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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:02 AM   #1681
AlekseyVT
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Model of horse-drawn tram in the State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg:

enke

2010, replica of horsecar in the Museum of Electric Transport of St. Petersburg. It was made at Petersburg Tram Mechanical Factory in 1997, to the 90-anniversary of permanent electric tram network. The number of this replica is #114. It was number of horsecar, which in 1880 was reequipped by Russian engineer Fyodor Pirotsky into first world's electric tramcar:

Zero

2010, replica of horsecar in the Museum of Electric Transport of St. Petersburg:

Zero

Replica of horsecar (made in 1997) at Belinsky Square:

Link

Salon of replica:

Link
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:04 AM   #1682
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Construction of permanent electric tram system

In 1898 has expired term of the contract with one of joint-stock companies - the owner of some routes (10.5 km) of the horse-drawn tram. Preparation for operation of a "on-land" tram in Russian capital begun. There was established special comission for researching of issue "about installation of electric traction at the horse-drawn tramlines in St. Petersburg". It worked at #38 Hope street (now Mayakovsky street).

On September 16, 1902, the contract between the city administration and the joint-stock "Horse-railway society" has expired, and the entire horse-drawn street rail system, including tracks, carriages, horses, maintenance buildings and other equipment, became property of the city of Saint Petersburg, on the condition that the city would pay about 550 thousand rubles a year for the takeover over the period of 12 years. Immediately following this, in Saint Petersburg began planning out the future electric tramway network, which was due to replace the ageing horsecar one. A number of issues had to be resolved; in particular, the narrow-gauge horsecar tracks were to be replaced by the heavy rail-grade ones; the network had to be electrified, and new depots suitable for electric trams had to be constructed.

The author of the project of electric tram system in St. Petersburg was Russian engineer Genrikh Graftio (1869-1949). He was born on December 26, 1869 in Dinaburg (now Daugavpils, Latvia). In 1892 Graftio graduated physics-mathematical faculty of Imperial Novorossiya University in Odessa (now National University named after Ilya Mechnikov). In 1896 he graduated Institute of the Corps of Railroad Engineers (now State Transport University). During 1896-1900, Graftio researched hydro power plants and electric railways in Europe and United States. In 1900-1917, he projected and built railways in Russian Empire, drafted projects of electrification of railways in Crimea and South Caucasus. Also, Graftio did projects of hydro power stations: "White Coal" on Podkumok River in Yessentuki (1903, first industrial hydroelectric power station of the Russian Empire); hydroelectric power stations on Vuokša River (near 1905) and Malaya Imatra River (1905); Volkhov hydroelectric plant in Leningrad Region (1911). The other experts and members of comission for projecting of electric tram system were Yakov Gakkel, V. Rebikov, A. Smirnov, and others.

The members of comission studied experience of tram exploitation in other Russian cities like Kyiv, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk). However, conditions for construction of electric tram in St. Petersburg were more difficult. The layout of St. Petersburg streets in the central part and in suburbs was very different. Therefore, it was impossible to use radial or circular routes, which were been in other cities. For this reason, it was decided to organize diametral-circular tram system. Such planning was new for those times. According to original plan, 24 tram routes should be linking every part of city with any district.

Also, it was necessary to reconstruct magistrals and sanitary sewer network. In those years the road surface of many streets went down from sidewalk to the middle, which hosted the sewer. Therefore, streets were some concave. With the advent of tramways, sewers had to be removed to the side and road surface became convex. The track of electric tram was broader than horsecar track. The electric tram network in St. Petersburg was two-track. There were built decorative pillars between tracks for installation of overhead lines. Currently it's possible to see such pillars at Trinity Bridge and New Constructions street. It was forced decision, because owners of nearest houses didn't wanted to make the walls were used for installation of overhead lines.

Tramlines were installed at 65 bridges. However, not all bridges were able to withstand heavy tramcars. For this reasons some bridges (in particular, Anichkov Bridge, Old Kalinkin Bridge, Alarchin Bridge and Nicholas Bridge, now Annunciation Bridge) were strengthened, expanded or rebuilt. Moreover, specially for tram operation, in 1908 was built new additional Izmaylovsky bridge. It was located near old bridge with same name (1786-1788, modified in 1861). The other question was construction of power stations for the electric tram system. Originally it was planned to built few power stations with small capacity in the different parts of the city. However, according to proposal of Genrikh Graftio, it was decided to built one central power station and five traction substations for tram network.

The project was ready in 1903. According to this project, should be built 208 km of tramways for 1450 tramcars and 8 tram depots. The planned cost of construction works was 52 mln. rubles. They planned to finish it in four stages till 1925.

The first stage of urban electric tram (1905-1911)

In the end of 1904, after completion of project works, City Council declared contest for construction of electric tram system. There took part three companies - "Siemens & Halske AG" (Germany), "Universal company of electricity" (former Russian electric company "Union", which built Smolensk tram system in 1901) and "Westinghouse Electric Corporation" (United States). The project was delegated to the American company, which proposed to built tram system for less cost than other contenders. In 1906 in Paris was established "Russian electric society Westinghouse", which represented American company in St. Petersburg. Its offices were located at #11 Nevsky Avenue and #61 Gorokhov street. William Smith was a head of this society. The construction works were started in Autumn of 1905. By September 24, 1907 there were 12 tramcars and 16 tram drivers. It was enough for the opening of first electric tramline.

On September 29, 1907 electric tramway network has opened in Saint Petersburg. The first electric route has been between Alexander Garden near Admiralty building and 8th Line of Vasilyevsky Island. The religious ceremony near Alexander Garden began at 10:30am. Among the first passengers were members of State Council, city authorities, engineers, representatives of "Russian electric society Westinghouse", reporters and others. The length of this line was 2.14 km. The travel time was 7 minutes. It's interesting that just after two months, on November 24, 1907 was opened bus route Alexander Garden - Warsaw Rail Terminal - Baltic Rail Terminal. It was a first bus route in St. Petersburg. Therefore, Alexander Garden became significant site in the history of public transport of St. Petersburg. Within two months, there were opened both first urban tram route and first urban bus route.

