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Old January 3rd, 2012, 11:22 PM   #1801
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On September 10, 2011 was renovated exposition at the station "Vorobyovy Gory" ("Sparrow Hills"; Line 1). The first exhibition at this station was opened on November 2, 2010. It was porcelain exhibition, where was presented production of the four Russian porcelain factories - one in St. Petersburg and three in the towns of the Moscow Region. At the new exposition is presented puppets from the collection of the State Academical Central Puppet Theatre named after Sergey Obraztsov in Moscow.

Sergey Obraztsov (1901–1992) was a Soviet and Russian puppeteer who is credited by the Encyclopædia Britannica with "establishing puppetry as an art form in the Soviet Union". Rod theaters in many countries of the world owe their establishment to Obraztsov's influence. His collection of exotic puppets was the largest in Russia and one of the largest in the world. His theatre toured more than 350 cities in the USSR and 90 cities in foreign countries. During his numerous tours abroad, Obraztsov helped to popularize artistic puppetry in the United States, Great Britain, and other countries. He was the President of the International Union of Puppeteers (1976–1984, and from 1984 the President Emeritus).

New exposition dedicated to the 110-anniversary of Sergey Obraztsov's birth and 80-anniversary of the foundation of State Academical Central Puppet Theatre in Moscow. In general, here are presented 40 puppets from the 9 famous performances of State Academical Central Puppet Theatre.




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Charlie Chaplin and Sergey Obraztsov (right):

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Old January 6th, 2012, 01:27 AM   #1802
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34) June 16, 1912 - Ķemeri resort (now part of Jūrmala), Latvia;
35) September 28, 1912 - Vyborg:


Early history

Vyborg (Finnish: Viipuri) is a town in Leningrad Region, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 kilometers (81 miles) to the northwest of St. Petersburg and 38 kilometers (24 miles) south from Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland. The Hanseatic city lies in the boundary zone between the East Slavic/Russian and Finnish/Scandinavian worlds and has changed hands several times in history.

The area where Vyborg is located used to be a trading center on the Vuoksi River's western branch, which has dried up. The area was inhabited by the Karelians, a Finnish tribe which gradually came under the domination of Novgorod and Sweden. According to Russian archaeologist Vyacheslav Tyulenev, a wooden Karelian fort was already in existence there during the 11th and 12th centuries.

The first castle of Vyborg was founded in 1293 by Swedish Marshal Torkel Knutsson during the so-called "Third Swedish Crusade" against Novgorod. The castle was fought over for decades between Sweden and the Republic of Novgorod. In 1294 and 1322 Republic of Novgorod tried to return Karelian lands, but it was unsuccessful. By the Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323, which was signed between Sweden and Novgorod Republic, Vyborg was finally recognized as a part of Sweden. It was first international peace treaty in the Russian history. In 1478 Novgorod Republic lost independence, and Vyborg withstood a prolonged siege by Russian military leader Daniil Shchenya during the Russo–Swedish War of 1495–1497. The town's trade privileges were chartered by the Pan-Scandinavian King Eric of Pomerania in 1403.

Under Swedish rule, Vyborg was closely associated with the noble family of Bååt, originally from Småland. The late-medieval commanders and fief holders of Vyborg were (almost always) descended from or married to the Bååt Family; in practice they functioned as Margraves (though not having this as their formal title), having feudal privileges and keeping all the crown's incomes from the fief to use for the defense of the realm's eastern border. In 1609 in Vyborg was signed treaty between representatives of Swedish King Charles IX and Russian Tsar Vasily Shuisky for military assistance in exchange for territorial concessions, which became the cause for Swedish intervention into Russia.

Vyborg remained in Swedish hands until its capture by Russian Emperor Peter the Great in the Great Northern War (1710). The Treaty of Nystad (1721), which concluded the war, assigned the town and a part of Old Finland to Russian Empire. In 1744 was established Vyborg Governorate with more autonomous rights (absence of serfdom, preservation of Lutheranism). Sweden tried to return Vyborg during Russo-Swedish Wars of 1741-1743 and 1788-1790. One of the largest naval battles in history, the Battle of Vyborg Bay (1790), was fought off shore in the Viipuri Bay on July 4, 1790. The Swedish Navy suffered heavy losses, losing six ships of the line and four frigates, but Gustav III of Sweden eventually ensured a Swedish naval escape through a Russian naval blockade composed of units of the Baltic Fleet, commanded by Admiral Vasily Chichagov. The battle ranks among the world's largest historical naval battles and also among the most influential, as it introduced for the first time the naval battle concept of "firepower over mobility".

