, Vladikavkaz. Georgian Military Road:

Link
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:50 AM   #1677
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October 2009. To the 225-anniversary of Vladikavkaz foundation, there was put into operation "historical tram" by the first route. It devoted to the history of city:

Link


Link


Ренат "РеКом"


Ренат "РеКом"


Ренат "РеКом"
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Old December 16th, 2011, 12:51 AM   #1678
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July 16, 2011. Currently it's used for different events like wedding celebrations:

region15


region15


region15


region15


region15


region15


region15
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Old December 18th, 2011, 03:46 AM   #1679
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The 102km Line 1 of Moscow skorostnoy tramvay between DME and VKO... I wonder how long it will take to ride the whole route and if it will twice or three times longer than taking Aeroexpress to Paveletsky Vokzal, then Ring Line to Kievsky Vokzal, then Aeroexpress to VKO.
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:01 AM   #1680
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24) December 25, 1904 - Tbilisi, Georgia;
25) July 16, 1906 - Kharkiv, Ukraine;
26) August 22, 1907 - Lustdorf (now Chernomorka microdistrict, Odessa, Ukraine);
27) September 29, 1907 - St. Petersburg:


On September 29, 1907 permanent electric tram system was finally put into operation in the capital of Russian Empire.

Early history

Saint Petersburg saw the arrival of street rail transport during the 1860s in form of horse-drawn rail carriages. The first, freight-only 3.5-km street railway track was opened in 1854 to serve one of the industrial city suburbs (near Smolensk Settlement, engineer - A. Polezhaev). Since September 8, 1863, three passenger lines in the city centre came into operation. Horse-drawn tram system in St. Petersburg was a first in Russian Empire. Several private companies were formed, and the horsecar network eventually expanded to 32 routes covering over 150 kilometres of track (1906). Carrying 106 mln. passengers in 1906, the street rail network in Saint Petersburg proved a successful commercial venture.

In 1878 the "Nevsky Suburban Horse-Railwaу Society" was established with headquarters at #160 Nevsky Avenue, servicing the areas around Shlisselburg Road from Nicholas Rail Terminal to Murzinka Village, with a depot in Alexandrovskoe Village. Originally pulled by horses, it was replaced with steam-driven trams. In 1882 was put into operation Nevskaya Suburban Line of the steam-driven tram, which was extended in 1898. It was built from Znamenskaya Square to Murzinka Village, along the Old Nevsky Avenue, Shlisselburg Avenue and present-day Obukhovskaya Defence Avenue (parallel to Neva River). In 1887, regular steam tram service was introduced along the Forest Line, from the Baron Willie Clinic (now Army Medical Academy) to Round Pond (near the 2nd Murinsky Avenue and Institute Avenue), along the Big St. Sampson Avenue. In November 1907 this route was extended from the Round Pond to the Polytechnical Institute (which was opened to students on October 14, 1902). Steam engine had a number of advantages over the horsecars: higher speed, more power. But at the same time, those engines were very noisy. Steam expulsions caused fright of the passing horses. Due to resistance of the owners of horse-drawn tram system and appearance of the electric tram, there were no opened new lines of steam-driven tram - Forest Line was the last.

The first demonstration of an electric tram in the world occurred in St. Petersburg on September 3, 1880. Fyodor Pirotsky, an engineer who demonstrated the tram to the public, hoped that the Joint-stock "Horse-railway society", which possessed a monopoly on all rail transportation in the city, would consider replacing traditional horse-drawn rail carriages with electric-powered ones. Despite the fact that all tests were successful, Pirotsky's proposal was dismissed on the grounds that equipping existing tram tracks for electric traction and purchasing or building compatible tram vehicles would be too expensive. St. Petersburg entrepreneurs have already spent a lot of money on construction of lines of horse-drawn tram. They had long-term contracts with city authorities and wanted to have profit from the exploitation of tram network. Therefore, the new kind of tram would be competitor for them. It's need to add that some shareholders were members of State Council. Therefore, monopolistic rights of the Joint-stock "Horse-railway society" on the exploitation of urban rail transport looked unshakable.

In the winter of 1894/1895, electric tramways came back to Saint Petersburg. On January 31, 1895 were put into operation two or three electric lines, later this number was increased till four. Its total length was 3.3 km. This time, however, tramcar ran on tracks over ice (during winter season) covering the Neva River. An electric public transit company "Partnership for exploitation of electricity of Mikhail Podobedov and Co" was formed, and several routes crossing the river in various places began regular operation. Even though the "Horse-railway society" still possessed absolute rights on city street railways, and hence filed a lawsuit against the electric tram operators, it eventually lost the case because the judge claimed that the horsecar company's monopolizing agreement with the city did not cover laying tracks on ice. The tram-on-ice system got very popular in the Russian capital due to low cost compared to other means of on-ground transportation and short time needed to cross the river and was in use for a few years consequently. About 900.000 passengers were transported over a regular season between 20 January and 21 March. However, it was temporary system, which worked only during two months a year.

1898, courtyard in horse-tram depot:

babs71

1898, examination of horse near equestrian hospital:

babs71

1898. Rubdown:

babs71

1898, horse-tram workers in the depot:

babs71

1898, horse walking:

babs71

1898, workshop of horse-tram depot:

babs71

1898, dormitory of horse-tram workers:

babs71

1898, horse-tram workers having dinner:

babs71

1898, medical part of horse-tram depot:

babs71

1898, city officials and horse-tram workers during celebrations, dedicated to 35-anniversary of horse-drawn tram in St. Petersburg:

babs71

1898, representatives of city officials and shareholders of horse-drawn tram network during celebrations, dedicated to 35-anniversary of horse-drawn tram in St. Petersburg:

babs71

1898, city authorities and clergy during festive prayer service:

babs71


babs71
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