The tramlines linking Garden street and Nevsky Avenue were put into operation in November–December 1907. On November 10, 1907 was opened second tramline - from Nevsky Avenue to the Intercession Square (now Turgenev Square); along the Garden street. On December 24, 1907 was launched third tramline - from Palace Square to Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square); along the Nevsky Avenue. This route has been between Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Moscow Rail Terminal) and Admiralty building. Therefore, in 1907 was completed tramline from Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square) to the Big Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island; along the Nevsky Avenue, Admiralty Avenue, Horse Guards Boulevard, Nicholas Bridge (now Annunciation Bridge) and 8th/9th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island. Tram at once became the favorite kind of transportation for St. Petersburg dwellers and solved lots of problems of the city with rapidly growing population.

In 1908 were opened new tram routes. There was built tramline between Baltic and Finland Rail Terminals; along the Foundry Avenue, Suburban Avenue, Trinity Avenue and Izmaylovsky Avenue. The line along Suvorov Avenue was built between Nevsky Avenue and Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens; the line along Garden street and Stony Island Avenue was built between centre of city and New Village district. Some later tramlines were launched at Moscow Avenue and Big Avenue of Petersburg Side. By 1909, there were nine routes in St. Petersburg with total length 58 km.

During first stage, was built Central tram power station at #3/6 Ataman street, near Monastyrka River. It was built by "Westinghouse Electric Corporation" according to proposal of Genrikh Graftio and project of architects Alexey Zazersky and Leonid Gorenberg. Central station was built in 1906-1907 and was put into operation in October 1907. In 1908 were put into operation five traction substations, three of which were located in the central part of city:
1) Clerk substation (#27 Big Clerck street, not so far from Garden street). Built in 1906 (architects Alexey Zazersky and Leonid Gorenberg);
2) Nativity substation (#5 Tar Lane). Built in 1906 (architect Alexey Zazersky);
3) Petersburg substation (#15 Karpovka Embankment). Built in 1906-1907 (architects Alexey Zazersky);
4) Vasilyevsky Island substation (#10 23th Line of Vasilyevsky Island). Built in 1906-1908 (architects Alexey Zazersky and Leonid Gorenberg);
5) New Peterhof substation (#28 11th Company street, now #28 11th Red Army street). Built in 1906-1908 (architects Alexey Zazersky, Leonid Gorenberg and Vladimir Radivanovsky).

The one of people, who built and later worked at first traction substations, was famous Russian electrical engineer and inventor Alexander Lodygin (1847-1923), one of inventors of the incandescent light bulb (1872, Russian patent of 1874). He used as a burner two carbon rods of diminished section in a glass receiver, hermetically sealed, and filled with nitrogen, electrically arranged so that the current could be passed to the second carbon when the first had been consumed. During 1884-1907 he lived in the France and USA, changed his name to Alexander de Lodyguine and applied and obtained patents for incandescent lamps having chromium, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, molybdenum and tungsten filaments (US Patent No. 575,002 Illuminant for Incandescent Lamps, January 19, 1897), that were then demonstrated at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris.

During first stage were built three new tram depots. The first tram depot was built in 1906-1908 at the Middle Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island. On September 29, 1907 the first 10 tramcars were run from this depot for opening ceremony. It was closed one hundred years later, on January 15, 2007. Currently there is located Museum of Electric Transport. In October 1907 was opened Moscow tram depot at #83 Transbalkanian Avenue (now tram depot №1 at #83 Moscow Avenue). In 1909 was opened Petersburg tram depot at #24/2 Big Settlement street (now tram depot №3), which was founded on the territory of the old Petersburg horse-tram depot (1876). For construction of Moscow tram depot were given part of former horse-tram depot and nearest territory of Hot Field. Unlike this, Vasilyevsky Island tram depot was built at the new site, so it became possible to built full exemplary transport enterprise.

The first Petersburg tramcars have been made by British Plant "Brush", which were known as MB tramcars in Russia. Later similar tramcars began to do and at the Russian Kolomna and Mytishchi Plants. It have made beautiful and bright: outside the bottom part of the tramcar was red, top - white. Its weight was 8.5 tons, maximal speed - 45 km/h, length - 8875 mm, width - 2230 mm, height - 3363 mm (roof) and 3000 mm (base). "Brush" tramcars had a great influence on the design of Russian-made trams, in which were used same equipment. In the beautiful form have been dressed both the tram driver and controller. In the beginning have tried to divide the car into two classes with different payment for journey. In 1908 there were 385 tramcars in St. Petersburg: 190 "Brush" tramcars (MB), 95 MP-8 tramcars (Kolomna and Mytishchi plants) and 100 MP-10 tramcars (Kolomna and Mytishchi plants). The trailers were made at Putilov Plant in St. Petersburg, some trailers were rebuilt from horsecars. However, unlike Kazan (where former two-floor horsecars were also used as trailers), there was no access for passengers to the upper floor of such trailers in St. Petersburg. By 1910 13 routes of electric tram (not counting horse-drawn tram routes) functioned in St. Petersburg, operated by 190 tramcars made at British "Brush" Plant and 235 Russian-made tramcars (50 of those were made on Putilov Plant).