As result of Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. After the rest of Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809, Russian Emperor Alexander I incorporated Vyborg Governorate into the newly-created Grand Duchy of Finland in 1812. In the course of the 19th century, the town developed as the center of administration and trade for the eastern part of Finland. The inauguration of the Saimaa Canal in 1856 benefited the local economy as it opened the vast waterways of Eastern Finland to the sea. Vyborg was never a major industrial center, and lacked large production facilities, but due to its location it served as a local point of transports of all industries on the Karelian Isthmus, Ladoga Karelia and South-Eastern Finland.

In 1860s and 1870s in Vyborg were built new streets and parks. According to project of engineer Eduard Totleben were built East-Vyborg fortifications. Second half of 19th century was period of dynamic economic development of Vyborg. In 1867-1870 through Vyborg was built Riihimäki–Saint Petersburg Railway, 370-km (230 miles) long segment of the Helsinki–Saint Petersburg connection. It was launched on September 11, 1870. The city begins gasification (1860), electrification and installation of telephone lines (1882). In 1893 was built water-conduit. As result of economic growth, Vyborg became second most populous city in Grand Duchy of Finland after Helsinki. Its population was 8.6 thousands people (1850), 13.5 thousands (1870), 23.5 thousands (1897), 36.8 thousands (1900). In 1910 there were about 50 thousands residents, of whom 81% were Finns, 10% - Swedes, 6.5% - Russians, 0.7% - Germans and 1.8% - residents of other nationalities.

According to law, Russian policemen had no executive power on the territory of Grand Duchy of Finland. Due to closeness to the Russian capital (St. Petersburg) and more liberal laws in Finland, Vyborg became centre of the political oppositionists to Imperial power. On July 9, 1906 there was signed Vyborg Manifesto - declaration issued by 180 Kadets and Trudoviks politicians, former deputies of the disbanded Russian First State Duma (legislative assembly). In the manifesto they called for passive resistance to the authorities and non-payment of taxes. The appeal failed to have an effect on the population at large and proved both ineffective and counterproductive, leading to a ban on its authors, including the entire Kadet leadership, participation in future Dumas.

Eletric tram network

Due to rapid growth of population, there was necessary in organisation of urban transportation in Vyborg. By the beginning of 20th century there was organized operation of five horse-drawn omnibuses, but its activity was short-lived. By these times, electric tram successfully operated in two Finnish cities - Helsinki (since 1900) and Turku (1908). On November 11, 1910 city authorities signed contract with German "General electricity company" - "Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft" ("AEG", Berlin) for construction of power station and electric tram network. According to contract, German company had monopoly rights for producing of energy as well as exploitation of tram network during 50 years, but city authorities had rights for purchase power station and tram enterprise after 24 years since its launching. Construction works began in 1910. Tram tracks were laid by "General Swedish Electric Company" - "Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget" ("ASEA", Västerås), although construction was interrupted due to early coming of winter 1911/1912.

All tramlines (1 meter wide) were launched in late-1912. The testing trip was made on September 25. On September 28, 1912 was opened first tram route - from Papula District to the Old City Hall Square, near Åbo Bridge (now Fortress Bridge) across Fortress Strait. Its length was 2.522 km. On October 13, 1912 was opened second tram route (length - 2.160 km) from Vyborg Rail Terminal to the Kolikkoinmäki District. The third tram route (length - 1.481 km) was opened on December 5, 1912. It was built from the Old City Hall Square along Åbo Bridge (now Fortress Bridge) to the Neitsytniemi Vorstadt. The total length of tramlines was 6.163 km. Tram network was mainly single-track. Tram intervals were 15 minutes. Travel time by one route was about 7.5 minutes. Ticket price was 15 Finnish pennies or 0.15 Finnish markka.

Therefore, here were three tram routes:
1) Papula street (now Krivonosov street) near Papula Bridge - Railway street - Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue) - Torkel street (now Lenin Avenue) - Market Sqaure - Northern Rampart street - Market street (now Pioneers street) - Catherine street (now Fortress street) - Old City Hall Square near Åbo Bridge (now Fortress Bridge);
2) Vyborg Rail Terminal - Railway street - Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue) - Torkel street (now Lenin Avenue) - Red Water Well Square (now Red Square) - Vasa street (now Suvorov Avenue) - Catherine street (now Fortess street) - Kolikkoinmäki District;
3) Old City Hall Square - Åbo Bridge (now Fortress Bridge) across Fortress Strait - Saint Anne Square (now Peter Square) - Saint Anne street (now Island street) - Neitsytniemi Vorstadt.

Tram depot was located at Factory street (now Vyborg street). Service tramline to the tram depot was built along Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue). The tramcars were made by Swedish company "ASEA" in cooperation with German company "AEG". Before WWI, there were 12 tramcars (11 of which were made in 1912 and one - in 1914). Its technical parameters were: electrification - 600 V DC; length - 8.9 meters, width - 1.9 meters; height - 3.3 meters; wheelbase - 2.0 meters; wheel diameter - 800 mm; traction motors - 2x AEG U-140 (2 x 25.8 kW); brakes: handbrake - peacock, electric brake - short circuit; weight empty - 9.05 tons; seating capacity - 16; standing capacity - 17 (ASEA 1912: 18). Those tramcars had numbers №№ 1-12. All tramcars were painted into light-yellow color.

Trailers were made by "ASEA" company. Before WWI, there were 4 trailers (3 were made in 1912 and one - in 1913). Its technical parameters were: length - 7.92 meters; width - 1.9 meters; wheelbase - 1.8 meters; wheel diameter - 776 mm; brakes: handbrake - on, electric brake - on; weight empty - 4.55 tons; seating capacity - 18; standing capacity - 16. Those trailers had numbers №№ 50-53. Two more open trailers were made in 1919 in own workshops (№№ 54-55). Two other trailers were delivered in 1919 by "Ex Saartalbahn" company (Saarbrücken). Those trailers had numbers №№56-57; its seating capacity was 14 persons and standing capacity - 16 persons.

On October 27, 1914, after beginning of WWI, Vyborg Governor ordered to take German assets. The owner of Vyborg Tram continued to function under the name "Viipurin Kaasu ja Sähkö Oy" ("Vyborg Gas and Electricity Ltd"). Vyborg residents took active participation in the February Revolution of 1917. There was formed Vyborg Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies, in which Bolsheviks had a big influence. Shortly before October events, Vladimir Lenin hided in the house of Vyborg worker Juho Latukka. Following the fall of the Russian Empire and Russian October Revolution of 1917, Finland declared itself independent on December 6, 1917. Therefore, Vyborg became part of independent Finland.

On January 27, 1918 began Finnish Civil War between the forces of the Social Democrats led by the People's Deputation of Finland (commonly called the "Reds") and the forces of the non-socialist, conservative-led Senate (commonly called the "Whites"). The Reds — usually Finnish-speaking workers — were supported by the Russian Soviet Republic; they were based in the industrial cities in the south. The Whites — dominated by farmers and by middle- and upper-class Swedish speakers — received military assistance from the German Empire. During the Finnish Civil War Vyborg was one of the main bases of Red Guards (Finland) until it was captured by the White Guard (Finland) on April 29, 1918. After capture, more than 3000 Red Guards, Russian soldiers and officers as well as civilians were killed in Vyborg as result of repressions. The Whites won the Civil War, in which about 37.000 people died out of a population of 3 millions. Due to Civil War, tram operation in Vyborg was suspended since January 27, 1918 till May 1918.

Map of the central part of Vyborg (1915):
Red line - first tramline (Papula District - Old City Hall Square near Åbo Bridge, now Fortress Bridge);
Green line - second tramline (Vyborg Rail Terminal - Kolikkoinmäki District);
Blue line - third tramline (Åbo Bridge, now Fortress Bridge - Vorstadt Neitsytniemi);
Purple line - service tramline to the tram depot along Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue):

Click to enlarge
CLICKABLE

Map of the central part of Vyborg (1915):
Red line - first tramline (Papula District - Old City Hall Square near Åbo Bridge, now Fortress Bridge);
Green line - second tramline (Vyborg Rail Terminal - Kolikkoinmäki District);
Blue line - third tramline (Åbo Bridge, now Fortress Bridge - Vorstadt Neitsytniemi);
Purple line - service tramline to the tram depot along Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue):

Click to enlarge
CLICKABLE

Scheme of tramlines (1915):

Laser
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Old January 6th, 2012, 01:29 AM   #1803
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1924, Vyborg tram depot:

raitio

1912, motor tramcar №6. It was made by Swedish company "ASEA" in cooperation with German company "AEG":

raitio

1910s, motor tramcar №8 on the city street:

raitio

1912, trailer №51 (made by Swedish company "ASEA"):

raitio

1910s, Papula District:

Дмитрий Н.
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Old January 6th, 2012, 01:29 AM   #1804
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1910s, Vyborg Rail Terminal:

cocomera

Vyborg Rail Terminal:

Дмитрий Н.

1910s, Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue). Vyborg Rail Terminal on the background:

Дмитрий Н.