The service started daily at 7:30am and stopped at 11:00pm. Originally tramcars were divided into first and second class compartments and carried a maximum of 34 passengers (including 24 seats). Travel prices were 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (first class) and 3 kopecks or 0.03 rubles (second class). However, it was quickly found out that it is inconvenient for all. Since April 5, 1908 second class was cancelled, and travel price became 5 kopecks for any place within one tram section. Therefore, prices of trip by tram routes were 5, 10 and 15 kopecks depending from the number of sections in route. It was not cheap for those times. For comparing, monthly salaries were 40 rubles (tram driver) and 9 rubles (scrubwoman of tramcars). The difference between tickets within sections was in its color. The regulations of the day barred admittance to passengers who wore dirty clothes, were drunk or displayed unruly behavior. During 3 months of 1907 there happened 26 tram accidents, during 1908 - 261. However, almost all those accidents didn't led to serious injures or deaths of pedestrians. Since autumn of 1910 was introduced system of color signs for identification of tram routes. Those signs were two colored triangles on the facade of tramcars and two colored lanterns for the work during evening time.

Due to active extension of tram network, it was necessary to have more staff for tram work. Only in the school of "Russian electric society Westinghouse" were prepared 300 tram drivers. The first people hired for driver’s positions had been city coachmen. However, the conditions of tram work were very difficult. It led to the numerous conflicts with city authorities. On June 14, 1909 began first citywide strike of tram workers, in which took part 740 tram drivers, more than 1600 controllers, locksmiths of Petersburg and Vasilyevsky Island tram depots as well as horse-drawn tram workers. During three days, tram operation in the city was stopped. However, strike was supressed after hiring of new workers, arrest of activists and threats of eviction of employees and workers from the apartments and barracks, which belonged to the tram owners. The losses due to strike were about 25000 rubles.

The lines, which were opened during first stage:

1907
September 29: Vasilyevsky Island tram depot - Middle Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island - 16th/17th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island - Big Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island - 8th/9th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island - Nicholas Embankment (now Lieutenant Schmidt Embankment) - Nicholas Bridge (now Annunciation Bridge) - Horse Guards Boulevard - Admiralty Avenue;
November 10: Nevsky Avenue - Garden street - Intercession Square (now Turgenev Square);
December 24: Palace Square - Nevsky Avenue - Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square).

1908
April 7: St. Michael Square (now Art Square) - Engineers street - Garden street - Lower Swan Bridge - Suvorov Square - Trinity Bridge - Stony Island Avenue - Stroganov Bridge (now Ushakov Bridge) - New Village Embankment (now Maritime Avenue) - turnover ring "New Village";
July 28: Botkin street - Nizhny Novgorod street (now Academician Lebedev street) - Finnish Lane - Finland Rail Terminal - Simbirsk street (now Komsomol street) - Alexander II Bridge (now Foundry Bridge - Foundry Avenue - Vladimir Avenue - Suburban Avenue, St. Simeon street (now Belinsky street), Engineers street;
September 8: Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square) - Ligovskaya street (now Ligovsky Avenue) - 2nd Nativity street (now 2nd Soviet street) - Suvorov Avenue - Lafon Square (now Proletarian Dictatorship Square) - Lafon street (now Proletarian Dictatorship street) - St. Catherine Square (now Rastrelli Square) - Palmenbach street (now Smolny Convent street), Smolny Avenue;
September 23: Institute of Technology - 1st Company street (now 1st Red Army street) - Izmaylovsky Avenue - Bypass Canal - Baltic Rail Terminal;
October 9: Nicholas Bridge (now Annunciation Bridge) - University Embankment - 1st/Cadet Lines of Vasilyevsky Island - Tuchkov Bridge - Big Avenue of Petersburg Side - Stony Island Avenue;
# Trinity Bridge - Big Gentry street (now Kuybyshev street) - Big Wulf street (now Chapayev street) - Petersburg tram depot (now tram depot №3).

1909
February 10: Hay Square - Transbalkanian Avenue (now Moscow Avenue) - Moscow tram depot;
February 21: Moscow tram depot - Transbalkanian Avenue (now Moscow Avenue) - Grove street - turnover ring "Putilov shipyard";
March 7: 14th/15th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island - Big Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island - Harbor street - Small Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island - turnover ring "Nalichny Lane";
March 8: Intercession Square (now Turgenev Square) - Garden street - Old Kalinkin Bridge - Old Peterhof Avenue - turnover ring "Narva Triumphal Gate";
March 14: Archbishop street (now Leo Tolstoy street) - Small Wulf street (now Kotovsky street) - Big Wulf street (now Chapayev street) - Big Gentry street (now Kuybyshev street) - St. Sampson Bridge - Finland Avenue - Big St. Sampson Avenue - Baron Willie Clinic (now Army Medical Academy);
May 9: Annunciation Square (now Labour Square) - Annunciation street (now Labour street) - Moyka Embankment - Glinka street - St. Nicholas Square - St. Nicholas Lane - Izmaylovsky Tram Bridge - Fontanka Embankment - Old Izmaylovsky Bridge;
September 15: Old Izmaylovsky Bridge - Izmaylovsky Avenue - 1st Company street (now 1st Red Army street).

1911
November 30: Entry street - Crownwork Avenue - Stony Island Avenue.

By 1912 the length of tram rails in the city had reached 119 km, with 14 different routes embracing major avenues, squares, railway stations and hospitals. This was an important event not only because a new comfortable and cheap means of transport was being introduced but also because it signified the victory of municipal authorities over monopolist private owners of omnibuses and railways. The two main city depots engaged 6000 employees, including conductors, electricians and mechanics. In May 1912 tram workers started new strike, which was suppressed only due to help of strikebreakers. The strikes were happened later, it led to the numerous losses. However, the profit from tram exploitation was much more than those losses. In 1913 there were 14 electric tram routes, 2 steam-driven tram routes and 18 horse-drawn tram routes. By 1914 tramcars operated almost at all important streets of the city.