1913, Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue):

cocomera

1910s, Alexander street (now Leningrad Avenue). Second route "Rail Terminal - Kolikkoinmäki":

Дмитрий Н.
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Old January 6th, 2012, 01:30 AM   #1805
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Vyborg tram at the modern picture of Andrey Stavtsev (1997):

Link

1910s, Torkkelinkatu or Torkel street (now Lenin Avenue). Market building on the background:

cocomera

Suomen Pankki or Bank of Finland (now North-Western Bank of Savings Bank of Russia) at Market Square:

cocomera

1910s, Katariinankatu or Catherine street (now Fortress street). Tram route №1:

Дмитрий Н.
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Old January 6th, 2012, 01:31 AM   #1806
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Vyborg Castle and a tramcar on route №3:

raitio

Åbo Bridge (now Fortress Bridge) across Fortress Strait:

raitio

Vyborg harbour:

raitio

1910s, Old City Hall Square. Monument to Swedish Marshal Torkel Knutsson, who is consider as founder of Vyborg:

Дмитрий Н.
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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:19 AM   #1807
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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:20 AM   #1808
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2012:

In the past two years in the Moscow Government were happened many serious changes. Yury Luzhkov, who was the Mayor of Moscow since 1992, was removed from office by a decree President Dmitry Medvedev issued on September 28, 2010. The new mayor, Sergey Sobyanin strongly criticized the work of the Moscow Metropolitan and its former chief, Dmitry Gaev. Sobyanin refused to finance the Luzhkov's project - The Fourth Ring Road (beltway, which was planned to be built between Third Ring Road and Moscow Automobile Ring Road). Therefore, funding for construction of the Moscow Metro was increased by half - approximately from 0.8 to 3.2 billions USD per year.

Very soon, on February 7, 2011 Dmitry Gaev (who was chief of Moscow Metropolitan since 1995) left own post. During 15 years Gaev did many positive things - introduction of contact-less tickets (Moscow Metro became second subway in the world where was introduced such technology), new modern trains and turnstiles, installation of information columns and organization of the situation centre in Metro (as part of a new security system), etc. He was developed the idea of creation of the special decorated trains in the Metro. Last year his era came to an end. Ivan Besedin (b. 1954), who previously was a Head of Kaliningrad Railway (2006-2011), become new chief of Moscow Metropolitan.

The development of the Moscow Metro in particular and Moscow transport in general has become one of the main purposes in the Sobyanin's program. According to the official plans, in the next five years in Moscow Metro should to be built 35 new stations and 75 km of new Metro lines, or 15 km of new Metro lines in average. These plans seem unrealistic just because "Metrobuilding" company has no enough capacity (people and equipment) for such plans (for comparison, during 80 years in Moscow were built 305.5 km of Metro lines). Despite the fact that official plans seem unreal, increased of funding is a positive thing for Metro construction, even if the pace of construction will be less than it was advertised.

Also, according to Sobyanin's proposal, new Metro stations should be uniform and to be built according to typical design. It should lead to faster construction and lower costs. It also means that there will be no any artistic decorations (like mosaics, stained-glasses, sculptures) on the new stations.

According to the official plans, in 2012 there should to opened three stations - "Novokosino" (Line 8), "Alma-Atinskaya" (Line 2) and "Pyatnitskoe Shosse" (Line 3). However, unlike official statements, it's more probably that in 2012 will be opened only one of three stations - "Novokosino", while the opening of two other stations will be rescheduled on next year.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:22 AM   #1809
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"NOVOKOSINO":

"Novokosino" is a future eastern terminus station of Line 8 of the Moscow Metro. It will be located between Suzdal street and Nosovikhinskoe Highway in the Novokosino District, Eastern Administrative Okrug. The station "Novokosino" will be located at the territory of Moscow city, but only in few meters from the border with the town Reutov (population: 84.256) outside of Moscow borders. The station will be built to carry residents of this town and Muscovites who live in the border territory. There are planned to be built two auto parkings (capacity - 2000 cars) - one near the station and one in the Reutov town. The opening of "Novokosino" station also help to reduce the number of passengers at the "Vykhino" - terminus station of Line 7. "Vykhino" station is only part of a combined transfer node, the rest of which consists of the mainline suburban railway (Kazanskoye direction). For this reason, this station has some of the largest passenger numbers of the metro network.

The length of the section between "Novokosino" and "Novogireevo" stations is 3.23 km, 2.45 km of which was built by tunnel boring machines. In 2002 they planned to built line of "light Metro" from "Novogireevo" to the Novokosino District and Reutov town. This line was planned to be completed in 2007, but it was never built. Instead of this, it was decided to build "traditional" Metro tunnels on the depth 10-17 meters.