The list of tram routes (1912):
1) Finland Rail Terminal - Narva Triumphal Gate;
2) New Village - St. Michael Square (now Art Square);
3) New Village - Baltic Rail Terminal;
4) Smolny Avenue - crossing of 8th Line and Big Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island;
5) Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square) - Nalichny Lane;
6) Finland Rail Terminal - Institute of Technology;
7a) St. Michael Square (now Art Square) - Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square);
7b (circular) St. Michael Square (now Art Square) - Entry street - Big Avenue of Petersburg Side - Stony Island Avenue - Trinity Bridge - St. Michael Square (now Art Square);
8) Finland Rail Terminal - Baltic Rail Terminal;
9) Finland Rail Terminal - Baltic Rail Terminal;
10) Baron Willie Clinic (now Army Medical Academy) - St. Michael Square (now Art Square);
11) Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square) - Putilov shipyard;
12) Palmenbach street (now Smolny Convent street) - Intercession Square (now Turgenev Square);
13) Palmenbach street (now Smolny Convent street) - Narva Triumphal Gate.

Genrikh Graftio (left) in the group of engineers of "Russian electric society Westinghouse":

Link

July 1907. Installation of overhead line at Nevsky Avenue:

oldsp

July 1907. Installation of overhead line at Nevsky Avenue:

Link

July 1907. Installation of overhead line at Nevsky Avenue:

babs71

July 1907. Reconstruction of Anichkov Bridge for laying of tramline:

babs71

September 29, 1907. Day of opening. "Brush" tramcars in Vasilyevsky Island tram depot are waiting for start:

Link
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:05 AM   #1683
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First electric tram. Episode from documentary film about St. Petersburg tram (time 0:00-3:10)


1900s, Admiralty building and Alexander Garden:

etoretro

September 29, 1907. Opening ceremony, tramcar at the stop "Alexander Garden":

oldsp

September 29, 1907. Opening ceremony near Alexander Garden:

oldsp

September 29, 1907. Opening ceremony near Alexander Garden:

babs71

September 29, 1907. Opening ceremony, group of tram workers and policemen near "Brush" tramcars:

Link

September 29, 1907. Opening ceremony, consecration of tramcars:

Link

September 29, 1907. Tram stop near Big Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island:

hellopiter

September 29, 1907. Tramcars at Vasilyevsky Island:

hellopiter

Scheme of electric tram routes in 1909:
— ∙ ∙ — ∙ ∙ — ∙ ∙ the lines, operated by the end of 1907;
— — — — — the lines, operated by the end of 1908;
_________ the lines, operated by the end of 1909:


Сергей Мурашов
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:06 AM   #1684
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The second stage of urban electric tram (1911-1916). Oranela:

The electric tram network in Saint Petersburg proved a successful commercial venture. Since 1907 till 1914, profit from tram exploitation increased in ten times and reached more than 10 mln. rubles. In 1911 consortium of banks offered idea of business concession to the city authorities. However, due to pressure of public opinion, City Council refused from it. They decided to built second stage of urban electric tram by own forces. According to original plans, there should be built 21 new lines (total length - more than 80 km) for 770 tramcars of Putilov Plant, Kolomna Plant and Mytishchi Plant. The second stage of electric tram construction started in September 1911 and was ended in 1916 due to WWI. In 1913 Nevskaya Suburban Line of steam-driven tram (which belonged to the Baron Pavel Korff) came under the control of the city after Korff's death. It including the tram-depot, workshops, 12 locomotives and 62 wagons. City authorities planned to electrify this line till October 1917. On June 26, 1914 electric tram was launched at the Forest Line - other line of steam-driven tram, which belonged to the city authorities since September 1902 (the process of electrification continued till 1918). In 1914 electric tramcars carried 66.8% (301 mln.) of total number of passengers in the city, horse-drawn tramcars - 22.2%, steam-drawn trams - 1.3%.

The other large project of St. Petersburg was "Oranienbaum Electrical Tramline", which was known as ORANEL or "Oranela". It was project of suburban electric railway, which should be built along Peterhof Road, between Narva Outpost (district of St. Petersburg) and historic towns and settlements near Russian capital - Strelna, Peterhof, Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), Krasnaya Gorka. The planned length of "Oranela" was 66 km. In fact, "Oranela" was a first Russian project of suburban electric railway (not counting regional railway in Łˇdź, Poland, which was launched in 1901).

The first projects of construction of electric line along the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland appeared in the late 19th century. In 1897 group of enterpreneurs asked permission for research works for construction of electric tramline from St. Petersburg through Oranienbaum to Krasnaya Gorka. The author of this project was engineer Stanislav Bernatovich. By 1900 all was ready for registration of the "Society of St. Petersburg suburban electric tramways". However, it was postponed due to death of one of founders. After six years, in August 1906 Bernatovich came back to this project. Together with three enterpreneurs, he made this proposal for Department of Railways. His project was approved, and in December 1906 all rights for construction were given to the "Society of Northern electric railways" (later - "Society of Oranienbaum Electrical Tramline").

In June 1909 Russian Emperor Nicholas II approved Articles of association. However, process was very slow and works began in 1912 only after Belgian banks purchased stocks of this society. In 1912 was laid first section of railway at the route Avtovo-Strelna (Avtovo is a historical district of St. Petersbyrg). The official ceremony of laying of tramline took part only on June 29, 1913. They began to build central power station of suburban tram on the Ekateringofka River in St. Petersburg and three traction substations - at Knyazhevo settlement (now part of St. Petersburg), at Strelna and at Martyshkino (part of Oranienbaum). In the construction and projecting of "Oranela" took part famous Russian engineers - Genrikh Graftio, Andrey Kister, Alexander Wulf, Genrikh Merching, Alexander Smurov and others. By the autumn of 1914, there were laid 38 km of railway to Martyshkino and was installed overhead line from Avtovo to Strelna.