The construction works began in January 2009. On September 18, 2010 was started construction of the right tunnel from the future station "Novokosino" to the station "Novogireevo" of Line 8 (opened on December 30, 1979). It was finished on April 15, 2011. On December 1, 2010 was started construction of the left tunnel between "Novokosino" and "Novogireevo" stations, which was finished by September 21, 2011. "Novokosino" station is planned to be opened in mid-2012.

"Novokosino" will be shallow station of single-vaulted type. It will be have two vestibules, which will be connected with underpasses between Suzdal street and northern side of Nosovikhinskoe Highway. Both vestibules will be equipped with elevators for disabled persons.

The architects of the station are Leonid Borzenkov (project leader), Mikhail Volovich, Sergey Kostikov, Tamara Nagieva, Natalya Soldatova and Vasily Uvarov. "Novokosino" station will be made in black, gray and white colours. The track walls will be lined with aluminum dark-grey panels, while the floor will be paved with natural stone of black and gray colours. The vault will be made in a form of caissons, separated by diagonal ribs. The walls of vestibules and underpasses will be faced with ceramic tiles on a metal frame. Each vestibule will have own primary color along with insertions of the light gray panels: there will be light-green walls in the western vestibule and ocher-orange walls - in the eastern.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:23 AM   #1810
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"ALMA-ATINSKAYA":

"Alma-Atinskaya" ("Almaty") is a future southern terminus station of Line 2 of the Moscow Metro. It will be located in the Brateyevo District, Southern Administrative Okrug. The main reason of construction of this station was lack of the Metro depot for the direct transfer of trains to the southern part of Line 2. The new station planned to be in the tunnel between "Krasnogvardeyskaya" ("Red Guards") stations and Metro depot. The distance between "Krasnogvardeyskaya" and future station is 2.9 km. Originally station has planned name "Promzona" ("Industrial zone"), because in 1990s there were plans to build large trade-industrial complex south of station. The construction of this station started in early 1990s, but it was stopped due to lack of funding. The construction was resumed in June 2011. It's planned to be opened in late 2012 (more probably - in 2013). Metro depot "Brateyevo" will be opened some later.

It was planned that the station will be named "Brateyevo" in the honour of district. However, due to proposal of Embassy of Kazakhstan in Moscow, this name was changed. On November 29, 2011 Moscow government decided to rename station "Brateyevo" into "Alma-Atinskaya" after the city of Almaty (Russian: Alma-Ata), former capital and most populous city of Kazakhstan (there is Almaty street in 600 meters from the station). It was dedicated to the 70-anniversary of legendary Panfilov Division, which was established in Almaty and displayed mass heroism during Battle of Moscow 1941. In response, the future station of the second stage of Almaty Metro will be named "Moskva" ("Moscow") in the honour of Russian capital. The first line of Almaty Metro was opened on December 1, 2011. The construction of second stage was started few days ago and it's planned to be completed in 2013.

The architects of the station are Alexander Nekrasov, Galina Mun and Vladimir Filippov. "Alma-Atinskaya" will be shallow station of single-vaulted type. There will be installed 9 red-painted light structures along the longitudinal axis of the station. The track walls will be lined with granite, while the floor will be paved with polished granite of black and gray colours. There will be two vestibules. Southern vestibule will be underground and will be connected with underpass. The northen vestibule will be ground-level of ellipsoidal form.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:25 AM   #1811
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"PYATNITSKOE SHOSSE":

"Pyatnitskoe Shosse" ("Pyatnitskoe Highway") is a future western terminus station of Line 3 of the Moscow Metro. It will be located on the intersection of Mitinskya street and Pyatnitskoe Highway, in the Mitino District, North-Western Administrative Okrug. According to the original plans, next after "Mitino" station at Line 3 should to be built "Rozhdestveno" station, which would to be located on the territory of planned big living massive. However, currently there is no big necessary in this station, because instead of living massive there was built only cottage settlement at the place of "Rozhdestveno". At the same times, there were built 1.5-km of tunnel between "Mitino" station and future Metro depot. On March 10, 2009, at the meeting of Moscow government it was proposed to built Metro station "Pyatnitskaya" instead of "Rozhdestveno". The construction of this station at such place should not only improve the situation on the roads, but should also greatly decrease the time of daily trips of the residents of nearest Zelenograd town to their Moscow workplaces. Without this station, branch line to the depot will be too long.

In December 2009 "Pyatnitskaya" appeared as the future station at the official Moscow Metro schemes. On February 22, 2011 it was decided to renamed it into "Pyatnitskoe Shosse" to avoid confusion with well-known historical Pyatnitskaya street in the central part of Moscow. The construction of the station started in July 2011. It's planned to be opened in late 2012 (more probably - in 2013). Metro depot "Mitino" will be opened some later.

The architects of the station are Alexander Nekrasov, Galina Mun and Vladimir Filippov. "Pyatnitskoe Shosse" will be shallow two-vaulted station of column type, which will be built in curve. The station will be made in black and white colours. The track walls and columns will be faced with black and white marble, while the floor will be paved with black and white granite. There will be two vestibules. The one vestibule will be underground and will be connected with underpass. The second vestibule will be ground-level with ellipsoidal form.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:27 AM   #1812
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"TEKHNOPARK":

Previously it was also planned, that in 2012 can be opened intermediate ground-level station "Tekhnopark" ("Technology park") on Line 2, between stations "Avtozavodskaya" (opened on January 1, 1943) and "Kolomenskaya" (opened on August 11, 1969). This station planned to be built near Nagatinsky Metro bridge (1969). In Soviet times, during construction of the "Avtozavodskaya"-"Kolomenskaya" path, there was remained opportunity for construction of the "Park named after 60 Years of October" station at this place. However, in Soviet times this station was not built due to lack of necessary - there was no any living massive nearby as well as industrial and office buildings. Only in mid-2000s in Nagatinskaya floodplain, on the former territories of ZIL automotive factory, was began construction of "Nagatino i-Land" - technology park, which will include business centre, hotel, trade centre and few entertainment venues.

In 2006 was planned to built station on the funds of private investors (owners of "Nagatino i-Land"). The date of beginning of construction was constantly postponed. Currently there is no any Metro construction in this site. According to agreement, investors must fully pay for the construction of the station from own budget. It's seem that construction is delayed for an indefinite period.

"Nagatino i-Land":





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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:28 AM   #1813
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"MARYINA ROSHCHA":

Among the other expected events of 2012 is the opening of the second vestibule of the station "Maryina Roshcha" ("Mary's Grove"; Line 10). This deep-level station (depth - 60 meters) was opened on June 19, 2010 with only one (southern) vestibule. Northern vestibule, which will be located at the intersection of Sheremetyev street and 4th Driveway of Mary's Grove, planned to be opened in mid-2012.


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"BAUMANSKAYA":

After replacing of the old escalators at the stations "Park Kultury" ("Park of Culture"; Ring Line), "Babushkinskaya" ("Mikhail Babushkin"; Line 6) and "Medvedkovo" (Line 6) there is planned to replace old escalators at the "Baumanskaya" station ("Nikolay Bauman"; Line 3; opened on January 18, 1944). It will lead to the transport problem, because there is only one vestibule and "Baumanskaya" is very crowded due to presence of numerous office buildings at least three major universities near the station - Bauman Moscow State Technical University (main building), and secondary buildings Moscow State University of Civil Engineering and Moscow State Academy of Law. Most passengers prefer "Baumanskaya" to other station if they would get to the area which is at half-way between "Baumanskaya" and another station even if causes additional transfer or even best accessible by ground transport. In the near future there is planned to build second vestibule.

"Baumanskaya" in the rush hours:

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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:32 AM   #1814
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2013-2014:

In 2013-2014 should be realized following projects:
1) eastern expansion of Line 7 with two stations;
2) northern expansion of Butovskaya Light Metro Line L1 with two stations and its connection with Line 6;
3) southern expansion of Line 1 with station "Troparyovo" (more probably - in 2015).


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:33 AM   #1815
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LINE 7

According to the official plans, in 2013 should be opened two stations of Line 7 - "Lermontovsky Prospekt" ("Lermontov Avenue") and "Zhulebino". The opening of these stations should help to reduce the number of passengers at the "Vykhino" - terminus station of Line 7. "Vykhino" station is only part of a combined transfer node, the rest of which consists of the mainline suburban railway (Kazanskoye direction). For this reason, this station has some of the largest passenger numbers of the metro network. The length of the path "Vykhino"-"Zhulebino" will be 5.1 km.

"LERMONTOVSKY PROSPEKT":

"Lermontovsky Prospekt" ("Lermontov Avenue") is a future station of Line 7 of the Moscow Metro. It will be located at the intersection of the Lermontov Avenue and Khvalynsk Boulevard, in the Vykhino-Zhulebino District, South-Eastern Administrative Okrug. This station will be located outside the Moscow Automobile Ring Road beltway. Its construction was started in autumn of 2011. In the future at Lermontov Avenue planned to be built Transport Terminal.