However, construction of urban and suburban tramlines was interrupted due to beginning of WWI. On August 1, 1914 Germany declared war to Russia. On August 17 began military battles between Russian and German armies. The crowds of people smashed building of Embassy of Germany and numerous offices of German companies in St. Petersburg. The anti-German feelings in society were so strong that on August 31, 1914 capital of Russian Empire was officially renamed into Petrograd.

In 1914 was launched freight tramway transportation in Petrograd, which continued in the city till 1997 (!!!). The enterprises, which became used tram system in 1910s, were: Postamt (Post Office, since 1914); Alexey Badayev warehouses of food stocks (since 1918) and warehouse of coal at Kyiv street (since 1918). The number of such enterprises greatly increased in 1920s and 1930s.

Those cargo tramcars were served by Moscow tram depot (now tram depot №1). During first stage in the city were built three tram depots. During second stage three more depots were opened. In 1914 Nativity tram depot was constructed. It was founded on the territory of the old Nativity horse-tram depot (1876) at #3 Tar Lane. In January 1916 was put in operation tram depot "Knyazhevo" of Oranienbaum Electrical Tramline at #114 Peterhof Highway (now Strikes Avenue). In September 1917 was opened Lanskoy tram depot at #2D at Serdobol street (now tram depot №5). They also planned to built Cross tram depot at #12 Barge street. However, due to beginning of WWI, its construction was interrupted and its building was used for hospital. It was opened only in 1925.

Also, were launched two more traction substations. In 1913 were built Vyborg substation at #28 Forest Avenue and Old Horse substation at #6 Kremenchuk street. The majority of buildings of second stage were built by architect Alexander Lamagin (1878-1934). Among this buildings were two substations (1913), administrative building of Vasilyevsky Island tram depot (1913-1915) as well as Lanskoy and Cross tram depots (1913-1915).

The lines, which were opened during 1913-1914:

1913
October 1: Big Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island - 8th/9th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island - Small Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island - 16th/17th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island - turnover ring "Smolenka Embankment";
November 1: Foundry Avenue - Kirche street - Resurrection Avenue (now Chernyshevsky Avenue) - Tapestry street - Tauride street - Tver street - Lafon Square (now Proletarian Dictatorship Square).

1914
April 15: Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Moscow Rail Terminal) - Ligovskaya street (now Ligovsky Avenue) - Bypass Canal - Izmaylovsky Avenue;
June 26: Botkin street - Nizhny Novgorod street (now Academician Lebedev street) - Forest Avenue - 1st Murinsky Avenue - Big St. Sampson Avenue - Lanskoye Highway - Vyborg Highway (now Engels Avenue) - 2nd Murinsky Avenue - Old Pargolovo Avenue (now Maurice Thorez Avenue) - Sosnovka Road (now Polytechnical street) - Polytechnical street - Polytechnical University;
December 10: Entry street - Crownwork Avenue - Alexander Avenue (now Dobrolyubov Avenue);
December 14: 14th/15th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island - Middle Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island - 1st/Cadet Lines of Vasilyevsky Island ***;
# Suvorov Avenue - Swamp street (now Moiseenko street) - Nativity tram depot (now tram depot №4);
Service line: Admiralty Avenue - St. Isaac Square - Postamt street;
Service line: Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square) - Potter street - Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Moscow Rail Terminal).

*** It's need to mentioned that after construction of this tram section, at the crossing of Middle Avenue and 8th/9th Lines of Vasilyevsky Island began to operate world's unique intersection of tram tracks, which allowed tramcar to move in all possible 12 directions (!!!)

In 1914 horse-drawn tramcars were reequipped for transportation of wounded people from Finland and Baltic Rail Terminals to the hospitals. It was possible to carry 1000 wounded people in 60 such tramcars. The pace of construction of new lines were slowed. In 1915 network was extended to Polyustrovo cottage settlement, in Ekaterinhof industrial suburb and Trade Seaport. In 1916 it was extended to the Peter the Great Hospital in Okhta district; along the 2nd Forest street.

Simultaneously continued construction of "Oranela" suburban tramline. Due to beginning of WWI, owners were forced to abandon from foreign four-axial tramcars and other equipment, which were ordered in Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland. The pace of construction was slowed in 1915 due to inability to obtain own funds from Antwerp, Belgium (which was under German occupation since October 1914). The construction works were continued at the expense of the loan (2.640 mln. rubles), which was given according to initiative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In 1915, due to threat of German occupation of Latvia, all tram equipment (including tramcars) was evacuated from Riga. Those 18 motor tramcars and 12 trailers were used at "Oranela" tramline.

In December 1915 was launched tramline from "Knyazhevo" tram depot to Putilov Plant; along the Peterhof Highway (now Strikes Avenue). On January 22, 1916 was opened path from the Putilov Plant to Narva Triumphal Gate; along the Peterhof Highway (now Strikes Avenue). In summer of 1916 began regular tram operation from Narva Triumphal Gate to Avtovo district.

However, Central power station of suburban tramline on the Ekateringofka River (where British coal should to be used as fuel) was no completed. The completed section of "Oranela" received electric power from urban tram network (from the nearest traction substation). As result, it was impossible to open electric tramline at the route from Strelna town. By summer of 1917, there operated passenger tramcars at the route №3 from Narva Triumphal Gate to the crossing of Narva and Peterhof Roads; and working trains from this crossing to Strelna. In July 1920 was opened route №4 from Narva Triumphal Gate to Strelna town, tram operation was introduced at the all completed part of suburban tramline. Therefore, by 1921 total length of "Oranela" was 21.5 km (Petrograd-Strelna) instead of planned 66 km (Petrograd-Oranienbaum).