The architects of the station are Leonid Borzenkov (project leader), Mikhail Volovich, Sergey Kostikov, Tamara Nagieva, Natalya Soldatova and Vasily Uvarov. "Lermontovsky Prospekt" station will be made in five colours (spectrum from green to red-orange). It will be shallow station of single-vaulted type. There will be two vestibules and seven exits at the both sides of Lermontov Avenue.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:34 AM   #1816
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"ZHULEBINO":

"Zhulebino" is a future eastern terminus on Moscow Metro's Line 7. It will be located outside the Moscow Automobile Ring Road. The station will be underground although the track from "Vykhino" will be at the surface for a part of the path. The station will be located near the General Kuznetsov street, Tarkhany street and Aerospace Engineer Mil street, in the Vykhino-Zhulebino District, South-Eastern Administrative Okrug.

The construction of the Metro station in Zhulebino District was planned in the end of 1980s, but it was postponed. The projecting resumed in 2010. The active construction was started in September 2011.

The architects of the station are Leonid Borzenkov (project leader), Mikhail Volovich, Sergey Kostikov, Tamara Nagieva, Natalya Soldatova and Vasily Uvarov. "Zhulebino" station will be made in nine colours (spectrum from green to red-orange). It will be shallow station two-vaulted station of the column type. There will be two vestibules and eight exits, which will lead to the three streets.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:35 AM   #1817
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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:37 AM   #1818
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BUTOVSKAYA LINE L1

Butovskaya Line is a Light Metro line of the Moscow Metro. Its total length is 5.5 km. The line symbolizes an experiment of building rapid-transit in areas where tunnel boring is considered expensive and impractical. In the past, attempts were made to build lines on ground level, however as the Line 4 showed, harsh Russian winters and the occupation of the large amount of useful land, make such projects a failure. However, new districts on the very edge of the city, particularly those outside Moscow Automobile Ring Road (MKAD) required a rapid-transit connection. As the practicality of tunnel boring is unclear, the system was planned to be above ground since the late 1980s, when Moscow Metro design bureau, "Metrogiprotrans", developed a set of projects that would bring rapid-transit beyond MKAD, with the Southern Butovo District being the first one.

The term Light Metro was applied to these new projects, as it would feature an elevated track on a continuous flyover. Specific rolling stock had to be developed to serve the track, as it would have to be resistant to the open climate elements and sharper bends. For ease of operation, the Light Metro was integrated into the classical Metro service.

The Butovskaya Line essentially continues the southern radius of the Line 9. For convenience, the first 1.8 kilometers were bored in a tunnel allowing for a convenient transfer with the terminus of the main line, "Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo". For the rest of its length it follows a flyover, guarded by a sound barrier, with both single and dual tracks. Currently, four Light Metro stations, each of identical design, are in operation. The system was opened on December 27, 2003.

The line shares the Warsaw depot (№ 8) with the Line 9. Specially built 81-740/741 "Rusich" trains serve this line. These are adapted to surface climate and to more rigorous bends and folds in the track. A total of 12 three-carriage trains are currently assigned. All stations except "Starokachalovskaya street" have a lift for wheelchair users only.

Although the Light Metro was indeed innovative, it also received its share of criticism from different social groups and the media, which could well affect its future.

The main problems arose from finances, as the design was originally planned to be cost-saving; however, the Butovskaya Line turned out to be more expensive than conventional Metro lines. Passenger discomfort arose from shorter trains and larger intervals, but in particular from the transfer at "Starokachalovskaya street"/"Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo", where the Light Metro station consists of two separated platforms on either side of the main line with no reversal sidings behind it. As a result passengers must queue for lengthier times at a platform and also deal with exiting traffic before boarding their train. Additional problems arose from the landscape damage done by the flyover bridge.

Furthermore, costly and embarrassing improvements had to be made just a few months after opening. First, improvements had to be made to the faulty new trains, as they required immediate and unforeseen refits; in addition, despite the sound barriers, further noise reduction works had to be carried out on the tracks themselves by repairing their joints. Despite the shortcomings, one positive aspect of the Butovskaya Line is that the 81-740/741 trains, serial production of the rolling stock, have gained wider usage and are now dominant on the Line 3 and Line 4, having replaced all of the older trains and is now growing its share of the Ring Line.

Despite the criticism, the Moscow Metro continues to put forward several expansion programs for the Butovskaya Line, the first one of which is to place proper reversal sidings north of the station thus separating the terminus platforms into northbound and southbound roles. After the completion of that there was initially a planned northwestwards underground extension towards the terminus of the Line 6, "Novoyasenevskaya" scheduled for 2014.