At same time, urban tram enterprise had many problems. After beginning of WWI, there were started problems with supplies of coal for the Central power station of urban tram. In March 1915 began reequipment of power station for oil fuel. The number of tramcars, working every day, decreased. At same time, passenger traffic increased till 383 mln. in 1915. The profit increased on 250 thousand rubles, but tram network functioned with big load. There became to work two controllers in the tramcar. Due to mobilization of men population, owners were forced to hire women for work by controller (since August 1915) and by tram driver (since 1916). There were used only 461 of 955 tramcars and 235 of 595 trailers. At some routes owners were forced to remove seats in trailers for more free space. In January 1916 tram workers started strike. On February 9, 1916, after summit of City Council, salaries of tram workers were increased and majority of them returned at work. Since June 28, 1916 were introduced new travel prices - 10 kopecks (day) and 20 kopecks (night). The dividing on sections was cancelled, travel prices were same for any route.

Revolution and decline (1917-1920)

The name of Petrograd is strongly associated with two Russian Revolutions of 1917. February Revolution led to the abdication of Russian Emperor Nicholas II, the end of the Romanov dynasty, and the end of the Russian Empire. The Emperor was replaced by a Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov and then by socialist Alexander Kerensky, a prominent member of the State Council and a leader of the movement to unseat Royal power. The storming of Winter Palace became beginning of October Revolution, which overthrew the Kerensky Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks.

By 1917 the general extent of tram ways in Petrograd has made 224 kilometres, in a city 710 tramcars worked. There were 29 routes (224 km) of electric tram, 9 routes (24.5 km) of horse-drawn tram and Nevskaya Suburban Line (13.8 km) of steam-driven tram. The average speeds of tramcars were 11.2 km/h (electric tram), 6.7 km/h (horse-drawn tram) and 9.6 km/h (steam-driven tram). Tram workers took active participation in the February Revolution of 1917. In March-April 1917, there were formed units of Red Guards in tram depots. During January-September, the losses from tram exploitation were 4 mln. rubles. On September 8, 1917 by the decision of the City Council all horse-car lines were closed "due to starvation of horses and unavoidable difficulties for feed". In mid-October 1917 were introduced new travel prices - 20 kopecks during all day, 5 kopecks for military persons and free for invalids or wounded soldiers. As result, daily profit increased on 42000 rubles. In January 1918 was electrified part of Nevskaya Suburban Line of steam-driven tram at the path Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Moscow Rail Terminal)-Nevskaya Outpost district. After October Revolution of 1917, tramway facilities fell into decay, Lanskoy tram depot was closed down temporarily and was used for stationing malfunctioning cars (was reopened in 1926).

In 1918 Petrograd lost its capital status. By March 1918 German troops invaded the Governorate of Estonia (now a part of Estonia) thus threatening Petrograd with bombardment and invasion, while anti-Soviet troops forming there aimed at taking the capital as well. Thus on March 12, 1918, the Soviets were forced to transfer the government to Moscow. It was officially confirmed at Extraordinary 4th Congress of Soviets in Moscow on March 16. During the ensuing Civil War in 1919 General Nikolay Yudenich advancing from Estonia repeated the attempt to capture Petrograd, but Leon Trotsky mobilised the army and forced him to retreat.

In 1918-23, due to Russian Civil War, the municipal economy was on the decline. By 1918 there were only 562 working tramcars, in 1920 - 306 tramcars, in 1921 - 227. By end of 1918, number of routes decreased till 9 (for connection between city centre and outskirts). Thus only 150-200 cars criss-crossed the lines daily. In 1919 tram operation was cancelled at few central streets of city as Nevsky Avenue, Suburban Avenue and part of Garden street. Tramways functioned at weekdays only, from 8:00am till 6:00pm.

There were also problems with construction of the suburban "Oranela" tramline. In 1919 was dismantled equipment of the Central power station on the Ekateringofka River. It was sent to Perm Region for construction of Kizel State Regional Power Plant (completed in 1924). In 1920 were dismantled rails and sleepers at the path Strelna-New Peterhof. It were used in Azerbaijan, for construction of suburban electric railway Baku-Sabunšu, first in the Soviet Union (1926). Therefore, Strelna became terminus station of "Oranela" because it became impossible to extend this tramline farther to Oranienbaum and Krasnaya Gorka.

Radial system of electric tram routes in 1914:
__________ the lines, operated by January 1914;
— — — — — the lines, which were opened in January-December 1914:


aroundspb
CLICKABLE

1913, excellent panorama of central part of St. Petersburg (with lines of electric and horse-drawn tram).
Some objects near electric tram routes:
1 - Admiralty building;
2 - Military Medical Academy;
6 - Imperial Academy of Arts at Vasilyevsky Island;
8 - Baltic Rail Terminal;
9 - Warsaw Rail Terminal;
10 - Tsarskoe Selo Rail Terminal (now Vitebsk Rail Terminal);
11 - Nicholas Rail Terminal (now Moscow Rail Terminal);
13 - Finland Rail Terminal;
25 - Anichkov Palace;
31 - St. Michael's Castle (Engineers Castle) at Garden street;
44в - Institute of Technology;
45 - State Conservatory at Theatre Square;
66 - Alexander II Bridge (now Foundry Bridge) across Bolshaya Neva River;
67 - Anichkov Bridge across Fontanka River;
75 - Stony Island Bridge across Malaya Nevka River;
76 - Nicholas Bridge (now Annunciation Bridge) across Bolshaya Neva River;
78 - St. Sampson Bridge across Bolshaya Nevka River;
79 - Stroganov Bridge (now Ushakov Bridge) across Bolshaya Nevka River;
80 - Trinity Bridge across Bolshaya Neva River;
81 - Tuchkov Bridge across Malaya Neva River;
100 - Monument to Alexander Suvorov at Suvorov Square;
106 - Alexander Garden (site of the opening of the first urban tram route in 1907);
115 - Imperial Public Library (now National Library of Russia);
120 - Great Guest Court;
124 - Hay Market;
127 - St. Isaac Cathedral;
129 - St. Nicholas Marine Cathedral;
146 - Mariinsky Theatre (Maria Theatre) at Theatre Square;
164 - Hotel "North" (now October Hotel) at Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square);


aroundspb
CLICKABLE

1916, tram system of St. Petersburg:
Blue lines - completed tramlines of first and second stages;
Blue circles - completed Central power station and traction substations;
Blue squares - completed tram depots;

Red lines - planned tramlines of third stage;
Red squares - planned tram depot:


aroundspb
CLICKABLE

All-time scheme of St. Petersburg tram (1907-2007) from Robert Leichsenring, which included both current and former tramlines:

vpeterburge
CLICKABLE
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:08 AM   #1685
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Model of "Brush" tramcar in the State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg:

HAV-tram

The engine vehicle by "Brush" plant:

Wikipedia

1900s, "Brush" tramcar (made in 1907):

Андрей Кравчук

September 29, 1907. "Brush" tramcar in the opening day:

ich tu dir weh

1900s, "Brush" tramcars with trailers (former horsecars):

Дмитрий Н.

1908, "Brush" tramcar in Petersburg tram depot (now tram depot №3):

Pokakukam

1910s, crossing of Nevsky Avenue and Garden street:

Pokakukam
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:08 AM   #1686
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1900s, Nicholas Bridge (now Annunciation Bridge):

oldsp

1910s, Nicholas Bridge (now Annunciation Bridge). General view of city from Vasilyevsky Island:

etoretro

1911, "Brush" tramcar passing embankment of Vasilyevsky Island:

Wikipedia

October 9, 1908. University Embankment of Vasilyevsky Island:

enke

1910s, Imperial Academy of Arts at Vasilyevsky Island:

etoretro

1910s, Nicholas Embankment (now Lieutenant Schmidt Embankment). General view of city from Vasilyevsky Island:

hellopiter
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:10 AM   #1687
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1910s, Nevsky Avenue - main street of St. Petersburg:

retromoscow

1910s, Great Guest Court at the crossing of Nevsky Avenue and Garden street:

oldsp

May 24, 1908. Great Guest Court at the crossing of Nevsky Avenue and Garden street:

oldsp

1900s, crossing of Nevsky Avenue and Garden street:

oldsp

1908, Nevsky Avenue:

oldsp

1910s, Nevsky Avenue near Eliseyev Emporium:

oldsp

1910s, Eliseyev Emporium at Nevsky Avenue:

oldsp
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:10 AM   #1688
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1910s, Anichkov Palace at Nevsky Avenue:

etoretro

1910s, Anichkov Palace at Nevsky Avenue:

etoretro

1910s, "Singer" House (now House of Books) at Nevsky Avenue:

etoretro

1910s, crossing of Nevsky Avenue and Garden street:

Блескин Михаил
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:11 AM   #1689
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1900s, Hay Square. Savour Church and Hay Market:

oldsp

1900s, Saint Michael's Castle (Engineers Castle) at Garden street:

oldsp

1900s, Garden street. Intercession Church at Intercession Square (now Turgenev Square):

etoretro

1900s. Hotel "North" (now October Hotel) at Znamenskaya Square (now Uprising Square):

Димарёк

1910s, crossing of Foundry Avenue and Pool street (now Nekrasov street):

oldsp

1914-1917, Arsenal building at Foundry Avenue:

oldsp
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:12 AM   #1690
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1910s, crossing of Intercession street (now Podkovyrov street) and Big Avenue of Petersburg Side:

vladimir-waldin

1910s. Baron Willie Clinic (now Army Medical Academy) at Big St. Sampson Avenue:

oldsp

1910s, Military Medical Academy at Nizhny Novgorod street (now Academician Lebedev street):

etoretro

1910s, crossing of Crownwork Avenue and Stony Island Avenue:

oldsp

1910s. Suburban Avenue, Five Corners:

Wiki
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:13 AM   #1691
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1910s, St. Nicholas Marine Cathedral:

hellopiter

1910s, Annunciation Square (now Labour Square):

oldsp

1910s, Mariinsky Theatre (Maria Theatre) at Theatre Square:

oldsp

1913, State Conservatory and Monument to the great Russian composer Mikhail Glinka at Theatre Square:

Wikipedia

1910s, State Conservatory named after Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov at Theatre Square:

oldsp
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:15 AM   #1692
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1910s, Trinity Bridge across Neva River:

oldsp

1900s, Trinity Bridge across Neva River:

oldsp

1900s, Trinity Bridge across Neva River:

oldsp

1910s, Suvorov Square and Monument to Alexander Suvorov near Trinity Bridge:

Блескин Михаил

1900s, Trinity Square and Alexander Garden:

oldsp
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:16 AM   #1693
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1910s, Izmaylovsky Tram Bridge across Fontanka River:

Блескин Михаил

1913, Izmaylovsky Tram Bridge across Fontanka River:

Дмитрий Н.