"LESOPARKOVAYA":

"Lesoparkovaya" ("Urban Forest") is a future station of Butovskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It will be located near 35th km of the Moscow Automobile Ring Road parallel to beltway, in the Southern Chertanovo District, Southern Administrative Okrug. It was named after Bitsevsky Park, which located nearby.

The architects of the station are Vladimir Filippov and Svetlana Petrosyan. "Lesoparkovaya" will be shallow station of single-vaulted type. The track walls will be lined with polished granite, while the floor will be paved with granite. As station of Light Metro, "Lesoparkovaya" will be have less long platform (92 meters) than majority of Moscow Metro stations (155-162 meters). The station will be have two vestibules and two exits.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:40 AM   #1819
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"BITSEVSKY PARK":

"Bitsevsky Park" is a future northern terminus station of Butovskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It will be located near Novoyasenevsky Avenue in the Yasenevo District, South-Western Administrative Okrug. This station will have transfer to the "Novoyasenevskaya" station of Line 6 (opened on January 17, 1990). As result, it will help to solve many transport problems. Currently Butovskaya Line have only one transfer on the southern terminus station of Line 9. As result, southern part of the Line 9 is very overcrowded, because it serve the passengers from Northern Butovo and Southern Butovo Districts. In contrast, passenger traffic at the southern part of Line 6 is relatively low. New transfer will let passengers from Northern Butovo and Southern Butovo Districts to use Line 6 as alternative variant. Also, it will improve transport communication between Chertanovo and Yasenevo Districts - it will be not necessary to use Ring Line for the transfer from Line 9 to Line 6 and vice versa.

The station is named for the nearest park, the second largest natural park (forest) in Moscow after Elk Island National Park. The park, traversed by the Bitsa River, sprawls for some 10 km from north to south and covers the area of 22 square kilometres. On January 17, 1990 there was opened station "Novoyasenevskaya" of Line 6, which was also named "Bitsevsky Park" before June 1, 2009. On June 3, 2008 Moscow government decided to rename this station into Novoyasenevskaya" and to use name "Bitsevsky Park" for the future transfer station of Light Metro. Station "Novoyasenevskaya" was built with two vestibules - one underground and one ground-level. Ground-level vestibule was built in the form of rotonda. In the late-1980s there were plans to remove Moscow Zoo from the centre of city to the Bitsevsky Park (or to built new territory of Zoo). Ground-level vestibule was planned to serve visitors of new Moscow Zoo. For this reason, it was decorated with original weather vane "Noah's Ark" (author - Leonid Berlin) with the figures of animals. However, due to local protesters, these plans were never realized, and vestibule was closed due to low passenger traffic.

The idea of northern extension of Butovskaya Line was discussed after its opening. However, it was criticized by some residents of Yasenevo District. They are sure that construction of the tunnels under the territory of Bitsevsky Park will damage root system of trees, that will lead to big ecological damage. According to the Metro builders, the depth of the tunnels under the territory of park will be 30 meters. There will be used technologies which will help to minimize the possible ecological damage from the Metro construction. The construction of this path was started in September 2011. The distance between "Starokachalovskaya street" and "Bitsevsky Park" stations is near 5 km.

The architects of the station are Nikolay Shumakov and Galina Mun, who were authors of the transfer "Novoyasenevskaya" station. "Bitsevsky Park" will be shallow station of single-vaulted type. It will have asymmetrical vault with long caissons. There will be used marble, granite and glass for the decoration of station. This station will be built with one vestibule. The transfer to the "Novoyasenevskaya" station will be organized via combined vestibule of both stations, which will be built instead of old one. The old vestibule will be demolished, and the decorative weather vane "Noah's Ark" will be placed near new vestibule.


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LINE 1 - "TROPARYOVO":

"Troparyovo" is a future western terminus station of Line 1 of the Moscow Metro. It will be located near the intersection of Vernadsky Avenue, Lenin Avenue and Ostrovityanov street in the Troparyovo-Nikulino District, Western Administrative Okrug. The distance between "Yugo-Zapadnaya" ("South-Western") and "Troparyovo" stations in 2.1 km. By 2012, there was prepared site for the construction of the station. "Troparyovo" planned to be opened in 2014-2015.


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Old January 7th, 2012, 03:42 AM   #1820
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2015 AND LATER:

After 2015, there is planned opening of the stations at such lines:
1) New Solntsevskaya Line, which planned to be part of Line 8;
2) Third Interchange Circuit;
3) Northern part of Line 10.


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