1913, Izmaylovsky Tram Bridge across Fontanka River:

oldsp

1910s, Izmaylovsky Tram Bridge across Fontanka River:

aroundspb

1913, Obukhov Bridge across Fontanka River:

hellopiter

1910s, Potseluev Bridge (lit. Bridge of Kisses) across Moyka River:

oldsp

1914, Potseluyev Bridge across Moyka River:

oldsp
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:17 AM   #1694
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1914, Warsaw Rail Terminal and Resurrection Church near Bypass Canal in Petrograd:

oldsp

1917, Baltic Rail Terminal:

retromoscow

1910s, Baltic Rail Terminal:

oldsp

1908, controller and tram driver near Baltic Rail Terminal:

babs71

1908, tram driver:

electrotrans

1908, tramcar near Baltic Rail Terminal:

electrotrans

1908, tramcar near Baltic Rail Terminal:

electrotrans

1915, tram stop near Baltic Rail Terminal:

babs71

1910s, Finland Rail Terminal Square (now Lenin Square):

babs71

1918, Tsarskoe Selo Rail Terminal (now Vitebsk Rail Terminal) at Suburban Avenue:

etoretro

1910s, Tsarskoe Selo Rail Terminal (now Vitebsk Rail Terminal) at Suburban Avenue:

hellopiter
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:18 AM   #1695
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October 11, 1910. Nevsky Avenue. Solemn funerals of the Russian flyer Lev Matsievich (1877-1910), who died in the first aviation accident in Russian Empire. However, under influence of this accident, Russian inventor Gleb Kotelnikov (1872-1944) invented first world's knapsack parachute (1911) and drogue parachute (1912), which saved thousands of lifes worldwide:

oldsp

1914, Nevsky Avenue:

Николай Роговиков

August 2, 1914. Manifestation at Nevsky Avenue after declaring war to Germany:

oldsp

1914, Imperial Public Library (now National Library of Russia) at Nevsky Avenue. Mobilization of population:

BOSS

1914. Former horsecars, which were reequipped into hospital tramcars for transportation of wounded in actions during WWI:

electrotrans

June 1915, Nevsky Avenue. Fund-raising to help Russian outskirts, devastated by the WWI:

oldsp

March 19, 1917. Women's demonstration on Nevsky Avenue for right to vote and to be elected:

oldsp

March 19, 1917. Women's demonstration on Nevsky Avenue for right to vote and to be elected:

Wikipedia

In 1917 demonstrations, marking International Women's Day in Petrograd on the last Sunday in February (which fell on 8 March on the Gregorian calendar), initiated the February Revolution in Russian Empire:

oldsp

Women's suffrage in Russia was introduced in 1917; just after Pitcairn Islands (1838), Isle of Man (1881), New Zealand (1893), Cook Islands (1893), Australia (1902), Finland (1906), Norway (1913), Denmark (1915) and before it was did in Great Britain (1918), Germany (1918), United States (1920), Sweden (1921), Spain (1931), France (1944), Japan (1945), Italy (1946), Switzerland (1971) and etc:

oldsp
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:20 AM   #1696
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April 5, 1917. Nevsky Avenue. Solemn funerals of the people, who were killed during February Revolution of 1917:

etoretro

July 1917. Anti-government street demonstration of Bolshevik supporters:

Wikipedia

July 17, 1917. Street demonstration on Nevsky Avenue just after troops of the Provisional Government have opened fire with machine guns:

Wikipedia

July 28, 1917. Nevsky Avenue. Solemn funerals of Don Cossacks, who were killed during supression of Bolshevik demonstration:

oldsp

1920, Red Army troops at Nevsky Avenue:

oldsp

May 1, 1920 (Labour Day). Decorated tramcar at the Square of the Victims of Revolution (now Field of Mars):

electrotrans
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:21 AM   #1697
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Old Petersburg:


July 1986. Admiralty Avenue - the site of the opening ceremony. Replica of "Brush" tramcar:

Гоцев Николай

Replica of "Brush" tramcar near "Gorkovskaya" station. It was made in 1982. The number of this replica is #1028. It was number of original tramcar, which was ruled by tram driver Alexander Leonov (future Revolutionary leader). One day Leonov emergency stopped this tramcar and saved life of woman, who fell on rails:

Link

Terminus tram stop "Small Avenue of Vasilyevsky Island". Replica and MS-4 tramcar with MSP-3 trailer:

Link

Vasilyevsky Island tram depot. Replica and LM-49 tramcar with LP-49 trailer:

Link

Salon of replica:

Link

Replica in the tram depot №4:

Link
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:22 AM   #1698
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September 27, 1997. 90-anniversary of permanent electric tram network. Replicas of "Brush" tramcar and horsecar:

Sozertsatel-SP

September 2007. Replica of "Brush" tramcar in the former tram depot №2:

Артём Светлов

September 29, 2007. 100-anniversary of permanent electric tram network. Replica at Dobrolyubov Avenue:

Wikipedia

September 29, 2007. 100-anniversary of permanent electric tram network. Replica at the Peace street:

andzis

Unfortunately, tramline of the first historical route (along Admiralty Avenue) was dismantled in spring 1997, just only few months before 90-anniversary of St. Petersburg tram. In 2005 at the opening site near Alexander Garden were mounted 30 meters of rails for the memory of 1907 event.

Lactarius

On September 29, 2007, to the 100-anniversary of St. Petersburg tram, there was also installed memorial plate:

Kat-Iv

"Here was been first line of St. Petersburg tram "General Staff - 8th Line of Vasilyevsky Island", which was opened on September 29 (O.S. September 16), 1907":

Kat-Iv
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Old December 19th, 2011, 01:23 AM   #1699
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September 29, 2007. 100-anniversary of permanent electric tram network. Model of "Brush" tramcar on territory of the former Vasilyevsky Island tram depot:

DSh

September 13, 2007. Sixteen days before opening. Construction of model:

DSh

September 29, 2007. Salon of model:

Артём Светлов

December 14, 2007:

Николай Роговиков

January 1, 2009:

СОЛОВЕЙ

June 2, 2011:

Антифактор
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Old December 20th, 2011, 10:29 PM   #1700
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Thanks for putting this together, grand work! Its sad thing about St Petersburg tram, which I believe at one point had the largest tram network in the World, although, thankfully, a lot still remains.
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